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.In this article, inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans," with occasional references to "Patriots," "Whigs," "Rebels" or "Revolutionaries."^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For facts on daily life in the colonies, global events at the time of the American Revolution, and the American and British militaries, use the clickable image maps in "Perspectives on Liberty."

.Colonists who supported the British in opposing the Revolution are usually referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories."^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The King's side is called British, redcoat, Tory, Hessian or Loyalist.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The geographical area of the thirteen colonies is often referred to simply as "America."
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
.The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free of the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.^ This was the British flag during the Revolution.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American victory over the British ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the revolution would last until 1783, the United States was free from British rule.

.They first rejected the authority of the Parliament to govern them from overseas without representation, and then expelled all royal officials.^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ They have the distinguished honour of being the first states under heaven in which forms of government have been established favourable to universal liberty.
  • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward this end, British Parliament passed the first of several tax laws, including the Stamp Act, which taxed all paper products in the colonies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1774, each colony had established a Provincial Congress or an equivalent governmental institution to form individual self-governing states.^ The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia , by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10 1775 , a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps.
  • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775, revolutionaries gained control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ They have the distinguished honour of being the first states under heaven in which forms of government have been established favourable to universal liberty.
  • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Through representatives sent in 1775 to the Second Continental Congress, they originally joined together to defend their respective self-governance and manage the armed conflict against the British known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–83, also American War of Independence).^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Second Revolutionary tank.
  • Second American Revolution to Begin in 2009? | The Smoking Argus Daily 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC smargus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Escape of the Americans through the British Line.

.Ultimately, the states collectively determined that the British monarchy, by acts of tyranny, could no longer legitimately claim their allegiance.^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ This is no longer about “healthcare” it’s simply about taking away our freedoms and conditioning us to except the despotism and Tyranny that’s awaiting us all.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He claimed to have been in the battles of Gilford and Eutaw Springs, and he stated that he was a farmer with no family [ NCGSJ XIII:38].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They then severed ties with the British Empire in July 1776 when the Congress issued the Declaration of Independence, rejecting the monarchy on behalf of the new nation.^ The Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, established a new nation and transformed a limited revolt to secure rights within the British empire .
  • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ On 4 July 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Related Reading: Declaration of Independence: July 4, 1776 .
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The war ended with effective American victory in October 1781, followed by formal British abandonment of any claims to the United States with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
.The American Revolution commenced a series of intellectual, political, and social shifts in early American society and government.^ The American Revolution - - The early federal republic .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

.Americans rejected the plutocracies of the inherited aristocracies in Europe at the time, contributing to the development of republicanism in the United States based on the Enlightenment understanding of liberalism.^ The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ratified the American victory and recognized the existence of the new United States.
  • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The example of the United States and Haiti were to go on to inspire Simon Bolivar and a generation of Latin American revolutionaries, who in the end liberated all the Spanish colonies on the mainland from Mexico to Argentina.

^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

.Among the significant results was the creation of a representative government responsible to the will of the people.^ In 1789 the people of the several states ratified the Constitution that created a stronger central government.

^ The people do not have the right to rule the world so they cannot delegate to the government the right to create a global military empire.
  • How We Can Win the Second American Revolution Without Firing a Shot | Political Class Dismissed 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC politicalclassdismissed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of the United States repudiated social hierarchy and hereditary monarchy in favor of individual liberty and representative republican government.

.Yet, sharp political debates erupted over the appropriate level of democracy desirable in the new government, with a number of Founders fearing mob rule.^ Democracy” is just mob rule writ large.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professor of Political Economy at Chicago (1892-1906); then professor at Stanford and Wisconsin; co-founder of the New School for Social Research and professor (1919-29).
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Democracy is mob rule, you would be better to want our Republic back!
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many fundamental issues of national governance were settled with the ratification of the Constitution of the United States in 1788, which replaced the relatively weaker first attempt at a national government, the Articles of Confederation adopted in 1781. In contrast to the loose confederation, the Constitution established a strong federated government.^ Then in 1781 the rebellious states created a loose union under the Articles of Confederation.

^ Constitution Of United States --View individual articles and sections of the United States Constitution.

^ In the American case this is exemplified in the Constitution replacing the Articles of Confederation.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States Bill of Rights (1791), comprising the first 10 constitutional amendments, quickly followed.^ There are two the united States the first governed under the Constitution.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States did so first, in 1822, followed in 1825 by Britain.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vermont was also the first state to draft a constitution.

.It guaranteed many natural rights that were influential in justifying the revolution, and attempted to balance a strong national government with relatively broad personal liberties.^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only did men have natural rights of life, liberty, and property, which governments must not invade, but "Cato" and the other writers declared that government — power — was always and ever the great enemy of liberty, and stood ready to aggress against it.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Formation Of A National Government --Fantastic resource which includes, state constitutions, articles of confederation, problems of expansion, constitutional convention, ratification of the Bill Of Rights, and more.

.The American shift to liberal republicanism, and the gradually increasing democracy, caused an upheaval of traditional social hierarchy and gave birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in the United States.^ Social developments - - - Birth of American Culture .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Traditional regions of the United States - - The hierarchy of culture areas .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ratified the American victory and recognized the existence of the new United States.
  • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]

Contents

Origins

Before the Revolution: The Thirteen Colonies are in pink
.The American Revolution was predicated by a number of ideas and events that, combined, led to a political and social separation of colonial possessions from the home nation and a coalescing of those former individual colonies into an independent nation.^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Was the American Revolution merely a colonial rebellion or was it a true social revolution?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

Summary

.The revolutionary era began in 1763, when the French military threat to British North American colonies ended.^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The British victory also released the American colonies from the threat of a French invasion.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Americans were annoyed when the French officers began fraternizing with British officer-prisoners.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Adopting the policy that the colonies should pay an increased proportion of the costs associated with keeping them in the Empire, Britain imposed a series of direct taxes followed by other laws intended to demonstrate British authority, all of which proved extremely unpopular in America.^ While the British Empire had been split the cost had been too high.

^ This cost, combined with the victories over the French had increased British interest in their colonies.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These shots were then followed by a series of others.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the colonies lacked elected representation in the governing British Parliament, many colonists considered the laws to be illegitimate and a violation of their rights as Englishmen.^ Some supported the British colonial government.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Warren Hasting called it a humiliating pacification, and appealed to the king and Parliament to punish the Madras Government for "the faith and honor of the British nation have been equally violated."
  • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They proclaimed loyalty to the Crown, but laid claim on behalf of the colonists to the rights of Englishmen, and called for a union of the colonies against current English colonial policies.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - American Revolutionary War Flags 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1772, groups of colonists began to create committees of correspondence, which would lead to their own Provincial Congresses in most of the colonies.^ This leadership by the most prominent men and the leading institutions of colonial society was important, for it helped to legitimate colonial anger in the language of high principle.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Alan Greenspan testified before Congress that he never imagined the private sector banks would act against their own interests as they did.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ A photostat of the proceedings details a call for delegates to an expected colonial congress, and the forming of the New Castle County Committee of Correspondence.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the course of two years, the Provincial Congresses or their equivalents rejected the Parliament and effectively replaced the British ruling apparatus in the former colonies, culminating in 1774 with the coordinating First Continental Congress.^ Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 .
  • American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The colonial response was the first Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia in September 1774.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789.
  • American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In response to protests in Boston over Parliament's attempts to assert authority, the British sent combat troops, dissolved local governments, and imposed direct rule by Royal officials.^ Non-importation hit the American ports hard, especially Boston, where lawless conditions eventually forced the British to post troops in the city.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two chief combatants were Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a key French ally, and the British government of Madras.

^ Like the Stamp act of the same year, it also was an assertion of British authority over the colonies, in disregard of the fact that troop financing had been exercised for 150 years by representative provincial assemblies rather than by the Parliament in London.

.Consequently, the Colonies mobilized their militias, and fighting broke out in 1775. First ostensibly loyal to King George III, the repeated pleas by the First Continental Congress for royal intervention with Parliament on their behalf resulted in the declaration by the King that the states were "in rebellion", and Congress traitors.^ President of Continental Congress, 1775-77, and bold first signer of the Declaration of Independence.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the militia belonged to the states, the Continental Army was a creation of the Continental Congress.
  • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

.In 1776, representatives from each of the original thirteen states voted unanimously in the Second Continental Congress to adopt a Declaration of Independence, which now rejected the British monarchy in addition to its Parliament.^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems before the Second Continental Congress - - - State politics .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On 4 July 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Declaration established the United States, which was originally governed as a loose confederation through a representative government selected by state legislatures (see Second Continental Congress and Congress of the Confederation).^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems before the Second Continental Congress - - - State politics .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia , by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10 1775 , a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps.
  • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Liberty, republicanism, and religion

.John Locke's ideas on liberty greatly influenced the political thinking behind the revolution; for instance, his theory of the "social contract" implied that among humanity's natural rights was the right of the people to overthrow their leaders, should those leaders betray the historic rights of Englishmen.^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Florimond's personal experiences led him to conclude that the American rebellion influenced some of the French participants into supporting the radical ideas that lay behind the "disastrous revolution of 1789" in France.
  • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

[2][3] .In terms of writing state and national constitutions, the Americans used Montesquieu's analysis of the "balanced" British Constitution.^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ General George Washington built a new American army from scratch and made effective use of short-term militia volunteers as well.

^ For facts on daily life in the colonies, global events at the time of the American Revolution, and the American and British militaries, use the clickable image maps in "Perspectives on Liberty."

.A motivating force behind the revolution was the American embrace of a political ideology called "republicanism", which was dominant in the colonies by 1775. The republicanism was inspired by the "country party" in Britain, whose critique of British government emphasized that corruption was a terrible reality in Britain.^ The American Revolution and the British Press, 1775–1783 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alden, The American Revolution, 1775–1783.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Americans feared the corruption was crossing the Atlantic; the commitment of most Americans to republican values and to their rights, energized the revolution, as Britain was increasingly seen as hopelessly corrupt and hostile to American interests.^ The American Revolution came about, fundamentally, because by 1763 the English-speaking communities on the far side of the Atlantic had matured to an extent that their interests and goals were distinct from those of the ruling classes in the mother country.
  • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ At most the combined Franco-Spanish fleet might well prove a match for the British Fleet and neutralize that essential control of the seas needed by the British to carry on the American war.
  • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Britain seemed to threaten the established liberties that Americans enjoyed.^ Page 184 of colored men in National Conventions; and was a prominent advocate of the equality of the white and colored races, always claiming to be an American ,--a name which he appeared to love but little less than that of liberty , which it seemed to imply.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain threatens the colonies The revolution occurred in the hearts and minds of Americans in 1774-1776 as they realized that continued subservience to the British Empire was impossible.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a war by the Americans against the arch revolutionist King George and his ministers - a war by the Americans for the defense of their liberties and free institutions which the government of Great Britain sought to destroy.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .The greatest threat to liberty was depicted as corruption—not just in London but at home as well.^ I have insisted, particularly, on the importance of a just settlement of the Federal Union and the establishment of a well-guarded and perfect liberty in speculation, in government, [15] in education, and in religion.
  • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

The colonists associated it with luxury and, especially, inherited aristocracy, which they condemned.[5]
.The Founding Fathers were strong advocates of republican values, particularly Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton[6], which required men to put civic duty ahead of their personal desires.^ In 1796, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were the candidates.

^ In the past, McCain has stated that his favorite Founding Father was John Adams.

^ The delegates included some of the most prestigious men in the United Statesamong them George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton , and James Madison .

.Men had a civic duty to be prepared and willing to fight for the rights and liberties of their countrymen and countrywomen.^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Second American Revolution »Blogs For Victory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I answer, they were slain for adhering to the doctrine that "all men are endowed by their Creator with the inalienable right to enjoy life and liberty."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

John Adams, writing to Mercy Otis Warren in 1776, agreed with some classical Greek and Roman thinkers in that "Public Virtue cannot exist without private, and public Virtue is the only Foundation of Republics." He continued:
."There must be a positive Passion for the public good, the public Interest, Honour, Power, and Glory, established in the Minds of the People, or there can be no Republican Government, nor any real Liberty.^ In a democracy, there are no real limits to government power.
  • How We Can Win the Second American Revolution Without Firing a Shot | Political Class Dismissed 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC politicalclassdismissed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is no group like that for Republicans.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Permalink It seems like the only people who think Obama and the Democrats are all powerful are the base of the Republican Party.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.And this public Passion must be Superior to all private Passions.^ Washington had long appreciated that "In any and all circumstances a naval superiority is to be considered as a fundamental principle, and the basis upon which every hope of success must ultimately depend."
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Philadelphia patriots accused him of using public wagons for private profit and for making money for himself after he closed all the shops down in Philadelphia.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.Men must be ready, they must pride themselves, and be happy to sacrifice their private Pleasures, Passions, and Interests, nay their private Friendships and dearest connections, when they Stand in Competition with the Rights of society."^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Ben: Life!
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We must, then, be CITIZENS. Our white fellow-citizens may withhold our right, but they cannot annihilate it.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus singularly happy, why should they seek connexions with Europe and expose themselves to the danger of being involved in its quarrels?
  • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.For women, "republican motherhood" became the ideal, exemplified by Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren; the first duty of the republican woman was to instil republican values in her children and to avoid luxury and ostentation.^ This gown (so ill-suited to Mercy Otis's political and philosophical leanings) appears in several Copley portraits of women in the same social circle.
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women like Abigail Adams, Dolly Madison and "Molly Pitcher" are remembered in countless paintings, monuments, and history books for their contributions to the "cause of liberty."

^ Margaret Cochran Corbin --She fought along side her husband and became the first women to receive pension from the United States government as a disabled soldier.

.Tom Paine's best-seller pamphlet Common Sense was published in 1776, after the Revolution had started.^ The desire for independence had not been amongst the causes of the war, but at the start of 1776 Tom Paine published Common Sense .
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, when Anglo-American philosopher Thomas Paine asked in the pamphlet Common Sense (published in January 1776) whether "a continent should continue to be ruled by an Island," only a minority of Loyalist Americans were willing to defend the connection with Great Britain.

^ It was the common person who used common sense, which stated that a variety of foods was best.
  • The History of Medicine in America - The Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was often read aloud in taverns, contributing significantly in maintaining popular support for the revolution, advocacy for separation from Britain, and recruitment for the Continental Army.^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration's reading inspired many in the crowd to enlist in the Continental Army.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ It was noted above that the backbone of the fighting army of the spring and summer—whether militia or Continentals—often returned to their farms during the fall and especially the winter.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians point to the enormous popularity of Thomas Paine's Common Sense in 1776, which expounded republicanism to audiences that apparently comprised most male citizens.^ Suggested to Thomas Paine the title "Common Sense" for his famous essay.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, when Anglo-American philosopher Thomas Paine asked in the pamphlet Common Sense (published in January 1776) whether "a continent should continue to be ruled by an Island," only a minority of Loyalist Americans were willing to defend the connection with Great Britain.

^ My point in all this, is that the elite, and the speaker, will always be untouchable by most law abiding citizens, because of the very police state we have allowed them to enact.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
Dissenting (i.e. Protestant, non-Church of England) churches of the day were the “school of democracy”[9] President John Witherspoon of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) wrote widely circulated sermons linking the American Revolution to the teachings of the Hebrew Bible. .Throughout the colonies dissenting Protestant congregations (Puritan, Congregationalist, Baptist, and Presbyterian) preached Revolutionary themes in their sermons, and organized their congregations as the basic unit of Revolutionary War politics while others, especially Church of England members, supported the King.^ Charter member of its Baptist church, 1785.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revolutionary War, member of the Mass.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Religious motivation for fighting tyranny reached across the board to rich and poor, men and women, frontiersmen and townsmen, farmers and merchants.^ By 1776 the backcountry farmers of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, were instructing their representatives to the states constitutional convention to "oppose everything that leans to aristocracy or power in the hands of the rich and chief men exercised to the oppression of the poor."

^ Such men do not fight from necessity, nor from mercenary motives, but from principle."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, of the 300 people banished from Massachusetts in 1778, about a third were merchants and professional men, another third were farmers, and a final third were artisans, shopkeepers, and laborers.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.The classical authors read in the Enlightenment period taught an abstract ideal of republican government that included hierarchical social orders of king, aristocracy and commoners.^ Revolutions, of course, are not begotten by abstract social changes extending over a century, but by living individuals who come to feel social repercussions over relatively short periods of time.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Republicanism was the opposite of British aristocracy, and Washington proved a much better national symbol for his nation than King George III did for Britain.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of the United States repudiated social hierarchy and hereditary monarchy in favor of individual liberty and representative republican government.

.It was widely believed that English liberties relied on the balance of power between these three social orders, maintaining the hierarchal deference to the privileged class.^ Rather, it destroyed the last vestiges of an Atlantic power balance between Britain and France and opened the way for a fundamental reworking of the world order.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was widely believed that equality of opportunity would necessarily result in a rough equality of station, that as long as the social channels of ascent and descent were kept open, it would be impossible for any artificial aristocrats or overgrown rich men to maintain themselves for long.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bent on militant opposition to British policy, they provided both geographical links between widely separated places and social links between the Whig elite and the plebs.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[12] Historian Bernard Bailyn notes, "Puritanism … and the epidemic evangelism of the mid-eighteenth century, had created challenges to the traditional notions of social stratification” by preaching that the Bible taught all men are equal, that the true value of a man lies in his moral behavior, not his class, and that all men can be saved."[13]

Incendiary British legislation

.The Revolution was predicated by a number of pieces of legislation originating from the British Parliament that, for Americans, were illegitimate acts of a government that had no right to pass laws on Englishmen in the Americas who did not have elected representation in that government.^ Tea Act 1773 --Contains the original act as passed by Parliament in 1773.

^ A thoroughly enjoyable piece on the American Revolution...
  • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins of the American Revolution: 1759–1765.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the British, policy makers saw these laws as necessary to rein in colonial subjects who, in the name of economic development that was designed to benefit the home nation, had been allowed near-autonomy for too long.^ Forms of personal names ; in name: Place-names reflecting historical influences ) national bird ( in bald eagle ) Oktoberfest ( in Oktoberfest ) tattooing ( in tattoo ) Valentine’s Day ( in Valentine’s Day ) economics, finance, and currency .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The British plan for South Carolina was to combine military strength with a policy of conciliation that would allow the Loyalists in the state to take control and help restore British control.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward this end, British Parliament passed the first of several tax laws, including the Stamp Act, which taxed all paper products in the colonies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

Navigation Acts

.The British Empire at the time operated under the mercantile system, where economic assets, or capital, are represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports).^ This time the British Empire stood divided.

^ Harris' 21 combat decorations included army and navy Distinguished Service Medals, Legion of Merit with 3 Gold Stars, Order of British Empire.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-term social, economic, and political changes in the colonies before 1750 provided the basis for an independent nation with representative political institutions.

.Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals through playing a protectionist role in the economy, by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use of tariffs.^ The French government, army and navy played critical roles.

^ Given these parallels with the English Revolution, it was perceptive and appropriate that the English military band at the Yorktown surrender in 1781 should play "The World Turned Upside Down."
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should you wish to order any of these books please use your mouse button to click on the corresponding check box next to each book title.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

.Great Britain regulated the economies of the colonies through the Navigation Acts according to the doctrines of mercantilism.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ From 1775 to 1778 it was a war between Great Britain and the thirteen British colonies, which declared their independence as the United States of America in 1776.

^ Therefore, the Stamp Act represented a cunning attempt by Britain to seize control of taxation from the representative colonial assemblies and to tax the colonists without giving them representation in government.

.Widespread evasion of these laws had long been tolerated.^ These pressures were tolerable as long as British regulation of the rules was fairly lax.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Eventually, through the use of open-ended search warrants (Writs of Assistance), strict enforcement of these Acts became the practice. In 1761, Massachusetts lawyer James Otis argued that the writs violated the constitutional rights of the colonists. He lost the case, but John Adams later wrote, "American independence was then and there born".
.In 1762, Patrick Henry argued the Parson's Cause in Virginia, where the legislature had passed a law and it was vetoed by the King.^ Then in 1786 the Virginia legislature passed Thomas Jeffersons Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.

^ Patrick Henry of Virginia urged the House of Burgesses to condemn the Stamp Act.

^ Patrick Henry , in Virginia, answered 'Amen!'
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

Henry argued, "that a King, by disallowing Acts of this salutary nature, from being the father of his people, degenerated into a Tyrant and forfeits all right to his subjects' obedience".[14]

Western Frontier

.Following the French and Indian War, the British government sought to minimize defence costs wherever possible and was keen to maintain peaceful relations with those Inidan tribes that had allied with the French.^ The war with the French and Indians cost us a lot of money!
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This became known as the French and Indian War.
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Her Spanish Bourbon allies lost Florida to the British, albeit being compensated somewhat in the Peace of Paris by gaining the former French holdings in what would later be known as the Louisiana Territory, west of the Mississippi.

.To this end, the Proclamation of 1763 restricted colonization across the Appalachian Mountains as this was designated an Indian Reserve.^ This edict restricted European settlement to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains in order to prevent new wars with the Native American peoples of the interior.

^ West of the Appalachian Mountains and along the Canadian border, the American Revolutionary War was an " Indian War."

.Regardless, groups of settlers continued to move west and establish farms.^ On September 19 he led an assault at Freeman's Farm in an attempt to move west of Bemis Heights.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1782, General George Washington moved his army to New Windsor, above West Point and just beyond the Hudson Highlands, to establish winter quarters.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.The proclamation was soon modified and was no longer a hindrance to settlement, but its promulgation and the fact that it had been written without consulting colonists angered them.^ In an attempt to relieve Britain of its financial burden, British Parliament decided that the American Colonists would have to help pay for their own defense, despite the fact that a French invasion was no longer a real threat.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No part of this web site may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission.

.The Quebec Act of 1774 extended Quebec's boundaries to the Ohio River, shutting out the claims of the thirteen colonies.^ Consequently, the First and Second Continental Congresses, held at Philadelphia in 1774 and 1775, were attended by delegates from most colonies and claimed to speak for the entire American population.

^ In the thirteen colonies this act caused great hostility.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in 1774 a series of acts, called the 'coercive' or 'intolerable' acts in the colonies, were passed in an attempt to restore order in Boston and Massachusetts.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.By then, however, the Americans had little regard for new laws from London; they were drilling militia and organizing for war.^ With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion .
  • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General George Washington built a new American army from scratch and made effective use of short-term militia volunteers as well.

^ Uniforms Of The American Revolution --This massive database includes images of all American military organizations during the war for Independence along with brief histories of each.

[15]

Taxation without representation

.By 1763, Great Britain possessed vast holdings in North America.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The American Revolution, "American War of Independence" The American Revolution, 1775-1783 was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern shores of North America and their mother country, Great Britain.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1775 to 1778 it was a war between Great Britain and the thirteen British colonies, which declared their independence as the United States of America in 1776.

.In addition to the thirteen colonies, twenty-two smaller colonies were ruled directly by royal governors.^ The Spanish and French colonies were governed by viceroys and governors who reported directly to their monarchs.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonists elected their own colonial legislatures, staffed the militia, and checked the power of royal governors by controlling the purse strings.

^ But unlike the Thirteen Colonies, the British West Indian colonies were truly dependent upon the mother country and especially on the Royal Navy.

.Victory in the Seven Years' War had given Great Britain New France (Canada), Spanish Florida, and the Native American lands east of the Mississippi River.^ More importantly, the victory encouraged France to enter the war against Great Britain.

^ Spanish East Florida (1783-1821) .
  • American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Seven years of war had taken their toll on the American cause.

.In 1765 however, the colonists still considered themselves loyal subjects of the British Crown, with the same historic rights and obligations as subjects in Britain.^ Then, in 1765 the British government headed by George Grenville acted to raise revenue by levying, for the first time, a direct tax on the colonists.

^ This was especially true in lower Delaware where the area’s isolation and conservatism, the influence of the Anglican Church, and the presence of British ships offshore kept many loyal to the Crown.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Cornwallis preferred to move the focus of the war to Virginia where there was still a large British army.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.The British did not expect the colonies to contribute to the interest or the retirement of debt incurred during the French and Indian War, but they did expect a portion of the expenses for colonial defense to be paid by the Americans.^ I know you fought us during the French and Indian War.
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The great majority of Indians sided with the British during the war.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This became known as the French and Indian War.
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

.Estimating the expenses of defending the continental colonies and the West Indies to be approximately £200,000 annually, the British goal after the end of this war was that the colonies would be taxed for £78,000 of this amount.^ The war would not end.

^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

The point for London was that the tax demonstrated that Parliament was in full control.[17] .The issues with the colonists was not that the taxes were high (they were low) but that the colonies had no representation in the Parliament which passed the taxes.^ Toward this end, British Parliament passed the first of several tax laws, including the Stamp Act, which taxed all paper products in the colonies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, the Stamp Act represented a cunning attempt by Britain to seize control of taxation from the representative colonial assemblies and to tax the colonists without giving them representation in government.

^ British spokesmen argued that such consent had been given, in Parliament, but the colonial elite argued forcefully that they, not the House of Commons, represented the people of the colonies.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Lord North in 1775 argued for the British position that Englishmen paid on average twenty-five shillings annually in taxes whereas Americans paid only sixpence.^ American attack on British positions failed.
  • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ "In the fall of 1775 the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.The slogan "No taxation without representation" became popular in many American circles.^ He led his Ipswich townsmen to resist a tax imposed by Edmund Andros in 1687, proclaiming that "Taxation without representation is tyranny."
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Their studies of English and European crowd action, class formation and popular culture have provoked many investigations of American material framed in similar terms.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.London argued that the colonists were "virtually represented"; but most Americans rejected this.^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ During the same period, insurgent representatives in London manipulated British fears of American penetration of Latin America.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Caribbean colonists had many of the same grievances with the government in London as did their American brethren.

[19]

1764 – new taxes

.In 1764, Parliament enacted the Sugar Act and the Currency Act, further vexing the colonists.^ Parliament enacted the Coercive Acts—or Intolerable Acts, as Americans called them—and applied the legislation to Massachusetts alone, to punish the colony for its provocative act.
  • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was followed by the Currency Act of 1764, which prohibited the colonial assemblies from using paper money as legal tender for payment of debts.

^ It was for that reason, wrote these Imperial scholars, that Britain attempted to tax them by the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act (1765), and the Townshend Acts (1767).
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Protests led to a powerful new weapon, the systematic boycott of British goods.^ For the tradesmen it meant competition once again from British goods, and they claimed a say in whether the boycott should end.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress denounced the Acts, called for boycotts of British goods, and recommended that the militias ready their weapons.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The colony refused to use stamps, held protest meetings, sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted British goods.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British pushed the colonists even further that same year by also enacting the Quartering Act, which stated that British soldiers were to be quartered at the expense of residents in certain areas.^ And British soldiers are staying in our quarters!
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Samuel Sandeford , aged 82 years, resident of Wake Co., VA. Application for Federal pension under Act of Congress of 1832, 21 August 1832.
  • Revolutionary War Records 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paris acted in part out of revenge at the loss of Canada in the Seven Years War (1763), and even more for practical geopolitical and commercial goals.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

Stamp Act 1765

Burning of the Gaspée
.In 1765 the Stamp Act was the first direct tax ever levied by Parliament on the colonies.^ Stamp Act Congress (photocopies), 1765 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a direct tax, levied on the paper required for legal transactions and on newspapers.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament enacted the Coercive Acts—or Intolerable Acts, as Americans called them—and applied the legislation to Massachusetts alone, to punish the colony for its provocative act.
  • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

.All newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, and official documents—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps.^ The Stamp Act required them to buy and place revenue stamps on all official legal documents, deeds, newspapers, pamphlets, dice, and playing cards.

.All 13 colonies protested vehemently, as popular leaders such as Patrick Henry in Virginia and James Otis in Massachusetts, rallied the people in opposition.^ For example, on 12 October 1740 he drew a crowd of some 30,000 to the Boston Common (Boston, the largest colonial city at the time, was only 13,000 people).
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only volume of pamphlets yet published in the series, it included the works of such revolutionary leaders as the Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Thomas Fitch, James Otis, Oxenbridge Thacher, Daniel Dulany, and John Dickinson.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presumably, this is close to the version of the King James Bible that would have been brought to the American colonies by Protestant emigrants from the United Kingdom.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.A secret group, the "Sons of Liberty" formed in many towns and threatened violence if anyone sold the stamps, and no one did.^ James Berry was one of the members of Captain Joseph Spencer's 7th Virginia Regiment who did not return from furlough in Gloucester Town.
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only this man, but many in town, who have seen their behavior to us, and that, without provocation, twenty or thirty cowards have fallen upon one man.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the Stamp Act crisis, the Sons of Liberty in the various colonial towns were in contact with each other.

[20] .In Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice-admiralty court and looted the elegant home of the chief justice, Thomas Hutchinson.^ A liberty-loving antiquarian copied the following from the Suffolk Probate Record, and published it in the Boston Liberator , February, 1847:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But when crowds gathered again on August 26 and destroyed the mansion of Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Hutchinson, the Sons joined the towns elite in a chorus of condemnation.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Commission issued by the Vice Admiralty Court, Bermuda, against French shipping, to Robert Burton, 1782 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765. Moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" stating that taxes passed without representation violated their Rights of Englishmen.^ This action has led to the claim that York is the first capital of the United States.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Stamp Act Congress (photocopies), 1765 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in New York City the Sons acted differently.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Lending weight to the argument was an economic boycott of British merchandise, as imports into the colonies fell from £2,250,000 in 1764 to £1,944,000 in 1765. In London, the Rockingham government came to power and Parliament debated whether to repeal the stamp tax or send an army to enforce it.^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bolstered by such arguments, the colonists opposed the taxes, not with the violence of 1765, which ended with the repeal of the Stamp Act, but with a new boycott of British goods, the Second Nonimportation Movement.

^ But even countries such as Russia—which, as the Continental European hegemon, found itself drawn into conflict with its maritime counterpart—viewed British power with apprehension.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Benjamin Franklin made the case for the boycotters, explaining the colonies had spent heavily in manpower, money, and blood in defense of the empire in a series of wars against the French and Native Americans, and that further taxes to pay for those wars were unjust and might bring about a rebellion.^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In New York a tenant on the east bank of the Hudson and a freeholder on the west bank might pay roughly equal taxes.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Effectively abandoned by their American allies, the French made peace on 20 January 1783.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Parliament agreed and repealed the tax, but in a "Declaratory Act" of March 1766 insisted that parliament retained full power to make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".[14]

Townshend Act 1767 and Boston Massacre 1770

.In 1767, the Parliament passed the Townshend Acts, which placed a tax on a number of essential goods including paper, glass, and tea.^ The Townshend Acts , which were passed in 1767, placed duties on colonial imports of lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea.

^ It was for that reason, wrote these Imperial scholars, that Britain attempted to tax them by the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act (1765), and the Townshend Acts (1767).
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, and the Townshend Acts in 1770, except for the tax on tea.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Angered at the tax increases, colonists organized a boycott of British goods.^ We must boycott buying any British goods!
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Artisan involvement first became an issue during the boycott of British goods with which the colonies resisted the Townshend taxes.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Combined with a boycott of British goods, the riots caused by the Stamp Act caused the fall of the government of Lord Grenville.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Boston on March 5, 1770, a large mob gathered around a group of British soldiers.^ On 5 March 1770 a Boston mob attacked a company of soldiers guarding the customs house.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time in Sussex County, loyalists were reported as gathering in large groups in an attempt to seize control of county government, with at least five British warships sitting in Delaware Bay.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page 14 the memory of CRISPUS ATTUCKS, the first martyr in the Boston Massacre of March 5th, 1770:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The mob grew more and more threatening, throwing snowballs, rocks and debris at the soldiers.^ (The crowd begins to throw rocks at the soldier.
  • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

One soldier was clubbed and fell. .All but one of the soldiers fired into the crowd.^ The soldiers stood firm until one was knocked down by the rioters at which point the soldiers were ordered to fire, killing five of the rioters ('Boston Massacre').
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bedford Scouts went into a gap of the mountains and were ambushed by the Indians and the Captain and all the men belonging to the company except four were killed at the first fire.
  • Nicholas Lybarger's Revolutionary War Pension File 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.heritagepathways.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 92nd remained a second unit of the AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES. These black soldiers were not integrated into other all white units.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eleven people were hit; three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting, and two died after the incident. .The event quickly came to be called the Boston Massacre.^ In Boston in 1770 British troops fired on an unruly mob, killing five people, an event known as the Boston Massacre .

^ For the colonists, this was an outrage, and it became known as the BOSTON MASSACRE. Crispus Attucks' race was secondary to his exemplary heroism and outspoken call for liberty for the American colonists.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the soldiers were tried and acquitted (defended by John Adams), the widespread descriptions soon became propaganda to turn colonial sentiment against the British.^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

^ Finally, a third force was to be sent to the south, where it was confidently expected that the loyalists would rise against the rebels as soon as a British army arrived.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Adams, counsel for the soldiers, admitted that Attucks appeared to have undertaken to be the hero of the night, and to lead the people.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This in turn began a downward spiral in the relationship between Britain and the Province of Massachusetts.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The war changed the relationship between Great Britain and the colonies.

^ One set of problems, the traditional matter of studies of the Revolution, turned on the relationship of America to Britain.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Tea Act 1773

This 1846 lithograph has become a classic image of the Boston Tea Party
.In June 1772, in what became known as the Gaspée Affair, a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations was burned by American patriots.^ The volume commemorates the engagement known as "The Action at Terrytown" which was an attempt undertaken by two British frigates and three schooners sailed up the Hudson to attack the stores at Tarrytown and capture or burn American supply ships.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

^ For the colonists, this was an outrage, and it became known as the BOSTON MASSACRE. Crispus Attucks' race was secondary to his exemplary heroism and outspoken call for liberty for the American colonists.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon afterwards, Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts reported that he and the royal judges would be paid directly from London, thus bypassing the colonial legislature.^ "I know of no line that can be drawn between the supreme authority of Parliament and the total independence of the colonies," declared Thomas Hutchinson , the American-born governor of Massachusetts, early in the 1770s.

^ Indeed, Bailyn himself almost fell into this trap in his recent overly sympathetic biography of the leading Massachusetts Tory, Thomas Hutchinson.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leader of the 1630 settlement of Boston and First Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony until his death.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 16, 1773, a group of men, led by Samuel Adams and dressed to evoke American Indians, boarded the ships of the government-favored British East India Company and dumped an estimated £10,000 worth of tea on board (approximately £636,000 in 2008) into the harbor.^ In late 1773 the Boston radicals disguised as Indians dumped a shipment of tea into the harbor in protest.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Designed to aid that government chartered monopoly, the East India Company, the Act culminated in the famous Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 16 December 1773 a group of Boston radicals, dressed as Indian braves, dumped thousands of pounds worth of tea into the harbour, a protest immortalised as the Boston Tea Party.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.This event became known as the Boston Tea Party and remains a significant part of American patriotic lore.^ Designed to aid that government chartered monopoly, the East India Company, the Act culminated in the famous Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Boston Tea Party and the closing of the port of Boston, the Committee raised subscriptions for the relief of Boston.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response to the Boston Tea Party, the king and his ministers blindly pushed through Parliament a series of measures collectively known in America as the Intolerable Acts, closing the port of Boston, placing Massachusetts under the military rule of Maj.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

Intolerable Acts 1774

An American version of London cartoon that denounces the "rape" of Boston in 1774 by the Intolerable Acts
.The British government responded by passing several Acts which came to be known as the Intolerable Acts, which further darkened colonial opinion towards the British.^ Some supported the British colonial government.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

^ Finally, the act brought to the fore an issue that was bound to eventually emerge - the status of the legislative assemblies that existed in several of the colonies.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.They consisted of four laws enacted by the British parliament.^ Many members of Parliament demanded a more aggressive stance: American violence, they said, should be met with British force.

^ It took the British parliament three weeks of earnest debate to decide that they would rather have Canada, with its fur trade.

^ British spokesmen argued that such consent had been given, in Parliament, but the colonial elite argued forcefully that they, not the House of Commons, represented the people of the colonies.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[21] .The first was the Massachusetts Government Act, which altered the Massachusetts charter and restricted town meetings.^ Designed to aid that government chartered monopoly, the East India Company, the Act culminated in the famous Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, the provincial assemblies, local county courts, and town meetings simply added the tasks previously performed by the imperial government to their traditional functions.

^ The port of Boston was declared closed; the powers of the Massachusetts assembly and local town meetings were curtailed; and two acts provided for the quartering of troops in private houses and the exemption of imperial officials from trial in Massachusetts.

.The second Act, the Administration of Justice Act, ordered that all British soldiers to be tried were to be arraigned in Britain, not in the colonies.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the Stamp Act represented a cunning attempt by Britain to seize control of taxation from the representative colonial assemblies and to tax the colonists without giving them representation in government.

^ American Revolution (1775-1783), conflict between 13 British colonies in North America and their parent country, Great Britain.

.The third Act was the Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston until the British had been compensated for the tea lost in the Boston Tea Party (the British never received such a payment).^ There is no such party, never has been, never will be.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The port was closed until the lost tea had been paid for.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Boston Tea Party and the closing of the port of Boston, the Committee raised subscriptions for the relief of Boston.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fourth Act was the Quartering Act of 1774, which allowed royal governors to house British troops in the homes of citizens without requiring permission of the owner.^ Their governors and councils were chosen by their British proprietors, or owners.

^ Also see the companion volume by Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics, which offered an excellent explanation for the British royal governors being weak in the eighteenth century at the same time that the King was dominant at home.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1775 the Virginia House of Burgesses forced the royal governor, Lord John Dunmore , to take refuge on a British warship in Chesapeake Bay.

American political opposition

.American political opposition was initially through the colonial assemblies such as the Stamp Act Congress, which included representatives from across the colonies.^ Stamp Act Congress (photocopies), 1765 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

^ Drawing upon the ancients, Machiavelli, and Harrington, the "Opposition," such as Trenchard and Gordon, stretched across a wide political spectrum.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1765, the Sons of Liberty were formed which used public demonstrations, violence and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable.^ In addition, well-publicized discussions were taking place in London about taxing the colonies for the support of British troops in Canada and in frontier outposts.

^ This act also specified that the revenue was to be used not only to support British troops in America but also to provide salaries for royal officials who would collect taxes.

^ Then, in 1765 the British government headed by George Grenville acted to raise revenue by levying, for the first time, a direct tax on the colonists.

.While openly hostile to what they considered an oppressive Parliament acting illegally, colonists persisted in numerous petitions and pleas for intervention from a monarch to whom they still claimed loyalty.^ They insisted that the colonists pay a share of the cost of empire through new taxes, but refused to allow representation in Parliament.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Delaware’s loyalty to Great Britain was tested when Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 and the Townshend Acts in 1768.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Britain they were considered to be subordinate to Westminster on all issues, in the colonies a new theory emerged that the Westminster Parliament had control over imperial issues, but not over colonial taxation.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.In late 1772, after the Gaspée Affair, Samuel Adams set about creating new Committees of Correspondence, which linked Patriots in all thirteen colonies and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government.^ In 1775, revolutionaries gained control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Following the Gaspe incident, Boston patriot Samuel Adams persuaded the Massachusetts assembly to establish a formal Committee of Correspondence , and Patriot leaders in the assemblies of Virginia and the other colonies soon followed suit.

^ The committees were radical both because they developed and operated outside the old framework of legality and because of the way they brought new men into public life.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In early 1773 Virginia, the largest colony, set up its Committee of Correspondence, on which Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson served.^ Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and 3 signers of the Declaration from capture.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Committee of Correspondence was formed in October 1773 to communicate with other colonies.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775, revolutionaries gained control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

[22]
In response to the Massachusetts Government Act, Massachusetts and then other colonies formed local governments called "Provincial Congresses." In 1774, the First Continental Congress convened, consisting of representatives from each of the Provincial Congresses or their equivalents, to serve as a conduit for deliberation and collective action. .Standing Committees of Safety were created by each Provincial Congress or equivalent for the enforcement of the resolutions by the Committee of Correspondence, Provincial Congress, and the Continental Congress.^ Among these local committees were the Committees of Correspondence and the Committees of Safety .

^ Revolutionary War Records, Accounts, 1776-1807 (23 folders) Revolutionary War Records, Accounts—Forfeited Estates, 1771-1790 (13 folders) Revolutionary War Records, Committee of Correspondence, 1774-1775 (7 folders) Revolutionary War Records, Committee of Inspection and Observation, 1775-1777 (4 folders) Revolutionary War Records, Committee of Safety (Pennsylvania), 1776 (1 folder) Revolutionary War Records, Continental Congress, 1776-1778 (2 folders) Box 2 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volume I (1769-1782) contains information about the Council of Safety, Provincial Congress, Constitution of 1777, confiscation and banishment, etc.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

.British colonies in North America that did not have government responsible to its people did not join the Continental Congress, but remained loyal to the Crown.^ Some supported the British colonial government.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When and why did country people join in?
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia became the 13th colony represented in the Congress; however, Canada and 16 smaller British colonies in North America remained loyal.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They included: Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, West Florida and East Florida.^ Furthermore, East Florida, and the nearby West Indies, provided bases for attack.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ London probably wanted peace with the Americans, if it could keep, as King George insisted, Canada, Nova Scotia, [and] the Floridas...and the more they are kept unlike the other [US] colonies the better, for it is by them that we are to keep a certain awe over the abandoned colonies.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ New colonists were to be encouraged to go north to Nova Scotia, where they could produce much needed timber for the navy, or south to Florida.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Factions: Patriots, Loyalists and Neutrals

The population of the Thirteen Colonies was far from homogeneous, particularly in their political views and attitudes. .Loyalties and allegiances varied widely not only within regions and communities, but also within families and sometimes shifted during the course of the Revolution.^ These petitions often present service regards, testimony about losses suffered during the Revolution, and sometimes personal and family information or brief accounts of war-time experiences.
  • American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The overall process of the Revolution would be worked out within these sometimes tense, sometimes relaxed, sometimes commercial, sometimes organic, sometimes hierarchical, sometimes consensual relationships.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A collection of eleven articles by various authors of history dealing with loyalism during the American Revolution.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

Patriots – The Revolutionaries

.At the time, revolutionaries were called 'Patriots', 'Whigs', 'Congress-men', or 'Americans'. They included a full range of social and economic classes, but a unanimity regarding the need to defend the rights of Americans.^ The Americans responded by calling a Continental Congress.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the planter elite gathered in a Revolutionary congress wearing not their traditional costumes but rather the hunting shirts of plain men, it signified their acceptance of change.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet, you have taken pains to make a special arrangement by which, in due time, they are to enter upon the full enjoyment of citizenship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After the war, Patriots such as George Washington, James Madison, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay were deeply devoted to republicanism while also eager to build a rich and powerful nation, while Patriots such as Patrick Henry, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson represented democratic impulses and the agrarian plantation element that wanted a localized society with greater political equality.^ Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and 3 signers of the Declaration from capture.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The delegates included some of the most prestigious men in the United Statesamong them George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton , and James Madison .

^ One is very well known and is called the Illuminati (Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Hamilton, etc) and the other is simply the ones who were for freedom and liberty for all (John Adams comes to mind but I’m not completely sure about him).
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word "patriot" refers to a person in the colonies who sided with the American Revolution.^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The American Revolution through the words of the participants.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ James Smith was a man of color born in Prince George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 154].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calling the revolutionaries "patriots" is a long-standing historical convention, which began prior to the war.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicholas Lyberger (as he is called in the pension records, but "Nicholas Lybarger, Jr.", in census records and elsewhere) made application for a Revolutionary War pension on 6 Aug 1832 in Erie County, Pennsylvania.
  • Nicholas Lybarger's Revolutionary War Pension File 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.heritagepathways.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He contributed supplies to the Patriots during the Revolutionary War.
  • Revolutionary War Records 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the term “Patriot” was in use by American colonists during the 1760s.^ The French example shows that the Continental European powers saw the Spanish American crisis not only in terms of revolution and legitimacy, but also as a continuation of traditional geopolitical rivalries.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although "insurgent" is a loaded term, I use it because it was the term most frequently used at the time to designate those Latin Americans seeking independence.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Birmingham , of the Long Cane Militia, is considered to have been the 1st Patriot killed in the South during the American Revolution.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Generally speaking, during the enlightenment era, the word "patriot" was not used interchangeably with "nationalist", as it is today.^ In a word, whatever was right, useful and patriotic, secured in him a friend, advocate and patron.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson used Enlightenment natural law principles, such as the right to life and liberty, as the foundation of the Patriots doctrine of popular sovereignty.

.Rather, the concept of patriotism was linked to enlightenment values concerning a common good, which transcended national and social boundaries.^ Political thinkers had always maintained that a republic could work only if its citizens had a great deal in common socially and economically and if they acted for the general good rather than to advance their own interests.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike common-law attorneys, who valued precedent, Enlightenment philosophers questioned the past and appealed to reason.

.Patriotism, thus, did not require someone to support their leader's actions or a nation's policies in all circumstances, and there wouldn't necessarily be a contradiction between being a patriot and revolting against king and country.^ This policy was historic because it called for "equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "And why is it, that the colored inhabitants of our nation, born in this country, and entitled to all the rights of freemen, are held in slavery?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalistic policies, military alliances, and a world view of conquest were some reasons for the outbreak of this national war between multiple countries.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Class differences among the Patriots

.Historians, such as J. Franklin Jameson in the early 20th century, examined the class composition of the Patriot cause, looking for evidence that there was a class war inside the revolution.^ I have found no primary evidence of tatting before the end of the Revolutionary War (nor during the rest of the century, though I haven't looked as hard for any).
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pennsylvania, the most radically libertarian state during the war, is examined in Robert L. Brunhouse, The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 1776–1790.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War Department, Pension Office _________183_ Sir: The evidence in support of your claim, under the act of June 7, 1832, has been examined, and the papers are herewith returned.
  • Nicholas Lybarger's Revolutionary War Pension File 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.heritagepathways.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the last 50 years, historians have largely abandoned that interpretation, emphasizing instead the high level of ideological unity. .Just as there were rich and poor Loyalists, the Patriots were a 'mixed lot', with the richer and better educated more likely to become officers in the Army.^ The American militiaman, contrasted with a redcoat regular, was better educated, more easily trained, more accustomed to wilderness more acclimated to the disease environment, and more familiar with firearms.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are appointments and commissions of officers and soldiers of the army, marching orders, and supply requests.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1770s the patriots were younger, more committed, more vigorous, less attached to the old order, more confident and better organized than the Loyalists.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ideological demands always came first: the Patriots viewed independence as a means of freeing themselves from British oppression and taxation and, above all, reasserting what they considered to be their rights.^ The first British setback came on the Mohawk.

^ This capitulation gave the Patriots their first major military victory and brought to an end the second, and pivotal, phase of the war of independence.

^ Led by Charles Carroll of Carrollton to see the wisdom of sacrifice, they made massive concessions to popular demands on such questions as taxation and money policy.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Most yeomen farmers, craftsmen, and small merchants joined the patriot cause as well, demanding more political equality.^ They learned, first, that one had to choose sides; it was more dangerous to remain neutral, without friends, than to join the Patriot militia or declare for the British cause.

^ Some Patriots demanded confiscation of the property of the so-called traitors, but most public officials thought this would be contrary to republican principles.

^ There were relatively few members of other religious faiths, and most New England ministers had enthusiastically supported the Patriot cause.

.They were especially successful in Pennsylvania and less so in New England, where John Adams attacked Thomas Paine's Common Sense for the "absurd democratical notions" it proposed.^ Suggested to Thomas Paine the title "Common Sense" for his famous essay.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cato's Letters, The Independent Whig , and such were common...” Reminiscing in 1816 about the era of the 1770s John Adams observed, “ Cato's Letters and The Independent Whig , and all the writings of Trenchard and Gordon,...all the writings relative to the revolutions in England became fashionable reading.” 3 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British provided arms for the Indians, under Loyalist leadership, to raid frontier settlements from the Carolinas to New York, massacring the settlers, especially in Pennsylvania.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]

Loyalists and neutrals

.While there is no way of knowing the actual numbers, historians have estimated that about 15–20% of the population remained loyal to the British Crown; these were known at the time as "Loyalists", "Tories", or "King's men".[25][26] The Loyalists never controlled territory unless the British Army occupied it.^ The King's side is called British, redcoat, Tory, Hessian or Loyalist.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s no time for procrastination!
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again there was no simple or single way.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Loyalists were typically older, less willing to break with old loyalties, often connected to the Church of England, and included many established merchants with business connections across the Empire, as well as royal officials such as Thomas Hutchinson of Boston.^ In many cities, upwardly mobile Patriot merchants replaced Loyalists at the top of the economic ladder.

^ In the 1770s the patriots were younger, more committed, more vigorous, less attached to the old order, more confident and better organized than the Loyalists.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William T. Baxter studies the Hancock family, as well as the life of Boston merchants of the period, in The House of Hancock, Business in Boston, 1724–1774.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The revolution sometimes divided families; for example, the Franklins. .William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin and Governor of New Jersey remained Loyal to the Crown throughout the war and never spoke to his father again.^ Prev Next When the British took control of New York City, where Williams lived, he moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 9 May he had reached Charleston, where the Governor of South Carolina offered to surrender the city in return for a guarantee that Charleston Harbour and the rest of South Carolina would remain neutral for the rest of the war.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tenant rebellion and loyalism in the Hudson Valley, land rioting in New Jersey, and the movement that freed Vermont from New York had a great deal in common.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Recent immigrants who had not been fully Americanized were also inclined to support the King, such as recent Scottish settlers in the back country; among the more striking examples of this, see Flora MacDonald.^ We’ll see who is more intelligent.
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information, see: American Revolution .
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Most Native Americans rejected pleas that they remain neutral and supported the king.^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Most remained neutral.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The American officers never equalled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently they lost most of the pitched battles.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The tribes that depended most heavily upon colonial trade tended to side with the revolutionaries, though political factors were important as well.^ This leadership by the most prominent men and the leading institutions of colonial society was important, for it helped to legitimate colonial anger in the language of high principle.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, the colonies shared one important political institution.

^ Most objective and illuminating on Franklin's machinations in colonial politics, is William S. Hanna, Benjamin Franklin and Pennsylvania Politics.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most prominent Native American leader siding with the king was Joseph Brant of the Mohawk nation, who led frontier raids on isolated settlements in Pennsylvania and New York until an American army under John Sullivan secured New York in 1779, forcing the Loyalist Indians permanently into Canada.^ The British provided arms for the Indians, under Loyalist leadership, to raid frontier settlements from the Carolinas to New York, massacring the settlers, especially in Pennsylvania.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An American force under Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Some African-American slaves became politically active and supported the king, especially in Virginia where the royal governor actively recruited black men into the British forces in return for manumission, protection for their families, and the promise of land grants.^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All were chosen as being "sober, young, active and well built, men of good character that possess pride of appearing soldier like, those having family connection in this country, and men of some property."
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also see the companion volume by Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics, which offered an excellent explanation for the British royal governors being weak in the eighteenth century at the same time that the King was dominant at home.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the war, many of these "Black Loyalists" settled in Nova Scotia, Upper and Lower Canada, and other parts of the British Empire, where the descendants of some remain today.^ These shots were then followed by a series of others.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Empire Loyalists Centennial Committee, Toronto - The Old United Empire Loyalists List - Clearfield Publishing - ISBN# 080630331X - BRAND NEW Softcover - 334pp - Reprint of 1885 Original - The "List" contains the names of the thousands of United Empire Loyalist settlers who left the American colonies during and after the Revolutionary War and settled, first, in 1783, in what is now New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and then, in 1784, in Upper Canada, or what is now the Province of Ontario.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

^ They follow the proceedings of the Council prior to the colonies’ separation from the British Empire.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
A minority of uncertain size tried to stay neutral in the war. Most kept a low profile. .However, the Quakers, especially in Pennsylvania, were the most important group that was outspoken for neutrality.^ Members of these groups often settled in their own communities, especially in the mid-Atlantic colonies of Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

^ A final group was, perhaps, the most important and representative of all.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As patriots declared independence, the Quakers, who continued to do business with the British, were attacked as supporters of British rule, "contrivers and authors of seditious publications" critical of the revolutionary cause.^ I support the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence fully.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description: The Americans did not simply outlast the British in the Revolutionary War, contends this author in a groundbreaking study, but won their independence by employing superior strategies, tactics, and leadership.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

[31]
.After the war, the great majority of the 450,000–500,000 Loyalists remained in America and resumed normal lives.^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The great majority of Loyalists remained in the United States and became good citizens.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The war in North America was fought mostly throughout the Northern colonies, and in the end Great Britain defeated France.

.Some, such as Samuel Seabury, became prominent American leaders.^ He obtained a pension, became a Baptist preacher of some prominence, and died in 1843, at the age of eighty two.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forrest McDonald in The Phaeton Ride has dealt with Bolingbroke's influence on later American leaders such as Thomas Jefferson.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some theorists on guerrilla warfare such as Lewis H. Gann, Guerrillas in History , for example, have seen the American Revolution as of little relevance to understanding that mode of warfare: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Estimates vary, but about 62,000 Loyalists relocated to Canada, and others to Britain (7,000) or to Florida or the West Indies (9,000).^ They emigrated mostly to Canada but also to the West Indies and Britain.

^ Furthermore, East Florida, and the nearby West Indies, provided bases for attack.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Peace with Spain was agreed on the same day with Britain keeping Gibraltar while Spain gained East and West Florida.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.This made up approximately 2% of the total population of the colonies.^ This growth in population and diversity made the American colonies more difficult for Britain to rule.

^ About 250,000 Africans were brought to the mainland colonies before 1775, but the total black population numbered 567,000 on the eve of independence.

^ Migrants from Germany, Scotland, and Ireland made up at least 30 percent of the white population.

.When Loyalists left the South in 1783, they took thousands of blacks with them as slaves to the British West Indies.^ The British plan for South Carolina was to combine military strength with a policy of conciliation that would allow the Loyalists in the state to take control and help restore British control.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thousands of slaves in the South sought freedom by taking refuge behind British lines.

^ Equally important, the British and Loyalist troops in the South were unable to hold captured territory in the face of rebel guerrilla attacks.

[32]

Women

.Several types of women contributed to the American Revolution in multiple ways.^ Just by way of contrast, a consensus can be found that the first battle of the American Revolution occurred in the Lexington-Concord outside Boston.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Title: The colored patriots of the American revolution, with sketches of several distinguished colored persons: to which is added a brief survey of the condition and prospects of colored Americans.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each of these developments took place in a particular society, but all fed into the way that Americans experienced their political Revolution.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Like men, women participated on both sides of the war.^ Ferling's narrative is also filled with compassion for the men who comprised the British army and who, like their American counterparts, struggled and died at an astonishing rate in this harsh war.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Like men of war : Black troops in the Civil War, 1862-1865 / Noah Andre Trudeau.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has a clear recollection of the battle of KIRKS plantation, and was well aquatinted with the officers and many of the men on both sides.
  • Poe - Revolutionary War Veterans 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mindspring.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among women, European Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans also divided between the Patriot and Loyalist causes.^ Delaware’s Committees of Inspection also reported on suspected cases of speculation, discouraged dissent against the American cause, and encouraged the production of native goods such as wool.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a free man of color who served in the Revolution from Amherst County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 152].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McGee was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from King George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 151].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While formal Revolutionary politics did not include women, ordinary domestic behaviors became charged with political significance as patriot women confronted a war that permeated all aspects of political, civil, and domestic life.^ He contributed supplies to the Patriots during the Revolutionary War.
  • Revolutionary War Records 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Last post told the story of Revolutionary War patriot Henry Laurens , apparently the first American to be officially cremated in the 1790s.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This weekend’s Patriot observance in York http://www.ydr.com/newsfull/ci_3952025 focuses on the Civil War.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.They participated by boycotting British goods, spying on the British, following armies as they marched, washing, cooking, and tending for soldiers, delivering secret messages, and in a few cases like Deborah Samson fighting disguised as men.^ They follow the proceedings of the Council prior to the colonies’ separation from the British Empire.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In peacetime the British army was scattered about in small units, the men often boarded in private homes.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first fighting, of course, occurred when the British sought to march to Lexington and Concord, literally into the teeth of this armed countryside of agrarian militia.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Above all, they continued the agricultural work at home to feed the armies and their families.^ They were in numerous instances the pioneers, and in all, the laborers of your armies.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They were represented in the NAVY, ARMY, AIR FORCE, and MARINE CORP in all ranks up to Colonels, Admirals, and Generals.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon, the riots will get worse as the government stats can lie all they want, unemployment, and bankruptcieis will continue to rise and people will continue to grow hungry.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.The boycott of British goods required the willing participation of American women; the boycotted items were largely household items such as tea and cloth.^ For the tradesmen it meant competition once again from British goods, and they claimed a say in whether the boycott should end.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ With action in the north largely a stalemate, their primary contribution was in the south, where they participated in such undertakings as the siege of British-held Savannah and the decisive siege of Yorktown.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The colony refused to use stamps, held protest meetings, sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted British goods.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Women had to return to spinning and weaving—skills that had fallen into disuse. .In 1769, the women of Boston produced 40,000 skeins of yarn, and 180 women in Middletown, Massachusetts, wove 20,522 yards (18,765 m) of cloth.^ When the British started building a base in Penobscot Bay in Maine, Massachusetts sent 1,000 militia in 40 ships.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Providence, Rhode Island, during the Stamp Act crisis, 18 "Daughters of Liberty" met to spin yarn for cloth, to avoid purchasing any cloth from British manufacturers.

[34]
.A crisis of political loyalties could also disrupt the fabric of colonial America women’s social worlds: whether a man did or did not renounce his allegiance to the king could dissolve ties of class, family, and friendship, isolating women from former connections.^ This gown (so ill-suited to Mercy Otis's political and philosophical leanings) appears in several Copley portraits of women in the same social circle.
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether in an internal civil war or in a colonial war for independence, if one side is able to wage a "people's war," such a world view and organizational structure will have repercussions throughout the society.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Young hearty robust men who are tied by Birth or Family Connections to this County; and are well practiced in the use of firearms are by much to be preferred."
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.A woman’s loyalty to her husband, once a private commitment, could become a political act, especially for women in America committed to men who remained loyal to the king.^ Conservative Patriots wanted to deny political rights to men who owned only a little property.

^ The remaining Loyalists were left with two choices - come to terms with the new conditions in America or leave, with most who did leave going to Canada or the Caribbean.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They stressed commitment to the cause and equality among the men who joined.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Legal divorce, usually rare, was granted to patriot women whose husbands supported the king.[35]

Other participants

Spain

.Spain joined in full the cause of the American Revolution by declaring war on England on June 21, 1779. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, general of the Spanish forces in New Spain who also served as governor of Louisiana was sent to Florida at the head of an expedition of colonial troops to aid the American colonists in their rebellion against Britain [36].^ World War: France joins the Americans .
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When this demand was refused, Spain allied with France and declared war on Britain.

.The importance of Galvez's campaign from the American perspective was that he denied the British the opportunity of encircling the American rebels from the south, and kept open a vital conduit for supplies.^ The redcoat retreat from Boston , for example, was particularly humiliating for the British, while the minor American victory at Trenton was magnified despite its limited strategic importance.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spain offered to join Britain in the war if it could get Gibraltar; when London refused, she joined the allies, attacked British outposts in Florida, and sent supplies to the Americans.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The new British strategy therefore called for a stronger navy, and an invasion of the American South.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

In recognition to his help to the American cause, .George Washington took him to his right in the parade of July 4 and the American Congress cited Gálvez for his aid during the Revolution.^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ French expeditionary army sent to help the American Revolution during 1780 to 1782 .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Klingler, Caleb , "Who was the American soldier during American Revolution?
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

[37][38]

France

.In early 1776, France set up a major program of aid to the Americans, and the Spanish secretly added funds.^ The American Revolution: Invasion of Canada and the Fall of Boston "The major military operations of 1775 and early 1776 were not around Boston but in far-distant Canada, which the Americans tried to add as a fourteenth colony.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lumpkin writes that this “was the last major set battle between American and British regular forces in the northern theatre of the war.” .
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The claims the colored people set up, therefore, are the claims of Americans.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Each country spent one million "livres tournaises" to buy munitions. A dummy corporation run by Pierre Beaumarchais concealed their activities. .Americans obtained some munitions through Holland as well as French and Spanish ports in the West Indies.^ JACK GROVE, of Portland, while steward of a brig, sailing from the West Indies to Portland, in 1812, was taken by a French vessel, whose commander placed a guard on board.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The French fleet under Admiral d'Estaing had spent the summer in the West Indies where the French hoped to make gains at British expense.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Latin America and the West Indies, North American slaves had a high rate of natural increase.

[39]

Native Americans

.The great majority of the 200,000 Native Americans east of the Mississippi distrusted the colonists and supported the British cause.^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

[40] .The British provided funding and guns to attack American outposts.^ Successful American surprise attack on British outpost.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American militia attacked and defeated the British.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American attack on British positions failed.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Indians tried to remain neutral, seeing little value in participating yet again in a European conflict.^ Some few of that class yet remained.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite some errors, William H. Nelson's little volume, The American Tory , remains the best.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why not try some original thought, and see what YOU can come up with?
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few supported the American cause.^ One fallacy was the assumption that because few southerners had fought so far, few supported the patriot cause.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There were relatively few members of other religious faiths, and most New England ministers had enthusiastically supported the Patriot cause.

[41]
.The British provided arms for the Indians, under Loyalist leadership, to raid frontier settlements from the Carolinas to New York, threatening to massacre the settlers, especially in Pennsylvania.^ The British provided arms for the Indians, under Loyalist leadership, to raid frontier settlements from the Carolinas to New York, massacring the settlers, especially in Pennsylvania.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the harsh winter of 1779, Tye was among an elite group of twenty-four black Loyalists, known as the Black Brigade, who joined with the Queen's Rangers, a British guerrilla unit, to protect New York City and to conduct raids for food and fuel.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The most prominent was Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, who led a band of 300 Indian warriors and 100 white loyalists in 1778 and 1780 multiple attacks on small settlements in New York and Pennsylvania.^ The most prominent was Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, who led a band of 300 Indian warriors and 100 white loyalists.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indians and Loyalists led by Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant ambushed one relief party.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Indians and Loyalists led by Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant ambushed and defeated one relief party at Oriskany.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

[42] .In 1776 Cherokee war parties attacked all along the southern frontier.^ Incited by British royal agents, the Cherokee attacked along the entire southern frontier.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map with population figures for each state, along with numbers of troops serving in 1776, population of cities in 1776, and important battles of the war.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1776, Congress ordered that a “flying camp” be established “in the middle colonies” to protect the middle and southern colonies from attack.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.While the Indians could launch raids with up to 100 warriors, they could not mobilize enough forces to fight a major invasion of thousands of soldiers, so the Americans sent invasion armies against the Cherokees in 1776 and 1780. In 1779 Washington sent General John Sullivan with four brigades of Continental soldiers to drive the Iroquois out of upstate western New York.^ The Americans could now concentrate their forces against Burgoynes army.

^ In 1779 Washington sent General John Sullivan with four brigades of Continental soldiers to drive the Iroquois out of New York.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington had suffered defeat after defeat and had been forced out of New York and now New Jersey.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.There was little combat but Sullivan systematically burned 40 (empty) Indian villages and, most important, destroyed about 160,000 bushels of corn that comprised the winter food supply.^ There was little combat but Sullivan systematically burned the (empty) Indian villages and, most important, destroyed about 600,000 bushels of grain that comprised the winter food supply.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1700 the population was about 250,000; seven decades later there were about 2,500,000 inhabitants, a tenfold increase.

^ One of Moore's most important contributions to an analysis of change was questioning the "inertia" paradigm, one of the unexamined assumptions about change.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Facing starvation the Iroquois permanently fled to the Niagara Falls area and to Canada, where the British fed them.^ Facing starvation the Iroquois permanently fled to Canada, where the British fed them.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Facing them was a hastily formed force commanded by Major-General Guy Carleton, the British commander in Canada.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any remaining American taste for offensive warfare like the siege of Boston or the invasion of Canada dissolved in the face of British superiority in numbers and assault capability.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.At the peace conference the British abandoned their Indian allies, and the Americans took possession of all the land west of the Mississippi and north of Florida.^ At the 1783 peace conference the British abandoned their Indian allies, and the Americans took the lands of the defeated tribes.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish, operating from New Orleans, cleared the redcoats out of the lower Mississippi Valley, seizing Mobile on the Gulf Coast, Pensacola (in British West Florida) and the Bahama islands.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain offered to join Britain in the war if it could get Gibraltar; when London refused, she joined the allies, attacked British outposts in Florida, and sent supplies to the Americans.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

Calloway concludes:
Burned villages and crops, murdered chiefs, divided councils and civil wars, migrations, towns and forts choked with refugees, economic disruption, breaking of ancient traditions, losses in battle and to disease and hunger, betrayal to their enemies, all made the American Revolution one of the darkest periods in American Indian history.[45]
.The British, however, did not give up their forts in the west until 1796 and kept alive the dream of one day forming a satellite Indian nation in what is now the Ohio to Wisconsin part of the Midwest.^ Forms of personal names ; in name: Place-names reflecting historical influences ) national bird ( in bald eagle ) Oktoberfest ( in Oktoberfest ) tattooing ( in tattoo ) Valentine’s Day ( in Valentine’s Day ) economics, finance, and currency .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Consequently, the British commander did not undertake a pursuit of Washingtons disorganized forces, giving the Americans much-needed time to regroup.

^ Outnumbered by hostile forces, the British column was being slowly destroyed by sniping until it met up with a relief force at Lexington and was able to return relatively safely to Boston.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.That hostile goal was one of the causes of the War of 1812.^ One of the causes of the American Revolution can be traced to the end of the French and Indian War, 1755 - 1762; fought in Europe, India and the West Indies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[46][47]

Slaves

.Some slaves understood Revolutionary rhetoric as promising freedom and equality.^ It is not very surprising, that in the time of the Revolutionary War, when so much was said of freedom, equality, and the rights of man, the poor African should think that he had some rights, and should seek that freedom which others valued so highly.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775 the Tory governor of Virginia Lord Dunmore had promised freedom to all slaves who would flee and fight for the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Prev Next Eight slaves are known to have been granted freedom by the legislature for service in the Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both British and American governments made promises of freedom for service and some slaves fought in one or the other armies.^ Some supported the British colonial government.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An army of 3500 British troops captured Savannah, Georgia, at the end of December 1778, and seized Augusta one month later.

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

Starting in 1777 abolition occurred in the North, usually on a gradual schedule with no payments to the owners, but slavery persisted in the South and took on new life after 1790.[48]
During the Revolution, efforts were made by the British to turn slavery against the Americans,[26] but historian David Brion Davis explains the difficulties with a policy of wholesale arming of the slaves:
.
But England greatly feared the effects of any such move on its own West Indies, where Americans had already aroused alarm over a possible threat to incite slave insurrections.^ The threat of the French navy meant that the bulk of Royal Navy had to be pulled out of North America and stationed near England to defend against a possible French-Spanish invasion.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Latin America and the West Indies, North American slaves had a high rate of natural increase.

^ The effects of the American Revolution in British West Florida which ran from the eastern bank of the Mississippi to the Chattahoochee River.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

.The British elites also understood that an all-out attack on one form of property could easily lead to an assault on all boundaries of privilege and social order, as envisioned by radical religious sects in Britain’s seventeenth-century civil wars.^ Almost all the Loyalists were, in one way or another, more afraid of America than they were of Britain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ATTUCKS had formed the patriots in Dock Square, from whence they marched up King street, passing through the street up to the main guard, in order to make the attack.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So if the the elite tells them orders that are not consensaul, they will carry them out because they have no “conscience of the majority”.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Davis underscored the British dilemma: "Britain, when confronted by the rebellious American colonists, hoped to exploit their fear of slave revolts while also reassuring the large number of slave-holding Loyalists and wealthy Caribbean planters and merchants that their slave property would be secure".[50] The colonists accused the British of encouraging slave revolts.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

^ In fact the individualistic Americans of the South would fiercely fight to defend their homes, land, and slaves--and their dream of an inland empire stretching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.American advocates of independence were commonly lampooned in Britain for their hypocritical calls for freedom, while many of their leaders were slave-holders.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ "In the Revolutionary War, my father was a decided advocate of American Independence, and his life was repeatedly jeopardized in its cause.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was among the many pleasing reminiscences of his life to refer to those scenes, so strikingly analogous to the trials and persecution of the friends of freedom here, and the hypocritical sophisms of their opponents.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Samuel Johnson observed "how is it we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the [slave] drivers of the Negroes?"[52] Benjamin Franklin countered by criticizing the British self-congratulation about "the freeing of one Negro" (Somersett) while they continued to permit the Slave Trade.[53][54]
Phyllis Wheatley, a black poet who popularized the image of Columbia to represent America, came to public attention when her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral appeared in 1773[54]

Military hostilities begin

Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.
.The Battle of Lexington and Concord took place April 19, 1775, when the British sent a force of roughly 1000 troops to confiscate arms and arrest revolutionaries in Concord.^ After the battle of Lexington, in 1775, be joined the army .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Depictions of the British Army marching to Concord in April, 1775.
  • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 19 Gage ordered his troops to Concord.

[55] .They clashed with the local militia, marking the first fighting of the American Revolutionary War.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The news aroused the 13 colonies to call out their militias and send troops to besiege Boston.^ For example, on 12 October 1740 he drew a crowd of some 30,000 to the Boston Common (Boston, the largest colonial city at the time, was only 13,000 people).
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Banished from Boston for his heretical religious views that Puritans should separate from the Church of England and keep a separation between church and state in the new colonies.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The orator's omission to make a brief allusion, even, to the two colored soldiers, called out the following tribute from William Anderson, of New London, Connecticut:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Battle of Bunker Hill followed on June 17, 1775. While a British victory, it was at a great cost; about 1,000 British casualties from a garrison of about 6,000, as compared to 500 American casualties from a much larger force.^ In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting battle of Bunker Hill (17 June 1775) was a disaster for the British.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56][57]
.The Second Continental Congress convened in 1775, after the war had started.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems before the Second Continental Congress - - - State politics .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Once independent, the new state governments implemented republican constitutions, and a Continental Congress directed the American war effort.

.The Congress created the Continental Army and extended the Olive Branch Petition to the crown as an attempt at reconciliation.^ The creation of a Continental Army was in the long run perhaps their most significant achievement.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ XXIII.--Resolve on the petition of DEBORAH GANNETT, granting her £34 for services in the Continental Army.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the meager financial support provided by Congress and the American people, the Continental Army almost perished from hunger and cold during the winters of 1777 and 1778.

King George III refused to receive it, issuing instead the Proclamation of Rebellion, requiring action against the "traitors".
.In the winter of 1775, the Americans invaded Canada.^ Over the winter of 1775-76, the Americans sent expeditions to conquer Canada.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Invasion of Canada The only American setback of 1775 came in their invasion of Canada.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard Montgomery invaded Canada in the fall of 1775, captured Montreal, and launched an unsuccessful attack on Quebec , in which Montgomery was killed.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.General Richard Montgomery captured Montreal but a joint attack on Quebec with the help of Benedict Arnold failed.^ Andr, the British officer engaged in negotiations with Benedict Arnold, had been captured by American militiamen and hung as a spy.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard Montgomery invaded Canada in the fall of 1775, captured Montreal, and launched an unsuccessful attack on Quebec , in which Montgomery was killed.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In September an American army under General Richard Montgomery moved farther north, laying siege to Saint Johns, a British fort.

.In March 1776, with George Washington as the commander of the new army, the Continental Army forced the British to evacuate Boston.^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 June 1775 George Washington was appointed commander of the new Continental army, created in the same month out of the forces besieging Boston.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its members marched to Boston to join George Washington's forces in the seige of that city in 1775.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.The revolutionaries were now in full control of all 13 colonies and were ready to declare independence.^ Was it simply the decision of the Thirteen Colonies to declare their independence?
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Spanish-controlled island of CUBA was seeking its independence from SPAIN in 1898, the experienced all black military units were ready to serve.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fort Montgomery was the scene of a fierce battle for control of the Hudson River during the American Revolutionary War; the Hudson was considered strategic by both the Americans and the British during the American War for Independence.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.While there still were many Loyalists, they were no longer in control anywhere by July 1776, and all of the Royal officials had fled.^ Almost all the Loyalists were, in one way or another, more afraid of America than they were of Britain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get the flag spreading from porch to porch, so no politician can travel this country without being reminded whom they represent and how many of us are out here.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a fault, with many colored men, that they do not aim at perfection in a knowledge of their business, whereas, they should all aim for the highest pinnacle of merit.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[58]

Prisoners

.In August 1775, the King declared Americans in arms against royal authority to be traitors to the Crown.^ It was a war by the Americans against the arch revolutionist King George and his ministers - a war by the Americans for the defense of their liberties and free institutions which the government of Great Britain sought to destroy.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Those against whom the first American shot for freedom was fired in 1775 have now become the strongest defenders of liberty and democracy.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When initial negotiations failed, Howe launched an attack on August 27 against the 10,000 American troops entrenched on Brooklyn Heights.

.The British government at first started treating captured rebel combatants as common criminals and preparations were made to bring them to trial for treason.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equally important, the British and Loyalist troops in the South were unable to hold captured territory in the face of rebel guerrilla attacks.

^ Then, in 1765 the British government headed by George Grenville acted to raise revenue by levying, for the first time, a direct tax on the colonists.

.American Secretary Lord Germain and First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Sandwich were especially eager to do so, with a particular emphasis on those who had previously served in British units (and thereby sworn an oath of allegiance to the crown).^ The British Respond The British response to the revolt was to be directed by the new Secretary of State for the American colonies, Lord George Germain , who held the post from November 1775 until he was replaced in February 1782.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The British treated as traitors everyone who failed to take the oath to King George.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As early as 1789 David Ramsay's History of the American Revolution mentioned “those fashionable authors, who have defended the cause of liberty.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the prisoners taken by the British at Bunker Hill apparently expected to be hanged, but British authorities declined to take the next step: treason trials and executions.^ Taking advantage of the growing dark and the smoky haze from the battle, many of the Americans escaped, but as many as 275 were taken as prisoners to New York City where they remained for much of the war.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Woodford was taken prisoner at fall of Charleston, later died in captivity under the British at New York, 1780.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people are aware that British prisoners were detained at Camp Security , but this first county lockup housed its share, too.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.There were tens of thousands of Loyalists under American control who would have been at risk for treason trials of their own (by the Americans), and the British built much of their strategy around using these Loyalists.^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.After the surrender at Saratoga in 1777, there were thousands of British prisoners in American hands.^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Captured by the British at Brandywine, 1777, and held prisoner two years.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British prisoners in the American Revolution complained about conditions.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore no American prisoners were put on trial for treason, although most were badly treated and many died nonetheless, resulting in more deaths than every American battlefield and naval action fatality, combined.^ The words had no sooner left his mouth, than his American journeymen, unbottoning their aprons, called, as one man, for the settlement of their wages.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The weakness of the American army was that the sergeants and officers had little or no experience in warfare, and the generals displayed more genius for back-room politics than for battlefield action.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vernon--let us no more boast of liberty--let us break every yoke, and let the oppressed go free!"
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[59][60] .Eventually they were technically accorded the rights of belligerents in 1782, by act of Parliament, when they were officially recognized as prisoners of war rather than traitors.^ Such an analysis may ignore the fact that individuals (rather than classes or coalitions) feel, think, and act.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political thinkers had always maintained that a republic could work only if its citizens had a great deal in common socially and economically and if they acted for the general good rather than to advance their own interests.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ They did employ slaves as non-combatant auxiliaries, and eventually most of the southern states recruited slaves as soldiers, and emancipated them at the end of the war.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of the war, both sides released their surviving prisoners.^ The first of a series of wars of independence that ended European control of both North and South America.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the WAR against the WORLD! We win if we can make their armies understand that they must be on our side to survive.
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the war both armies were fighting in this fashion.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[61]

Creating new state constitutions

.Following the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, the Patriots had control of most of the territory and population; the Loyalists were powerless.^ The resulting battle of Bunker Hill (17 June 1775) was a disaster for the British.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They also differed in terms of population (the proportions of patriots and loyalists; freemen and slaves).
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was at the battle of Bunker Hill, and continued in the army to the close of the war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In all thirteen colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing governments, closing courts and driving British governors, agents and supporters from their homes.^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Their governors were appointed by the king on the advice of the Board of Trade, the British administrative agency that supervised colonial affairs.

^ The British aim was to retain their colonial territories outside the thirteen colonies, and if possible split the Americans from their French allies.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.They had elected conventions and "legislatures" that existed outside of any legal framework; new constitutions were used in each state to supersede royal charters.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The committees were radical both because they developed and operated outside the old framework of legality and because of the way they brought new men into public life.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

.They declared they were states now, not colonies.^ They were patriotic celebrations, proclaiming the delight of people who had once been colonial subjects and had now become republican citizens.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Mechanics throughout the country showed that they agreed when they joined in massive parades to celebrate as their states declared ratification.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Now that they were independent states, they had no wish to subject themselves to external control.

[62]
.On January 5, 1776, New Hampshire ratified the first state constitution, six months before the signing of the Declaration of Independence.^ Printing of the first Constitution of the State of New York.

^ On 4 July 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That should start with the Constitution and Declaration of Independence.
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then, in May 1776, Congress voted to suppress all forms of crown authority, to be replaced by locally created authority.^ Speculation surrounds the author when his diary ends abruptly on May 5th, 1776 22 miles from Crown Point, New York.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Enough of them to fill every seat in congress and the senate and let’s all vote for independents.
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the stateswhich had now declared their independencevoluntarily joined together in a legislative assembly, the Continental Congress, in which each state had one vote.

.Virginia, South Carolina, and New Jersey created their constitutions before July 4. Rhode Island and Connecticut simply took their existing royal charters and deleted all references to the crown.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Responding to artisan protests, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts imposed tariffs on imported manufactures.

^ When the New Jersey regulars mutinied three weeks later, Clinton learned about it before Washington did, but did not try anything.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[63]
.The new states had to decide not only what form of government to create, they first had to decide how to select those who would craft the constitutions and how the resulting document would be ratified.^ In 1789 the people of the several states ratified the Constitution that created a stronger central government.

^ I agree with the form of government that was ORIGINALLY created.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two the united States the first governed under the Constitution.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In states where the wealthy exerted firm control over the process, such as Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, New York and Massachusetts, the results were constitutions that featured:
  • Substantial property qualifications for voting and even more substantial requirements for elected positions (though New York and Maryland lowered property qualifications);[62]
  • Bicameral legislatures, with the upper house as a check on the lower;
  • Strong governors, with veto power over the legislature and substantial appointment authority;
  • Few or no restraints on individuals holding multiple positions in government;
  • The continuation of state-established religion.
Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1783
In states where the less affluent had organized sufficiently to have significant power—especially Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New Hampshire—the resulting constitutions embodied
  • universal white manhood suffrage, or minimal property requirements for voting or holding office (New Jersey enfranchised some property owning widows, a step that it retracted 25 years later);
  • strong, unicameral legislatures;
  • relatively weak governors, without veto powers, and little appointing authority;
  • prohibition against individuals holding multiple government posts;
.Whether conservatives or radicals held sway in a state did not mean that the side with less power accepted the result quietly.^ New York City radicals took much less interest in the countryside than did their Boston counterparts.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ To limit popular power, the convention used other means: for example, both the Senate and the president of the United States would be chosen by indirect means.

^ Permalink COnservative means auction the government off to the highest bidder, and then use the power of government for the pocketbook interests of the ones who won the auction.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.The radical provisions of Pennsylvania's constitution lasted only fourteen years.^ In some states, such as Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, the new constitutions were approved only after fierce political battles.

^ The only radical leader to be the subject of a biography is an old one by Burton A. Konkle, George Bryan and the Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1731–1791.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Pennsylvania Cons titutionalists (the radicals) and Republicans (the Whigs) confronted each other over the question of the state constitution of 1776.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1790, conservatives gained power in the state legislature, called a new constitutional convention, and rewrote the constitution.^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

^ By 1776 the backcountry farmers of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, were instructing their representatives to the states constitutional convention to "oppose everything that leans to aristocracy or power in the hands of the rich and chief men exercised to the oppression of the poor."

^ Like New Yorks constitution of 1777 and the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, it provided for a two-house legislature, a strong executive, and a powerful court system.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The new constitution substantially reduced universal white-male suffrage, gave the governor veto power and patronage appointment authority, and added an upper house with substantial wealth qualifications to the unicameral legislature.^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

^ Like New Yorks constitution of 1777 and the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, it provided for a two-house legislature, a strong executive, and a powerful court system.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ To do the former, Congress is clothed with ample constitutional authority; to accomplish the latter, it has no power to legislate, and resort must be had, and has been had, to usurpation and tyranny.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Thomas Paine called it a constitution unworthy of America.[64]

Independence and Union

Common Sense by Thomas Paine
.On January 10, 1776, Thomas Paine published a political pamphlet entitled Common Sense arguing that the only solution to the problems with Britain was republicanism and independence.^ The desire for independence had not been amongst the causes of the war, but at the start of 1776 Tom Paine published Common Sense .
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Credits : © Kevin Fleming/Corbis] Title page from Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense, 1776.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Suggested to Thomas Paine the title "Common Sense" for his famous essay.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .In the ensuing months, before the allied states declared independence in unison in the name of the United States, the colonies had begun the process of creating their own constitutions to form sovereign states and some of them individually took the step to declare independence.^ It created a new United States, a Corporation.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Corporation created its own Constitution.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I support the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence fully.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virginia, for instance, declared its independence from Great Britain on May 15, 1776. The war had been underway since April 1775, and until this point, the states had sought favorable peace terms; compromise was no longer a possibility, despite belated British efforts to come to a political resolution.^ He secured from Parliament a resolution declaring that Britain would no longer prosecute "an offensive war in America."

^ The coming of the war - - - The political course of the war .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First, the war achieved independence from Great Britain by the colonies.

[66]
.On June 11, 1776, the Second Continental Congress appointed a committee to prepare a draft declaration of independence.^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 4 July 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Delegate to the Continental Congress and signer of the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thomas Jefferson, with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, brought the draft before Congress on June 28. On July 2, 1776, Congress voted the independence of the United States; two days later, on July 4, it adopted the Declaration of Independence, which date is now celebrated as Independence Day in the United States.^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ The Declaration of Independence, four 1776 versions .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the King's Message, of March 7th, 1774, to the Declaration of Independence, by the United States, in 1776.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.On June 12, 1776, the Second Continental Congress resolved to appoint a committee of thirteen to prepare a draft agreement on a governing constitution and a perpetual union of the states.^ Problems before the Second Continental Congress - - - State politics .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nathanael Greene, and appointed by Congress as secretary to the committee on foreign affairs.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today we are corporate citizens with limited rights governed by the United States Constitution under Admiralty and Maritime contract law.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation or simply the Articles, formed the first governing document of the United States of America, based on a confederation type government.^ There are two the united States the first governed under the Constitution.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ York: 'The first capital of the United States?'
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Of equal importance is the fact that the Articles combined the sovereign states into a perpetual Union.^ Resistance was made to her admission into the Union upon that very ground; and it was not until that State receded from her unconstitutional position, that President Monroe declared the admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in 1781 the rebellious states created a loose union under the Articles of Confederation.

^ The fact that government was decentralized under the Articles did not mean that its role at the state level would necessarily be small.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles for ratification by the States on November 15, 1777, and began operating under their terms.^ Problems before the Second Continental Congress - - - State politics .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To establish its authority, the Congress in November 1777 enacted the Articles of Confederation, drafted by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, and declared they would go into effect when ratified by all of the states.

^ Then in 1781 the rebellious states created a loose union under the Articles of Confederation.

.The Articles were formally ratified when the representatives of Maryland became the last to apply their signatures to the document on March 1, 1781. At that point, the Continental Congress was dissolved and on the following day a new government of the United States in Congress Assembled took its place, with Samuel Huntington as President.^ Page 301 property of the inhabitants of the United States, took place.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, in 1781, under the threat of British invasion, Maryland became the final state to ratify the Articles.

^ The war itself created loyalty to the new state governments and to the United States.

[67][68]

Defending the Revolution

George Washington rallying his troops at the Battle of Princeton

British return: 1776–1777

.After Washington forced the British out of Boston in spring 1776, neither the British nor the Loyalists controlled any significant areas.^ After 1780 Spain and the Netherlands were able to control much of the water around the British Isles, thus keeping the bulk of British naval forces tied down in Europe.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In December, 1776, the British seized control of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The British had a chance to capture a large part of Washington's army but the forces still in New York managed to slip away along the west side of the army.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The British, however, were massing forces at their great naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia.^ After 1780 Spain and the Netherlands were able to control much of the water around the British Isles, thus keeping the bulk of British naval forces tied down in Europe.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the guns finally arrived in Boston in March, 1776, the British in Boston were defenseless; they withdrew to the great British naval base in Halifax, Canada.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The great American successes, at Saratoga and Yorktown, came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They returned in force in July 1776, landing in New York and defeating Washington's Continental Army in August at the Battle of Brooklyn in one of the largest engagements of the war.^ Earlier that fall Howe had sailed from New York to Chesapeake Bay , and once ashore he had defeated Washington’s forces at Brandywine Creek on September 11 and occupied the American capital of Philadelphia on September 25.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Battles of the American Revolution Battle of Fort Washington Date: November 16th, 1776 Between: British and German (Hessian) troops against American Continental Army Location: Washington Heights, New York (183rd Street and Ft.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He left 3000 troops under General Clinton in New York City and personally led the main British force in an attack on Philadelphia, the home of the Continental Congress.

.The British requested a meeting with representatives from Congress to negotiate an end to hostilities, and a delegation including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin met Howe on Staten Island in New York Harbor on September 11. Howe demanded a retraction of the Declaration of Independence, which was refused, and negotiations ended until 1781. The British then quickly seized New York City and nearly captured Washington.^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City, Washington again lost, and had to retreat to the hills of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 4 July the Declaration of Independence was approved by Congress, although New York did not sign until 15 July.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.They made the city their main political and military base of operations in North America, holding it until November 1783. New York City consequently became the destination for Loyalist refugees, and a focal point of Washington's intelligence network.^ New York City, Washington again lost, and had to retreat to the hills of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost unanimously the counties around New York City became loyalist.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
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[69] .The British also took New Jersey, pushing the Continental Army into Pennsylvania, but in a surprise attack in late December 1776 Washington crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey and defeated Hessian and British armies at Trenton and Princeton, thereby regaining New Jersey.^ In December, 1776, the British seized control of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington was able to cross back into Trenton, where by the start of 1777 he had 5000 men.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Haslet’s men again guarded the rear of the army as the Americans crossed the Delaware into Pennsylvania.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The victories gave an important boost to pro-independence supporters at a time when morale was flagging, and have become iconic images of the war.^ This capitulation gave the Patriots their first major military victory and brought to an end the second, and pivotal, phase of the war of independence.

^ But an important one-volume military history does so: Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practices, 1763–1789.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time during the war of independence, American success seemed possible.

.In 1777, as part of a grand strategy to end the war, the British sent an invasion force from Canada to seal off New England, which the British perceived as the primary source of agitators.^ The new British strategy was doomed from the start.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In a major case of mis-coordination, the British army in New York City went to Philadelphia which it captured from Washington.^ New York City, Washington again lost, and had to retreat to the hills of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The invasion army under Burgoyne waited in vain for reinforcements from New York, and became trapped upstate.^ Ticonderoga, in upstate New York.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Andros was an official of New York province at a time that Pennsylvania and Delaware fell under his jurisdiction.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ "To aid Lieutenant General John Burgoyne's British army stalled at Saratoga, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New York with 3,000 British, German, and Loyalist soldiers and a flotilla of warships.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.It surrendered after the Battle of Saratoga, New York, in October 1777. From early October 1777 until November 15 a pivotal siege at Fort Mifflin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania distracted British troops and allowed Washington time to preserve the Continental Army by safely leading his troops to harsh winter quarters at Valley Forge.^ In 1777 a British army under Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Enlisted early in Revolution and was with Washington at British surrender at Yorktown, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a mildly successful attack at Germantown , Pa., on October 4, Washington quartered his 11,000 troops for the winter at Valley Forge , Pa.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

American alliances after 1778

.The capture of a British army at Saratoga encouraged the French to formally enter the war in support of Congress, as Benjamin Franklin negotiated a permanent military alliance in early 1778, significantly becoming the first country to officially recognize the Declaration of Independence.^ In February 1778 the Continental Congress entered into a formal alliance with France.

^ I support the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence fully.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andr, the British officer engaged in negotiations with Benedict Arnold, had been captured by American militiamen and hung as a spy.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William Pitt spoke out in parliament urging Britain to make peace in America, and unite with America against France,[70] while other British politicians who had previously supported independence now turned against the American rebels for allying with a formerly mutual enemy.^ The British and their allies were fascinated by the rebel militia.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans regrouped and in a series of battles turned the tide against the British.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Later Spain (in 1779) and the Dutch (1780) became allies of the French, leaving the British Empire to fight a global war alone without major allies, and requiring it to slip through a combined blockade of the Atlantic.^ After 1780 Spain and the Netherlands were able to control much of the water around the British Isles, thus keeping the bulk of British naval forces tied down in Europe.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the fighting in the south did resume it demonstrated the potential vulnerability of the British if the French managed to gain control of the seas.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second phase of the war began with a major British invasion of New York in July 1776 and ended with the American victory at Saratoga in October 1777.

.The American theater thus became only one front in Britain's war.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spain offered to join Britain in the war if it could get Gibraltar; when London refused, she joined the allies, attacked British outposts in Florida, and sent supplies to the Americans.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the causes of the American Revolution can be traced to the end of the French and Indian War, when Britain had succeeded in gaining territory from France at the expense of increasing its already enormous national debt.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .The British were forced to withdraw troops from continental America to reinforce the sugar-producing Caribbean islands, which were considered more valuable.^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These mob actions prompted the lieutenant governor to ask General Thomas Gage , the British military commander in North America, to rout the protesters by force.

^ Non-importation hit the American ports hard, especially Boston, where lawless conditions eventually forced the British to post troops in the city.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the alliance with France and the deteriorating military situation, Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander, evacuated Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.^ Sir Henry Clinton deceived.

^ "In 1778 Washington appointed Arnold the military commander of Philadelphia after the British evacuated.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General Washington attempted to intercept the retreating column, resulting in the Battle of Monmouth Court House, the last major battle fought in the north.^ Monmouth was the last major battle in the North; for the next three years Washington positioned his army to make sure Clinton stayed in New York City.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite this, the battle of Guilford Court House (15 March 1781) was a British victory.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Visit the site of the Battle of Stony Point, one of the last major Revolutionary War battles in the northeastern colonies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.After an inconclusive engagement, the British successfully retreated to New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British had a chance to capture a large part of Washington's army but the forces still in New York managed to slip away along the west side of the army.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

The northern war subsequently became a stalemate, as the focus of attention shifted to the smaller southern theater.[71]

The British move South, 1778–1783

.The British strategy in America now concentrated on a campaign in the southern colonies.^ The only big city in the southern colonies was now in British hands.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British were able to concentrate on defeating their rebellious colonials.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result the year lacked any major campaigns, although it did show the first signs of the southern strategy that was to emerge in 1780.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.With fewer regular troops at their disposal, the British commanders saw the Southern Strategy as a more viable plan, as the south was perceived as being more strongly Loyalist, with a large population of recent immigrants as well as large numbers of African Americans expected to be at best actively pro-British, and at worst indifferent.^ Moreover, the British believed that more Loyalists lived in the South.

^ British raids in the south were more effective.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
.Beginning in late December 1778, the British captured Savannah and controlled the coastline.^ The new British strategy opened smoothly with the capture of Savannah in December, 1778.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In December, 1776, the British seized control of New Jersey.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An army of 3500 British troops captured Savannah, Georgia, at the end of December 1778, and seized Augusta one month later.

.In 1780 they launched a fresh invasion and took Charleston as well.^ In May 1780 an expedition commanded by General Clinton took Charleston, capturing more than 5000 American troops.

.A significant victory at the Battle of Camden meant that royal forces soon controlled most of Georgia and South Carolina.^ Following Cornwalliss victory at Camden in the summer of 1780, the British controlled most of Georgia and South Carolina.

^ Gates pushed his starved and sick troops through the swamps and woods of the border region between the two Carolinas, and suddenly encountered Cornwallis at the battle of Camden in South Carolina.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Following significant American victories at Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780, and Cowpens on January 17, 1781, in South Carolina and a costly battle at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina, on March 15, 1781, Cornwallis moved his army northward to Virginia.

.The British set up a network of forts inland, hoping the Loyalists would rally to the flag.^ It was confidently expected that General Henry Clinton, commanding the land forces already in the area, would find many loyalists ready to join the British.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of Massachusetts responded by setting up a provisional government, training militia units, and detecting and suppressing Loyalists and spies.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The British could hold the seacoast, the coastal towns, and a few inland forts, but they could not control the decisive locale, the countryside unless they hunted down the Americans.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Not enough Loyalists turned out, however, and the British had to fight their way north into North Carolina and Virginia, with a severely weakened army.^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The losses to militia forces, such as John Stark's Green Mountain Boys, which Burgoyne suffered on route, weakened the British army.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His army marched north on 8 September and on 26 September reached Charlotte (North Carolina).
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Behind them much of the territory they had already captured dissolved into a chaotic guerrilla war, fought predominantly between bands of Loyalist and American militia, which negated many of the gains the British had previously made.^ They fought through the war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On June 12, while the British attacked Washington's dwindling troops, Tye and his band launched a daring attack on the home of Barnes Smock, capturing the militia leader and twelve of his men, destroying their cannon, depriving Washington of needed reinforcements, and striking fear into the hearts of local patriots.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]

Yorktown 1781

The siege of Yorktown ended with the surrender of a second British army, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War
.The southern British army marched to Yorktown, Virginia where they expected to be rescued by a British fleet which would take them back to New York.^ After Cornwallis won a costly victory at Guilford Courthouse , N.C., on March 15, 1781, he entered Virginia to join other British forces there, setting up a base at Yorktown .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The next day they paused to rest, and Washington decided to attack the British rearguard soon after it again began to march.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They fully expected that a government more distant from the people in spatial and social terms would be less responsive to them in political terms.
  • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[74] .When that fleet was defeated by a French fleet, however, they became trapped in Yorktown.^ The same month saw the French fleet defeated at the battle of the Saints (12 April 1782).
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But they raised the cost of the war to Britain and, in combination with the French fleet, formed a serious threat to Britains commercial supremacy.

[75] .In October 1781 under a combined siege by the French and Continental armies, the British, under the command of General Cornwallis, surrendered.^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1777 a British army under Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cornwallis capitulated on October 19, 1781.

.However, Cornwallis was so embarrassed at his defeat that he had to send his second in command to surrender for him.^ Later, other prisoners from Cornwallis' surrendered command at Yorktown, Va., were detained there.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

[76]
.News of the defeat effectively ended major offensive operations in America.^ News of the defeat had encouraged a belief that victory in America was neither possible nor worthwhile, but once it was clear France was becoming involved this attitude was no longer tenable.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second phase of the war began with a major British invasion of New York in July 1776 and ended with the American victory at Saratoga in October 1777.

^ This developed out of an attempt at reconnaissance in prelude to a full attack and although it was not a major defeat, it ended any hope of a successful advance.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Support for the conflict had never been strong in Britain, where many sympathised with the rebels, but now it reached a new low.^ Instead, he was to blame many of his problems in South Carolina on support the rebels were receiving from North Carolina, where he was later to blame support from Virginia for his failures.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cornwallis was worried that no news of Gates' advance had reached him from North Carolina, where he had believed there were many loyalists.
  • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ KOSCIUSKO, the gallant Pole, was young when the news reached his ear that America was endeavoring to release her neck from Britain's yoke.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[77]
.Although King George III personally wanted to fight on, his supporters lost control of Parliament, and no further major land offensives were launched in the American Theatre.^ In fact the individualistic Americans of the South would fiercely fight to defend their homes, land, and slaves--and their dream of an inland empire stretching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ King George, by the Coercion Acts and the imposition of martial law, was challenging the very existence of an autonomous American community.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ King George III was a hard-liner unwilling to yield to the rebels, and he was loyally supported by his Prime Minister Lord North and the entire London bureaucracy.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[71] .A final naval battle was fought on March 10, 1783 off the coast of Cape Canaveral by Captain John Barry and his crew of the USS Alliance who defeated three British warships led by HMS Sybil, who were trying to take the payroll of the Continental Army.^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Drunk and Defeated,most people who work are proud but not if your being ripped off your tax dollars and such.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the War of the Revolution, when the county of Barnstable was required to raise a regiment of four hundred men in the Continental army, the Indian district of Marshpee, in that county, furnished twenty-seven colored soldiers, who fought in the battles, and all but one of them perished, and he died a pensioner a few years ago.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Peace treaty

.The peace treaty with Britain, known as the Treaty of Paris, gave the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, though not including Florida (On September 3, 1783, Britain entered into a separate agreement with Spain under which Britain ceded Florida back to Spain.^ They all entered into the great contest with similar views.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris , signed by all parties on September 3, 1783, Britain retained Canada, won legal protection for its merchants who held debts in America, and secured promises concerning the property and rights of Loyalists.

^ Britain recognized American independence, turned the vast area from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River over to the U.S., and gave the Floridas to Spain.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

). .The Native American nations actually living in this region were not a party to this treaty and did not recognize it until they were defeated militarily by the United States.^ Could they have defeated the Americans?
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

Issues regarding boundaries and debts were not resolved until the Jay Treaty of 1795.[78]

Immediate aftermath

Interpretations

Interpretations about the effect of the Revolution vary. .Though contemporary participants referred to the events as "the revolution",[79] at one end of the spectrum is the view that the American Revolution was not "revolutionary" at all, contending that it did not radically transform colonial society but simply replaced a distant government with a local one.^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Why did a revolution occur in a society viewed as free and prosperous?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[80] .More recent scholarship pioneered by historians such as Bernard Bailyn, Gordon Wood, and Edmund Morgan accepts the contemporary view of the participants that the American Revolution was a unique and radical event that produced deep changes and had a profound impact on world affairs, based on an increasing belief in the principles of the Enlightenment as reflected in how liberalism was understood during the period, and republicanism.^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So, Alex, if a revolution it is, a declaration is required especially in view of recent events.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most thorough recent study of the period during and after the Revolution, culminating in the adoption of the Constitution, is Gordon S. Wood's The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were demonstrated by a leadership and government that espoused protection of natural rights, and a system of laws chosen by the people.^ No American, regardless of party, will want to accept these people in our government, much less the Presidency and his administration.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Here is a law banning what MANY of the Founders wrote is a RIGHT of citizens when a government no longer represents them: .
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leadership removed these topics from debate by giving the ground to the right .
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

[81]
.Some historians, such as Daniel Boorstin, see the motivation for the revolution as primarily legal.^ The idea of a conceptualized, or "symbolic," event such as the Industrial Revolution, as compared to an actual, or "existential," event such as the death of Charles I, is taken from Page Smith, Historians and History, 202.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some theorists on guerrilla warfare such as Lewis H. Gann, Guerrillas in History , for example, have seen the American Revolution as of little relevance to understanding that mode of warfare: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a critique of some of Jensen's earlier views, see Richard Morris, The American Revolution Reconsidered , especially the chapter on "Confederation and Constitution."
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .The adherence of the colonists to the British constitution and what they viewed to be the tyrannical deprivation of English rights by the British Parliament, in concert with the failure of King George III to protect his subjects from such abuses, are what he sees as compelling the colonists to sever political ties with Great Britain.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The older view, dominant in the first two or three decades of the twentieth century, laid greatest emphasis on the conflict of constitutional ideas, on the fact that the American colonists saw the actions of Great Britain after 1763 as interfering with their constitutional rights as Englishmen.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]

Loyalist expatriation

.For roughly five percent of the inhabitants of the United States, defeat was followed by self-exile.^ Page 301 property of the inhabitants of the United States, took place.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The following is a copy of the letter of De Witt Clinton to John Q. Adams, President of the United States, in the case alluded to:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Anti-Slavery women of the United States assembled in Convention at New York, May, 1837, and published a circular, from which the following is extracted:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Of those, approximately 62,000 United Empire Loyalists left the newly founded republic, most settling in the remaining British colonies in North America, such as the Province of Quebec (concentrating in the Eastern Townships), Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia.^ They follow the proceedings of the Council prior to the colonies’ separation from the British Empire.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These mob actions prompted the lieutenant governor to ask General Thomas Gage , the British military commander in North America, to rout the protesters by force.

^ Although the British government was responsible for external matters, such as foreign affairs and trade, the American colonists had a great deal of self-government during the colonial period.

.The new colonies of Upper Canada (now Ontario) and New Brunswick were created by Britain for their benefit.^ He has no more right to create new voters for his personal political benefit than he does to use our money to buy the 2010 and 2012 Elections.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

[83]

As an example or inspiration

.After the Revolution, genuinely democratic politics became possible.^ Douglass, Elisha P. Rebels and Democrats: The Struggle for Equal Political Rights and Majority Rule During the American Revolution.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palmer, R.R. The Age of Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palmer, Robert R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800, Vol.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .The rights of the people were incorporated into state constitutions.^ In 1789 the people of the several states ratified the Constitution that created a stronger central government.

^ Without entering into a discussion of Beard's interpretation, some of his economic data may be incorporated into a valid social interpretation of the Constitution.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, Gore Vidal was right when he wrote that this anthem, and so many other actions, were all done in order to coerce the people into the state of blind patriotism.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus came the widespread assertion of liberty, individual rights, equality and hostility toward corruption which would prove core values of republicanism to Americans.^ These women did not seek voting rights but some of them asked for a republican legal order that would give women greater individual rights.

^ The people of the United States repudiated social hierarchy and hereditary monarchy in favor of individual liberty and representative republican government.

^ Shall we, colored citizens, Native-Americans born, prove less republican than those who are Americans only by adoption?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The greatest challenge to the old order in Europe was the challenge to inherited political power and the democratic idea that government rests on the consent of the governed.^ The American Revolutionthe triumph of republicanismunleashed democratic political forces that challenged traditional elite power.

^ But other Americans observed that the new government could protect the nation from external threats and that the Constitution provided a flexible and potentially democratic political framework.

^ A revolution totally wipes away the old “order” or government in favor of a completely brand new government.
  • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The example of the first successful revolution against a European empire, and the first successful establishment of a republican form of democratically elected government, provided a model for many other colonial peoples who realized that they too could break away and become self-governing nations with directly elected representative government.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, on 12 October 1740 he drew a crowd of some 30,000 to the Boston Common (Boston, the largest colonial city at the time, was only 13,000 people).
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also give people who express a similar view, information and weblinks, everyday I work, if they show the slightest interest in events that are unfolding.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]
.In 1777, Morocco was the first state to recognize the independence of the United States of America.^ York: 'The first capital of the United States?'
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The two countries signed the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship ten years later.^ Two years later, in September of 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later, in September, 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed and the former 13 colonies were recognized as an independent nation; the United States of America was born.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later, a Rhode Island mob destroyed a British customs ship, the Gaspe, wounding its captain in the process.

.Friesland, one of the seven United Provinces of the Dutch Republic, was the next to recognize American independence (February 26, 1782), followed by the Staten-Generaal of the Dutch Republic on April 19, 1782).^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was made up of two related events: the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the formation of the American government as laid out by the Constitution of the United States in 1787.

^ But an important one-volume military history does so: Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practices, 1763–1789.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

John Adams became the first US Ambassador in The Hague.[86].
.Since the Dutch Republic was at war with the United Kingdom at the signing of the treaty in 1782, it is often considered that Sweden was the first neutral sovereign power that recognized the United States of America.^ York: 'The first capital of the United States?'
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I get queries dealing with the claim that York was the first capital of the United States fairly often.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.On April 3, 1783, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Count Gustaf Philip Creutz, representing the King of Sweden, and Benjamin Franklin, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce in Paris, France.^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A Tour in the United States of America .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Treaty, they pledged, firm, inviolable and universal peace and a true and sincere friendship between the King, his heirs and successors, and the United States of America.^ Faithandwisdom Says: August 7th, 2009 at 6:35 pm “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” .
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In return, Britain acknowledged the independence of the United States of America and accepted the claim of Congress to the lands inhabited by Native American peoples between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.

^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[87].
.The American Revolution was the first wave of the Atlantic Revolutions that took hold in the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Latin American wars of independence.^ The war for independence that ensued was not a war of revolution on the part of the Americans.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This capitulation gave the Patriots their first major military victory and brought to an end the second, and pivotal, phase of the war of independence.

Aftershocks reached Ireland in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and in the Netherlands.[88]
.The Revolution had a strong, immediate impact in Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, and France.^ The war in North America was fought mostly throughout the Northern colonies, and in the end Great Britain defeated France.

^ Summary of The American Revolution and its impact on the Hudson River Valley The American Revolution was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern shores of North America, and their mother country, Great Britain.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Revolution (1775-1783), conflict between 13 British colonies in North America and their parent country, Great Britain.

.Many British and Irish Whigs spoke in favor of the American cause.^ The French and American victory at Yorktown was even more devastating to the British cause than the earlier American triumph at Saratoga.

^ "At the peril of his life" he had "found means to frequent the British camp" and collect information essential to the American cause.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many members of Parliament demanded a more aggressive stance: American violence, they said, should be met with British force.

.The Revolution, along with the Dutch Revolt (end of the 16th century) and the English Civil War (in the 17th century), was one of the first lessons in overthrowing an old regime for many Europeans who later were active during the era of the French Revolution, such as Marquis de Lafayette.^ IT should be emphasized that a revolution results at the end of a civil war.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Lafayette, Marquis de .
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have found no primary evidence of tatting before the end of the Revolutionary War (nor during the rest of the century, though I haven't looked as hard for any).
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The American Declaration of Independence had some impact on the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of 1789.[89][90]
.The North American states' newly-won independence from the British Empire resulted in the abolition of slavery in some Northern states 51 years before it would be banned in the British colonies,[citation needed] and allowed slavery to continue in the Southern states until 1865, 32 years after it was banned in all British colonies.^ Some Americans wanted not only independence, but independence and empire.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The young black poet, whose work caught George Washington's eye, was optimistic - overly so - in writing in 1772 that Britain's new North American secretary would be supportive of all American colonists: .
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The American Revolution, ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

National debt

.The national debt after the American Revolution fell into three categories.^ The American Revolution: The New Nation "The Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, established a new nation and transformed a limited revolt to secure rights within the British empire into a far-reaching one, aimed at complete independence from British control.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Revolution was a young man's fight and York Town Square's American Revolution category .
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ He treats the American Revolution more fully as the first war of national liberation and independence from European colonialism in his The Emerging Nations and the American Revolution.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first was the $11 million owed to foreigners—mostly debts to France during the American Revolution.^ This was the condition during the American Revolution."
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was the condition during the American Revolution.
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second and third—roughly $24 million each—were debts owed by the national and state governments to Americans who had sold food, horses, and supplies to the revolutionary forces.^ Milwaukeerick Says: August 7th, 2009 at 5:23 pm The protests are great to see but will NOT lead to the Second American Revolution, they will be the third.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In the fall of 1775 the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

.Congress agreed that the power and the authority of the new government would pay for the foreign debts.^ AM by scrosley On the Fed's new authority to pay interest on reserves at the Fed - New silver bullet?
  • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

^ To do the former, Congress is clothed with ample constitutional authority; to accomplish the latter, it has no power to legislate, and resort must be had, and has been had, to usurpation and tyranny.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There were also other debts that consisted of promissory notes issued during the Revolutionary War to soldiers, merchants, and farmers who accepted these payments on the premise that the new Constitution would create a government that would pay these debts eventually.^ Revolutionary War soldiers .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Tann was a soldier who died in the service in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War.
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other people who foresaw these times as well.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war expenses of the individual states added up to $114,000,000, compared to $37 million by the central government.^ ACORN & Americorps, to sign up individuals for Government HC plan.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1789 the people of the several states ratified the Constitution that created a stronger central government.

^ The people of the United States repudiated social hierarchy and hereditary monarchy in favor of individual liberty and representative republican government.

[91] .In 1790, at the recommendation of first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Congress combined the state debts with the foreign and domestic debts into one national debt totaling $80 million.^ In July 1776 the charge was expanded--to wrest total independence for the new nation, the United States of America.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But I have one question for you, do you know what the term National Debt means?
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legislature was a one-house Congress in which each state had one vote, regardless of population or wealth.

.Everyone received face value for wartime certificates, so that the national honor would be sustained and the national credit established.^ The Constitution declared that the new government would honor the existing national debt and would have broad powers of taxation as well as control over commerce.

^ Then if the peace conference could confirm these holdings, the British Empire would emerge tattered but with honor intact, and a great deal of valuable territory as well.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

See also

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Wood (1992); Greene & Pole (1994) ch. 70
  2. ^ Charles W. Toth, Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite: The American Revolution & the European Response. (1989) p. 26.
  3. ^ page 101, Philosophical Tales, by Martin Cohen, (Blackwell 2008)
  4. ^ Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967)
  5. ^ Gordon S. Wood The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992) pp. 35, 174-5
  6. ^ Robert E. Shalhope, "Toward a Republican Synthesis," William and Mary Quarterly, 29 (Jan. 1972), pp 49–80
  7. ^ Adams quoted in Paul A. Rahe, Republics Ancient and Modern: Classical Republicanism and the American Revolution. Volume: 2 (1994) P. 23.
  8. ^ However, there is an alternative viewpoint presented by Michael Novak, a theologian. Novak argues that among the supporters of the American Revolution, it was from the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, that most Patriots absorbed the beliefs and values that motivated them to rebel against Britain. Michael Novak, On Two Wings. Humble Faith and Common Sense at the American Founding. Encounter Books, 2002. pp. 11–13, 84. Novak's views have not been endorsed by historians.
  9. ^ Bonomi, p 186
  10. ^ William H. Nelson, The American Tory (1961) esp p. 186
  11. ^ Bonomi, p. 186, Chapter 7 “Religion and the American Revolution
  12. ^ Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution 1992 p. 273-4, 299–300
  13. ^ Bailyn, 1992 p.303
  14. ^ a b Miller (1943)
  15. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 15
  16. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 11
  17. ^ Middlekauff pg. 62.
  18. ^ Miller, p.89
  19. ^ William S. Carpenter, "Taxation Without Representation" in Dictionary of American History, Volume 7 (1976); Miller (1943)
  20. ^ Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765–1776 (1972)
  21. ^ Miller (1943) pp 353–76
  22. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 22–24
  23. ^ Chisick, Harvey, Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment, pp. 313–314, http://books.google.com/books?id=5N-wqTXwiU0C&pg=PA313&lpg=PA313&dq=Patriotism+and+the+enlightenment&source=web&ots=085cTPNN3r&sig=X_jzMPlYg5tvovEGkty_SDVYCD8&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPA313,M1 
  24. ^ Nash (2005); Resch (2006)
  25. ^ Staff. Tory, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  26. ^ a b Revolutionary War: The Home Front, The Library of Congress
  27. ^ Calhoon, "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (2000) p.235
  28. ^ Calhoon, Robert M. "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1991)
  29. ^ Colin G. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (1995)
  30. ^ Hill (2007), see also blackloyalist.com
  31. ^ Gottlieb 2005
  32. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch. 20–22
  33. ^ Carol Berkin, Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America's Independence (2005)
  34. ^ Berkin (2005); Greene & Pole (1994) ch. 41
  35. ^ Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1997) ch. 4, 6; also see Mary Beth Norton, Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women (1980)
  36. ^ Edward F. Butler, "Spain's Involvement in the American Revolutionary War" The SAR Magazine Vol. 104 No. 1
  37. ^ U.S. nps.gov, Bernardo de Gálvez: how much different American history might have been without him!
  38. ^ Thompson, Buchanan Parker, "Spain: Forgotten Ally of the American Revolution." North Quincy, Mass.: Christopher Publishing House, 1976.
  39. ^ Jonathan Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (1985) pp 57–65
  40. ^ Greene and Pole (2004) chapters 19, 46 and 51; Colin G. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (1995)
  41. ^ Joseph T. Glatthaar and James Kirby Martin, Forgotten Allies: The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution (2007)
  42. ^ see Barbara Graymont, "Thayendanegea," Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  43. ^ Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians through the Era of Revolution (1993); James H. O'Donnell, III, Southern Indians in the American Revolution (1973)
  44. ^ Joseph R. Fischer, A Well-Executed Failure: The Sullivan Campaign against the Iroquois, July–September 1779 (1997).
  45. ^ Calloway (1995) p. 290
  46. ^ Dwight L. Smith, "A North American Neutral Indian Zone: Persistence of a British Idea" Northwest Ohio Quarterly 1989 61(2–4): 46–63
  47. ^ Francis M. Carroll, A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783–1842, 2001, page 23
  48. ^ Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (1961)
  49. ^ Davis p. 148
  50. ^ Davis p. 149
  51. ^ Schama p.28-30 p. 78-90
  52. ^ Weintraub p.7
  53. ^ Schama p.75
  54. ^ a b Hochschild p.50-51
  55. ^ Morrisey p.35
  56. ^ Harvey p.208-210
  57. ^ Urban p.74
  58. ^ Miller (1948) p. 87
  59. ^ Onderdonk, Henry. "Revolutionary Incidents of Suffolk and Kings Counties; With an Account of the Battle of Long Island and the British Prisons and Prison-Ships at New York". ISBN 978-0804680752
  60. ^ Dring, Thomas and Greene, Albert. "Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship" (American Experience Series, No 8), 1986 (originally printed 1826). ISBN 978-0918222923
  61. ^ John C. Miller, Triumph of Freedom, 1775–1783 1948. Page 166.
  62. ^ a b Nevins (1927); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 29
  63. ^ Nevins (1927)
  64. ^ Wood (1992)
  65. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 26.
  66. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 27.
  67. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 30;
  68. ^ Klos, Stanley L. (2004). President Who? Forgotten Founders. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc.. ISBN 0-9752627-5-0. 
  69. ^ Schecter, Barnet. .The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution.^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Professor of Theology at Union Theological Seminary, New York City.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2002); McCullough, 1776 (2005)
  70. ^ Weintraub p.
  71. ^ a b c Mackesy, 1992; Higginbotham (1983)
  72. ^ Jeffrey J. Crow and Larry E. Tise, eds. The Southern Experience in the American Revolution (1978)
  73. ^ Henry Lumpkin, From Savannah to Yorktown: The American Revolution in the South (2000)
  74. ^ Harvey p.493-95
  75. ^ Harvey p.502-06
  76. ^ Harvey p.515
  77. ^ Harvey p.528
  78. ^ Miller (1948), pp 616–48
  79. ^ McCullough, David. John Adams. Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN-9780743223133
  80. ^ Greene, Jack. "The American Revolution Section 25". The American Historical Review. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/105.1/ah000093.html. Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  81. ^ Wood (2003)
  82. ^ a b Boorstin, Daniel J. (1953). The Genius of American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  83. ^ Van Tine American Loyalists 1902
  84. ^ Wood, Radicalism, p. 278-9
  85. ^ Palmer, (1959)
  86. ^ "Frisians first to recognize USA! (After an article by Kerst Huisman, Leeuwarder Courant 29th Dec. 1999)". http://mertsahinoglu.com/research/frisians-first-to-recognize-usa/. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  87. ^ "Proclamation by the President of the United States, April 4, 1983". http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1983/40483c.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  88. ^ Palmer, (1959); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 53–55
  89. ^ Palmer, (1959); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 49–52.
  90. ^ "Enlightenment and Human Rights". http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap3a.html. Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  91. ^ Jensen, The New Nation (1950) p 379

Reference works

  • Ian Barnes and Charles Royster. .The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution (2000), maps and commentary
  • Blanco, Richard.^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, here , and here Volume II (American Revolution thru 1861) , Lewis Historical Publishing, 1915.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ See Richard Maxwell Brown, "Violence and the American Revolution," in Kurtz and Hutson, Essays , 81–120, and the numerous bibliographical items noted therein.
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The American Revolution: An Encyclopedia 2 vol (1993), 1850 pages
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. (1966); revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1; new expanded edition 2006 ed.^ He was able by sheer force of scholarship to overthrow the Consensus and Progressive views and to establish a new interpretation of the causes of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Related Links in the Library: Topic: American Revolution Source: This essay first appeared in the journal Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought , vol.
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although missing the dimension of political and constitutional ideology, the political conflict in New Jersey after 1763 is detailed in Larry R. Gerlach, Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    by Harold E. Selesky
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Richard A. Ryerson, eds. .The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO 2006) 5 vol; 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics
  • Greene, Jack P. and J. R. Pole, eds.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

    ^ "In the Revolutionary War, my father was a decided advocate of American Independence, and his life was repeatedly jeopardized in its cause.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1994), 845pp; emphasis on political ideas; revised edition (2004) titled A Companion to the American Revolution
  • Purcell, L. Edward.^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

    ^ A concise, judicious, overall summary of the military, political, social, and economic history of the American Revolution is fortunately available in John it.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although missing the dimension of political and constitutional ideology, the political conflict in New Jersey after 1763 is detailed in Larry R. Gerlach, Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Who Was Who in the American Revolution (1993); 1500 short biographies
  • Resch, John P., ed.^ James Smith was a man of color born in Prince George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 154].
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Their father was a Scotchman, who came to this country in time to be in the earliest scenes of the American Revolution.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Founders were hunting party members who selected city’s site and named it Lexington in honor of first battle of the American Revolution.
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 1 (2005)

Primary sources

.
  • The American Revolution: Writings from the War of Independence (2001), Library of America, 880pp
  • Commager, Henry Steele and Morris, Richard B., eds.^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chapter VI, "American War, Opening of the Era of the Revolution".
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution As Told by Participants (1975) (ISBN 0-06-010834-7) short excerpts from hundreds of official and unofficial primary sources
  • Dring, Thomas and Greene, Albert.^ And for the record, I would be proud to participate in the Second American Revolution!
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Last post told the story of Revolutionary War patriot Henry Laurens , apparently the first American to be officially cremated in the 1790s.
    • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Related Links in the Library: Topic: American Revolution Source: This essay first appeared in the journal Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought , vol.
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship (American Experience Series, No 8), 1986 (originally printed 1826).^ It is thought best to print his productions without correction, that the mind of the reader may be in no uncertainty as to the originality and genuineness of every part.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While on board the "Old Jersey," amid the privations and horrors incident to that receiving ship of disease and death, no less than three thousand five hundred persons died; and, according to a statement of Edwards, eleven thousand in all perished, while she remained the receptacle of the American prisoners.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because of the British Navigation Acts, American-owned ships could no longer trade with the sugar islands in the British West Indies.

    ISBN 978-0918222923
  • Humphrey, Carol Sue ed. .The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 to 1800 Greenwood Press, 2003
  • Morison, Samuel E. ed.^ I have not yet found primary evidence dating it to America in the Revolutionary era, though it seems likely it was available then, at least in Europe; I have done almost no research in this area.
    • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ R-77: Settlement of Delaware Revolutionary War Claims with the United States, 1776-1787; Account Book of the State Auditor of Delaware, 1784-1800.
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If there is anyone out there who is interested in trying to document tatting to the Revolutionary era or before, they might try to track these items down and see if they are, in fact, primary evidence of tatting.
    • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764–1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution (1923).^ The American Revolution - - The early federal republic .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 1764–1766.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Massachusetts, Colony to Commonwealth: Documents on the Formation of its Constitution, 1775–1789.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    370 pp online version
  • Onderdonk, Henry. .Revolutionary Incidents of Suffolk and Kings Counties; With an Account of the Battle of Long Island and the British Prisons and Prison-Ships at New York.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Serious protests erupted in New York, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas during the same period as the developing quarrel with British imperial authorities.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Responding to artisan protests, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts imposed tariffs on imported manufactures.

    .ISBN 978-0804680752
  • Tansill, Charles C. ed.; Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. Govt.^ The American victory over the British ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lincoln, Charles Henry , Naval Records of the American Revolution: 1775-1788 , Published 1906, Govt.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A thorough documentary history of the struggle over a Massachusetts state constitution during the war is presented in Robert J. Taylor, ed., Massachusetts, Colony to Commonwealth: Documents on the Formation of its Constitution, 1775–1789.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Print. Office. (1927). .1124 pages online version
  • Martin Kallich and Andrew MacLeish, eds.^ "Rochambeau And The French In America From Unpublished Documents" "Washington And The French " TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Top K Ka Ke Ki Kl Kn Kallich, Martin, Ed; Macleish, Andrew, Ed , The American Revolution Through British Eyes , Harper & Row, New York, 1962.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    The American Revolution through British eyes (1962) primary documents

Surveys

  • Bancroft, George. .History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854–78), vol 4–10 online edition
  • Cogliano, Francis D. Revolutionary America, 1763–1815; A Political History (2000), British textbook
  • Harvey, Robert A few bloody noses: The American Revolutionary War (2004)
  • Higginbotham, Don.^ The road to war - - - The United States at war .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ History - Colonial America to 1763 .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The United States at war - - - War production .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789 (1983) Online in ACLS History E-book Project.^ A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ US Air Force Academy , The Military History of the American Revolution , Diane Publishing, 1974.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Comprehensive coverage of military and other aspects of the war.
  • Hochschild, Adam.^ Don Higginbotham's The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Polices, And Practice 1763-1789 , develops how military policy effected different social aspect of the war.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    Bury the Chains: The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (2006)
  • Jensen, Merrill. .The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution 1763–1776. (2004)
  • Bernhard Knollenberg, Growth of the American Revolution: 1766–1775 (2003) online edition
  • Lecky, William Edward Hartpole.^ Alden, The American Revolution, 1775–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Revolution, 1763–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Colonial development to 1763 - - The American Revolution .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .The American Revolution, 1763–1783 (1898), British perspective online edition
  • Mackesy, Piers.^ Alden, The American Revolution, 1775–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763–1789.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Revolution and the British Press, 1775–1783 .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The War for America: 1775–1783 (1992), British military study online edition
  • Middlekauff, Robert.^ The War for America, 1775–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Logistics and the Failure of the British Army in America, 1775–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These mob actions prompted the lieutenant governor to ask General Thomas Gage , the British military commander in North America, to rout the protesters by force.

    .The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789 (2005).^ III, The American Revolution 1761-1789 , Macmillan, 1905.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ As early as 1789 David Ramsay's History of the American Revolution mentioned “those fashionable authors, who have defended the cause of liberty.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He was able by sheer force of scholarship to overthrow the Consensus and Progressive views and to establish a new interpretation of the causes of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The 1985 version is available online at online edition
  • Miller, John C. Triumph of Freedom, 1775–1783 (1948) online edition
  • Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution (1943) online edition
  • Morrissey, Brendan.^ The American Revolution and the British Press, 1775–1783 .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alden, The American Revolution, 1775–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Revolution, 1763–1783.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Boston 1775:The Shot Heard Around The World.^ "By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American Revolution - The Shot Heard Round The World .
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Shot Heard Round The World "On April 19, 1775, was fired "the shot heard round the world."
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    Osprey (1993)
  • Schama, Simon. .Rough Crossings: Britain, The Slaves and the American Revolution (2006)
  • Urban, Mark.^ From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765–1776.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Britain, the Slaves, and the American Revolution .
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nash, Gary B. “Social Change and the Growth of Prerevolutionary Urban Radicalism.” In The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Generals:Ten British Commanders who shaped the World (2005)
  • Weintraub, Stanley.^ These mob actions prompted the lieutenant governor to ask General Thomas Gage , the British military commander in North America, to rout the protesters by force.

    ^ General Clinton, who had replaced Howe as commander in chief of British forces, evacuated Philadelphia and moved the main British army overland to New York.

    ^ Early in 1775 orders were sent to General Gage, who at the time was governor and military commander of Massachusetts.

    Iron Tears: Rebellion in America 1775–83 (2005)
  • Wood, Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History (2003), short survey
  • Wrong, George M. Washington and His Comrades in Arms: A Chronicle of the War of Independence (1921) online short survey by Canadian scholar

Specialized studies

  • Bailyn, Bernard. .The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press, 1967. ISBN 0-674-44301-2
  • Becker, Carl.^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Origins of the American Revolution: 1759–1765.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Declaration of Independence: A Study on the History of Political Ideas (1922)online edition
  • Samuel Flagg Bemis.^ Hoyt, William Henry, The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence: A Study of Evidence Showing that the Alleged Early Declaration of Independence by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, on May 20th, 1775, is Spurious.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Locke's influence was particularly stressed in Carl L. Becker's The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas and at least mentioned by the other writers.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bemis, Samuel Flagg , The Diplomacy Of The American Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1935, 1957.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The Diplomacy of the American Revolution (1935) online edition
  • Berkin, Carol.^ Search Engines/Collections used to make the Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The classic work on the foreign policy of the American revolutionaries is Samuel Flagg Bemis's The Diplomacy of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bailyn's findings were first presented in the "General Introduction" to his edition of Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 1750–1776, Vol.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Revolutionary .Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America's Independence (2006)
  • Breen, T. H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (2005)
  • Crow, Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise, eds.^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

    ^ Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Green, Harry Clinton , Mary Wolcott Green The Pioneer Mothers of America , G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912-1913 Volume One Volume Two Volume Three Green, Jack P., ed.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The Southern Experience in the American Revolution (1978)
  • Davis, David Brion.^ As early as 1789 David Ramsay's History of the American Revolution mentioned “those fashionable authors, who have defended the cause of liberty.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Search Engines/Collections used to make the Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ramsay, David, The History Of The American Revolution in two volumes, 1789.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery n the New World. (2006)
  • Fischer, David Hackett.^ The New Freedom and its transformation - - The rise to world power .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    Washington's Crossing (2004). 1776 campaigns; Pulitzer prize. .ISBN 0–195–17034–2
  • Greene, Jack, ed.^ Green, Harry Clinton , Mary Wolcott Green The Pioneer Mothers of America , G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912-1913 Volume One Volume Two Volume Three Green, Jack P., ed.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ See Jack P. Greene, "An Uneasy Connection: An Analysis of the Preconditions of the American Revolution," in Kurtz and Hutson, eds., Essays on the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Reinterpretation of the American Revolution (1968) collection of scholarly essays
  • Kerber, Linda K. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1979)
  • McCullough, David.^ Religion and the American Revolution , 3 essays by 3 authors.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The American Revolution - - The early federal republic .
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Click the image below to see a map of American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections where you clicked: .
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    1776 (2005). ISBN 0-7432-2671-2
  • Morris, Richard B. ed. .The Era of the American revolution (1939); older scholarly essays
  • Nash, Gary B. The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America.^ Chapter VI, "American War, Opening of the Era of the Revolution".
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Religion and the American Revolution , 3 essays by 3 authors.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Essays on the American Revolution .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2005). .ISBN 0-670-03420-7
  • Nevins, Allan; The American States during and after the Revolution, 1775–1789 1927. online edition
  • Norton, Mary Beth.^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Corps of Engineers, Engineers of Independence - A Documentary History of the Army Engineers in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 , 1981.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800 (1980)
  • Palmer, Robert R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. vol 1 (1959) online edition
  • Resch, John Phillips and Walter Sargent, eds.^ We have seen Robert R. Palmer's challenge to the consensus view in his monumental The Age of the Democratic Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 1750–1776, Vol.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the stifling atmosphere of Consensus history, an important advance came with the publication of the first volume of the monumental two-volume work of Robert H. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800, Vol.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .War And Society in the American Revolution: Mobilization And Home Fronts (2006)
  • Rothbard, Murray, Conceived in Liberty (2000), Volume III: Advance to Revolution, 1760–1775 and Volume IV: The Revolutionary War, 1775–1784.^ Andr was a spy in league with Benedict Arnold in a scheme to sabotage American forces during the Revolutionary War.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The Revolutionary History of South Carolina, reviewed" , Volume 11, Issue 22, Columbia, S.C. April 1847 "South-Carolina in the Revolution" , Volume 14, Issue 27, Columbia SC, July 1848.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ My essay can profitably be read in conjunction with the bibliographical essay of Professor Murray Rothbard published in the first issue of the Literature of Liberty .
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-945466-26-9.
  • Savas, Theodore and Dameron, J. David.^ A guide to the Battles of the American Revolution by Theodore P. Savas and J. David Dameron (Savas Beatie LLC, NY 2006) American Perspective: "Waiting within the American fortifications on Bemis Heights was the bloodied Continental Army led by Maj.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution.^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Revolution - Battle of White Plains .
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton became the battleground of two fierce battles in the American Revolution.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    Savas Beatie LLC. El Dorado Hills. March 2006. ISBN 1-932714-12-X
  • Schecter, Barnet. .The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution.^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Professor of Theology at Union Theological Seminary, New York City.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Walker & Company. New York. October 2002. ISBN 0-8027-1374-2
  • Shankman, Andrew. .Crucible of American Democracy: The Struggle to Fuse Egalitarianism and Capitalism in Jeffersonian Pennsylvania.^ Writings: American Government and Politics (1910), An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (1913), Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915), The Economic Basis of Politics (1922).
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    University Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Van Tyne, Claude Halstead. .American Loyalists: The Loyalists in the American Revolution (1902)
  • Volo, James M. and Dorothy Denneen Volo.^ James Smith was a man of color born in Prince George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 154].
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pohl, James W. “The American Revolution and the Vietnamese War: Pertinent Military Analogies.” The History Teacher 7 (February 1974).
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ James W. Pohl, “The American Revolution and the Vietnamese War: Pertinent Military Analogies,” The History Teacher 7 (February 1974): 259.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Daily Life during the American Revolution (2003)
  • Wahlke, John C. ed.^ This was the condition during the American Revolution."
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This was the condition during the American Revolution.
    • Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution - Murray N. Rothbard - Mises Institute 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Causes of the American Revolution (1967) readings
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed.^ Knollenberg observed, "in reading some accounts of the American Revolution, one gets the impression that until the very eve of the outbreak of war, active colonial opposition was limited to a relatively few propagandists and hotheads, which is far from true."
    • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Revolution: The New Nation "The Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, established a new nation and transformed a limited revolt to secure rights within the British empire into a far-reaching one, aimed at complete independence from British control.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As early as 1789 David Ramsay's History of the American Revolution mentioned “those fashionable authors, who have defended the cause of liberty.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.The American Revolution was a period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies gained independence from the British Empire and became the United States of America.^ This was the British flag during the Revolution.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ In 1776, the 13 colonies became the United States.
  • The American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC aenet.esuhsd.org [Source type: Original source]

In this period, the colonies united against the British Empire and entered into the armed conflict known as the American Revolutionary War (or the "American War of Independence"), between 1775 and 1783. This resulted in the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776, and victory on the battlefield in October 1781.

Contents

The Outbreak of the Revolutionary War: Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)

.
  • Vigorous measures at present would soon put an end to this rebellion.^ May heaven soon put an end to them.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The British, aware that Continental enlistments expired at the end of the year, had high hopes that the American Army would simply fade away and the rebellion collapse.
    • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

    .The deluded people are made to believe that they are invincible....^ They retained their role as a special elite in society only insofar as they embodied the main values of the people and made necessary adjustments in order to retain consent.
    • Religion and the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They did believe, however, that the common people, if properly bridled and reined, might be made allies in the work of freeing the colonies from British rule and that they--the gentry--might reap the benefits without interference.
    • Completing the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hermes-press.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe our people were there and in great numbers, but almost nothing is known about where our people were or what they did.

    .When this army is ordered to act against them, they will soon be convinced that they are very insignificant when opposed to regular troops.^ His forces won victories against German troops called Hessians, at Trenton and then against British regulars at the Battle of Princeton .

    ^ Finally, a third force was to be sent to the south, where it was confidently expected that the loyalists would rise against the rebels as soon as a British army arrived.
    • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ironclad ships in the harbor, flanked regimented troops, and man-to-man combat as they advanced the Hill was the order for battle.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Major Thomas Pitcairn, Royal Marines, in a letter from Boston to John Montagu, Lord Sandwich, the Secretary of State.
  • The Redcoats are coming!^ The Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1771-1782 .

    ^ Major John Pitcairn a month before wrote that "one active campaign, a smart action, and burning two or three of their towns, will set everything to rights."
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rodger, N.A.M. The Insatiable Earl: A Life of John Montagu, Fourth Earl of Sandwich 1718-1792.

    The Redcoats are coming! .
    • Alarm spread by Paul Revere on the night of April 18, as British were marching from Boston, westward towards Lexington.
  • Disperse, ye Rebels!^ Early on the morning of April 19, the advance guard of the British force exchanged fire with a party of militia at Lexington; eight Americans were killed, and the British continued marching on to Concord.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The opportunity for peaceful negotiation came to an end, and the war for American Independence began on April 19, 1775 when British troops and American colonists clashed at Lexington and Concord.
    • Parliamentary taxation of colonies, international trade, and American Revolution, 1763-1775 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Riders including Paul Revere alerted the countryside, and when British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, they found 77 minutemen formed up on the village green.

    .Lay down your arms and disperse.^ It was either John Pitcairn or Lieutenant Sutherland who rode towards the Rebels demanding them to lay down their arms.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John ordered his men not to fire and asked the Militia to lay down their arms and disperse.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He explained at length his decision to lay down his arms.
    • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • British Major Thomas Pitcairn to American Minutemen at Lexington, ordering them to lay down their weapons and go home.
  • Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob will find himself much mistaken.^ Everybody look what's going down.
    • The American Revolution // Current 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pitcairn fires upon the yeomanry at Lexington .
    • The American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.usgennet.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob, will find himself very much mistaken.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • British officer, on the Americans, following the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
  • Thus was the civil war begin and a victory the fruits of it on the side of the Americans, whom Lord Sandwich had the folly and rashness to proclaim coward.^ The battle was a strong American victory.

    ^ The battles of 1863 were turning points in the American Civil War.
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
    • American Revolutionary War posters and art 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC posterlovers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • British political leader Horace Walpole after the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
  • What God is he, writes laws of peace, & clothes him in a tempest
    What pitying Angel lusts for tears, and fans himself with sighs
    What crawling villain preaches abstinence & wraps himself
    In fat of lambs?^ The Battle of Lexington and Concord from kidport.com .
    • The American Revolution 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.waldsfe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The British had lost the Battles of Lexington and Concord, and the war had begun.

    ^ With the Battles of Lexington and Concord , the war had begun.
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    no more .I follow, no more obedience pay!^ No more deficit spending – the federal government would actually have to balance their checkbook and pay off its debt like the rest of us.

    • William Blake in "America: A Prophecy" (1793). .Spoken by "Boston's Angel"
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
    Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
    Here once the embattled farmers stood,
    And fired the shot heard round the world.^ "By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Its the shot heard round the world!
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On April 6, 1917, the shot was heard again.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Concord Hymn" (1837), commemorating the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

The Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)

.
  • Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes.^ Who said Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Crouching low behind their breastworks, the Yankees were told to wait--"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!"
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clark replied to the challenger, "I am as white as you , and don't you vote?"
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Instructions of Colonel William Prescott to American troops before the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • We...^ Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill fought?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ironclad ships in the harbor, flanked regimented troops, and man-to-man combat as they advanced the Hill was the order for battle.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    sustained the enemy's attacks with great bravery... and after bearing, for about .2 hours, as severe and heavy a fire as perhaps was ever known, and many having fired away all their ammunition...^ And the name of JORDAN FREEMAN stands away down, last on the list of heroes,--perhaps the greatest hero of them all."
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The losses were heavy: equipment, all the horses, heavy artillery and ammunition, much needed materials of war.

    ^ In this state, the poor, brave fellow lay on the deck, and several times exclaimed to his shipmates, " Fire away, my boys!--No haul a color down !"
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    we were overpowered by numbers and obliged to leave. .
    • Corporal Amos Farnsworth, Massachusetts Militia, describing the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • A few more such victories would have shortly put an end to British dominion in America.^ Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill fought?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ British drove Americans from Bunker Hill.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When did the Battle of Bunker Hill happen?
    • American Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • British General Henry Clinton, remarking on the battle in his diary; although the British won the battle, they suffered a substantial loss of British troops.

Other actions in 1775

.
  • Come out, you old rat.^ I’ll be the 22 yr old HS drop out and you’ll be the “educated” person ok?
    • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You have far too long a history of coming here and arguing to now attempt to back out and claim this doesn’t matter to you.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fran Johns California Politics U.S. Women Called-out Comment Yesterday “ "Pat Robertson is a very sick man" This comes as news to you?
    • Are the Tea Parties just glorified Revolutionary War reenactments? - E.D. Kain - American Times - True/Slant 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC trueslant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [Surrender] in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress. .
    • Ethan Allen, leader of the Green Mountain Boys, demanding the surrender of the British commander of Fort Ticonderoga.
  • Connecticut wants no Massachusetts men in her corps....^ Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For that he would have to wait until winter, when frozen roads and rivers would enable his soldiers to drag overland to Boston the cannon that had been captured on May 10, 1775, when Col. Ethan Allen of Vermont's Green Mountain Boys and Col. Benedict Arnold of Connecticut had surprised and captured the British fort at Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For that he would have to wait until winter, when frozen roads and rivers would enable his soldiers to drag overland to Boston the cannon that had been captured on May 10, 1775, when Col. Ethan Allen of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys and Col. Benedict Arnold of Connecticut had surprised and captured the British fort at Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain.
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Massachusetts thinks there is no necessity for a Rhode Islander to be introduced into her [units].^ The watchword of America was now Independence, and there was no disposition in any quarter to accept anything less than full recognition of the rights of the United States as a Nation.
    • Revolutionary War Overview 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am happy to find that the united states are entering into measures for discountenancing it and for abolishing the odious slavery which it has introduced.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The colored men of Massachusetts have been denied admission into the volunteer militia, although the Committee tell us that 'no reference is made by law to color or race.'
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Gen. .George Washington, commanding the Continental Army outside Boston, on the localism of the colonial units.
  • Proceed, great chief, with
    virtue on thy side.^ George Washington appointed commander-in-chief of American Army .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ George Washington assumes command of Continental Army.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    Thy ev’ry action let the
    goddess guide.
    A crown, a mansion, and
    a throne tat shine,
    With gold unfading,
    Washington! be thine. .
    • Boston slave poet Phyllis Wheatley.
  • Could I have foreseen what I have, and am like to experience, no consideration upon earth should have induced me to accept this command.^ Administration of Justice Act--court cases moved out of MA if looked like no fair trial could be had .
    • THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC iweb.tntech.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are strong and powerful now, able to drive into the ocean any power on earth that should step with hostile foot upon the soil of the Republic.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A month after the Boston Massacre, William Hall freed Prince; his certificate of manumission read that he was "no longer Reckoned a slave, but [had] always accounted as a free man."
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Gen. George Washington, reflecting on his frustrations coming from both Congress and the states in commanding the Continental Army.

The Second Continental Congress

  • We have counted the cost of this contest and find nothing so dreadful as voluntary slavery. .Honor, justice, and humanity forbid us to tamely surrender that freedom which we received from our gallant ancestors, and which our innocent posterity have a right to receive from us....^ They would prefer to call them “our rights” and “our freedom.” Thus “our” concepts of rights and of freedom are interwoven with the Framers' vision of conquest and empire and privilege.
    • Toward An American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC cyberjournal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our government has guides and rules such as the Constitution and the Bill of Rights that protect American s’ freedoms and rights.
    • Mead School District: 5th - Whose Rules (Rev War) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mead354.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Millions of us are united in fighting for our freedom if we have to.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Our cause is just. .Our union is perfect.^ It's part of our DNA, remember: "We, the People...in order to create a more perfect union."
    • TomPaine.com - Losing The American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tompaine.com [Source type: Original source]

    Our internal resources are great; and, if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable.
    • Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, Continental Congress Declaration on the Necessity of Taking up Arms (1775).

The American Revolution becomes the War of Independence

.
  • If we separate from Britain, what code of laws will be established?^ In the far north the Green Mountains, which Britain had formally awarded to New York in 1764, broke away to establish the separate state of Vermont.
    • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .How shall we be governed so as to retain our liberties?^ We are divided on issues like religion and zionism, when the real issue is how to get back our lost liberties.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We need to stop alowing the government to tell us how to live and and what is good for us and do it for ourselves then we might not keep lossing our freedoms as we are today.
    • How We Can Win the Second American Revolution Without Firing a Shot | Political Class Dismissed 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC politicalclassdismissed.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Can any government be free which is not administered by general stated laws?^ Today we are corporate citizens with limited rights governed by the United States Constitution under Admiralty and Maritime contract law.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As part of a general assault upon the legitimacy of federal government intervention in State and local matters, such a movement can only be helpful.
    • Second American Revolution »Blogs For Victory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Washington had urged conscription, stating that “the Government must have recourse to coercive measures.” In April 1777, Congress recommended a draft to the states.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    Who shall frame these laws? .Who will give them force and energy?^ The ones who are dumb enough to do so will be cut down by loyal soldiers of the US Armed Forces and patriots who are not afraid to give thier life to protect thier country.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I challenge the warmest advocate of reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain.^ In November 1775 the desire of southerners for reconciliation with Great Britain withered when the Virginia governor, Lord John Dunmore, offered freedom to any slaves who would rebel against their masters and join the British army.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To trace events intelligibly in their connection, the war of Great Britain on the Netherlands has been carried forward to the ruin of their commerce in the West Indies.

    I repeat the challenge, not a single advantage is derived. .Our corn will fetch its price in any market in Europe, and our imported goods must be paid for, buy them where we will.^ We must boycott buying any British goods!
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must demand that they stop stealing our money and giving it to ACORN and their other political supporters in order to buy votes.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Market price: $20.00 Our price: $12.00 save 40% .


    .But the injuries and disadvantages we sustain by that connection, are without number; and our duty to mankind at large, as well as to ourselves, instruct us to renounce the alliance: Because, any submission to, or dependence on Great Britain, tends directly to involve this continent in European wars and quarrels; and sets us at variance with nations, who would otherwise seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint.^ Who would invade us?
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Why would a country as young as ours become involved in another war against Britain?

    ^ Everyone received face value for wartime certificates, so that the national honor would be sustained and the national credit established.
    • American Revolution at AllExperts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .As Europe is our market for trade, we ought to form no partial connection with any part of it.^ But there is no part of mankind to which these uses of trade are of less consequence than the American states.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was by trade barber, but by inclination a soldier, and his history is intimately connected with the warlike part of that of Texas.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European contentions.
    .Europe is too thickly planted with kingdoms to be long at peace, and whenever a war breaks out between England and any foreign power, the trade of America goes to ruin, because of her connection with Britain....^ Because of this treaty, war soon broke out between France and Britain.

    ^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To trace events intelligibly in their connection, the war of Great Britain on the Netherlands has been carried forward to the ruin of their commerce in the West Indies.


    .It is repugnant to reason and the universal order of things...^ To try to perpetuate a purely political connection would be "forced and unnatural," "repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things."
    • NARA | The National Archives Experience 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

    to suppose that this continent can longer remain subject to any external power.... Freedom has been haunted round the globe. Asia and Africa have long expelled her. .Europe regards her like a stranger, and England has given her warning to depart.^ If these powers did not act in concert, Hyde warned, "England would be likely to run away with the chief profit of [Latin America's] independence."
    • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    O! receive the fugitive, and prepare in time an asylum for mankind....
    The period of debate is closed. Arms, as the last resource, must decide the contest...
    Everything that is right or natural pleads for separation. .The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, 'TIS TIME TO PART.
    • Thomas Paine, formerly a British import tax collector, in Common Sense (1776), the influential essay that made the case for independence.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness....^ But they did not do it for the equal right of all to life, liberty, and equality.
    • Completing the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hermes-press.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For it is self-evident that if there are any men whom they have a right to hold in slavery, there may be others who have had a right to hold them in slavery.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
    • NARA | The National Archives Experience 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]


    .We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general Congress, assembled, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.^ Independence of the United States, 1786.
    • War american independence Stock Photo Images. 309 War american independence royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition, the Congress ordered publication on July 4, 1776, of a Declaration of Independence , which recounted the grievances against Britain and declared the colonies free and independent as the United States of America.

    ^ On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted a Declaration of Independence declaring that the colonies "are and of right ought to be free and independent States."
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There, I guess King George will be able to read that.^ Related Reading: Declaration of Independence: July 4, 1776 .
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

    ^ Thomas Jefferson:Oh, come, come George.
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Hancock (1776), member of the Second Continental Congress from Massachusetts, after putting his now-famous large signature at the bottom of the Declaration of Independence.
  • We must all hang together now, or assuredly we shall hang separately.^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From 1774 to 1778 he was a member of the Continental Congress.

    ^ John Hancock letters, 1776 .
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Benjamin Franklin (1776), on the need for the Americans to fight together for independence.
  • [N]o man shall be compelled to frequent or support and religious worship, place, or ministry...^ American Revolution was a young man's fight .
    • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

    nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion on matters of religion. .
    • Thomas Jefferson, Virginia Bill on Religious Freedom (1776).
  • [T]he free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever hereafter be allowed, within this State.^ Then in 1786 the Virginia legislature passed Thomas Jeffersons Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.

    ^ [Note: One aspect receiving little notice is that slaves were used as collateral for loans, thus complicating the ability of owners to free them, e.g., Thomas Jefferson.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In a pamphlet titled A Summary View of the Rights of British America, intended to influence the Virginia delegates to the Congress, Thomas Jefferson denounced all parliamentary legislation as acts "of arbitrary power over these states."

    • New York State Constitution of 1777 (1777).

Military Operations in the Middle States: 1776-1777

.
  • When once these rebels have felt a smart blow, they will submit.^ All segments of colonial society felt they had a stake in the outcome of these disagreements.
    • Religion and the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Colonists no longer felt threatened which meant that they no longer thought that they needed the British as much as they once did.
    • war and social upheaval: the American Revolution Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Royal Navy had command of the seas, and harassed the rebels with a blockade of the American coast, but they could not be everywhere at once.

    .
    • Comment of German mercenary soldier from Hesse, before going into battle against American rebels (1776).
  • I am worried to death.^ In the south the war was going against the Americans.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When fully assembled, this force would number 32,000 troops including 8000 German mercenaries, most from Hesse-Kassel, Brunswick, and Hesse-Hanau.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To meet Sir William Howe's request for 50,000 men to conduct the campaign in 1776, the ministry resorted to hiring mercenaries from the small German states, particularly Hesse-Cassell (hence Hessians).
    • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

    I think the game is pretty near up.
    • Gen. .George Washington, in a letter to his brother, after his Continental Army was driven by the British from New York, across New Jersey, and into Pennsylvania (1776).
  • It was as severe a night as ever I saw, and after two battalions had landed, the storm increased so much, and the river was so full of ice, that it was impossible to get the artillery over.^ In December, 1776, the British seized control of New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York City, Washington again lost, and had to retreat to the hills of New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington retreated southwestward across New Jersey and then (December 8) across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Thomas Rodney, a Continental soldier, describing the surprise attack across the Delaware River near Trenton, New Jersey (Christmas Night, 1776).
  • [He] had lost all his clothes.^ Mark McCall to Thomas Rodney, 1776 .
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Until he surprised the Hessian garrison by crossing the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776.

    ^ On Christmas Day, 1776, he crossed the ice-filled Delaware River and surprised the Hessian winter encampment at Trenton, New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    He was in an old, dirty blanket jacket, his beard long, and his face so full of sores he could not clean it.
    • Artist Charles Wilson Peale, seeing his brother participating in Washington's army crossing the Delaware River in its counterattack on the British (December 1776).

The Fighting in 1777-1781

.
  • These are the times that try men’s souls.^ The American Crisis by Thomas Paine --THESE are the times that try men's souls.

    ^ Like Thomas Paine says, These are the times that try mens souls.
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "These are the times that try men's souls" .

    .The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.^ The summersoldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.

    ^ This gathering of veterans aroused the military fire in the old man's breast, and, never having received a pension, nor government lands, for his services, he determined on taking his seat, as a soldier delegate, among the defenders of his country.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The ones who are dumb enough to do so will be cut down by loyal soldiers of the US Armed Forces and patriots who are not afraid to give thier life to protect thier country.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered. .
  • Good God, gentlemen!^ The American Crisis by Thomas Paine --THESE are the times that try men's souls.

    ^ Suggested to Thomas Paine the title "Common Sense" for his famous essay.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Did Thomas Paine live and work there when the Continental Congress met in York in 1777-78?
    • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

    .Our cause is ruined if you engage men for only a year.^ "Teach the Abolitionists to make common cause with you; teach them to forget, and forget yourselves, as fast as possible, that you are colored men and women.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since there had been no warfare for a dozen years, only the older men had battlefield experience.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Please press "Submit" only once, you will then see another page which acknowledges your order; and, then it will link you to our secure server.
    • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

    .You must not think of it.^ Must make some of you think now doesn`t it!
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If we ever hope for success, we must have men enlisted for the whole term of the war.^ Washington had long appreciated that "In any and all circumstances a naval superiority is to be considered as a fundamental principle, and the basis upon which every hope of success must ultimately depend."
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Reed enlisted with Colonel Murfree for the term of the war.
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ JOB LEWIS, of Lancaster, (formerly a slave,) enlisted for two terms of three years each; and a third time for the remainder of the war.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • General Washington, urging Congress to establish a long-term Continental Army (1777).
  • The unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats, nor hats, nor shirts, nor shoes; their feet and their legs froze till they grew black and it was often necessary to amputate them....^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There in 1783, General George Washington resigned from the Continental Army.
    • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - American Revolutionary War Flags 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    .The army frequently passed whole days without food.^ This very day I will leave your corpse and the corpses of the Philistine army for the birds of the air and the beasts of the field; thus the whole land shall learn that Israel has a God.
    • Second American Revolution »Blogs For Victory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • The Marquis de Lafayette, observing the Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, after his arrival from France (1777).
  • Poor food — hard lodging — cold weather — fatigue — nasty clothes — nasty cookery....^ Marquis de Lafayette lands in US. .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Major, Continental Army, aide-de- camp to Lafayette.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There comes a bowl of beef soup, full of burnt leaves and dirt! .
    • Continental Army surgeon Albigence Waldo, writing in his diary on conditions of the army at Valley Forge (1777).
  • France is...^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a training program supervised by Baron von Steuben .
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After repelling a British attack at White Marsh , Washington and his army encamped at Valley Forge in December 1777, about 20 miles (32 km) from Philadelphia, where they stayed for the next six months.
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    what they call the dominant power of .Europe, being incomparably the most powerful at land, that united in a close alliance with our states, and enjoying the benefit of our trade, there is not the smallest reason to doubt but both will be a sufficient curb upon the naval power of Great Britain.^ As always, there were alliances between the great powers.

    ^ "Great Britain had her colored soldiers in that battle: the United States had hers.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is room for both, and I insist upon it!'
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • John Adams to Sam Adams, explaining the alliance between the United States and France (1778).

The War at Sea

.
  • I have not yet begun to fight!^ John Paul Jones --Sir, I have not yet begun to fight."

    • The famous response of John Paul Jones, in the early phase of the Battle of Flamborough Head, (23 September 1779) to an inquiry by his opponent (Captain Richard Pearson of the Royal Navy ship HMS Serapis) as to whether he was surrendering his ship, the USS Bonhomme Richard, as recounted in the reminiscences of Jones's First Lieutenant, Richard Dale, as published in The Life and Character of John Paul Jones, a Captain in the United States Navy (1825) by John Henry Sherburne:
...the .Bon Homme Richard, having head way, ran her bows into the stern of the Serapis.^ He had seen a watch, but not a clock--such an article not yet having found its way into the quiet and secluded valley in which he lived.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Bon-Homme Richard sunk he boarded and captured the H.M.S. Serapis, then sailed his new prize ship into the Dutch harbor of Texel for repairs.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - American Revolutionary War Flags 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bon Homme Richard (Ship).

We had remained in this situation but a few minutes when we were again hailed by the Serapis, "Has your ship struck?" To which Captain Jones answered, "I have not yet begun to fight!"
In Naval teminology to "strike the colours" means to haul down the ship's flag to signify surrender, but here the use of the ship as subject of the sentence may imply a pun on the non-naval use of "struck".

The War in the South

.
  • Colonel [Henry]Laurens...^ Wallace, David Duncan , The Life of Henry Laurens: with a sketch of the life of Lieutenant-Colonel John Laurens , Published 1915 by G. P. Putnam's sons.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    is on the way to South Carolina... to raise two three or four battalions of negroes... by contributions form owners in proportion to the number they possess...
    I have not the least doubt, that the negroes will make excellent soldiers, with proper management....
    I foresee that his project will have to combat much opposition from prejudice and self-interest. .The contempt we have been taught to entertain for the blacks, makes us fancy many things that are founded neither in reason nor experience....^ As many years passed his family moved to London where he found no job, some admiration, and even some contempt.

    ^ One "period text" we found told us of stuffing things into the soldiers ears so he wouldnt hear the screaming!
    • The History of Medicine in America - The Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By attacking, with great ability, every principle of truth and reason, he put me upon examining the ground upon which I stood and taught me not hastily to take any thing for granted.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]


    An essential part of the plan is to give them their freedom with their muskets. .This will secure their fidelity, animate their courage, and I believe will have a good influence upon those who remain, by opening a door to their emancipation.^ It pitted men who had become democrats, enamoured of the peoples right to rule, against men who remained Whigs, believing in balance and stability.
    • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Where, then, is the goodness or depth of that philosophy that leads you to separate yourselves, for an hour, from those who are your coadjutors in this great work?
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lines will be drawn and those who profess to believe in freedom will be put to the test of practice.

  • We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again.^ Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greene summed up his approach in a motto that would become famous: "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again."
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Contemporaries, including George Washington and Nathaniel Greene, knew well the impressive fighting qualities of this young officer.
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

    • Gen. .Nathaniel Greene of Rhode Island, Continental Army commander in the South, describing guerrilla warfare against the British (1781).
  • Their number did not exceed 20 men and boys, some white, some black, and all mounted, but most of them miserably equipped.^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Most blonde was either off-white, black, or white, but some was multicolor.
    • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lord Cornwallis assumes command of the British Army in the South.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • American cavalry raiders in South Carolina commanded by Francis Marion ("the Swamp Fox") as described by an officer on the staff of Gen.^ With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion .
      • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion, former commandant of the 2nd South Carolina Regiment, previously mentioned.

      ^ Hugh F. Rankin's Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox discusses the guerrilla volunteer marksmen who formed "Marion Brigade" which played a crucial part at battles such as Georgetown, Eutaw Springs, and Parker's Ferry.
      • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Horatio Gates, commanding American forces in the South (1780).
  • I have the mortification to inform your Excellency that I have been forced to...^ From August the American forces were commanded by General Gates.
    • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oct 1780 26 Feb 1781 11 Nov 1783 Parris, George, "The Initial Phases of the American War of Independence in the South (1775-1780)" , 1998.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Horatio Gates and the Continental Army were badly defeated by Lord Cornwallis and the British forces.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    surrender the troops under my command.
    • Gen. .Cornwallis, commanding British forces in the South, informing the commander of all British forces in North America, Gen.^ Lord Cornwallis assumes command of the British Army in the South.
      • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Thomas Gage, commander of the British army in North America.
      • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
      • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Clinton, that he surrendered his army at Yorktown, Virginia (October 19, 1781).
  • This is a most glorious day.^ When he surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1781 it was a staggering blow to the British cause.

    ^ Cornwallis capitulated on October 19, 1781.

    ^ On 19 October Cornwallis surrendered.
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • An American doctor, upon learning that Gen. Cornwallis, surrendered his army at Yorktown (1781).

The End of the War

  • There was as much sorrow as joy.... .We had lived together as a family of brothers for several years, setting aside some little family squabbles, like most other families, had shared with each other the hardships, dangers, and sufferings incident to a soldier’s life, had sympathized with each other in trouble and in sickness; had assisted in bearing each other’s burdens....^ All were chosen as being "sober, young, active and well built, men of good character that possess pride of appearing soldier like, those having family connection in this country, and men of some property."
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Dickinson --Gives a nice account of the life of Dickinson along with some family history.

    ^ Hey dummy, most likely the CIA has been monitoring this site for quite some time with or without the knowledge of Alex Jones.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    And now we were to be... parted forever. .
    • Joseph Plumb Martin, a soldier in the Continental Army, on the disbanding of the army, in his memoir, Private Yankee Doodle (published 1830).
  • Such a scene of sorrow and weeping I had never before witnessed....^ Since Rhoda's book was published additional residents have been certified as revolutionary soldiers, such as my own ancestor, Jonathan Wood, whom I have included in the list.
    • Revolutionary War Soldiers of Tioga County PA 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.joycetice.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While one soldier in seven was dying from hunger and disease at Valley Forge, young Private Martin, stationed only a few miles away in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, was assigned to patrols that foraged daily for army provisions.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alan Greenspan testified before Congress that he never imagined the private sector banks would act against their own interests as they did.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    .We were then about to part form the man who had conducted through a long and bloody war, and under whose conduct the glory and independence of our country has been achieved.^ Benjmain Viers was a "free coloured man" who enlisted in Revolutionary War service in Henry County, Virginia, in October 1775.
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your the fool, these people are mad about a lot more than your precious health care, we want our country back.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Thus it will be seen that, in the estimation of such men--men who have bestowed some thought upon our condition and our conduct--that we are not all so ignorant .
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Benjamin Tallmadge, remembering the scene at Fraunces Tavern, New York City, as General Washington said farewell to his officers and left the Continental Army at the end of the War of Independence (1783).

Aftermath

.
  • A British vessel, stopping on the way back from India at the Comoro Islands in the Mozambique Channel, finds the native inhabitants in revolt against their Arab masters; and when they ask why they have taken arms, are told: "America is free, could not we be?"^ Thonhoff describes it thusly: “More significantly to us (the U.S.), they (Spain and New Spain) aided the American colonists immeasurably in the war effort, both by providing arms, ammunition, and supplies by way of the Mississippi River and by diverting British manpower that could have been used against the Continental Army.” After the war, England attributed their loss of its colonies in America to Spain’s and New Spain’s bulwark of support to the Anglo Americans.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They want people to be told to give up their money to charity, stop smoking, and have more enforcement by way of licensing and fining.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If any one power could get control of this entire chain of islands they could monitor ships coming in from Europe, and block them if need be.

    • Gijsbert Karel, Count van Hogendorp, in 1784, quoted in "The age of the democratic revolution: a political history of Europe and America, 1760-1860" by Robert Roswell Palmer (1969)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Introduction

.Welcome to wikiversity's course on the American Revolution (HIST-AM-202).^ This volume details the British occupation of colonial Florida immediately before and during the American Revolution with emphasis on the effect this possession had on the course of the war.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps I do not go too far when I say that, next to the introduction of Christianity among mankind, the American revolution may prove the most important step in the progressive course of improvement.
  • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.This course follows the content timeline of most college-level United States history courses on this topic.^ Both a biography of Ethan Allen and a history on the formation of the state of Vermont and the creation of the most democratic state constitution of any created in the 18th century.
  • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1815, this city was the most sensitive strategic point in the United States, for all commerce to and from the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys had to pass through it.
  • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many do not understand the exceptional history of the United States of America and the goodness and greatness of its people.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.We will begin with the social and political state of the American colonies in the two decades prior to the American Revolution and end with the foundations of the modern federal government.^ Was the American Revolution merely a colonial rebellion or was it a true social revolution?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State and local government - Political process .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The American Revolution - - The early federal republic .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

This course will draw heavily on material contained within wikipedia. Whenever appropriate, the instructor has provided links for additional reading. The instructor will also recommend readings for enrichment outside of the wikipedia domain. Please be patient with the addition of material. While I enjoy this topic, I have a full-time job that keeps me very busy, even when not at work.
Note on Sources
This wikicourse draws information from three types of sources. .Primary sources are those written by someone during the time of the historical event.^ This volume, written primarily in French with some English translations, presents these lists as well as historical background into the relationship between France and America during this time period.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

^ J ust as “no man is an island,” no historical event is isolated from its context of space and time.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there any historical markers in the York area observing his time here during the American Revolution?
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.A letter from Abigail Adams to her husband, John, is an example.^ The following is a copy of the letter of De Witt Clinton to John Q. Adams, President of the United States, in the case alluded to:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Happy New Year...From John & Abigail Adams ▼ 2008 ( 139 ) ► December ( 6 ) A Heartbreaking Loss Christmas According to Thomas Jefferson Don't Forget Trenton!

^ Cappon, Lester J. - THE ADAMS-JEFFERSON LETTERS : THE COMPLETE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THOMAS JEFFERSON & ABIGAIL & JOHN ADAMS - Univ North Carolina - BRAND NEW Softcover - 638pp - Index - $24.95 .
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

.Secondary sources are those written by a later scholar using primary sources as their reference points.^ Military topics, references many secondary sources Chambers, John Whiteclay II, ed.
  • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public service claims refer to certificates issued to those citizens who provided supplies for military use.
  • Researching Your Revolutionary War Ancestor 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.wvculture.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary documentation is useful when it reproduces primary sources, when it gives clues toward possible primary evidence, or when it gives a well-supported analysis of primary sources.
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A contemporary analysis of colonists' opinions regarding the Stamp Act taken from Boston newspapers is an example.^ Colonists strongly opposed the Stamp Act.

^ There were protests and riots against the Stamp Act on Barbados and St. Kitt’s in the Lesser Antilles as well as in Boston and Philadelphia.

^ The summer of 1765 in Boston was marked by militant citizens demonstrating against the Stamp Act.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The third type of reading in this course is a narrative, the instructor's commentary on historical events.
.When source information is available, it will be provided.^ Entries describe each individual from birth to death and provide genealogical information when available.
  • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Such sources do not commonly provide personal information.
  • Researching Your Revolutionary War Ancestor 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.wvculture.org [Source type: Academic]

Table of Contents

Chapter 4: British Imperialism
Chapter 5: Growing Unrest
Chapter 6: War in the Northern and Middle Colonies
Chapter 7: War in the Southern Colonies
Chapter 8: The End of the Revolution
Chapter 9: Articles of Confederation
Chapter 10: Consitutional Convention

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.Welcome to the WikiTextBook on
The American Revolution
George Washington crossing the Delaware River.^ Assignment: American Revolution Foldable Course Syllabus Welcome to the Podcast/Vidcast .

^ American Revolution Center Welcomes President and CEO Dr. Bruce Cole; Announces $13 Million in Public/Private Funding.
  • American Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/3/3/1/4762433307584802.png" width="500" height="294" />
Go to Contents >>

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Wikipedia has a page called:
.American Revolutionary WarAmerican Revolutionary War The soldiers of the American Revolution are an important starting point for genealogical research.^ The words of an American soldier during the American Revolution.
  • American Athenas - Women in the Revolution 15 September 2009 3:48 UTC www.americanrevolution.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Revolution had important consequences for the Americans.
  • Jose Filpo’s ePortfolio » American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oit.hostos.cuny.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Revolution started in 1775- 1783.

.It's a thrill to find an ancestor who fought in one of the important wars of the United States, along with the Civil War, World War I, World War II, etc.^ U.S. Civil War Era war of 1812 era world war ii era .
  • National Archives Genealogy; NARA Genealogy, National Archives and Records Administration, American Revolutionary War, American Revolution Timeline, Revolutionary War Facts, footnote, nara, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC naragenealogy.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The road to war - - - The United States at war .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First, most of the land war was fought on United States' soil.
  • Revolutionary War: The Home Front 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Add your own ancestor below!^ Add your own.
  • Revolutionary War Uniforms, Collectibles & Flags 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Revolutionary War Weapons 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Add your own ancestor below!
  • American Revolution - Familypedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add your comment below, or trackback from your own site.
  • Make Your Family into Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution – Silhouette Style | No Fuss Fabulous 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.nofussfabulous.com [Source type: General]
  • » Digital Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC gargoyle.flagler.edu [Source type: General]

Commander in Chief

Important names

Facts about American RevolutionRDF feed

This article uses material from the "American Revolution" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on American Revolutionary War, which are similar to those in the above article.