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.In this article, inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans," with occasional references to "Patriots," "Whigs," "Rebels" or "Revolutionaries."^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For facts on daily life in the colonies, global events at the time of the American Revolution, and the American and British militaries, use the clickable image maps in "Perspectives on Liberty."

.Colonists who supported the British in opposing the Revolution are usually referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories."^ The Loyalists were Americans who supported the King.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The King's side is called British, redcoat, Tory, Hessian or Loyalist.
  • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The geographical area of the thirteen colonies is often referred to simply as "America."
American Revolutionary War
Rev collage.png
Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
Date April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783
Location Eastern Seaboard, Northwest Territories, Central Canada, Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Caribbean Sea, Central America, Indian Ocean
Result Treaty of Paris
Territorial
changes
Britain recognizes independence of the United States, cedes East Florida, West Florida, and Minorca to Spain and Tobago to France.
Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Britain.
Belligerents
 United States
France Kingdom of France
Spain Spain
 Dutch Republic
Oneida (tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy)
Tuscarora (tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy)
Watauga Association
Catawba
Lenape
United Kingdom Great Britain
Commanders
United States George Washington
United States Nathanael Greene
United States Horatio Gates
United States Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
United States Marquis de La Fayette
France Comte de Rochambeau
France Comte de Grasse
France Bailli de Suffren
Spain Bernardo de Gálvez
Spain Luis de Córdova
Spain Juan de Lángara
...full list
United Kingdom Sir William Howe
United Kingdom Thomas Gage
United Kingdom Sir Henry Clinton
United Kingdom Lord Cornwallis #
United Kingdom Sir Guy Carleton
United Kingdom John Burgoyne #
United Kingdom Francis Rawdon
United Kingdom Benedict Arnold
United Kingdom George Rodney
United Kingdom Richard Howe
Hesse Wilhelm von Knyphausen
Joseph Brant
...full list
.The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or American War of Independence[1] began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen former British colonies in North America, and concluded in a global war between several European great powers.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Title: The narrative of Colonel David Fanning : a Tory in the revolutionary war with Great Britain, giving an account of his adventures in North Carolina, from 1775 to 1783 / as written by himself, with an introduction and explanatory notes.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby many of the colonists rejected the legitimacy of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them without representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.^ Milwaukeerick Says: August 7th, 2009 at 5:23 pm The protests are great to see but will NOT lead to the Second American Revolution, they will be the third.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HOSEA EASTON thus forcibly alludes to the claims of colored Americans to the rights and privileges of citizenship:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He is creating a JOBLESS REVOLUTION, in which citizens without jobs will be more and more dependent on the central government run by the Democratic and Republican Dictatorship.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The First Continental Congress met in 1774 to coordinate relations with Great Britain and the thirteen now self-governing and individual provinces, petitioning George III for intervention with Parliament, organizing a boycott of British goods, while affirming loyalty to the British Crown.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first provincial convention, 1774; Continental Congress, 1775-77 and 1779.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President of Continental Congress, 1775-77, and bold first signer of the Declaration of Independence.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their pleas ignored, and with British combat troops billeted in Boston, Massachusetts, by 1775 the Provincial Congresses formed the Second Continental Congress and authorized a Continental Army.^ Joined Continental Army, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harris' 21 combat decorations included army and navy Distinguished Service Medals, Legion of Merit with 3 Gold Stars, Order of British Empire.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additional petitions to the king to intervene with Parliament resulted in the following year with Congress being declared traitors and the states to be in rebellion.^ The following is a copy of a petition sent, some years.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Several causes have combined to retard the progress of colored mechanics; but these are being removed, and, in a few years, the results will be manifest.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He made a declaration in Halifax County Court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension on 16 November 1824 stating that he was sixty-five years old.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans responded in 1776 by formally declaring their independence as one new nation — the United States of America — claiming their own sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.^ It created a new United States, a Corporation.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the United States officers summoned .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the King's Message, of March 7th, 1774, to the Declaration of Independence, by the United States, in 1776.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.France provided supplies, ammunition and weapons to the rebels from 1776, and the Continentals' capture of a British army in 1777 led France to enter the war in early 1778, which evened the military strength with Britain.^ Captured by the British at Brandywine, 1777, and held prisoner two years.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his first known military incursion, the June, 1778 Battle of Monmouth (in which not a single black from the county fought for the patriots), Tye captured a captain in the Monmouth militia.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spain and the Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years, threatening an invasion of England and severely testing British military strength with campaigns in Europe — including attacks on Minorca and Gibraltar — and an escalating global naval war.^ Captured by the British at Brandywine, 1777, and held prisoner two years.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaving that institution with honor in May, 1849, he went again to Europe in the autumn, of that year, and spent considerable time in the hospitals of Paris, travelling, at intervals, through parts of France, England, Italy, and Switzerland.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Prev Next There is positive proof that at least two Negroes of Virginia, Israel Titus and Samuel Jenkins, fought under Braddock and Washington in the French and Indian war.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spain's involvement culminated in the expulsion of British armies from West Florida, securing the American colonies' southern flank.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the servant of a captain of the British army, in the Revolution, and, at the age of sixteen, deserted to the American army, and has remained in this country ever since.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Title: The organization of the British army in the American revolution ...
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy American coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them because of the relatively small size of their land army.^ Use control-f and search for war in the south .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Charles City County who was living in Nansemond County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots , 148].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval victory in the Chesapeake leading at Yorktown in 1781 to the surrender of a second British army.^ Enlisted early in Revolution and was with Washington at British surrender at Yorktown, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commended for selfless patriotism in ordering guns to fire on his own home, the British headquarters, at Yorktown, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west.^ The great movement now going on in the United States, .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ East and West Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina, and Virginia: containing an account of their origin, language, manners, religious and civil customs, laws, form of government, punishments, conduct in war and domestic life, their habits, diet, agriculture, manufactures, diseases and method of cure...
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peace my fellow true Americans, that’s North Americans, or most specificially, the United States of America.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Combatants before 1778

American armies and militias

.At the outset of the war, the thirteen colonies lacked a professional army or navy.^ J. Munsell, 1876 Bolich, Harry P. , "Influencing the Land Campaign from the Sea: The Interaction of Armies and Navies in the American Revolutionary War" , 1995, Naval Postgraduate School.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

Each colony provided for its own defenses with local militia. Militiamen were lightly armed, slightly trained, and usually did not have uniforms. .Their units served for only a few weeks or months at a time, were reluctant to go very far from home, and were thus generally unavailable for extended operations.^ Establishing office in his Carrollton home, Butler served as adjutant general until ca.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Mr. Atherton, of the island, generously became bound for their good behavior for six months, in which time letters came, informing of their case, and they were permitted to return.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "We have had in Ohio, until very recently, and if they are living, have here now, a few colored men who have thus connected us with the past.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Militia lacked the training and discipline of soldiers with more experience, but were more numerous and could overwhelm regular troops as at the battles of Concord, Bennington and Saratoga, and the siege of Boston.^ In some engravings of the battle, this colored soldier occupies a prominent position; but in more recent editions, his figure is non est inventus .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He had been on the field of battle, had faced the cannon's mouth, seen its lightnings flash and heard its thunders roar, but such a sight as this was more than the old citizen-soldier could bear, without giving vent to a flood of tears.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Both sides used partisan warfare but the Americans were particularly effective at suppressing Loyalist activity when British regulars were not in the area.[2]
.Seeking to coordinate military efforts, the Continental Congress established (on paper) a regular army in June 1775, and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief.^ General George Washington and other Continental commanders did not dare to give battle without calling out a sizable increment of militia to back up their undermanned regulars.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As administrator of the estate he appointed Samuel Smith attorney to settle the Continental Army Accounts of (his son?
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the soldier and other black and American Indian Minutemen were rebuffed by General George Washington when he arrived in July 1775 to take command of a "salt and pepper" army.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The development of the Continental Army was always a work in progress, and Washington used both his regulars and state militia throughout the war.^ In June 1775 it had commissioned George Washington to organize and lead a Continental Army.

^ When George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, was told of these events, he personally recommended that the militiamen are rewarded.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the progress of the war, he was placed by his master, (as a substitute for himself,) in the army then in New Jersey, as a teamster in the baggage train.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps.^ In 1775, revolutionaries gained control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Extremists on the right believe that Obama is a foreign-born dictator who is going to institute Soviet socialism or Nazi fascism in the United States.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida Balch, Thomas , The French in America during the War of Independence of the United States, 1777-1783 , a translation , 1891-95, Philadelphia, Porter & Coates.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.At the beginning of 1776, Washington's army had 20,000 men, with two-thirds enlisted in the Continental Army and the other third in the various state militias.^ He had claims against the United States for wood and other necessaries furnished the Army, and for the loss of time and expense of nursing a slave who .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cesar and Festus went to Massachusetts to enlist in the Continental army.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He made a deposition in Northampton County Court on 26 March 1791 that he enlisted and served as a soldier in the Continental Army [ NCGSJ XI:118].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded.^ Corps of Engineers, Engineers of Independence - A Documentary History of the Army Engineers in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 , 1981.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was a man of color from Norfolk County who enlisted in the Revolution between 1777 and 1783 [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 149].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both were promoters of the American Revolution, but one was white, the other was black ; and this is the only solution to the problem why justice was not fairly meted out.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.About 250,000 men served as regulars or as militiamen for the Revolutionary cause in the eight years of the war, but there were never more than 90,000 total men under arms at one time.^ Jacob Reed served in the Revolutionary War.
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I make over 250,000 a year.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read more about Benedict Arnold in the American Revolutionary War.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

Armies were small by European standards of the era, largely attributable to limitations such as lack of powder and other logistical capabilities on the American side.[4] By comparison, Duffy notes that Frederick the Great usually commanded from 23,000 to 50,000 in battle. .Both figures pale in comparison to the armies that would be fielded in the early nineteenth century, where troop formations approached or exceeded 100,000 men.^ Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Loyalists

.Historians have estimated that approximately 40–45% of the colonists actively supported the rebellion while 15–20% of the population of the thirteen colonies remained loyal to the British Crown.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The remaining 35–45% attempted to remain neutral.[5]
.At least 25,000 Loyalists fought on the side of the British.^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jarvis, Stephen, Col., "Revealing the Life of the Loyalists who Refused to Renounce their Allegiance to the King and Fought to Save the Western Continent to the British Empire" .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

Thousands served in the Royal Navy. .On land, Loyalist forces fought alongside the British in most battles in North America.^ WILLIAM BURLEIGH was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought in the battle of North Point.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He served faithfully eight years, and fought in most all the battles, beginning at Bunker Hill.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peace my fellow true Americans, that’s North Americans, or most specificially, the United States of America.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many Loyalists fought in partisan units, especially in the Southern theater.[6]
The British military met with many difficulties in maximizing the use of Loyalist factions. .British historian Jeremy Black wrote, “In the American war it was clear to both royal generals and revolutionaries that organized and significant Loyalist activity would require the presence of British forces.”[7] In the South, the use of Loyalists presented the British with “major problems of strategic choice” since while it was necessary to widely disperse troops in order to defend Loyalist areas, it was also recognized that there was a need for “the maintenance of large concentrated forces able” to counter major attacks from the American forces.^ Arrival of a large British Force.

^ Use control-f and search for war in the south .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .In addition, the British were forced to ensure that their military actions would not “offend Loyalist opinion”, eliminating such options as attempting to “live off the country’, destroying property for intimidation purposes, or coercing payments from colonists (“laying them under contribution”).^ He was living in the State of Jersey, and parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was the indignation of the neighborhood, however, (slaveholders though they were,) that the informer and constable would have been mobbed if they had not desisted from their attempt.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You don’t live in a country you live on corporate property as a slave, and the pledge is as good as saying yes to a rapist with a gun to your head.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

British armies and auxiliaries

.Early in 1775, the British Army consisted of about 36,000 men worldwide, but wartime recruitment steadily increased this number.^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persuading a number of other slaves to go with him, they seized a boat, intending to join the British army, that by so doing they might become freemen.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775, Hall and fourteen other free blacks joined a British army lodge of Masons who were stationed in Boston.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great Britain had a difficult time appointing general officers, however.^ He was a great admirer of General Washington, and was, at one time, attached to his baggage train, and received the General's commendation for his courage and devotion to the cause of liberty.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I was at one time personally acquainted with that officer, and know the impulses of his generous nature .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.General Thomas Gage, in command of British forces in North America when the rebellion started, was criticized for being too lenient (perhaps influenced by his American wife).^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peace my fellow true Americans, that’s North Americans, or most specificially, the United States of America.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Account of American and British forces mentioned 8 Dec 1780 (tip from John Allison/CBB)..
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst turned down an appointment as commander in chief due to an unwillingness to take sides in the conflict.^ If a colored man may be by the Constitution 'Captain General and Commander-in-chief and Admiral' of the Commonwealth, should he be denied admission into the ranks of her volunteer militia?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The offer was accepted, and Forten had the satisfaction of assisting in taking down the "chest of old clothes," as it was then called, from the side of the prison ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] Similarly, Admiral Augustus Keppel turned down a command, saying "I cannot draw the sword in such a cause." The Earl of Effingham very publicly resigned his commission when his 22nd Regiment of foot was posted to America, and William Howe and John Burgoyne were both members of parliament who opposed military solutions to the American rebellion. .Howe and Henry Clinton both made statements that they were not willing participants in the war, but were following orders.^ When they declare war on the American People as a whole, in order to stop this *rage*, is when the real rage will begin.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He made a declaration in order to obtain a Revolutionary War pension before the Halifax County Court at the age of sixty on 19 May 1823.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not In Our Name, which disbanded in March 2008, called on participants to take the “Pledge of Resistance,” which begins with the following statement: .
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

[11]
.Over the course of the war, Great Britain signed treaties with various German states, which supplied about 30,000 soldiers.^ "Great Britain had her colored soldiers in that battle: the United States had hers.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain's became freemen and citizens: those of the United States continued only half-free and slaves."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was eighty years old in 1822 when he petitioned the Legislature for a state pension [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers , 30].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germans made up about one-third of the British troop strength in North America.^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle began about noon, with the Union troops fighting their way up the ridges and the Confederates counterattacking down them.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hesse-Kassel contributed more soldiers than any other state, and German soldiers became known as "Hessians" to the Americans.^ For the colonists, this was an outrage, and it became known as the BOSTON MASSACRE. Crispus Attucks' race was secondary to his exemplary heroism and outspoken call for liberty for the American colonists.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been well known, that to the colored soldiers belonged the honor of first erecting the cotton-bale defences which so signally contributed to General Jackson's victory.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Title: The Hessians and the other German auxiliaries of Great Britain in the revolutionary war.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Revolutionary speakers called German soldiers "foreign mercenaries," and they are scorned as such in the Declaration of Independence.^ What foreigner, what Irish or German emigrant, has ever given such evidences of deep devotion to your government?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I refused to call Jews or any one American when they can serve in the Army of a foreign country and can vote in the elections of a foreign Country.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Chavis was called John Shivers on 16 November 1818 when he made a declaration in Southampton County court setting forth that he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War by voluntary enlistment [Minutes 1816-9, unpaged].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By 1779, the number of British and German troops stationed in North America was over 60,000, although these were spread from Canada to Florida.[12] .About 10,000 Loyalist Americans under arms for the British are included in these figures.^ Wait..don’t answer that…:S On the other hand, I am not happy about a lot of things done to our economy by any of these administrations..Obama included.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His second voyage was to the West Indies; but on his third, which was during the American war, about the year 1776, he was captured by a British ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The British took advantage of these violated pledges, and induced many colored Americans, panting for the freedom which, theirs as a birthright, had been confirmed by deeds of valor and patriotism, to accept free homes under the banner of England.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[13]

African Americans

This 1780 drawing of American soldiers from the Yorktown campaign shows a black infantryman from the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
.African Americans—slave and free—served on both sides during the war.^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We learn from Kent's Commentary that the Legislature of New York passed an Act during the Revolutionary War granting freedom to all slaves who should serve in the army for three years, or until regularly discharged.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British actively recruited slaves belonging to Patriot masters.^ SEVEN HUNDRED BRITISH SOLDIERS ESCORTED BY A COLORED PATRIOT--REV. LEMUEL HAYNES--JUDGE HARRINGTON'S ANTI-FUGITIVE-SLAVE-LAW DECISION. .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Because of manpower shortages, George Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776. Small all-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many slaves were promised freedom for serving.^ GEORGE WASHINGTON, as Commander of the Continental Army, forbade the enlistment of Blacks - free, slave, or ex-slave - during the early stages of the war.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dunmore's tactic of lifting the ban on Blacks enlisting in the British army led George Washington to change his mind, and, therefore, Blacks later joined the CONTINENTAL ARMED FORCES. .
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Another all-black unit came from Haiti with French forces.^ "As soon as this infamous transaction was known, Governor Hancock and M. L. Etombe, the French consul, wrote letters to the governors of all the islands in the West Indies, in favor of the decoyed blacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "While the black laws of Connecticut were in force, Chief Justice Daggett decided that we were not citizens of the United States, and that the colored people there had no claims to the privileges of American citizens.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the Revolutionary cause[14] and almost 1,000 black soldiers fought on the British side (although more than 20,000 blacks were with the British at war's end).^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WILLIAM BURLEIGH was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought in the battle of North Point.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "In the Revolutionary War, my father was a decided advocate of American Independence, and his life was repeatedly jeopardized in its cause.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15]

Native Americans

.Most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River were affected by the war, and many communities were divided over the question of how to respond to the conflict.^ Fort Montgomery was the scene of a fierce battle for control of the Hudson River during the American Revolutionary War; the Hudson was considered strategic by both the Americans and the British during the American War for Independence.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As James W. Pohl has observed, perhaps the most astute American analyst of people's revolutionary war was Thomas Paine.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do a wonderful job of telling York County's story - from wars to everyday life and show how the community has advanced in including minorities as part of that narrative.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Though a few tribes were on friendly terms with the Americans, most Native Americans opposed the United States as a potential threat to their territory.^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The President of the United States shall praiseworthy was your conduct in the hour of danger, and the representatives of the American people will give you the praise your exploits entitle you to.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Peace my fellow true Americans, that’s North Americans, or most specificially, the United States of America.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approximately 13,000 Native Americans fought on the British side, with the largest group coming from the Iroquois tribes, who fielded around 1,500 men.^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had an uncle who fought by his side in the same war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Prince now seized the soldier in his vice-like grip, and having been bound and gagged he was handed over to the other men who had come up.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The powerful Iroquois Confederacy was shattered as a result of the conflict; the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, and Cayuga sided with the British, while many Tuscarora and Oneida sided with the colonists.^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Continental Army sent the Sullivan Expedition to cripple the Iroquois tribes which had sided with the British.^ Along with the Continental Army, the militia prevented the British from reestablishing royal authority anywhere except for a few restricted enclaves.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both during and after the war friction between the Mohawks Joseph Louis Cook and Joseph Brant, who had sided with the Americans and the British respectively, further exacerbated the split.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both in the late 80’s, as well as during the initial stages of the second Gulf war.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

War in the north, 1775–1780

Massachusetts

.Before the war, Boston had been the scene of much revolutionary activity, leading to the Massachusetts Government Act that ended home rule as a punishment in 1774. Popular resistance to these measures, however, compelled the newly appointed royal officials in Massachusetts to resign or to seek refuge in Boston.^ Henry Rhoads, Jr. Before moving to Ky., Henry Rhoads served as captain in Pennsylvania militia during Revolutionary War.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, the British North American commander-in chief, commanded four regiments of British regulars (about 4,000 men) from his headquarters in Boston, but the countryside was in the hands of the Revolutionaries.^ Dempsey Stewart, born about 1764, enlisted in the 1st North Carolina Regiment for eighteen months while residing in Northampton County, North Carolina.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pratt railed on the caller, citing three (and then four) different dictionaries that define “cracker” as a term used about poor Southern white men.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The British marching to Concord in April 1775
.On the night of April 18, 1775, General Gage sent 700 men to seize munitions stored by the colonial militia at Concord, Massachusetts.^ The colored men of Massachusetts have been denied admission into the volunteer militia, although the Committee tell us that 'no reference is made by law to color or race.'
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While serving in the militia, he wrote a lengthy ballad-sermon about the April, 1775 Battle of Lexington.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have said, Sir, that the question was of little practical importance, whether the right of the colored men of Massachusetts to become members of the volunteer militia was admitted or not.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Riders including Paul Revere alerted the countryside, and when British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, they found 77 minutemen formed up on the village green.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ATTUCKS had formed the patriots in Dock Square, from whence they marched up King street, passing through the street up to the main guard, in order to make the attack.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Page 77 Paul and his brother, John Cuffe, were called on by the collector of the district in which they resided for the payment of a personal tax.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Shots were exchanged, killing several minutemen. .The British moved on to Concord, where a detachment of three companies was engaged and routed at the North Bridge by a force of 500 minutemen.^ The losses to militia forces, such as John Stark's Green Mountain Boys, which Burgoyne suffered on route, weakened the British army.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that battle British forces in the north remained chiefly in and around the city of New York.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "The 1777 trail represents the route taken by British General Sir Henry Clinton's forces on October 6, 1777.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the British retreated back to Boston, thousands of militiamen attacked them along the roads, inflicting great damage before timely British reinforcements prevented a total disaster.^ Lambert took the cattle from the team, and, making all secure, started for the point of defence, where he arrived before the British began the attack.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The British totally raped the country, and were ready to leave when Ghandi came along.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Negro mounted the mare, grinning from ear to ear, and thus conducted the left wing of the British army into Massachusetts, on their road to Boston.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the war had begun.^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prev Next Despite initial resistance to their participation, black soldiers fought for the patriot cause in every major battle of the Revolutionary War, including the military engagement that began it on April 19, 1775 -- the battles of Lexington and Concord.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The militia converged on Boston, bottling up the British in the city. .About 4,500 more British soldiers arrived by sea, and on June 17, 1775, British forces under General William Howe seized the Charlestown peninsula at the Battle of Bunker Hill.^ Peter Salem, Salem Poor, and Jude Hall were soldiers at Bunker Hill, June, 1775.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although documents show that Poor, along with his regiment and two others, were sent to Bunker Hill to build a fort and other fortifications on the night of June 16, 1775, we have no details about just what Poor did to earn the praise of these officers.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans fell back, but British losses were so heavy that the attack was not followed up.^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can it be accidental that in 1775, with the British army bottled up in Boston, the American leadership took the opportunity to launch a nearly successful, and then ultimately disastrous, attack on Canada?
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inman, George , Lieut, 16th Foot, "Losses of the (British) Military and Naval Forces Engaged in the War of the American Revolution" , 1784.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.The siege was not broken, and Gage was soon replaced by Howe as the British commander-in-chief.^ William Howe , Gage’s replacement, to evacuate Boston on March 17, 1776.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[17]
.In July 1775, newly appointed General Washington arrived outside Boston to take charge of the colonial forces and to organize the Continental Army.^ Joined Continental Army, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the soldier and other black and American Indian Minutemen were rebuffed by General George Washington when he arrived in July 1775 to take command of a "salt and pepper" army.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As administrator of the estate he appointed Samuel Smith attorney to settle the Continental Army Accounts of (his son?
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources.^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington through the Continental Army camp at …[Credits : The Granger Collection, New York] Surrender of Lord Cornwallis (at Yorktown, Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Arsenals were raided and some manufacturing was attempted; 90% of the supply (2 million pounds) was imported by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[18]
The standoff continued throughout the fall and winter. In early March 1776, heavy cannons that the patriots had captured at Fort Ticonderoga were brought to Boston by Colonel Henry Knox, and placed on Dorchester Heights. Since the artillery now overlooked the British positions, Howe's situation was untenable, and the British fled on March 17, 1776, sailing to their naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia.[19] .Washington then moved most of the Continental Army to fortify New York City.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Quebec

.Three weeks after the siege of Boston began, a troop of militia volunteers led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga, a strategically important point on Lake Champlain between New York and the Province of Quebec.^ Troops sent to New York.

^ I am indebted to Rev. Theodore Parker, of Boston, for the following historical sketch of the New York colored soldiery:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "September 6th, 1781, New London was taken by the British, under the command of that arch traitor, Benedict Arnold.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After that action they also raided Fort St. John's, not far from Montreal, which alarmed the population and the authorities there. In response, Quebec's governor Guy Carleton began fortifying St. John's, and opened negotiations with the Iroquois and other Native American tribes for their support. These actions, combined with lobbying by both Allen and Arnold and the fear of a British attack from the north, eventually persuaded the Congress to authorize an invasion of Quebec, with the goal of driving the British military from that province. (Quebec was then frequently referred to as Canada, as most of its territory included the former French Province of Canada.)
Two Quebec-bound expeditions were undertaken. On September 28, 1775, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery marched north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,700 militiamen, besieging and capturing Fort St. Jean on November 2 and then Montreal on November 13. General Carleton escaped to Quebec City and began preparing that city for an attack. The second expedition, led by Colonel Arnold, went through the wilderness of what is now northern Maine. It was a logistical nightmare, with 300 men turning back, and another 200 perishing due to the difficult conditions. .By the time Arnold reached Quebec City in early November, he had but 600 of his original 1,100 men.^ Page 293 reached only 3,600, it will be seen that the 'men of color' were present in much larger proportion than their numbers in the country warranted.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Montgomery's force joined Arnold's, and they attacked Quebec City on December 31, but were defeated by Carleton in a battle that ended with Montgomery dead, Arnold wounded, and over 400 Americans taken prisoner.^ Killed in Quebec attack, December 31, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was taken and burnt, while the Americans, lacking numbers to compete with their enemies, were obliged to return, although, had the Virginia troops, which were but a few miles distant, come up, they would have been able to make a stand."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining Americans held on outside Quebec City until the spring of 1776, suffering from poor camp conditions and smallpox, and then withdrew when a squadron of British ships under Captain Charles Douglas arrived to relieve the siege.^ Trough Spring remained his home until death, 1811.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was with his company in the siege of Fort Catskill, where they endured great suffering from cold and starvation, until at last relieved by the arrival of General Washington, who was overjoyed on finding them unexpectedly alive, and holding the fort.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joel Taborn was living in Nash County in 1776 when he enlisted in the company of Captain Tarrent under Colonel Lytle.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another attempt was made by the Americans to push back towards Quebec, but they failed at Trois-Rivières on June 8, 1776. Carleton then launched his own invasion and defeated Arnold at the Battle of Valcour Island in October.^ "On inquiry, the Bostonian learned that these were the bones of colored American soldiers, who fell in the disastrous battles of Long Island, in 1776, and of such as died of the wounds then received.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On investigation they proved to be the bones of colored American soldiers, who fell in the battle of Long Island in 1776.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arnold fell back to Fort Ticonderoga, where the invasion had begun. While the invasion ended as a disaster for the Americans, Arnold's efforts in 1776 delayed a full-scale British counteroffensive until the Saratoga campaign of 1777.
.The invasion cost the Americans their base of support in British public opinion, "So that the violent measures towards America are freely adopted and countenanced by a majority of individuals of all ranks, professions, or occupations, in this country."^ He was living in the State of Jersey, and parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the servant of a captain of the British army, in the Revolution, and, at the age of sixteen, deserted to the American army, and has remained in this country ever since.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20] .It gained them at best limited support in the population of Quebec, which, while somewhat supportive early in the invasion, became less so later during the occupation, when American policies against suspected Loyalists became harsher, and the army's hard currency ran out.^ French expeditionary army sent to help the American Revolution during 1780 to 1782 .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He enlisted as a minute man in 1774, and became connected with the American army.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Two small regiments of Canadiens were recruited during the operation, and they were with the army on its retreat back to Ticonderoga.^ Way back during the American revolution the founding fathers had this whole constitutional republic mapped out to replace the English monarchy they were fighting.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Crittendon and Luke Cannon, officers of the 15th Virginia Regiment, recruited Jesse Kelly to serve in the army.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

New York and New Jersey

.Having withdrawn his army from Boston, General Howe now focused on capturing New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am indebted to Rev. Theodore Parker, of Boston, for the following historical sketch of the New York colored soldiery:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To defend the city, General Washington divided his 20,000 soldiers between Long Island and Manhattan.^ It has long been well known, that to the colored soldiers belonged the honor of first erecting the cotton-bale defences which so signally contributed to General Jackson's victory.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On investigation they proved to be the bones of colored American soldiers, who fell in the battle of Long Island in 1776.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While British troops were assembling on Staten Island for the campaign, Washington had the newly issued Declaration of American Independence read to his men.^ Eelking, Max von , German Allied Troops in the North American War of Independence, 1776-1783 , 1893, Albany : Joel Munsell's Sons.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was living in the State of Jersey, and parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No longer was there any possibility of compromise.^ There is no longer any room for hope.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I warn you that it is simply no longer possible to make the finest laces; the fine linen threads are no longer produced, nor are the hair-fine pins needed, and the techniques have been lost.
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no longer time to change this situation one election at a time.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 27, 1776, after landing about 22,000 men on Long Island, the British drove the Americans back to Brooklyn Heights, securing a decisive British victory in the largest battle of the entire Revolution.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Named in honor of first Battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Howe then laid siege to fortifications there. .In a feat considered by many historians to be one of his most impressive actions as Commander in Chief, Washington personally directed the withdrawal of his entire remaining army and all their supplies across the East River in one night without discovery by the British or the loss of a single man or any materiel.^ Page 33         JAMES EASTON, of Bridgewater, was one who participated in the erection of the fortifications on Dorchester Heights, under command of Washington, which the next morning so greatly surprised the British soldiers then encamped in Boston.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But, above all, the laboring class, which in other countries affords the materials of which armies are composed, is regarded at the South as the most deadly foe .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commander on that occasion, a man of the fiercest prejudices, and all persons around him, would have an obvious .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.On September 15, Howe landed about 12,000 men on lower Manhattan, quickly taking control of New York City.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DEGRASSE has since resided in New York city, where, for more than fifty years, he has regularly voted for United States and State officers.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hear what the Common Council of New York city said of that battle to Commodore Macdonough.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Americans withdrew to Harlem Heights, where they skirmished the next day but held their ground.^ More and more, each and every day, those Americans are coming to terms with the fact they are listening to a gang of lying traitors.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He steered eastwardly in the day time, but put about at night, and thus kept near the American coast, until the 26th of August, when they were taken by Lieut.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the American people were to ever find out what we have been doing they would string us up on lamppost.” That day is quickly coming.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Howe moved to encircle Washington's army in October, the Americans again fell back, and a battle at White Plains was fought on October 28. Again Washington retreated, and Howe returned to Manhattan and captured Fort Washington in mid November, taking about 2,000 prisoners (with an additional 1,000 having been captured during the battle for Long Island).^ French expeditionary army sent to help the American Revolution during 1780 to 1782 .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In his first known military incursion, the June, 1778 Battle of Monmouth (in which not a single black from the county fought for the patriots), Tye captured a captain in the Monmouth militia.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His widow Dorcas moved to Baltimore about 1846 where she applied for and received a survivor's pension on 21 November 1853 [M804-2246, frame 0927].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus began the infamous "prison ships" system the British maintained in New York for the remainder of the war, in which more American soldiers and sailors died of neglect than died in every battle of the entire war, combined.^ Died in New York, 1794.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WILLIAM BURLEIGH was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought in the battle of North Point.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]
Emanuel Leutze's stylized depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851)
.General Lord Cornwallis continued to chase Washington's army through New Jersey, until the Americans withdrew across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania in early December.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This city of refuge, in the midst of society, has endured from generation to generation, and is likely to continue until slavery is abolished throughout the land.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

With the campaign at an apparent conclusion for the season, the British entered winter quarters. .Although Howe had missed several opportunities to crush the diminishing American army, he had killed or captured over 5,000 Americans.^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On land the Americans assembled both state militias and the Continental (national) Army, with approximately 20,000 men, mostly farmers, fighting at any given time.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The outlook of the Continental Army was bleak. ."These are the times that try men's souls," wrote Thomas Paine, who was with the army on the retreat.^ Sir, these were times which tried men's souls.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And who knows but these same sort of traders may, in a short time, in like manner bewail the loss of the African traffic, to their shame and confusion?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These facts were given me on the spot, at the time of the laying of the cornerstone, by two veterans who were present at the battle."
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The army had dwindled to fewer than 5,000 men fit for duty, and would be reduced to 1,400 after enlistments expired at the end of the year.^ On 25 October 1776, the roughly 280 men still fit for duty in the regiment took part in the battle of White Plains.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I served in the Revolution, in General Washington's army, three years under one enlistment.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 31 December, the end of the enlistment term, only six men, officers included, remained.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Congress had abandoned Philadelphia in despair, although popular resistance to British occupation was growing in the countryside.^ The York, Pa., lawyer also served in the Continental Congress during that body's visit to York County after British troops forced members from Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Continental Congress came here in 1777-78 after the British pushed them out of the comforts of Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Washington decided to take the offensive, stealthily crossing the Delaware on Christmas night and capturing nearly 1,000 Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on December 26, 1776. Cornwallis marched to retake Trenton but was outmaneuvered by Washington, who successfully attacked the British rearguard at Princeton on January 3, 1777. Washington then entered winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey, having given a morale boost to the American cause.^ Instrumental in success at Trenton, 1776, and Princeton, 1777, where he was bayonetted to death by Hessians.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the engravings of Washington crossing the Delaware on the evening previous to the battle of Trenton, Dec.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was present at the battle of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth and Yorktown and at the memorable crossing of the Delaware on December 25, 1776.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Jersey militia continued to harass British and Hessian forces throughout the winter, forcing the British to retreat to their base in and around New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the harsh winter of 1779, Tye was among an elite group of twenty-four black Loyalists, known as the Black Brigade, who joined with the Queen's Rangers, a British guerrilla unit, to protect New York City and to conduct raids for food and fuel.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At every stage the British strategy assumed a large base of Loyalist supporters would rally to the King given some military support.^ Some time after, when no response was heard to his repeated bell-ringing, it occurred to him that he had given every one of his slaves a pass to go to the Methodist meeting.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In February 1776 Clinton took 2,000 men and a naval squadron to invade North Carolina, which he called off when he learned the Loyalists had been crushed at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge.^ He recorded a certificate of his discharge from his service as a soldier in the North Carolina Line on 18 February 1788 in New Hanover County [ NCGSJ XI:114].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Library of Congress record: Author: DeMond, Robert Orley, 1889- Title: The loyalists in North Carolina during the revolution, by Robert O. DeMond ...
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Isaac Carter, called a "Mulatto" in his Revolutionary War pension application, enlisted in the 8th North Carolina Regiment on 1 September 1777, was taken prisoner, and was discharged on 20 February 1780 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina , 98].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June he tried to seize Charleston, South Carolina, the leading port in the South, hoping for a simultaneous rising in South Carolina.^ Installment "A-15", 12 June 1779, pp.123-128 , South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine , V.16, South Carolina Historical Society, 1915.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Installment "A-14", 1 June 1779, pp.80-85 , South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine , V.16, South Carolina Historical Society, 1915.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He marched to Charleston, South Carolina, to James Island, and received his discharge in Wilmington on 1 August 1783.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It seemed a cheap way of waging the war but it failed as the naval force was defeated by the forts and because no local Loyalists attacked the town from behind.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Not to mention the insertion of Local Union thugs who are now physically attacking attendants (opponents) of Obamacare at these town hall meetings.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The loyalists were too poorly organized to be effective, but as late as 1781 senior officials in London, misled by Loyalist exiles, placed their confidence in their rising.[citation needed]

Saratoga and Philadelphia

Mohawk leader Joseph Brant led both Native Americans and white Loyalists in battle.
"The surrender at Saratoga" shows General Daniel Morgan in front of a French de Vallière 4-pounder.
Washington and Lafayette look over the troops at Valley Forge.
.When the British began to plan operations for 1777, they had two main armies in North America: Carleton's army in Quebec, and Howe's army in New York.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Captured by the British at Brandywine, 1777, and held prisoner two years.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Woodford was taken prisoner at fall of Charleston, later died in captivity under the British at New York, 1780.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In London, Lord George Germain approved campaigns for these armies which, because of miscommunication, poor planning, and rivalries between commanders, did not work in conjunction.^ As they recently did to one man who was working at the event, he was thrown on the ground and kicked repeatedly by four of these Union cowards.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Howe successfully captured Philadelphia, the northern army was lost in a disastrous surrender at Saratoga.^ Saratoga , he was forced to surrender his army.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Both Carleton and Howe resigned after the 1777 campaign.

Saratoga campaign

.The first of the 1777 campaigns was an expedition from Quebec led by General John Burgoyne.^ He used his Ella Baker Center to advocate “inclusive” environmentalism and launch a Green-Collar Jobs Campaign, which led to the nation’s first Green Jobs Corps in Oakland, Calif.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.The goal was to seize the Lake Champlain and Hudson River corridor, effectively isolating New England from the rest of the American colonies.^ Union of New England Colonies.

^ The New England Colonies.

Burgoyne's invasion had two components: he would lead about 10,000 men along Lake Champlain towards Albany, New York, while a second column of about 2,000 men, led by Barry St. Leger, would move down the Mohawk River Valley and link up with Burgoyne in Albany, New York.
Burgoyne set off in June, and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga in early July. Thereafter, his march was slowed by Americans who literally knocked down trees in his path. .A detachment was sent out to seize supplies but was decisively defeated in the Battle of Bennington by American militia in August, depriving Burgoyne of nearly 1,000 men.^ In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meanwhile, St. Leger—half of his force Native Americans led by Sayenqueraghta—had laid siege to Fort Stanwix. American militiamen and their Native American allies marched to relieve the siege but were ambushed and scattered at the Battle of Oriskany. When a second relief expedition approached, this time led by Benedict Arnold, St. Leger's Indian support abandoned him, forcing him to break off the siege and return to Quebec.
.Burgoyne's army had been reduced to about 6,000 men by the loss at Bennington and the need to garrison Ticonderoga, and he was running short on supplies.^ Two years after, he was a volunteer in the expedition to Ticonderoga, to stop the inroads of Burgoyne's Northern army.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.
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Despite these setbacks, he determined to push on towards Albany. .An American army of 8,000 men, commanded by the General Horatio Gates, had entrenched about 10 miles (16 km) south of Saratoga, New York.^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within a recent period, several military companies have been formed in New York city, exclusively of colored men.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 16, 1777, the "Green Mountain Boys," aided by troops from New Hampshire and a few from Massachusetts, commanded by General Stark, captured the left wing of the British army near Bennington.
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.Burgoyne tried to outflank the Americans but was checked at the first battle of Saratoga in September.^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
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^ He served through the Revolutionary War, and was at the battles of Saratoga and Stillwater, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fitch, William Edward , Some Neglected History of North Carolina, Being an Account of the Revolution of the Regulators and of the Battle of Alamance, the First Battle of the American Revolution , Neale Publ.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Burgoyne's situation was desperate, but he now hoped that help from Howe's army in New York City might be on the way.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
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^ DEGRASSE has since resided in New York city, where, for more than fifty years, he has regularly voted for United States and State officers.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

It was not: Howe had instead sailed away on his expedition to capture Philadelphia. .American militiamen flocked to Gates' army, swelling his force to 11,000 by the beginning of October.^ Facts, figures &c Military History Of The American Revolution: Proceedings Of The Military History Symposium (6th) Held At The Air Force Academy, Colorado, On 10-11 October 1974 , Air Force Academy, 1976.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Military History Of The American Revolution: Proceedings Of The Military History Symposium (6th) Held At The Air Forge Academy, Colorado, On 10-11 October 1974 , Air Force Academy, 1976.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

After being badly beaten at the second battle of Saratoga, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17.
Saratoga was the turning point of the war. Revolutionary confidence and determination, suffering from Howe's successful occupation of Philadelphia, was renewed. .What is more important, the victory encouraged France to make an open alliance with the Americans, after two years of semi-secret support.^ But more than two years would pass until his emancipation on January 9, 1787.
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^ Attucks was the first to fall, being conspicuous on account of his height, which was six feet and two inches, and the still more important fact that he was in advance of his men.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He remained in this situation for two years, and then enlisted,--a mere boy,--in the American army, to risk his life in defence of the holy cause of liberty.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For the British, the war had now become much more complicated.^ Many persons have now become much interested in the promotion of his prospect, some of whom are elevated in office and literary attainments.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Philadelphia campaign

.Having secured New York City in 1776, General Howe concentrated on capturing Philadelphia, the seat of the Revolutionary government, in 1777. He moved slowly, landing 15,000 troops in late August at the northern end of Chesapeake Bay.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you could capture a city like Minneapolis how do you plan to run it after it’s over?
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.Washington positioned his 11,000 men between Howe and Philadelphia but was driven back at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. The Continental Congress again abandoned Philadelphia, and on September 26, Howe finally outmaneuvered Washington and marched into the city unopposed.^ Militia from 1776-1780, Cash took part in the battles of Brandywine and Monmouth, several skirmishes, and was with Washington at Valley Forge.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After seeing action at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in 1776 and 1777, Brandywine in 1777, Monmouth in 1778 and Yorktown in 1781, he left the military at war's end.
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^ He gave power of attorney to Thomas Nuse to receive his final settlement for service in the Continental Line on 9 September 1791.
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.Washington unsuccessfully attacked the British encampment in nearby Germantown in early October and then retreated to watch and wait.^ Enlisted early in Revolution and was with Washington at British surrender at Yorktown, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After repelling a British attack at White Marsh, Washington and his army encamped at Valley Forge in December 1777, about 20 miles (32 km) from Philadelphia, where they stayed for the next six months.^ Militia from 1776-1780, Cash took part in the battles of Brandywine and Monmouth, several skirmishes, and was with Washington at Valley Forge.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page 33         JAMES EASTON, of Bridgewater, was one who participated in the erection of the fortifications on Dorchester Heights, under command of Washington, which the next morning so greatly surprised the British soldiers then encamped in Boston.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Steuben instructed Washington's army at Valley Forge and was first Inspector General of the Army.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the winter, 2,500 men (out of 10,000) died from disease and exposure.^ H. Olmstead has done, in his report on Colonization to the Legislature of 1851, that "the colored men in this State are dying out, their hopes crushed, their manhood gone"?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then 10,000 people came pouring out of the stands and beat the s--- out of those cops.
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.The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a training program supervised by Baron von Steuben, who introduced the most modern Prussian methods of organization and tactics.^ Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Militia from 1776-1780, Cash took part in the battles of Brandywine and Monmouth, several skirmishes, and was with Washington at Valley Forge.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steuben instructed Washington's army at Valley Forge and was first Inspector General of the Army.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General Clinton replaced Howe as British commander-in-chief.^ If a colored man may be by the Constitution 'Captain General and Commander-in-chief and Admiral' of the Commonwealth, should he be denied admission into the ranks of her volunteer militia?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ General Sullivan, Commander-in-chief.

.French entry into the war had changed British strategy, and Clinton abandoned Philadelphia to reinforce New York City, now vulnerable to French naval power.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons.
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^ His son did return, indeed, a scholar of the highest order, and is now Professor of Belles Lettres in Central College, McGrawville, N. Y. When he applied for admission to the bar, it was granted, after a successful examination in open Court in New York city.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Washington shadowed Clinton on his withdrawal and forced a strategic victory at the battle at Monmouth on June 28, 1778, the last major battle in the north.^ In his first known military incursion, the June, 1778 Battle of Monmouth (in which not a single black from the county fought for the patriots), Tye captured a captain in the Monmouth militia.
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^ Was in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth and Yorktown, at which place he claims to have seen the last man killed.
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^ After seeing action at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in 1776 and 1777, Brandywine in 1777, Monmouth in 1778 and Yorktown in 1781, he left the military at war's end.
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.Clinton's army went to New York City in July, arriving just before a French fleet under Admiral d'Estaing arrived off the American coast.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ Friends and foes warmly contested what constituted a colored man under the New York statute.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Washington's army returned to White Plains, New York, north of the city.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His son did return, indeed, a scholar of the highest order, and is now Professor of Belles Lettres in Central College, McGrawville, N. Y. When he applied for admission to the bar, it was granted, after a successful examination in open Court in New York city.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although both armies were back where they had been two years earlier, the nature of the war had now changed.^ He remained in this situation for two years, and then enlisted,--a mere boy,--in the American army, to risk his life in defence of the holy cause of liberty.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife was fifty years old and they had three unnamed sons residing with them: twenty-four years old, twenty-two years old, and seventeen years old.
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^ Two years after, he was a volunteer in the expedition to Ticonderoga, to stop the inroads of Burgoyne's Northern army.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[32]

An international war, 1778–1783

.In 1778, the war over the rebellion in North America became international, spreading not only to Europe but to European colonies in the West Indies and in India.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that he was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, and moved to the part of Duplin County which became Sampson County before the war [M804-1627].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His second voyage was to the West Indies; but on his third, which was during the American war, about the year 1776, he was captured by a British ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.From 1776 France had informally been involved, with French admiral Latouche Tréville having provided supplies, ammunition and guns from France to the United States after Thomas Jefferson had encouraged a French alliance, and guns such as de Valliere type were used, playing an important role in such battles as the Battle of Saratoga.^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ July 1776 / French Alliance .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Note: One aspect receiving little notice is that slaves were used as collateral for loans, thus complicating the ability of owners to free them, e.g., Thomas Jefferson.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .George Washington wrote about the French supplies and guns in a letter to General Heath on 2 May 1777. After learning of the American victory at Saratoga, France signed the Treaty of Alliance with the United States on February 6, 1778, formalizing the Franco-American alliance negotiated by Benjamin Franklin.^ We find him, therefore, sending a copy of his first almanac to Mr. Jefferson, the Secretary of State under General Washington, with an excellent letter, to which Mr. Jefferson made the following reply:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major Mitchell, of the United States army, had burned into his forehead the letter M., that thus he might be identified as Mitchell's slave.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Spain entered the war as an ally of France in June 1779, a renewal of the Bourbon Family Compact.^ Andrews, John , An History Of The War With America, France, Spain, And Holland Begun In 1775, And Ended In 1783 .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike France, Spain initially refused to recognize the independence of the United States, because Spain was not keen on encouraging similar anti-colonial rebellions in the Spanish Empire.^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ F. Hallett] said,--"If Massachusetts should send a colored commander-in-chief at the head of her militia, the United States would not recognise his authority, and would at once supersede him ."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the king's message to Parliament, of March 7, 1774, to the Declaration of independence by the United States ...
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both countries had quietly provided assistance to the Americans since the beginning of the war, hoping to dilute British power.^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When they declare war on the American People as a whole, in order to stop this *rage*, is when the real rage will begin.
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^ Attucks' martyrdom is said to have acted as a catalyst for the American colonists' eventual war for liberty and freedom from British rule.
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So too had the Dutch Republic, which was formally brought into the war at the end of 1780.
.In London King George III gave up hope of subduing America by more armies while Britain had a European war to fight.^ Fortescue, John William , A History of the British Army , Vol.III, 1763-1793, 1902, Macmillan, London.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The city was burnt in the last war with Britain, for which the Americans may thank their pet 'institution' as much as the invading army.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

"It was a joke," he said, "to think of keeping Pennsylvania." .There was no hope of recovering New England.^ There is no longer any room for hope.
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^ There are no New England moderates left in the House, and only two in the Senate.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The New England Quarterly IV, no.
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.But the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal."^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Delaware’s contributions to American independence did not end with the war.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
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[34] .His plan was to keep the 30,000 men garrisoned in New York, Rhode Island, Quebec, and Florida; other forces would attack the French and Spanish in the West Indies.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ JACK GROVE, of Portland, while steward of a brig, sailing from the West Indies to Portland, in 1812, was taken by a French vessel, whose commander placed a guard on board.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As far back as September 30, 1999, the New York Times reported that: .
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.To punish the Americans the King planned to destroy their coasting-trade, bombard their ports; sack and burn towns along the coast (as Benedict Arnold did to New London, Connecticut in 1781), and turn loose the Native Americans to attack civilians in frontier settlements.^ "September 6th, 1781, New London was taken by the British, under the command of that traitor, Arnold.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Patriot-turned-traitor Benedict Arnold was commander of the British Army in Virginia.
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^ Page 137         The seventy-second anniversary of the memorable tragedy at Groton Heights, in 1781, was celebrated by the people of New London and vicinity, on Wednesday, September 7, 1853.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These operations, the King felt, would inspire the Loyalists; would splinter the Congress; and "would keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse" and they would beg to return to his authority.^ Alan Greenspan testified before Congress that he never imagined the private sector banks would act against their own interests as they did.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Senators need to have terrible days, until they ‘act right’” .
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ They are the enemy, holding titles that would fool us into believing that they are our protectors.
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[35] .The plan meant destruction for the Loyalists and loyal Native Americans, an indefinite prolongation of a costly war, and the risk of disaster as the French and Spanish assembled an armada to invade the British Isles.^ He converses in three or four different languages,--the French, Spanish and German, besides his native African tongue."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He converses in three or four different languages, -- the French, Spanish and German, besides his native African tongue."
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British planned to re-subjugate the rebellious colonies after dealing with the Americans' European allies.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Widening of the naval war

Combat de la Dominique, April 17, 1780, by Auguste Louis de Rossel de Cercy (1736–1804).
.When the war began, the British had overwhelming naval superiority over the American colonists.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
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^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
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^ Attucks' martyrdom is said to have acted as a catalyst for the American colonists' eventual war for liberty and freedom from British rule.
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The Royal Navy had over 100 ships of the line and many frigates and smaller craft, although this fleet was old and in poor condition, a situation which would be blamed on Lord Sandwich, the First Lord of the Admiralty. .During the first three years of the war, the Royal Navy was primarily used to transport troops for land operations and to protect commercial shipping.^ Givens, of Cynthiana, to serve three years or during the war.
  • Prentice Thomas Tinney Family Lineages: American Revolutionary War Descendant 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.academic-genealogy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not available because of World War II. The doctor could not obtain it because it was being given first to the troops on the front lines of battle.
  • Prentice Thomas Tinney Family Lineages: American Revolutionary War Descendant 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.academic-genealogy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Members were elected during alternate years for three year terms.
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.The American colonists had no ships of the line, and relied extensively on privateering to harass British shipping.^ Attucks' martyrdom is said to have acted as a catalyst for the American colonists' eventual war for liberty and freedom from British rule.
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^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
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^ A surgeon on board an American privateer, who experienced the tender mercies of the British Government in .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The privateers caused worry disproportionate to their material success, although those operating out of French channel ports before and after France joined the war caused significant embarrassment to the Royal Navy and inflamed Anglo-French relations.^ Before Lafayette's views were fully executed, the French Revolution occurred, which interrupted his operations and made the slaves free at .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles include: Operations in Georgia Alliance with France Operations in St. Lucia St. Vincent taken by French Stono Ferry "Scotch-Irish American" from Wikipedia.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.About 55,000 American sailors served aboard the privateers during the war.^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
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^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
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^ Served entire Revolutionary War, rising from private to captain.
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[36] The American privateers had almost 1,700 ships, and they captured 2,283 enemy ships.[37] .The Continental Congress authorized the creation of a small Continental Navy in October 1775, which was primarily used for commerce raiding.^ In the first provincial convention, 1774; Continental Congress, 1775-77 and 1779.
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^ President of Continental Congress, 1775-77, and bold first signer of the Declaration of Independence.
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.John Paul Jones became the first great American naval hero, capturing HMS Drake on April 24, 1778, the first victory for any American military vessel in British waters.^ "He was one of the first American heroes.
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^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
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^ John Toney was a "Free Mulatto" added to Wood Jones' list of tithables for Amelia County on 27 November 1766 [Orders 1766-9, 24].
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[38]
.France's formal entry into the war meant that British naval superiority was now contested.^ "There is not a gentleman," said he, "on this floor, who is a stranger to the feeble situation of our State, when we entered into the war to oppose the British power.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How dumb to revolt now when we were under occupation of a dictator and lost our rights went into a fake war, believed a fake 9/11.
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^ Inman, George , Lieut, 16th Foot, "Losses of the (British) Military and Naval Forces Engaged in the War of the American Revolution" , 1784.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Franco-American alliance began poorly, however, with failed operations at Rhode Island in 1778 and Savannah, Georgia, in 1779. Part of the problem was that France and the United States had different military priorities: France hoped to capture British possessions in the West Indies before helping to secure American independence.^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
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^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
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.While French financial assistance to the American war effort was already of critical importance, French military aid to the Americans would not show positive results until the arrival in July 1780 of a large force of soldiers led by the Comte de Rochambeau.^ Arrival of a large British Force.

^ Topics include: Bibliography Comte de Rochambeau , Yorktown Campaign , French Regiments in America , French Naval Leaders in the American War for Independence, Marquis de Lafayette , French Volunteers in American Forces , French-American Alliance of 1778-1800 , Caron de Beaumarchais and Hortalez & Cie.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spain entered the war as a French ally with the goal of recapturing Gibraltar and Minorca, which it had lost to the British in 1704. Gibraltar was besieged for more than three years, but the British garrison stubbornly resisted and was resupplied twice: once after Admiral Rodney's victory over Juan de Lángara in the 1780 "Moonlight Battle", and again after Admiral Richard Howe fought Luis de Córdova y Córdova to a draw in the Battle of Cape Spartel. Further Franco-Spanish efforts to capture Gibraltar were unsuccessful. .One notable success took place on February 5, 1782, when Spanish and French forces captured Minorca, which Spain retained after the war.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
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^ It took place in the township of Woodbridge, County of Middlesex, in this State, on the Fourth of July, 1783, being the first anniversary of our Independence, after the close of the Revolutionary War.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Not a single one of his so-called “predictions” has every been credibly validated by a third party as being written before the events he “predicted” took place.
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Ambitious plans for an invasion of England in 1779 had to be abandoned.

West Indies and Gulf Coast

.There was much action in the West Indies, with several islands changing hands, especially in the Lesser Antilles.^ There she found several robust, healthy females, exhibited at the same time with Phillis, who was of a slender frame, and evidently suffering from change of climate.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "As soon as this infamous transaction was known, Governor Hancock and M. L. Etombe, the French consul, wrote letters to the governors of all the islands in the West Indies, in favor of the decoyed blacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A pamphlet containing the case of a negro who had accompanied his master from the West Indies to England, and had there sued for and obtained his freedom, was reprinted here, and this encouraged several others to sue their masters for their freedom, and recompense for their services.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the Battle of the Saintes in April 1782, a victory by Rodney's fleet over the French Admiral de Grasse frustrated the hopes of France and Spain to take Jamaica and other colonies from the British.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
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^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
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^ The British and French Fleets.

.On May 8, 1782, Count Bernardo de Gálvez, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, captured the British naval base at New Providence in the Bahamas.^ Roderick Mackenzie ; to which is added, a detail of the siege of Ninety Six, and the re-capture of the island of New-Providence.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Edited by Neeser, Robert Wilden, 1913, New York, Printed for the Naval History Society by the De Vinne press.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Bernardo de Gálvez" .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the Gulf Coast, Gálvez quickly removed the British from their outposts on the lower Mississippi River in 1779 in actions at Manchac and Baton Rouge in British West Florida.^ Captain James Willing, USN, with US Marines, 1778-1779 raid on the Mississippi River Google book search, all books , "james willing" 1778 OR 1779.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, here and here A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Top H Ha He Hi Ho Hu Haarmann, Albert W. , "The Spanish Conquest Of British West Florida, 1779-1781" , The Florida Historical Quarterly , Volume 39 Issue 2, Florida Historical Society, St. Augustine, Florida, October 1960.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gálvez then captured Mobile in 1780 and stormed and captured the British citadel and capital of Pensacola in 1781. His actions led to the Spanish acquisition East and West Florida in the peace settlement.^ West Florida captured by Galvez , p.45.
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^ He commanded expedition into Illinois territory in 1778-79, taking the British forts which held the northwest for future US settlement, and capturing commander of area.
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^ His second voyage was to the West Indies; but on his third, which was during the American war, about the year 1776, he was captured by a British ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Gálvez' success denied the British the opportunity of encircling the American rebels from the south, and kept open a vital conduit for supplies. .George Washington took him to his right in the parade of July 4 and the American Congress cited Gálvez for his aid during the Revolution.^ Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution .
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^ French expeditionary army sent to help the American Revolution during 1780 to 1782 .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Klingler, Caleb , "Who was the American soldier during American Revolution?
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

[39][40]
Norteamerica, 1792, Jaillot-Elwe, Florida's borders after Bernardo Gálvez's military actions.
.Central America was also subject to conflict between Britain and Spain, as Britain sought to expand its influence beyond coastal logging and fishing communities in present-day Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua.^ He also possessed two small fishing boats; but his money was exhausted, and the cargo of his new vessel would require a considerable sum beyond his present stock.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Expeditions against San Fernando de Omoa in 1779 and San Juan in 1780 (the latter famously led by a young Horatio Nelson) met with only temporary success before being abandoned due to disease.^ "Being a very young person of color" he was first employed as a servant to the officers before being placed in the ranks a short time after his arrival in Charleston.
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^ With the Clark expedition against Indians, Chillicothe and Piqua, Ohio, 1780.
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^ The Lieutenant of Kentucky Co., Va., Col. John Bowman, led expedition from here against Shawnee Indians in Ohio, 1777.
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The Spanish colonial leaders, in turn, were unable to completely eliminate British influences along the Mosquito Coast. Except for the French acquisition of Tobago, sovereignty in the West Indies was returned to the status quo ante bellum in the peace of 1783.

India and the Netherlands

.When word reached India in 1778 that France had entered the war, British military forces moved quickly to capture French colonial outposts there, capturing Pondicherry after two months of siege.^ After a month at sea, the ship was captured by the British.
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^ The British did not have enough troops available to occupy the Thirteen Colonies in force.
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^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
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[41] .The capture of the French-controlled port of Mahé on India's west coast motivated Mysore's ruler Hyder Ali (who was already upset at other British actions, and benefited from trade through the port) to open the Second Anglo-Mysore War in 1780. Ali, and later his son Tipu Sultan, almost drove the British from southern India but was frustrated by weak French support, and the war ended status quo ante bellum with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore.^ Revolutionary War land grant for service through war attaining rank of Capt., 1780.
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^ In 1775, Hall and fourteen other free blacks joined a British army lodge of Masons who were stationed in Boston.
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^ War veteran who came to Ky., 1780.
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.French opposition was led in 1782 and 1783 by Admiral the Baillie de Suffren, who recaptured Trincomalee from the British and fought five celebrated, but largely inconclusive, naval engagements against British Admiral Sir Edward Hughes.^ I fought against the British for your sake.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moses Carter was a "man of color" who enlisted as a private in Captain Joseph Rhodes' 1st Regiment on 19 July 1782 until 1 July 1783.
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^ Prev Next Colonel Tye, the most feared and respected guerrilla commander of the Revolution, was one of the many enslaved Africans who escaped and fought for the British.
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[42] .France's Indian colonies were returned after the war.^ After returning home, Haitian veterans of the Revolutionary War led their own rebellion and in 1804 won Haiti's independence from France.
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Suffren meeting with ally Hyder Ali in 1783. J.B. Morret engraving, 1789
The Dutch Republic, nominally neutral, had been trading with the Americans, exchanging Dutch arms and munitions for American colonial wares (in contravention of the British Navigation Acts), primarily through activity based in St. Eustatius, before the French formally entered the war.[43] .The British considered this trade to include contraband military supplies and had attempted to stop it, at first diplomatically by appealing to previous treaty obligations, interpretation of whose terms the two nations disagreed on, and then by searching and seizing Dutch merchant ships.^ A Boston ship had brought home two negroes, seized on the coast of Guinea.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You’re forgetting two minor things: First once the carnage begins, there will be no stopping it until God intervenes.
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.The situation escalated when the British seized a Dutch merchant convoy sailing under Dutch naval escort in December 1779, prompting the Dutch to join the League of Armed Neutrality.^ Persuading a number of other slaves to go with him, they seized a boat, intending to join the British army, that by so doing they might become freemen.
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Britain responded to this decision by declaring war on the Dutch in December 1780, sparking the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.[44] The war was a military and economic disaster for the Dutch Republic. Paralyzed by internal political divisions, it was unable to effectively respond to British blockades of its coast and the capture of many of its colonies. .In the 1784 peace treaty between the two nations, the Dutch lost the Indian port of Negapatam and were forced to make trade concessions.^ In command, U.S. forces at Fallen Timbers, 1794, and negotiated Treaty of Greenville, 1795, which ended Indian wars in Old Northwest and raids into Ky.
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^ Get two men to love each other, though of two nations, and it will make them love the whole class."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45] .The Dutch Republic signed a friendship and trade agreement with the United States in 1782, and was the second country (after France) to formally recognize the United States.^ WILLIAM WELLS BROWN, on leaving the United States for Europe, obtained, through the intercession of a friend, a passport signed by Wm.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly afterwards, he was taken and sent back to Dartmoor--was exchanged a second time, and succeeded in reaching the United States.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ F. Hallett] said,--"If Massachusetts should send a colored commander-in-chief at the head of her militia, the United States would not recognise his authority, and would at once supersede him ."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[46]

Southern theater

.During the first three years of the American Revolutionary War, the primary military encounters were in the north, although some attempts to organize Loyalists were defeated, a British attempt at Charleston, South Carolina failed, and a variety of efforts to attack British forces in East Florida failed.^ Greene's Carolina campaign forced British to leave Charleston, 1782.
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^ Officer during Revolutionary War.
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^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
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.After French entry into the war, the British turned their attention to the southern colonies, where they hoped to regain control by recruiting Loyalists.^ He turned his attention to the British settlement at Sierra Leone, being induced to believe, from various communications .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The “Last Supper” and the result was a faith with a “Foundation of LOVE” and the “13″ colonies when they wrote a Constitution “Framed in FREEDOM.” With a foundation of LOVE, framed in FREEDOM a “HOUSE OF HOPE” was built.
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^ Regiment of Foot , Revolutionary War , rifle , John Rutledge , John Sevier , Isaac Shelby , Siege of Savannah , southern colonies (no article, Write one!
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This southern strategy also had the advantage of keeping the Royal Navy closer to the Caribbean, where the British needed to defend economically important possessions against the French and Spanish.
The British Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1782.
.On December 29, 1778, an expeditionary corps from Clinton's army in New York captured Savannah, Georgia.^ New York, 1776; at Saratoga, 1777, cut Burgoyne's communications with Canada; 1778, command of Southern Department.
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^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
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^ Greene, George Washington , The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution , Vol.1 (thru 1778) , 1867-71, New York, G. P. Putnam and Son.
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.An attempt by French and American forces to retake Savannah failed on October 9, 1779. Clinton then besieged Charleston, capturing it and most of the southern Continental Army on May 12, 1780. With relatively few casualties, Clinton had seized the South's biggest city and seaport, paving the way for what seemed like certain conquest of the South.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
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^ But, above all, the laboring class, which in other countries affords the materials of which armies are composed, is regarded at the South as the most deadly foe .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
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The remnants of the southern Continental Army began to withdraw to North Carolina but were pursued by Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton, who defeated them at the Waxhaws on May 29, 1780. With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion. .Cornwallis took over British operations, while Horatio Gates arrived to command the American effort.^ Lambert took the cattle from the team, and, making all secure, started for the point of defence, where he arrived before the British began the attack.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On August 16, 1780, Gates was defeated at the Battle of Camden, setting the stage for Cornwallis to invade North Carolina.^ He enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment [Clark, Colonial and State Records , 16:1047].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Title The Southern campaign, 1780 : Gates at Camden.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Click on "Search Books" Click on "Publications" At "Or, jump to titles beginning with:", enter north carolina, 1780 and click enter.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

Cornwallis' victories quickly turned, however. .One wing of his army was utterly defeated at the Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780, and Tarleton was decisively defeated by Daniel Morgan at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781. General Nathanael Greene, who replaced General Gates, proceeded to wear down the British in a series of battles, each of them tactically a victory for the British but giving no strategic advantage to the victors.^ Battle of King's Mountain, 1782.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The story of the Battle of Kings Mountain, October 7, 1780.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Daniel Morgan, who owned the land.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Greene summed up his approach in a motto that would become famous: "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again."^ I was asked a few clays since, at a meeting, if I was not afraid that the abolitionists would become tired, and give up the cause as hopeless.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By March, Greene's army had grown to the point were he felt that he could face Cornwallis directly.^ A battalion of colored troops was at the same time organized in the city, under an officer of the United States army; and they were on the point of marching to the frontier, when peace was proclaimed.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the key Battle of Guilford Court House, Cornwallis defeated Greene, but at tremendous cost, and without breaking Greene's army.^ Elisha James was listed among the militiamen from Northampton County who were paroled by Lord Cornwallis in Halifax in 1781, probably captured during the events surrounding the Battle of Guilford Court House on 15 March 1781 [ NCGSJ IV:149].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was in a skirmish near Dorchester, South Carolina, and was wounded in the leg at Guilford Court House.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grasse , grasshopper cannon , Battle of Great Bridge , Nathanael Greene , Battle of Guilford Courthouse , gunpowder warfare , guerrilla warfare , Battle of Hobkirk Hill (2 sentences, write one!
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.He retreated to Wilmington, North Carolina for resupply and reinforcement, after which he moved north into Virginia, leaving the Carolinas and Georgia open to Greene.^ Arthur Toney, born about 1764 in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, lived there until he was ten years old when he moved to Halifax County, North Carolina.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that he was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, and moved to the part of Duplin County which became Sampson County before the war [M804-1627].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moultrie, William , Memoirs of the American Revolution, so far as it related to the states of North and South Carolina, and Georgia , Volume II .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.In March 1781, General Washington dispatched General Lafayette to defend Virginia, and in April, a British force under the recently-turned Benedict Arnold landed there.^ Patriot-turned-traitor Benedict Arnold was commander of the British Army in Virginia.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He prepared himself, therefore, and laid himself down by Washington; and on the same straw, and under the same blanket, the General and the Negro servant slept until morning."
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "September 6th, 1781, New London was taken by the British, under the command of that traitor, Arnold.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Arnold moved through the Virginia countryside, destroying supply depots, mills, and other economic targets, before joining his army with that of Cornwallis.^ Patriot-turned-traitor Benedict Arnold was commander of the British Army in Virginia.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He remembers seeing Lord Cornwallis and his army, as well as other persons and things of note in those early days.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lafayette skirmished with Cornwallis, avoiding a decisive battle while gathering reinforcements. .Cornwallis was unable to trap Lafayette, and so he moved his forces to Yorktown, Virginia, in July so the Royal Navy could return his army to New York.^ Among them was James Armistead, who had slipped out of Yorktown before the siege began and returned to Lafayette's service.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prev Next When the British took control of New York City, where Williams lived, he moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Northern and western frontier

George Rogers Clark's 180 mile (290 km) winter march led to the capture of General Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec.
.West of the Appalachian Mountains and along the border with Quebec, the American Revolutionary War was an "Indian War". Most Native Americans supported the British.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attucks' martyrdom is said to have acted as a catalyst for the American colonists' eventual war for liberty and freedom from British rule.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like the Iroquois Confederacy, tribes such as the Cherokees and the Shawnees split into factions.
.The British supplied their native allies with muskets and gunpowder and advised raids against civilian settlements, especially in New York, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania.^ Woodford was taken prisoner at fall of Charleston, later died in captivity under the British at New York, 1780.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and Virginia were the only States represented.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Prev Next When the British took control of New York City, where Williams lived, he moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joint Iroquois-Loyalist attacks in the Wyoming Valley and at Cherry Valley in 1778 provoked Washington to send the Sullivan Expedition into western New York during the summer of 1779. There was little fighting as Sullivan systematically destroyed the Native American winter food supplies, forcing them to flee permanently to British bases in Quebec and the Niagara Falls area.^ During the harsh winter of 1779, Tye was among an elite group of twenty-four black Loyalists, known as the Black Brigade, who joined with the Queen's Rangers, a British guerrilla unit, to protect New York City and to conduct raids for food and fuel.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, the Virginia frontiersman George Rogers Clark attempted to neutralize British influence among the Ohio tribes by capturing the outposts of Kaskaskia and Cahokia and Vincennes in the summer of 1778. When General Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit, retook Vincennes, Clark returned in a surprise march in February 1779 and captured Hamilton himself.^ Northwest Campaign of George Rogers Clark, 1778.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Rogers Clark that captured Illinois country from British, 1778.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As surveyor, joined General George Rogers Clark, his cousin, in 1783.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In March 1782, Pennsylvania militiamen killed about a hundred neutral Native Americans in the Gnadenhütten massacre.^ Here lies the body of John Jack, a native of Africa,                          who died March, 1773, aged about 60 years.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

In one of the last major encounters of the war, a force of 200 Kentucky militia was defeated at the Battle of Blue Licks in August 1782.

Yorktown and the Surrender of Cornwallis

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by (John Trumbull, 1797).
.The northern, southern, and naval theaters of the war converged in 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia.^ In the Virginia campaign of the war and the Revolution and at surrender of Cornwallis, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After seeing action at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in 1776 and 1777, Brandywine in 1777, Monmouth in 1778 and Yorktown in 1781, he left the military at war's end.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In early September, French naval forces defeated a British fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, cutting off Cornwallis' escape.^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inman, George , Lieut, 16th Foot, "Losses of the (British) Military and Naval Forces Engaged in the War of the American Revolution" , 1784.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Washington hurriedly moved American and French troops from New York, and a combined Franco-American force of 17,000 men commenced the Siege of Yorktown in early October.^ Troops sent to New York.

^ During the Revolutionary War, he was commended for supplying American troops with baked goods at the Burlington docks, and reportedly given a silver piece by General Washington.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enlisted early in Revolution and was with Washington at British surrender at Yorktown, 1781.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For several days, the French and Americans bombarded the British defenses.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cornwallis' position quickly became untenable, and he surrendered his entire army of 7,000 men on October 19, 1781.
.With the surrender at Yorktown, King George lost control of Parliament to the peace party, and there were no further major military activities on land.^ There is no such party, never has been, never will be.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ There was no efficient law in the land except martial law, and that regarded no one as a slave.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you ask party activities, and I consider myself a party activist, we’re by and large very prochoice and look favorably on gun control.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.The British had 30,000 garrison troops occupying New York City, Charleston, and Savannah.^ Troops sent to New York.

^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war continued at sea between the British and the French fleets in the West Indies.^ JACK GROVE, of Portland, while steward of a brig, sailing from the West Indies to Portland, in 1812, was taken by a French vessel, whose commander placed a guard on board.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Uniforms of the American, British, French and German Armies in the War of the American Revolution, 1775-1783 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As soon as this infamous transaction was known, Governor Hancock and M. L. Etombe, the French consul, wrote letters to the governors of all the islands in the West Indies, in favor of the decoyed blacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[47]

Treaty of Paris

.In London, as political support for the war plummeted after Yorktown, Prime Minister Lord North resigned in March 1782. In April 1782, the Commons voted to end the war in America.^ Reviews: several brief reviews on Amazon Library of Congress record: Author: Phillips, Kevin P. Title: The cousins' wars : religion, politics, and the triumph of Anglo-America / Kevin Phillips.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After seeing action at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in 1776 and 1777, Brandywine in 1777, Monmouth in 1778 and Yorktown in 1781, he left the military at war's end.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chastellux, Marquis de , Travels in North America in the years 1780,1781,and 1782 , Vol.1, Published 1787.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

Preliminary peace articles were signed in Paris at the end of November, 1782; the formal end of the war did not occur until the Treaty of Paris and Treaties of Versailles were signed on September 3, 1783. The last British troops left New York City on November 25, 1783, and the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Paris treaty on January 14, 1784.
.Britain negotiated the Paris peace treaty without consulting her Native American allies and ceded all Native American territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River to the United States.^ The President of the United States shall praiseworthy was your conduct in the hour of danger, and the representatives of the American people will give you the praise your exploits entitle you to.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A battalion of colored troops was at the same time organized in the city, under an officer of the United States army; and they were on the point of marching to the frontier, when peace was proclaimed.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain's became freemen and citizens: those of the United States continued only half-free and slaves."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Full of resentment, Native Americans reluctantly confirmed these land cessions with the United States in a series of treaties, but the fighting would be renewed in conflicts along the frontier in the coming years, the largest being the Northwest Indian War.^ Who ever heard of a colored American being naturalized in the United States?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If we have not the power, or if its exercise would bring us in conflict with the laws of the United States, which we acknowledge to be the supreme laws of the land, we must submit to the necessity imposed upon us, and bow to what we cannot control.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With all of America’s vast technology, we are still at war, after what, 10 years… these people have been fighting each other for 2000 years, our technology did nothing to stop them, they simply outlasted the technology, which is what the American people will be forced to do.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]

Historical assessment

Advantages/disadvantages of the opposing sides

.During the war the Americans benefited greatly from international assistance.^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His second voyage was to the West Indies; but on his third, which was during the American war, about the year 1776, he was captured by a British ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

In addition, Britain had significant military disadvantages. Distance was a major problem: most troops and supplies had to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean. .The British usually had logistical problems whenever they operated away from port cities, while the Americans had local sources of manpower and food and were more familiar with (and accustomed to) the territory.^ Though proscribed themselves, they removed from the colored locality, opened a hall in the central part of the city, and magnanimously invited all to avail themselves of its benefits.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, ocean travel meant that British communications were always about two months out of date: by the time British generals in America received their orders from London, the military situation had usually changed.^ Entries show ledger number, account title, reason for disbursement (military, order of General Assembly, salaries, and services rendered to the state) or receipt (tax, fee, or fine collected), date of entry, totals, and reference to entry in a ledger.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These records include lists of pensioners, correspondence about receiving a pension or payment of a pension, petitions to receive a pension, descriptions of military service, and affidavits supporting pension claims.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De Lue, Willard Ireland and America, a comparison :how English readers received the "facts" about the American Revolution .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]
Suppressing a rebellion in America also posed other problems. .Since the colonies covered a large area and had not been united before the war, there was no central area of strategic importance.^ There is little attempt to cover the whole war (the Southern Campaign is relegated entirely to the last chapter alone.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no related pages for African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War .
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, there have been several Conventions held by colored Americans in different parts of the country, and no one can deny that some good has resulted therefrom.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Europe, the capture of a capital often meant the end of a war; in America, when the British seized cities such as New York and Philadelphia, the war continued unabated.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

.Furthermore, the large size of the colonies meant that the British lacked the manpower to control them by force.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British did not have enough troops available to occupy the Thirteen Colonies in force.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

Once any area had been occupied, troops had to be kept there or the Revolutionaries would regain control, and these troops were thus unavailable for further offensive operations. .The British had sufficient troops to defeat the Americans on the battlefield but not enough to simultaneously occupy the colonies.^ The British did not have enough troops available to occupy the Thirteen Colonies in force.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was living in the State of Jersey, and parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This manpower shortage became critical after French and Spanish entry into the war, because British troops had to be dispersed in several theaters, where previously they had been concentrated in America.^ "The French and Spanish blood from which they are sprung has not degenerated among us: it has preserved the primitive warmth and generosity which distinguish those two chivalric nations."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are now moving into the streets because they realize their reps don’t represent them and don’t give a s--- about a phone call, email, fax, whatever.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War
.The British also had the difficult task of fighting the war while simultaneously retaining the allegiance of Loyalists.^ Jarvis, Stephen, Col., "Revealing the Life of the Loyalists who Refused to Renounce their Allegiance to the King and Fought to Save the Western Continent to the British Empire" .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Loyalist support was important, since the goal of the war was to keep the colonies in the British Empire, but this imposed numerous military limitations.^ Historians, such as John Shy's A People Numerous & Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence , helps trace the American soldier in the war.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is an important understanding, for our belief systems, which we think we must keep to support our identities, often stand in the way of new, changing understandings and personal growth.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early in the war, the Howe brothers served as peace commissioners while simultaneously conducting the war effort, a dual role which may have limited their effectiveness.^ Militiamen may have had their limitations, but they made indispensable contributions to the winning of independence in their familiar role of home defense.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He may have been the Charles Proctor who died while serving in the Revolutionary War [ Archives of Maryland 18:150].
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, the British could have recruited more slaves and Native Americans to fight the war, but this would have alienated many Loyalists, even more so than the controversial hiring of German mercenaries.^ More than any other race they served as the amalgam to produce, out of divergent races, a new race, the American.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We despise the abject African, because he does not at once leap up to the ascent upon which we have been placed by circumstances, which we could no more control than he could have controlled his destiny.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The assault on the part of the British was a deadly one, and manifestly resisted by the Americans, even to the clubbing of their muskets after their ammunition was expended; but finally the little garrison of brave defenders was reduced to a handful, and could hold out no longer.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The need to retain Loyalist allegiance also meant that the British were unable to use the harsh methods of suppressing rebellion they employed in Ireland and Scotland.^ They suppressed local Loyalists, patrolled the coastline, guarded frontier settlements, and protected the countryside from enemy foragers and raiders.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jarvis, Stephen, Col., "Revealing the Life of the Loyalists who Refused to Renounce their Allegiance to the King and Fought to Save the Western Continent to the British Empire" .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even with these limitations, many potentially neutral colonists were nonetheless driven into the ranks of the Revolutionaries because of the war.^ The problem with this is it will NOT be an overnight solution and many will suffer because of these actions.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revolutionary War land grant for service through war attaining rank of Capt., 1780.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 5 August 1778 he complained to the Granville County Court that he was forced into Revolutionary War service on the pretence that he was a vagrant [Owen, Granville County Notes , vol.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This combination of factors led ultimately to the downfall of British rule in America and the rise of the revolutionaries' own independent nation, the United States of America.^ Many do not understand the exceptional history of the United States of America and the goodness and greatness of its people.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Peace my fellow true Americans, that’s North Americans, or most specificially, the United States of America.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delaware played an important role in the formation of the United States of America, being the first to ratify the new federal constitution.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]

Costs of the war

Casualties

.The total loss of life resulting from the American Revolutionary War is unknown.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Click the image below to see a map of American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections where you clicked: .
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

.As was typical in the wars of the era, disease claimed more lives than battle.^ He was "in war a tiger chafed by the hunter's spear; but in peace, more gentle than the unweaned lamb."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife survived him, dying in 1852, having lived more than five score years.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I lived it, experienced it and Web research over the years more than verifies my beliefs in my now-educated opinion.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1775 and 1782, a smallpox epidemic raged across much of North America, killing more than 130,000 people.^ If what the article implies is based on true events and it happened as described below we are in much more trouble than any of us ever thought.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your the fool, these people are mad about a lot more than your precious health care, we want our country back.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America has a population of slaves greater than the people of all England in the reign .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Historian Joseph Ellis suggests that Washington's decision to have his troops inoculated against the smallpox epidemic was one of his most important decisions.[52]
.Approximately 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service.^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "This I give him," says Washington, "as a testimony of my sense of his attachment to me, and for his faithful services during the Revolutionary War."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "She was married when young; her husband died soon after, in the continental service of the Revolutionary War, leaving her with one child.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 deaths were from disease, including about 8,000 – 12,000 who died while prisoners of war, most in rotting prison ships in New York.^ Died in New York, 1794.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After three months' detention as a prisoner at New York, he was permitted to return home to Westport, where, owing to the unfortunate continuance of hostilities, he spent about two years in agricultural pursuits.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wait..don’t answer that…:S On the other hand, I am not happy about a lot of things done to our economy by any of these administrations..Obama included.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The number of Revolutionaries seriously wounded or disabled by the war has been estimated from 8,500 to 25,000. The total American military casualty figure was therefore as high as 50,000.[53]
.About 171,000 sailors served for the British during the war; about 25 to 50 percent of them had been pressed into service.^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "This I give him," says Washington, "as a testimony of my sense of his attachment to me, and for his faithful services during the Revolutionary War."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He served during the entire war, after which he went to New Hampshire, and engaged in agricultural pursuits.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

About 1,240 were killed in battle, while 18,500 died from disease. The greatest killer was scurvy, a disease known at the time to be easily preventable by issuing lemon juice to sailors. .About 42,000 British sailors deserted during the war.^ Philip Ranlet, "In The Hands Of The British: The Treatment Of American POWs During The War Of Independence" .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

[54]
Approximately 1,200 Germans were killed in action and 6,354 died from illness or accident. .About 16,000 of the remaining German troops returned home, but roughly 5,500 remained in the United States after the war for various reasons, many eventually becoming American citizens.^ Reasons for employing German Troops.

^ When the war of 1812 broke out, be would not fight against his country, gave himself up as an American citizen, and was made a prisoner of war.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many do not understand the exceptional history of the United States of America and the goodness and greatness of its people.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.No reliable statistics exist for the number of casualties among other groups, including Loyalists, British regulars, Native Americans, French and Spanish troops, and civilians.^ Other topics of correspondence included the return home of Pennsylvania troops, business of the Pennsylvania government, and the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persuading a number of other slaves to go with him, they seized a boat, intending to join the British army, that by so doing they might become freemen.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Financial costs

.The British spent about £80 million and ended with a national debt of £250 million, which it easily financed at about £9.5 million a year in interest.^ It is interesting to note ref's to light infantry, muskets, rifles and skirmishers 80 years after the Rev. War.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was born in Salem, or vicinity, and when about sixteen years old, went to England, where he entered the British navy.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His second voyage was to the West Indies; but on his third, which was during the American war, about the year 1776, he was captured by a British ship.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The French spent 1.3 billion livres (about £56 million). .Their total national debt was £187 million, which they could not easily finance; over half the French national revenue went to debt service in the 1780s.^ "The French and Spanish blood from which they are sprung has not degenerated among us: it has preserved the primitive warmth and generosity which distinguish those two chivalric nations."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The debt crisis became a major enabling factor of the French Revolution as the government was unable to raise taxes without public approval.^ Through the magnanimity of the French Government, all delegates to the Congress were permitted to pass freely without passports.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He is creating a JOBLESS REVOLUTION, in which citizens without jobs will be more and more dependent on the central government run by the Democratic and Republican Dictatorship.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .The United States spent $37 million at the national level plus $114 million by the states.^ Impressed colored sailors have been claimed by the National Government as "citizens of the United States."
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We are deeply troubled he told others the United States is not a Christian nation.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Tell them why the United States is a good and prosperous nation.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

.This was mostly covered by loans from France and the Netherlands, loans from Americans, and issuance of an increasing amount of paper money (which became "not worth a continental."^ First American Paper money.

^ Continental Paper Money.

) .The U.S. finally solved its debt and currency problems in the 1790s when Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the establishment of the First Bank of the United States.^ Boonesborough State Park, KY 388 Description: License for first ferry established in state, Oct.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have recently had an interview with a person who was present at the first abolition meeting ever held in the United States.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The second, created by the Organic Act of 1871 was the United States corporation, that entered into agreement (contract) with England to repay the debt.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]

See also

Notes

To avoid duplication, notes for sections with a link to a "Main article" will be found in the linked article.
  1. ^ British writers generally favor "American War of Independence", "American Rebellion", or "War of American Independence". See Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Bibliography at the Michigan State University for usage in titles.
  2. ^ Black, War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783, p. 59. On militia see Boatner, p. 707, and Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War (1973), ch. 2.
  3. ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. p. 51. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  4. ^ Boatner, p. 264 says the largest force Washington commanded was "under 17,000"; Christopher Duffy (The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715–1789), estimates Washington's maximum was "only 13,000 troops".
  5. ^ Calhoon, "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (2000) p.235
  6. ^ Savas and Dameron p. xli
  7. ^ Black p. 12
  8. ^ Black pg. 13–14
  9. ^ Black p. 14
  10. ^ Ketchum, 76
  11. ^ Ketchum, 77
  12. ^ Black, pp. 27–29; Boatner, pp. 424–26.
  13. ^ Weintraub, p. 240; figure for 1780.
  14. ^ Revolutionary all-black units: Kaplan and Kaplan, pp. 64–69.
  15. ^ American Revolution — African Americans In The Revolutionary Period.
  16. ^ James H. Merrell, "Indians and the New Republic" in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, p. 393; Boatner, p. 545.
  17. ^ Higginbotham, p. 75–77.
  18. ^ Orlando W. Stephenson, "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776," American Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Jan. 1925), pp. 271–281 in JSTOR.
  19. ^ Arthur S. Lefkowitz, "The Long Retreat: The Calamitous American Defense of New Jersey 1776, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  20. ^ Rockingham to Burke September 1776, Watson The Reign of George III p. 203.
  21. ^ McCullough
  22. ^ Stiles, Henry Reed. "Letters from the prisons and prison-ships of the revolution." Thomson Gale, December 31, 1969. ISBN 978-1432812225
  23. ^ Dring, Thomas and Greene, Albert. "Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship" (American Experience Series, No 8). Applewood Books. November 1, 1986. ISBN 978-0918222923
  24. ^ Taylor, George. "Martyrs To The Revolution In The British Prison-Ships In The Wallabout Bay." (originally printed 1855) Kessinger Publishing, LLC. October 2, 2007. ISBN 978-0548592175.
  25. ^ Banks, James Lenox. "Prison ships in the Revolution: New facts in regard to their management." 1903.
  26. ^ Hawkins, Christopher. "The life and adventures of Christopher Hawkins, a prisoner on board the 'Old Jersey' prison ship during the War of the Revolution." Holland Club. 1858.
  27. ^ Andros, Thomas. "The old Jersey captive: Or, A narrative of the captivity of Thomas Andros...on board the old Jersey prison ship at New York, 1781. In a series of letters to a friend." W. Peirce. 1833.
  28. ^ Lang, Patrick J.. "The horrors of the English prison ships, 1776 to 1783, and the barbarous treatment of the American patriots imprisoned on them." Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick, 1939.
  29. ^ Onderdonk. Henry. "Revolutionary Incidents of Suffolk and Kings Counties; With an Account of the Battle of Long Island and the British Prisons and Prison-Ships at New York." Associated Faculty Press, Inc. June, 1970. ISBN 978-0804680752.
  30. ^ West, Charles E.. "Horrors of the prison ships: Dr. West's description of the wallabout floating dungeons, how captive patriots fared." Eagle Book Printing Department, 1895.
  31. ^ Higginbotham, pp. 188–98.
  32. ^ George Athan Billias. George Washington's Generals and Opponents: Their Exploits and Leadership (1994); Higginbotham, pp. 175–188.
  33. ^ Springfield Armory
  34. ^ George Otto Trevelyan, George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution. (1912), vol. 1, p. 4.
  35. ^ Trevelyan, George the Third and Charles Fox vol. 1, p. 5.
  36. ^ Privateers or Merchant Mariners help win the Revolutionary War
  37. ^ Privateers
  38. ^ Higginbotham, pp. 331–46.
  39. ^ U.S. nps.gov, Bernardo de Gálvez: how much different American history might have been without him!
  40. ^ Thompson, Buchanan Parker, "Spain: Forgotten Ally of the American Revolution." North Quincy, Mass.: Christopher Publishing House, 1976.
  41. ^ Riddick, pp. 23–25
  42. ^ Fletcher, pp. 155–158
  43. ^ Edler, pp. 37–38, 42–62; The American trade via St. Eustatius was very substantial. In 1779 more than 12,000 hogsheads of tobacco and 1.5 million ounces of indigo were shipped from the Colonies to the island in exchange for naval supplies and other goods; Edler, p. 62
  44. ^ Edler, pp. 95–173
  45. ^ Edler, pp. 233–246
  46. ^ Edler, pp. 205–232
  47. ^ Number of British troops still in America: Piers Mackesy, The War for America: 1775–1783, p. 435.
  48. ^ Benn, Carl Historic Fort York, 1793-1993 Dundurn Press Ltd. (1993) ISBN 0920474799 (page 17)
  49. ^ Black, p. 39; Don Higginbotham, "The War for Independence, to Saratoga", in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, p. 298, 306.
  50. ^ Higginbotham, p. 298, 306; Black, p. 29, 42.
  51. ^ Harsh methods: Black, pp. 14–16; slaves and Indians: Black, p. 35, 38. Neutrals into Revolutionaries: Black, p. 16.
  52. ^ Smallpox epidemic: Elizabeth Anne Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82, p. 275. A great number of these smallpox deaths occurred outside the theater of war—in Mexico or among Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. Washington and inoculation: Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington, p. 87.
  53. ^ American dead and wounded: John Shy, A People Numerous and Armed, pp. 249–50. The lower figure for number of wounded comes from Chambers, p. 849.
  54. ^ British seamen: Mackesy, p. 6, 176.
  55. ^ Robert and Isabelle Tombs, That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present (2007), p. 179.
  56. ^ Merrill Jensen, The New Nation (1950), p. 379.

References

  • Black, Jeremy. .War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783.^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Volume VI (1775-ca.1783) Pension Rolls and Correspondence (1790-1846) RG 1800.066 Revolutionary War Records (3 boxes) .
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .2001. Analysis from a noted British military historian.
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1. Military topics, references many secondary sources.
  • Chambers, John Whiteclay II, ed.^ III, The American Revolution 1761-1789 , Macmillan, 1905.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Adolphous, John , The History of England, from the Accession of George III to 1783 , Vol.II, 1773-1778 , published 1840-1845.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    in chief. .The Oxford Companion to American Military History.^ US Air Force Academy , The Military History of the American Revolution , Diane Publishing, 1974.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I cull the following incidents and tributes, as peculiarly appropriate to a military history of Colored Americans.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-507198-0.
  • Duffy, Christopher.^ Published: New Haven, Yale University Press; London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1926.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford University Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715–1789. 1987. ISBN 0-689-11993-3.
  • Edler, Friedrich. .The Dutch Republic and The American Revolution.^ Neumann, George , "Dutch Arms in the American Revolution" .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Edler, Friedrich , The Dutch Republic and the American Revolution , 1911, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Way back during the American revolution the founding fathers had this whole constitutional republic mapped out to replace the English monarchy they were fighting.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .University Press of the Pacific, 1911, reprinted 2001. ISBN 0-89875-269-8.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington.^ Ewald, Johann von , Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal , Translated and Edited by Joseph P. Tustin, Yale University Press, 1979.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    (2004). ISBN 1-4000-4031-0.
  • Fenn, Elizabeth Anne. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82. .New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. ISBN 0-8090-7820-1.
  • Fletcher, Charles Robert Leslie.^ Page 163 Charlton then, with his wife, took up his residence in New York city, with his son, Charles Charlton.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ EBENEZER HILLS died at Vienna, New York, August, 1849, aged one hundred and ten.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hanna, Charles A. (Charles Augustus) , The Scotch-Irish : or, The Scot in North Britain, north Ireland, and North America Vol.I , 1902, New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .An Introductory History of England: The Great European War, Volume 4.^ Rev War History CD 2 31 volumes, 10,273 pages Click for larger image.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Rev War History CD 1 35 volumes, 14,246 pages Click for larger image.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .E.P. Dutton, 1909. OCLC 12063427.
  • Greene, Jack P. and J.R. Pole, eds.^ Green, Harry Clinton , Mary Wolcott Green The Pioneer Mothers of America , G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912-1913 Volume One Volume Two Volume Three Green, Jack P., ed.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. .Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1991; reprint 1999. ISBN 1-55786-547-7. Collection of essays focused on political and social history.
  • Higginbotham, Don.^ Don Higginbotham's The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Polices, And Practice 1763-1789 , develops how military policy effected different social aspect of the war.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789.^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "In the Revolutionary War, my father was a decided advocate of American Independence, and his life was repeatedly jeopardized in its cause.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Military Police , May, 2000 Stedman, Charles , The History Of The Origins, Progress And Termination Of The American War , 1794.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Northeastern University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-930350-44-8. Overview of military topics; online in ACLS History E-book Project.
  • Kaplan, Sidney and Emma Nogrady Kaplan.^ Yale University Press, 1921 Schenck, David , North Carolina, 1780-'81 : being a history of the invasion of the Carolinas by the British Army under Lord Cornwallis in 1780-'81.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Swain, Rebecca , Review of James G. Leyburn, The Scotch-Irish: A Social History , University of North Carolina Press, 1962, repr.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bibliographies: Histories and Encyclopedias for American Philosophy /// A Catalogue of Early American Philosophical Literature /// Pragmatism Cybrary /// The Online Book Page /// .
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution.^ Chapter VI, "American War, Opening of the Era of the Revolution".
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He was described as a "Black Indian" who was a substitute from Norfolk County in a register of soldiers who enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 154].
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Washington Convention was characterized by the presence, not only of white and black, but also of red Americans, all participating in its proceedings,--a striking and significant fact.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Amherst, Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. ISBN 0-87023-663-6.
  • Ketchum, Richard M. Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War.^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ewald, Johann von , Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal , Translated and Edited by Joseph P. Tustin, Yale University Press, 1979.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Throughout the Revolutionary War, PRIMUS HALL was the body servant of Col. PICKERING, of Massachusetts.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Henry Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-4681-X.
  • Mackesy, Piers. .The War for America: 1775–1783.^ Oct 1780 26 Feb 1781 11 Nov 1783 Parris, George, "The Initial Phases of the American War of Independence in the South (1775-1780)" , 1998.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes The War of American Independence, 1775-1783 , Longmans, Green, and co., London, 1888.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .London, 1964. Reprinted University of Nebraska Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8032-8192-7. Highly regarded examination of British strategy and leadership.
  • McCullough, David.^ Yale University Press, 1921 Schenck, David , North Carolina, 1780-'81 : being a history of the invasion of the Carolinas by the British Army under Lord Cornwallis in 1780-'81.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London University Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Published: New Haven, Yale University Press; London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1926.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    1776. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.
  • Savas, Theodore P. and Dameron, J. David. .A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution. New York: Savas Beatie LLC, 2006. ISBN 1-932714-12-X.
  • Riddick, John F. The history of British India: a chronology.^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York - Pawling - John Kane House .
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 9780313322808.
  • Shy, John. .A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence.^ What he started here, he finished in "The Struggle for American Independence", and explained in "Legendary and Myth-Making...", following.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Particular Design of Showing the Part Borne by North Carolina in that Struggle for Liberty and Independence, and to Correct some of the Errors of History in Regard to that State and its People.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Don Higginbotham's The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Polices, And Practice 1763-1789 , develops how military policy effected different social aspect of the war.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Oxford University Press, 1976 (ISBN 0-19-502013-8); revised University of Michigan Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-472-06431-2).^ University of Michigan Press, 1938.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tyler, Moses Coit , Patrick Henry , 1896, c1887, Boston ; New York : Houghton, Mifflin ; Cambridge : Riverside Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    Collection of essays.
  • Watson, J. Steven. .The Reign of George III, 1760–1815.^ Belsham, William, Memoirs of the Reign of George III to the Session of Parliament Ending A.D. 1793 , G.G. & J. Robinson publ., London, 1795.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .1960. Standard history of British politics.
  • Weintraub, Stanley: Iron Tears; America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire: 1775-1783.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Corps of Engineers, Engineers of Independence - A Documentary History of the Army Engineers in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 , 1981.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Southern States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Free Press, 2005 (a division of Simon and Schuster).^ Says that he was born free in the State of New York, near Peekskill.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Published: New York : AMS Press, 1968-1978.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-7432-2687-9. An account of the British politics on the conduct of the war.

Further reading

.These are some of the standard works about the war in general which are not listed above; books about specific campaigns, battles, units, and individuals can be found in those articles.^ Well-written and trustworthy accounts of battle (including those of the Southern Campaign) from Todd Braisted's Online Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Constitution of the United States, not a sentence or a syllable can be found, recognising any distinctions among the citizens of the States, collectively or individually, but they are all placed on the same equality.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ DO some actual Web research or go live and work among those whom I am writing about.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Bancroft, George. .History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854–78), vol.^ George Bancroft , History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, here and here MOA record: Print Source: History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ George Bancroft's works available from Internet Archive George Bancroft's works available from Google full-view books Bancroft, George , History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent , Vol.X , p.300 , Boston, Little, Brown, and company, 1875, " Left mainly to her [South Carolina's] own resources, it was through bloodshed and devastation and the depths of wretchedness that her citizens were to bring her back to her place in the republic by their own heroic courage and self-devotion, having suffered more, and dared more, and achieved more than the men of any other state."
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    7–10.
  • Bobrick, Benson. Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution. Penguin, 1998 (paperback reprint).
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Richard A. Ryerson, eds. .The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2006) 5 volume paper and online editions; 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics
  • George Athan Billias.^ This war became the American Revolutionary War.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists rejected the right of England to govern them without voting representation, claiming that this violated the Rights of Englishmen.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    .George Washington's Generals and Opponents: Their Exploits and Leadership (1994) scholarly studies of key generals on each side
  • Hibbert, Christopher.^ Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greene, George Washington , The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution , Vol.1 (thru 1778) , 1867-71, New York, G. P. Putnam and Son.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prev Next General George Washington.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution through British Eyes. New York: Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-02895-X.
  • Jensen, Merrill.^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Woodford was taken prisoner at fall of Charleston, later died in captivity under the British at New York, 1780.
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thayer, Theodore , Nathanael Greene Strategist Of The American Revolution , Twayne Publishers, New York, 1960.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution 1763–1776. (2004)
  • Kwasny, Mark V. Washington's Partisan War, 1775–1783.^ From Textual Collections, State University System of Florida McBarron, Charles, , "Soldiers of the American Revolution Revolutionary War paintings, Center for Military History.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chapter VI, "American War, Opening of the Era of the Revolution".
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peters, Madison Clinton , The Jews Who Stood by Washington; an Unwritten Chapter in American History , 1915, New York, The Trow Press.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    Kent, Ohio: 1996. ISBN 0-87338-546-2. Militia warfare.
  • Middlekauff, Robert. .The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789.^ III, The American Revolution 1761-1789 , Macmillan, 1905.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ramsay, David, The History Of The American Revolution in two volumes, 1789.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Don Higginbotham's The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Polices, And Practice 1763-1789 , develops how military policy effected different social aspect of the war.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    Oxford University Press, 1984; revised 2005. ISBN 0-19-516247-1. online edition
  • Savas, Theodore P., and Dameron, J. David. .A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution.^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Revolution - Battle of White Plains .
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton became the battleground of two fierce battles in the American Revolution.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    .New York, 2006.
  • Symonds, Craig L. A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution (1989), newly drawn maps
  • Ward, Christopher.^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Title: American negro slavery; Published: New York, London, D. Appleton and company, 1918.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Please spread the word on this new Flag of the Second American Revolution.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The War of the Revolution. 2 volumes. .New York: Macmillan, 1952. History of land battles in North America.
  • Weintraub, Stanley.^ Title: A history of the campaigns of 1780 and 1781, in the southern provinces of North America / by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Carrington, Henry Beebee , Battle maps and charts of the American Revolution, with explanatory notes and school history references , 1881, New York, A. S. Barnes.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tarleton, Banastre, A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America , 1787.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Iron Tears: America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire: 1775–1783.^ Andrews, John , An History Of The War With America, France, Spain, And Holland Begun In 1775, And Ended In 1783 .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hispanics in America's Defense , "American Revolution, 1775-1783" , p.5-10, Department of Defense, Diane Publishing, 1997.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fanning, David, Giving An Account Of His Adventures In North America From 1775 To 1783 , as written by himself with an introduction and explanatory notes , excerpts.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Free Press, 2004. Examination of the British political viewpoint.
  • Wood, W. J. Battles of the Revolutionary War, 1775–1781.^ Sherman, William Thomas Calendar and Record of the Revolutionary War in the South: 1780-1781 .
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Remaining company served in SC. Thacher, James , A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, from 1775 to 1783 , Cotton & Barnard, 1827.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-306-81329-7 (2003 paperback reprint). .Analysis of tactics of a dozen battles, with emphasis on American military leadership.
  • Men-at-Arms series: short (48pp), very well illustrated descriptions:
    • Marko Zlatich, Peter Copeland.^ It is believed that he was one of the six black men of Massachusetts named Prince Hall listed in military records of the Revolution, and he may well have fought at Bunker Hill.
      • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Now, it is well known that hundreds of the men of which this army was composed were colored men, and recognised by Congress as Americans.
      • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Historians, such as John Shy's A People Numerous & Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence , helps trace the American soldier in the war.
      • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

      .General Washington's Army (1): 1775–78 (1994); Zlatich.^ Hagar used to relate, that she once cooked a dinner for General Washington, when he stopped at the tavern, on his way to Cambridge, Massachusetts, the head-quarters of the American army, in June, 1775.
      • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "I served in the Revolution, in General Washington's army, three years under one enlistment.
      • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Steuben instructed Washington's army at Valley Forge and was first Inspector General of the Army.
      • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .General Washington's Army (2): 1779–83 (1994); Rene Chartrand.^ Steuben instructed Washington's army at Valley Forge and was first Inspector General of the Army.
      • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Greene, George Washington , The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution , Vol.1 (thru 1778) , 1867-71, New York, G. P. Putnam and Son.
      • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ "I served in the Revolution, in General Washington's army, three years under one enlistment.
      • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      The French Army in the American War of Independence (1994); Robin May, The British Army in North America 1775–1783 (1993)
  • The Partisan in War, a treatise on light infantry tactics written by Colonel Andreas Emmerich in 1789.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to American Revolution article)

From Wikiquote

.The American Revolution was a period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies gained independence from the British Empire and became the United States of America.^ This was the British flag during the Revolution.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ In 1776, the 13 colonies became the United States.
  • The American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC aenet.esuhsd.org [Source type: Original source]

In this period, the colonies united against the British Empire and entered into the armed conflict known as the American Revolutionary War (or the "American War of Independence"), between 1775 and 1783. This resulted in the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776, and victory on the battlefield in October 1781.

Contents

The Outbreak of the Revolutionary War: Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)

.
  • Vigorous measures at present would soon put an end to this rebellion.^ May heaven soon put an end to them.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The British, aware that Continental enlistments expired at the end of the year, had high hopes that the American Army would simply fade away and the rebellion collapse.
    • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

    .The deluded people are made to believe that they are invincible....^ They retained their role as a special elite in society only insofar as they embodied the main values of the people and made necessary adjustments in order to retain consent.
    • Religion and the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They did believe, however, that the common people, if properly bridled and reined, might be made allies in the work of freeing the colonies from British rule and that they--the gentry--might reap the benefits without interference.
    • Completing the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hermes-press.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe our people were there and in great numbers, but almost nothing is known about where our people were or what they did.

    .When this army is ordered to act against them, they will soon be convinced that they are very insignificant when opposed to regular troops.^ His forces won victories against German troops called Hessians, at Trenton and then against British regulars at the Battle of Princeton .

    ^ Finally, a third force was to be sent to the south, where it was confidently expected that the loyalists would rise against the rebels as soon as a British army arrived.
    • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ironclad ships in the harbor, flanked regimented troops, and man-to-man combat as they advanced the Hill was the order for battle.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Major Thomas Pitcairn, Royal Marines, in a letter from Boston to John Montagu, Lord Sandwich, the Secretary of State.
  • The Redcoats are coming!^ The Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1771-1782 .

    ^ Major John Pitcairn a month before wrote that "one active campaign, a smart action, and burning two or three of their towns, will set everything to rights."
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rodger, N.A.M. The Insatiable Earl: A Life of John Montagu, Fourth Earl of Sandwich 1718-1792.

    The Redcoats are coming! .
    • Alarm spread by Paul Revere on the night of April 18, as British were marching from Boston, westward towards Lexington.
  • Disperse, ye Rebels!^ Early on the morning of April 19, the advance guard of the British force exchanged fire with a party of militia at Lexington; eight Americans were killed, and the British continued marching on to Concord.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The opportunity for peaceful negotiation came to an end, and the war for American Independence began on April 19, 1775 when British troops and American colonists clashed at Lexington and Concord.
    • Parliamentary taxation of colonies, international trade, and American Revolution, 1763-1775 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Riders including Paul Revere alerted the countryside, and when British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, they found 77 minutemen formed up on the village green.

    .Lay down your arms and disperse.^ It was either John Pitcairn or Lieutenant Sutherland who rode towards the Rebels demanding them to lay down their arms.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John ordered his men not to fire and asked the Militia to lay down their arms and disperse.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He explained at length his decision to lay down his arms.
    • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • British Major Thomas Pitcairn to American Minutemen at Lexington, ordering them to lay down their weapons and go home.
  • Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob will find himself much mistaken.^ Everybody look what's going down.
    • The American Revolution // Current 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pitcairn fires upon the yeomanry at Lexington .
    • The American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.usgennet.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob, will find himself very much mistaken.
    • Major Pitcairn and the American War of Independence. 10 September 2009 20:35 UTC www.timegun.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • British officer, on the Americans, following the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
  • Thus was the civil war begin and a victory the fruits of it on the side of the Americans, whom Lord Sandwich had the folly and rashness to proclaim coward.^ The battle was a strong American victory.

    ^ The battles of 1863 were turning points in the American Civil War.
    • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
    • American Revolutionary War posters and art 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC posterlovers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • British political leader Horace Walpole after the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
  • What God is he, writes laws of peace, & clothes him in a tempest
    What pitying Angel lusts for tears, and fans himself with sighs
    What crawling villain preaches abstinence & wraps himself
    In fat of lambs?^ The Battle of Lexington and Concord from kidport.com .
    • The American Revolution 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.waldsfe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The British had lost the Battles of Lexington and Concord, and the war had begun.

    ^ With the Battles of Lexington and Concord , the war had begun.
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    no more .I follow, no more obedience pay!^ No more deficit spending – the federal government would actually have to balance their checkbook and pay off its debt like the rest of us.

    • William Blake in "America: A Prophecy" (1793). .Spoken by "Boston's Angel"
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
    Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
    Here once the embattled farmers stood,
    And fired the shot heard round the world.^ "By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Its the shot heard round the world!
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On April 6, 1917, the shot was heard again.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Concord Hymn" (1837), commemorating the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

The Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)

.
  • Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes.^ Who said Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Crouching low behind their breastworks, the Yankees were told to wait--"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!"
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clark replied to the challenger, "I am as white as you , and don't you vote?"
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Instructions of Colonel William Prescott to American troops before the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • We...^ Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill fought?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ironclad ships in the harbor, flanked regimented troops, and man-to-man combat as they advanced the Hill was the order for battle.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    sustained the enemy's attacks with great bravery... and after bearing, for about .2 hours, as severe and heavy a fire as perhaps was ever known, and many having fired away all their ammunition...^ And the name of JORDAN FREEMAN stands away down, last on the list of heroes,--perhaps the greatest hero of them all."
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The losses were heavy: equipment, all the horses, heavy artillery and ammunition, much needed materials of war.

    ^ In this state, the poor, brave fellow lay on the deck, and several times exclaimed to his shipmates, " Fire away, my boys!--No haul a color down !"
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    we were overpowered by numbers and obliged to leave. .
    • Corporal Amos Farnsworth, Massachusetts Militia, describing the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • A few more such victories would have shortly put an end to British dominion in America.^ Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill fought?
    • WikiAnswers - American Revolution Questions including "What nation did the Americans and allies fight against in the American Revolutionary War" 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ British drove Americans from Bunker Hill.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When did the Battle of Bunker Hill happen?
    • American Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • British General Henry Clinton, remarking on the battle in his diary; although the British won the battle, they suffered a substantial loss of British troops.

Other actions in 1775

.
  • Come out, you old rat.^ I’ll be the 22 yr old HS drop out and you’ll be the “educated” person ok?
    • The ‘Second American Revolution’ Has Begun 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You have far too long a history of coming here and arguing to now attempt to back out and claim this doesn’t matter to you.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fran Johns California Politics U.S. Women Called-out Comment Yesterday “ "Pat Robertson is a very sick man" This comes as news to you?
    • Are the Tea Parties just glorified Revolutionary War reenactments? - E.D. Kain - American Times - True/Slant 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC trueslant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [Surrender] in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress. .
    • Ethan Allen, leader of the Green Mountain Boys, demanding the surrender of the British commander of Fort Ticonderoga.
  • Connecticut wants no Massachusetts men in her corps....^ Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men.
    • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For that he would have to wait until winter, when frozen roads and rivers would enable his soldiers to drag overland to Boston the cannon that had been captured on May 10, 1775, when Col. Ethan Allen of Vermont's Green Mountain Boys and Col. Benedict Arnold of Connecticut had surprised and captured the British fort at Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For that he would have to wait until winter, when frozen roads and rivers would enable his soldiers to drag overland to Boston the cannon that had been captured on May 10, 1775, when Col. Ethan Allen of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys and Col. Benedict Arnold of Connecticut had surprised and captured the British fort at Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain.
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Massachusetts thinks there is no necessity for a Rhode Islander to be introduced into her [units].^ The watchword of America was now Independence, and there was no disposition in any quarter to accept anything less than full recognition of the rights of the United States as a Nation.
    • Revolutionary War Overview 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am happy to find that the united states are entering into measures for discountenancing it and for abolishing the odious slavery which it has introduced.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The colored men of Massachusetts have been denied admission into the volunteer militia, although the Committee tell us that 'no reference is made by law to color or race.'
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Gen. .George Washington, commanding the Continental Army outside Boston, on the localism of the colonial units.
  • Proceed, great chief, with
    virtue on thy side.^ George Washington appointed commander-in-chief of American Army .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ George Washington assumes command of Continental Army.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    Thy ev’ry action let the
    goddess guide.
    A crown, a mansion, and
    a throne tat shine,
    With gold unfading,
    Washington! be thine. .
    • Boston slave poet Phyllis Wheatley.
  • Could I have foreseen what I have, and am like to experience, no consideration upon earth should have induced me to accept this command.^ Administration of Justice Act--court cases moved out of MA if looked like no fair trial could be had .
    • THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC iweb.tntech.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are strong and powerful now, able to drive into the ocean any power on earth that should step with hostile foot upon the soil of the Republic.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A month after the Boston Massacre, William Hall freed Prince; his certificate of manumission read that he was "no longer Reckoned a slave, but [had] always accounted as a free man."
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Gen. George Washington, reflecting on his frustrations coming from both Congress and the states in commanding the Continental Army.

The Second Continental Congress

  • We have counted the cost of this contest and find nothing so dreadful as voluntary slavery. .Honor, justice, and humanity forbid us to tamely surrender that freedom which we received from our gallant ancestors, and which our innocent posterity have a right to receive from us....^ They would prefer to call them “our rights” and “our freedom.” Thus “our” concepts of rights and of freedom are interwoven with the Framers' vision of conquest and empire and privilege.
    • Toward An American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC cyberjournal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our government has guides and rules such as the Constitution and the Bill of Rights that protect American s’ freedoms and rights.
    • Mead School District: 5th - Whose Rules (Rev War) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mead354.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Millions of us are united in fighting for our freedom if we have to.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Our cause is just. .Our union is perfect.^ It's part of our DNA, remember: "We, the People...in order to create a more perfect union."
    • TomPaine.com - Losing The American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tompaine.com [Source type: Original source]

    Our internal resources are great; and, if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable.
    • Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, Continental Congress Declaration on the Necessity of Taking up Arms (1775).

The American Revolution becomes the War of Independence

.
  • If we separate from Britain, what code of laws will be established?^ In the far north the Green Mountains, which Britain had formally awarded to New York in 1764, broke away to establish the separate state of Vermont.
    • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .How shall we be governed so as to retain our liberties?^ We are divided on issues like religion and zionism, when the real issue is how to get back our lost liberties.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We need to stop alowing the government to tell us how to live and and what is good for us and do it for ourselves then we might not keep lossing our freedoms as we are today.
    • How We Can Win the Second American Revolution Without Firing a Shot | Political Class Dismissed 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC politicalclassdismissed.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Can any government be free which is not administered by general stated laws?^ Today we are corporate citizens with limited rights governed by the United States Constitution under Admiralty and Maritime contract law.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As part of a general assault upon the legitimacy of federal government intervention in State and local matters, such a movement can only be helpful.
    • Second American Revolution »Blogs For Victory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Washington had urged conscription, stating that “the Government must have recourse to coercive measures.” In April 1777, Congress recommended a draft to the states.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    Who shall frame these laws? .Who will give them force and energy?^ The ones who are dumb enough to do so will be cut down by loyal soldiers of the US Armed Forces and patriots who are not afraid to give thier life to protect thier country.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I challenge the warmest advocate of reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain.^ In November 1775 the desire of southerners for reconciliation with Great Britain withered when the Virginia governor, Lord John Dunmore, offered freedom to any slaves who would rebel against their masters and join the British army.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To trace events intelligibly in their connection, the war of Great Britain on the Netherlands has been carried forward to the ruin of their commerce in the West Indies.

    I repeat the challenge, not a single advantage is derived. .Our corn will fetch its price in any market in Europe, and our imported goods must be paid for, buy them where we will.^ We must boycott buying any British goods!
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must demand that they stop stealing our money and giving it to ACORN and their other political supporters in order to buy votes.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Market price: $20.00 Our price: $12.00 save 40% .


    .But the injuries and disadvantages we sustain by that connection, are without number; and our duty to mankind at large, as well as to ourselves, instruct us to renounce the alliance: Because, any submission to, or dependence on Great Britain, tends directly to involve this continent in European wars and quarrels; and sets us at variance with nations, who would otherwise seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint.^ Who would invade us?
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Why would a country as young as ours become involved in another war against Britain?

    ^ Everyone received face value for wartime certificates, so that the national honor would be sustained and the national credit established.
    • American Revolution at AllExperts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .As Europe is our market for trade, we ought to form no partial connection with any part of it.^ But there is no part of mankind to which these uses of trade are of less consequence than the American states.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was by trade barber, but by inclination a soldier, and his history is intimately connected with the warlike part of that of Texas.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European contentions.
    .Europe is too thickly planted with kingdoms to be long at peace, and whenever a war breaks out between England and any foreign power, the trade of America goes to ruin, because of her connection with Britain....^ Because of this treaty, war soon broke out between France and Britain.

    ^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To trace events intelligibly in their connection, the war of Great Britain on the Netherlands has been carried forward to the ruin of their commerce in the West Indies.


    .It is repugnant to reason and the universal order of things...^ To try to perpetuate a purely political connection would be "forced and unnatural," "repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things."
    • NARA | The National Archives Experience 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

    to suppose that this continent can longer remain subject to any external power.... Freedom has been haunted round the globe. Asia and Africa have long expelled her. .Europe regards her like a stranger, and England has given her warning to depart.^ If these powers did not act in concert, Hyde warned, "England would be likely to run away with the chief profit of [Latin America's] independence."
    • Rafe Blaufarb | AHR Forum: The Western Question: The Geopolitics of Latin American Independence | The American Historical Review, 112.3 | The History Cooperative 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    O! receive the fugitive, and prepare in time an asylum for mankind....
    The period of debate is closed. Arms, as the last resource, must decide the contest...
    Everything that is right or natural pleads for separation. .The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, 'TIS TIME TO PART.
    • Thomas Paine, formerly a British import tax collector, in Common Sense (1776), the influential essay that made the case for independence.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness....^ But they did not do it for the equal right of all to life, liberty, and equality.
    • Completing the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hermes-press.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For it is self-evident that if there are any men whom they have a right to hold in slavery, there may be others who have had a right to hold them in slavery.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
    • NARA | The National Archives Experience 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]


    .We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general Congress, assembled, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.^ Independence of the United States, 1786.
    • War american independence Stock Photo Images. 309 War american independence royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition, the Congress ordered publication on July 4, 1776, of a Declaration of Independence , which recounted the grievances against Britain and declared the colonies free and independent as the United States of America.

    ^ On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted a Declaration of Independence declaring that the colonies "are and of right ought to be free and independent States."
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There, I guess King George will be able to read that.^ Related Reading: Declaration of Independence: July 4, 1776 .
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

    ^ Thomas Jefferson:Oh, come, come George.
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Hancock (1776), member of the Second Continental Congress from Massachusetts, after putting his now-famous large signature at the bottom of the Declaration of Independence.
  • We must all hang together now, or assuredly we shall hang separately.^ He was a Representative to the Continental Congress, and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From 1774 to 1778 he was a member of the Continental Congress.

    ^ John Hancock letters, 1776 .
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Benjamin Franklin (1776), on the need for the Americans to fight together for independence.
  • [N]o man shall be compelled to frequent or support and religious worship, place, or ministry...^ American Revolution was a young man's fight .
    • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Americans responded by formally declaring in 1776 their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy.
    • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ British lose popular support When the redcoats occupied Queens from 1776 to 1783 the inhabitants discovered what the American Revolution was all about.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

    nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion on matters of religion. .
    • Thomas Jefferson, Virginia Bill on Religious Freedom (1776).
  • [T]he free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever hereafter be allowed, within this State.^ Then in 1786 the Virginia legislature passed Thomas Jeffersons Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.

    ^ [Note: One aspect receiving little notice is that slaves were used as collateral for loans, thus complicating the ability of owners to free them, e.g., Thomas Jefferson.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In a pamphlet titled A Summary View of the Rights of British America, intended to influence the Virginia delegates to the Congress, Thomas Jefferson denounced all parliamentary legislation as acts "of arbitrary power over these states."

    • New York State Constitution of 1777 (1777).

Military Operations in the Middle States: 1776-1777

.
  • When once these rebels have felt a smart blow, they will submit.^ All segments of colonial society felt they had a stake in the outcome of these disagreements.
    • Religion and the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Colonists no longer felt threatened which meant that they no longer thought that they needed the British as much as they once did.
    • war and social upheaval: the American Revolution Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Royal Navy had command of the seas, and harassed the rebels with a blockade of the American coast, but they could not be everywhere at once.

    .
    • Comment of German mercenary soldier from Hesse, before going into battle against American rebels (1776).
  • I am worried to death.^ In the south the war was going against the Americans.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When fully assembled, this force would number 32,000 troops including 8000 German mercenaries, most from Hesse-Kassel, Brunswick, and Hesse-Hanau.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To meet Sir William Howe's request for 50,000 men to conduct the campaign in 1776, the ministry resorted to hiring mercenaries from the small German states, particularly Hesse-Cassell (hence Hessians).
    • Chapter 3: The American Revolution: The First Phase 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Original source]

    I think the game is pretty near up.
    • Gen. .George Washington, in a letter to his brother, after his Continental Army was driven by the British from New York, across New Jersey, and into Pennsylvania (1776).
  • It was as severe a night as ever I saw, and after two battalions had landed, the storm increased so much, and the river was so full of ice, that it was impossible to get the artillery over.^ In December, 1776, the British seized control of New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York City, Washington again lost, and had to retreat to the hills of New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington retreated southwestward across New Jersey and then (December 8) across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania.
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAK-Print.aspx?pin=x-am086000a%20&chapter_id= 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War - History.Com 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Thomas Rodney, a Continental soldier, describing the surprise attack across the Delaware River near Trenton, New Jersey (Christmas Night, 1776).
  • [He] had lost all his clothes.^ Mark McCall to Thomas Rodney, 1776 .
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Until he surprised the Hessian garrison by crossing the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776.

    ^ On Christmas Day, 1776, he crossed the ice-filled Delaware River and surprised the Hessian winter encampment at Trenton, New Jersey.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    He was in an old, dirty blanket jacket, his beard long, and his face so full of sores he could not clean it.
    • Artist Charles Wilson Peale, seeing his brother participating in Washington's army crossing the Delaware River in its counterattack on the British (December 1776).

The Fighting in 1777-1781

.
  • These are the times that try men’s souls.^ The American Crisis by Thomas Paine --THESE are the times that try men's souls.

    ^ Like Thomas Paine says, These are the times that try mens souls.
    • Lesson Plans: The American Revolution: A Play (Elementary, Social Studies) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC teachers.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "These are the times that try men's souls" .

    .The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.^ The summersoldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.

    ^ This gathering of veterans aroused the military fire in the old man's breast, and, never having received a pension, nor government lands, for his services, he determined on taking his seat, as a soldier delegate, among the defenders of his country.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The ones who are dumb enough to do so will be cut down by loyal soldiers of the US Armed Forces and patriots who are not afraid to give thier life to protect thier country.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered. .
  • Good God, gentlemen!^ The American Crisis by Thomas Paine --THESE are the times that try men's souls.

    ^ Suggested to Thomas Paine the title "Common Sense" for his famous essay.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Did Thomas Paine live and work there when the Continental Congress met in York in 1777-78?
    • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

    .Our cause is ruined if you engage men for only a year.^ "Teach the Abolitionists to make common cause with you; teach them to forget, and forget yourselves, as fast as possible, that you are colored men and women.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since there had been no warfare for a dozen years, only the older men had battlefield experience.
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Please press "Submit" only once, you will then see another page which acknowledges your order; and, then it will link you to our secure server.
    • Books on the American Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC townsendbooks.com [Source type: General]

    .You must not think of it.^ Must make some of you think now doesn`t it!
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If we ever hope for success, we must have men enlisted for the whole term of the war.^ Washington had long appreciated that "In any and all circumstances a naval superiority is to be considered as a fundamental principle, and the basis upon which every hope of success must ultimately depend."
    • History On-Line essay by Richard Jensen revised 3-11-2001 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • American Revolution, military history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Reed enlisted with Colonel Murfree for the term of the war.
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ JOB LEWIS, of Lancaster, (formerly a slave,) enlisted for two terms of three years each; and a third time for the remainder of the war.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • General Washington, urging Congress to establish a long-term Continental Army (1777).
  • The unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats, nor hats, nor shirts, nor shoes; their feet and their legs froze till they grew black and it was often necessary to amputate them....^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There in 1783, General George Washington resigned from the Continental Army.
    • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - American Revolutionary War Flags 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    .The army frequently passed whole days without food.^ This very day I will leave your corpse and the corpses of the Philistine army for the birds of the air and the beasts of the field; thus the whole land shall learn that Israel has a God.
    • Second American Revolution »Blogs For Victory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • The Marquis de Lafayette, observing the Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, after his arrival from France (1777).
  • Poor food — hard lodging — cold weather — fatigue — nasty clothes — nasty cookery....^ Marquis de Lafayette lands in US. .
    • HistoryMole Timeline: US Revolutionary War (1775-1783) 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Major, Continental Army, aide-de- camp to Lafayette.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There comes a bowl of beef soup, full of burnt leaves and dirt! .
    • Continental Army surgeon Albigence Waldo, writing in his diary on conditions of the army at Valley Forge (1777).
  • France is...^ He served in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1780.
    • French Volunteers in the American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a training program supervised by Baron von Steuben .
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After repelling a British attack at White Marsh , Washington and his army encamped at Valley Forge in December 1777, about 20 miles (32 km) from Philadelphia, where they stayed for the next six months.
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    what they call the dominant power of .Europe, being incomparably the most powerful at land, that united in a close alliance with our states, and enjoying the benefit of our trade, there is not the smallest reason to doubt but both will be a sufficient curb upon the naval power of Great Britain.^ As always, there were alliances between the great powers.

    ^ "Great Britain had her colored soldiers in that battle: the United States had hers.
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is room for both, and I insist upon it!'
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • John Adams to Sam Adams, explaining the alliance between the United States and France (1778).

The War at Sea

.
  • I have not yet begun to fight!^ John Paul Jones --Sir, I have not yet begun to fight."

    • The famous response of John Paul Jones, in the early phase of the Battle of Flamborough Head, (23 September 1779) to an inquiry by his opponent (Captain Richard Pearson of the Royal Navy ship HMS Serapis) as to whether he was surrendering his ship, the USS Bonhomme Richard, as recounted in the reminiscences of Jones's First Lieutenant, Richard Dale, as published in The Life and Character of John Paul Jones, a Captain in the United States Navy (1825) by John Henry Sherburne:
...the .Bon Homme Richard, having head way, ran her bows into the stern of the Serapis.^ He had seen a watch, but not a clock--such an article not yet having found its way into the quiet and secluded valley in which he lived.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Bon-Homme Richard sunk he boarded and captured the H.M.S. Serapis, then sailed his new prize ship into the Dutch harbor of Texel for repairs.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - American Revolutionary War Flags 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bon Homme Richard (Ship).

We had remained in this situation but a few minutes when we were again hailed by the Serapis, "Has your ship struck?" To which Captain Jones answered, "I have not yet begun to fight!"
In Naval teminology to "strike the colours" means to haul down the ship's flag to signify surrender, but here the use of the ship as subject of the sentence may imply a pun on the non-naval use of "struck".

The War in the South

.
  • Colonel [Henry]Laurens...^ Wallace, David Duncan , The Life of Henry Laurens: with a sketch of the life of Lieutenant-Colonel John Laurens , Published 1915 by G. P. Putnam's sons.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    is on the way to South Carolina... to raise two three or four battalions of negroes... by contributions form owners in proportion to the number they possess...
    I have not the least doubt, that the negroes will make excellent soldiers, with proper management....
    I foresee that his project will have to combat much opposition from prejudice and self-interest. .The contempt we have been taught to entertain for the blacks, makes us fancy many things that are founded neither in reason nor experience....^ As many years passed his family moved to London where he found no job, some admiration, and even some contempt.

    ^ One "period text" we found told us of stuffing things into the soldiers ears so he wouldnt hear the screaming!
    • The History of Medicine in America - The Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By attacking, with great ability, every principle of truth and reason, he put me upon examining the ground upon which I stood and taught me not hastily to take any thing for granted.
    • Richard Price: Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution(1785) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]


    An essential part of the plan is to give them their freedom with their muskets. .This will secure their fidelity, animate their courage, and I believe will have a good influence upon those who remain, by opening a door to their emancipation.^ It pitted men who had become democrats, enamoured of the peoples right to rule, against men who remained Whigs, believing in balance and stability.
    • Edward Countryman, The People's American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.baas.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Where, then, is the goodness or depth of that philosophy that leads you to separate yourselves, for an hour, from those who are your coadjutors in this great work?
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lines will be drawn and those who profess to believe in freedom will be put to the test of practice.

  • We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again.^ Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greene summed up his approach in a motto that would become famous: "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again."
    • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • American Revolutionary War 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Contemporaries, including George Washington and Nathaniel Greene, knew well the impressive fighting qualities of this young officer.
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR BOOKS - FROM C.CLAYTON THOMPSON - BOOKSELLER 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.civilwarmall.com [Source type: General]

    • Gen. .Nathaniel Greene of Rhode Island, Continental Army commander in the South, describing guerrilla warfare against the British (1781).
  • Their number did not exceed 20 men and boys, some white, some black, and all mounted, but most of them miserably equipped.^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
    • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Most blonde was either off-white, black, or white, but some was multicolor.
    • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lord Cornwallis assumes command of the British Army in the South.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • American cavalry raiders in South Carolina commanded by Francis Marion ("the Swamp Fox") as described by an officer on the staff of Gen.^ With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion .
      • American Revolutionary War - Familypedia 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion, former commandant of the 2nd South Carolina Regiment, previously mentioned.

      ^ Hugh F. Rankin's Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox discusses the guerrilla volunteer marksmen who formed "Marion Brigade" which played a crucial part at battles such as Georgetown, Eutaw Springs, and Parker's Ferry.
      • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Horatio Gates, commanding American forces in the South (1780).
  • I have the mortification to inform your Excellency that I have been forced to...^ From August the American forces were commanded by General Gates.
    • American War of Independence (1775-1782) 15 September 2009 20:50 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oct 1780 26 Feb 1781 11 Nov 1783 Parris, George, "The Initial Phases of the American War of Independence in the South (1775-1780)" , 1998.
    • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Horatio Gates and the Continental Army were badly defeated by Lord Cornwallis and the British forces.
    • Revolutionary War Timeline 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    surrender the troops under my command.
    • Gen. .Cornwallis, commanding British forces in the South, informing the commander of all British forces in North America, Gen.^ Lord Cornwallis assumes command of the British Army in the South.
      • REVOLUTIONARY WAR TIMELINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Thomas Gage, commander of the British army in North America.
      • AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
      • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Clinton, that he surrendered his army at Yorktown, Virginia (October 19, 1781).
  • This is a most glorious day.^ When he surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1781 it was a staggering blow to the British cause.

    ^ Cornwallis capitulated on October 19, 1781.

    ^ On 19 October Cornwallis surrendered.
    • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • An American doctor, upon learning that Gen. Cornwallis, surrendered his army at Yorktown (1781).

The End of the War

  • There was as much sorrow as joy.... .We had lived together as a family of brothers for several years, setting aside some little family squabbles, like most other families, had shared with each other the hardships, dangers, and sufferings incident to a soldier’s life, had sympathized with each other in trouble and in sickness; had assisted in bearing each other’s burdens....^ All were chosen as being "sober, young, active and well built, men of good character that possess pride of appearing soldier like, those having family connection in this country, and men of some property."
    • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Dickinson --Gives a nice account of the life of Dickinson along with some family history.

    ^ Hey dummy, most likely the CIA has been monitoring this site for quite some time with or without the knowledge of Alex Jones.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    And now we were to be... parted forever. .
    • Joseph Plumb Martin, a soldier in the Continental Army, on the disbanding of the army, in his memoir, Private Yankee Doodle (published 1830).
  • Such a scene of sorrow and weeping I had never before witnessed....^ Since Rhoda's book was published additional residents have been certified as revolutionary soldiers, such as my own ancestor, Jonathan Wood, whom I have included in the list.
    • Revolutionary War Soldiers of Tioga County PA 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.joycetice.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While one soldier in seven was dying from hunger and disease at Valley Forge, young Private Martin, stationed only a few miles away in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, was assigned to patrols that foraged daily for army provisions.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alan Greenspan testified before Congress that he never imagined the private sector banks would act against their own interests as they did.
    • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

    .We were then about to part form the man who had conducted through a long and bloody war, and under whose conduct the glory and independence of our country has been achieved.^ Benjmain Viers was a "free coloured man" who enlisted in Revolutionary War service in Henry County, Virginia, in October 1775.
    • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your the fool, these people are mad about a lot more than your precious health care, we want our country back.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Thus it will be seen that, in the estimation of such men--men who have bestowed some thought upon our condition and our conduct--that we are not all so ignorant .
    • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Benjamin Tallmadge, remembering the scene at Fraunces Tavern, New York City, as General Washington said farewell to his officers and left the Continental Army at the end of the War of Independence (1783).

Aftermath

.
  • A British vessel, stopping on the way back from India at the Comoro Islands in the Mozambique Channel, finds the native inhabitants in revolt against their Arab masters; and when they ask why they have taken arms, are told: "America is free, could not we be?"^ Thonhoff describes it thusly: “More significantly to us (the U.S.), they (Spain and New Spain) aided the American colonists immeasurably in the war effort, both by providing arms, ammunition, and supplies by way of the Mississippi River and by diverting British manpower that could have been used against the Continental Army.” After the war, England attributed their loss of its colonies in America to Spain’s and New Spain’s bulwark of support to the Anglo Americans.
    • Myths of the American Revolution | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They want people to be told to give up their money to charity, stop smoking, and have more enforcement by way of licensing and fining.
    • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If any one power could get control of this entire chain of islands they could monitor ships coming in from Europe, and block them if need be.

    • Gijsbert Karel, Count van Hogendorp, in 1784, quoted in "The age of the democratic revolution: a political history of Europe and America, 1760-1860" by Robert Roswell Palmer (1969)

External links

Wikipedia
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
American Revolutionary War
Plural
-
American Revolutionary War
  1. The American Revolution

Synonyms

  • The Revolutionary War

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to American Revolution article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.Welcome to the WikiTextBook on
The American Revolution
George Washington crossing the Delaware River.^ Assignment: American Revolution Foldable Course Syllabus Welcome to the Podcast/Vidcast .

^ American Revolution Center Welcomes President and CEO Dr. Bruce Cole; Announces $13 Million in Public/Private Funding.
  • American Revolution Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/3/3/1/4762433307584802.png" width="500" height="294" />
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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Template:Pp-semi
American Revolutionary War

Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
Date 1775–1783
Location Eastern North America (present-day United States and Canada), Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean Sea
Result Treaty of Paris; establishment of the United States of America
Territorial
changes
Britain recognizes independence of the United States, cedes East Florida, West Florida, and Minorca to Spain and Tobago to France
Combatants
United States (United Colonies prior to July 4, 1776)
Great Britain
Loyalists
Commanders
George Washington
King George III
Strength
250,000 troops
15,000 French troops
8,000 Spanish troops
Total: 273,000
12,000 British troops
50,000 Loyalists
Around 40,000 German troops
Around 5,000 Indian troops
Total: 107,000
Casualties
Around 25,000 killed or died of disease, 25,000 wounded Around 24,000 killed or died of disease, 20,000 wounded
(more commanders)
.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[1] was a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies on the North American continent (as well as some naval conflict).
^ The American Revolution, "American War of Independence" The American Revolution, 1775-1783 was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern shores of North America and their mother country, Great Britain.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of the war in 1783, Britain recognized its former colonies as an independent nation.

^ The American Revolution and the British Press, 1775–1783 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists overthrew British rule.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Beyond these immediate social changes, the upheaval brought a revolution in American political thought.

.In 1775, Revolutionaries seized control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army.^ Joined Continental Army, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Continental Army had been formed, but it fell far short of the goals Washington and Congress had set for it."
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sign reads: Chaining the Hudson "Early in the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress realized that if the British controlled the Hudson River, they could divide the rebellious colonies.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.The following year, they formally declared their independence as a new nation, the United States of America.^ Independence of the United States acknowledged by France.

^ "The new nation was still a weak confederation of thirteen independent states.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It created a new United States, a Corporation.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1778 onward, other European powers would fight on the American side in the war.^ After the fighting at Lexington and Concord that began the war, rebel forces began a siege of Boston that ended when the American Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Baron Ottendorf was a German mercenary who began fighting in the Revolutionary War on the side of the Americans.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galloway proposed the creation of an American parliament that would have significant powers of taxation and legislation, but whose acts would need the approval of a governor-general appointed by the Crown.

.Meanwhile, Native Americans and African Americans served on both sides.^ Joseph Wallace was a man of color who served in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 154].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Hawkins served in the Revolution from Halifax County [NSDAR, African American Patriots , 165].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were African Americans who served as soldiers and marines.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army.^ Use control-f and search for war in the south .
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In early 1778, shortly after an American victory at Saratoga, France entered the war against Britain; Spain and the Netherlands joined as allies of France over the next two years.^ When this demand was refused, Spain allied with France and declared war on Britain.

^ When France and Britain joined the war in 1778, the American conflict became a key element in European diplomacy.

^ The American Revolutionary War thus began as a civil conflict within the British Empire over colonial affairs, but, with America being joined by France in 1778, Spain in 1779, and the Netherlands in 1780, it became an international war.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a British army at Yorktown in 1781. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west.^ The road to war - - - The United States at war .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States at war - - - War production .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Uniforms of the American, British, French and German Armies in the War of the American Revolution, 1775-1783 .
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People are beginning to describe the American Revolution (though not common) as a civil war between those of the British Royal Troops and British Republican Colonists.^ The American Revolution as civil war" , Common-Place, vol.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has been brought about because many believe it can be misleading to say "Americans vs British", when at the time, "Americans" still considered themselves British, even though they were citizens of a new nation.^ Because the more Americans know about it, the more they oppose it.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Milwaukeerick Says: August 7th, 2009 at 5:23 pm The protests are great to see but will NOT lead to the Second American Revolution, they will be the third.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Combatants before 1778

Armies, militias, and mercenaries

.When the war began, the British Colonists ("Americans") did not have a professional army or navy.^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ American Revolutionary War: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or The American War of Independence began as a war between the Great Britain and the thirteen original British colonies on the North American continent.
  • American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locations - Locate American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Near You with Mapmuse's American Revolutionary War Sites, Memorials, and Collections Locator 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each colony provided for its own defenses through the use of local militia. Militiamen were lightly armed, slightly trained, and usually did not have uniforms. .Their units served for only a few weeks or months at a time, were reluctant to go very far from home, and were thus generally unavailable for extended operations.^ Establishing office in his Carrollton home, Butler served as adjutant general until ca.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Mr. Atherton, of the island, generously became bound for their good behavior for six months, in which time letters came, informing of their case, and they were permitted to return.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "We have had in Ohio, until very recently, and if they are living, have here now, a few colored men who have thus connected us with the past.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Militia lacked the training and discipline of regular soldiers but were more numerous and could overwhelm regular troops as at the battles of Concord, Bennington and Saratoga, and the siege of Boston.^ Just by way of contrast, a consensus can be found that the first battle of the American Revolution occurred in the Lexington-Concord outside Boston.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Battles of the American Revolution The American Revolution started in 1775 when the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt in Boston at the Battle of Concord and Lexington, April 19, 1775.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His forces won victories against German troops called Hessians, at Trenton and then against British regulars at the Battle of Princeton .

.Both sides used partisan warfare but the Americans were particularly effective at suppressing Loyalist activity when British regulars were not in the area.^ "In the fall of 1775 the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They hoped that these Southern Loyalists could be mobilized both to provide support and supplies to the advancing British armies and to hold captured territory after the armies had moved on.

^ The British government also counted on mobilizing thousands of Loyalists in America and Native Americans who were hostile to white expansion.

[2]
.
German troops serving with the British were called "Hessians."
^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The York, Pa., lawyer also served in the Continental Congress during that body's visit to York County after British troops forced members from Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Letters regarding a shipment of supplies for British and Hessian prisoners date from that year, as does a circular from George Washington regarding raising troops, and a resolution of Congress regarding privateers.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(C. Ziegler after Conrad Gessner, 1799)
.Seeking to coordinate military efforts, the Continental Congress established (on paper) a regular army in June 1775, and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief.^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day, June 15, Congress chose George Washington, a Virginian, to be Commander in Chief.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, was told of these events, he personally recommended that the militiamen are rewarded.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.The development of the Continental Army was always a work in progress, and Washington used both his regulars and state militia throughout the war.^ In June 1775 it had commissioned George Washington to organize and lead a Continental Army.

^ When George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, was told of these events, he personally recommended that the militiamen are rewarded.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the progress of the war, he was placed by his master, (as a substitute for himself,) in the army then in New Jersey, as a teamster in the baggage train.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10 1775, a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps.^ The United States Congress passed a resolution on November 3, 1780, commending the three captors.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The road to war - - - The United States at war .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States at war - - - War production .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded.^ The American Revolution 1763–1783 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Revolution and the British Press, 1775–1783 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corps of Engineers, Engineers of Independence - A Documentary History of the Army Engineers in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 , 1981.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.About 250,000 men served as regulars or as militiamen for the Revolutionary cause in the eight years of the war, but there were never more than 90,000 total men under arms at one time.^ Jacob Reed served in the Revolutionary War.
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I make over 250,000 a year.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read more about Benedict Arnold in the American Revolutionary War.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.Armies were small by European standards of the era; the greatest number of men that Washington personally commanded in the field at any one time was fewer than 17,000. This could be attributed to tactical preferences, but it also could be because of lack of powder on the American side.^ The words had no sooner left his mouth, than his American journeymen, unbottoning their aprons, called, as one man, for the settlement of their wages.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, himself, used the term “protract,” and Hamilton understood the same tactic of keeping an army in the field, avoiding a direct confrontation except on one's own terms, and harassing the enemy piecemeal.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Here, the parley was resumed, the spokesman of the blacks telling the white men to go away; they were determined, he said, to die rather than go into slavery, or allow any one of their number to be taken.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Early in 1775, the British Army consisted of about 36,000 men worldwide, but wartime recruitment steadily increased this number.^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, over the course of the war the British hired about 30,000 soldiers from German princes, these soldiers were called "Hessians" because many of them came from Hesse-Kassel.^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The troops were mercenaries in the sense of professionals who were hired out by their prince. .Germans made up about one-third of the British troop strength in North America.^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle began about noon, with the Union troops fighting their way up the ridges and the Confederates counterattacking down them.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1779, the number of British and German troops stationed in North America was over 60,000, though these were spread from Canada to Florida.^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the Americans controlled the country, except where there were British troops—and several times during the war when British armies were in transport at sea none of their forces were on American soil—the British had to devise a strategy to regain North America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Bibliographical Essay: William Marina, Revolution and Social Change: The American Revolution As a People's War - Literature of Liberty, April/June 1978, vol. 1, No. 2 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Revolution, ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]

African-Americans and Native Americans

This 1780 drawing of American soldiers from the Yorktown campaign shows a black infantryman from the First Rhode Island Regiment.
.African-Americans—slave and free —served on both sides during the war.^ The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fort Montgomery was the scene of a fierce battle for control of the Hudson River during the American Revolutionary War; the Hudson was considered strategic by both the Americans and the British during the American War for Independence.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We learn from Kent's Commentary that the Legislature of New York passed an Act during the Revolutionary War granting freedom to all slaves who should serve in the army for three years, or until regularly discharged.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British actively recruited slaves belonging to Patriot masters.^ SEVEN HUNDRED BRITISH SOLDIERS ESCORTED BY A COLORED PATRIOT--REV. LEMUEL HAYNES--JUDGE HARRINGTON'S ANTI-FUGITIVE-SLAVE-LAW DECISION. .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Because of manpower shortages, George Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776. Small all-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many were slaves promised freedom for serving.^ GEORGE WASHINGTON, as Commander of the Continental Army, forbade the enlistment of Blacks - free, slave, or ex-slave - during the early stages of the war.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The young black poet, whose work caught George Washington's eye, was optimistic - overly so - in writing in 1772 that Britain's new North American secretary would be supportive of all American colonists: .
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Another all-black unit came from Haiti with French forces.^ "As soon as this infamous transaction was known, Governor Hancock and M. L. Etombe, the French consul, wrote letters to the governors of all the islands in the West Indies, in favor of the decoyed blacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "While the black laws of Connecticut were in force, Chief Justice Daggett decided that we were not citizens of the United States, and that the colored people there had no claims to the privileges of American citizens.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the Revolutionary cause[5] and more than 20,000 black soldiers fought on the British side.^ Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment for three years and reenlisted for twelve more months in December 1781 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina , 102].
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^ Washingtons main Continental Army never had more than 24,000 active-duty troops, although Congress promised to raise a force at least three times that size.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.Most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River were affected by the war, and many communities were divided over the question of how to respond to the conflict.^ Fort Montgomery was the scene of a fierce battle for control of the Hudson River during the American Revolutionary War; the Hudson was considered strategic by both the Americans and the British during the American War for Independence.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As James W. Pohl has observed, perhaps the most astute American analyst of people's revolutionary war was Thomas Paine.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do a wonderful job of telling York County's story - from wars to everyday life and show how the community has advanced in including minorities as part of that narrative.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Most Native Americans opposed the United States, since native lands were threatened by expanding American settlement.^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Van Jones says Native American land should not be taken away from them now that they own much of the renewable resources.
  • Mr. Conservative » Our Second American Revolution 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.lubbockonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States since 1945 - - The peak Cold War years, 1945–60 .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.An estimated 13,000 warriors fought on the British side; the largest group, the Iroquois Confederacy, fielded about 1,500 men.^ For example, on 12 October 1740 he drew a crowd of some 30,000 to the Boston Common (Boston, the largest colonial city at the time, was only 13,000 people).
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^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[7]

War in the north, 1775–1780

Massachusetts

Main article: Boston campaign
.Before the war, Boston had been the scene of much revolutionary activity, leading to the Massachusetts Government Act that ended home rule as a punishment in 1774. Popular resistance to these measures, however, compelled the newly appointed royal officials in Massachusetts to resign or to seek refuge in Boston.^ Designed to aid that government chartered monopoly, the East India Company, the Act culminated in the famous Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773).
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have found no primary evidence of tatting before the end of the Revolutionary War (nor during the rest of the century, though I haven't looked as hard for any).
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the fighting at Lexington and Concord that began the war, rebel forces began a siege of Boston that ended when the American Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, the British North American commander-in chief, commanded four regiments of British regulars (about 4,000 men) from his headquarters in Boston, but the countryside was in the hands of the Revolutionaries.^ American Hand-bills in the British Camp.

^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The British marching to Concord in April 1775
.On the night of April 18 1775, General Gage sent 700 men to seize munitions stored by the colonial militia at Concord.^ While serving in the militia, he wrote a lengthy ballad-sermon about the April, 1775 Battle of Lexington.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet so alert and ubiquitous were the patriot eyes in Boston that when the picked British force of 700 men set out on the night of April 18, 1775, two messengers, Paul Revere and William Dawes, preceded them to spread the alarm throughout the countryside.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every schoolboy has read of Major Pitcairn, who commanded the British regulars in the fight at Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775, shouting to the militia: "Disperse, you rebels; lay down your arms and disperse!"
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Riders including Paul Revere alerted the countryside, and when British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, they found 77 minutemen formed up on the village green.^ Upon hearing of the colonists' victory at Lexington, Mass., on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington to commemorate the first battle of the American Revolution.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LC-USZC2-3154] A statue in Lexington, Mass., honouring the minutemen who fought against the British in 1775.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Every schoolboy has read of Major Pitcairn, who commanded the British regulars in the fight at Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775, shouting to the militia: "Disperse, you rebels; lay down your arms and disperse!"
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shots were exchanged, killing several minutemen. .The British moved on to Concord, where a detachment of three companies was engaged and routed at the North Bridge by a force of 500 minutemen.^ The losses to militia forces, such as John Stark's Green Mountain Boys, which Burgoyne suffered on route, weakened the British army.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that battle British forces in the north remained chiefly in and around the city of New York.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "The 1777 trail represents the route taken by British General Sir Henry Clinton's forces on October 6, 1777.
  • American Revolution / American War of Independence - Westchester New York 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.westchestertowns.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the British retreated back to Boston, thousands of militiamen attacked them along the roads, inflicting great damage before timely British reinforcements prevented a total disaster.^ Lambert took the cattle from the team, and, making all secure, started for the point of defence, where he arrived before the British began the attack.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The British totally raped the country, and were ready to leave when Ghandi came along.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Negro mounted the mare, grinning from ear to ear, and thus conducted the left wing of the British army into Massachusetts, on their road to Boston.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the war had begun.^ Prev Next Despite initial resistance to their participation, black soldiers fought for the patriot cause in every major battle of the Revolutionary War, including the military engagement that began it on April 19, 1775 -- the battles of Lexington and Concord.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just by way of contrast, a consensus can be found that the first battle of the American Revolution occurred in the Lexington-Concord outside Boston.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.The militia converged on Boston, bottling up the British in the city.^ Can it be accidental that in 1775, with the British army bottled up in Boston, the American leadership took the opportunity to launch a nearly successful, and then ultimately disastrous, attack on Canada?
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 4,500 more British soldiers arrived by sea, and on June 17, 1775, British forces under General William Howe seized the Charlestown peninsula at the Battle of Bunker Hill.^ Peter Salem, Salem Poor, and Jude Hall were soldiers at Bunker Hill, June, 1775.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although documents show that Poor, along with his regiment and two others, were sent to Bunker Hill to build a fort and other fortifications on the night of June 16, 1775, we have no details about just what Poor did to earn the praise of these officers.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans fell back, but British losses were so heavy that the attack was not followed up.^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can it be accidental that in 1775, with the British army bottled up in Boston, the American leadership took the opportunity to launch a nearly successful, and then ultimately disastrous, attack on Canada?
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inman, George , Lieut, 16th Foot, "Losses of the (British) Military and Naval Forces Engaged in the War of the American Revolution" , 1784.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

.The siege was not broken, and Gage was soon replaced by Howe as the British commander-in-chief.^ William Howe , Gage’s replacement, to evacuate Boston on March 17, 1776.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[8]
.In July 1775, newly appointed General Washington arrived outside Boston to take charge of the colonial forces and to organize the Continental Army.^ Joined Continental Army, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the soldier and other black and American Indian Minutemen were rebuffed by General George Washington when he arrived in July 1775 to take command of a "salt and pepper" army.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As administrator of the estate he appointed Samuel Smith attorney to settle the Continental Army Accounts of (his son?
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  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources.^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington through the Continental Army camp at …[Credits : The Granger Collection, New York] Surrender of Lord Cornwallis (at Yorktown, Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Arsenals were raided and some manufacturing was attempted; 90% of the supply (2 million pounds) was imported by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[9]
The standoff continued throughout the fall and winter. .In early March 1776, heavy cannons that the patriots had captured at Fort Ticonderoga were placed on Dorchester Heights by Major Henry Knox.^ Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, forcing Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, but, as he approached Albany, he was twice defeated by an American force led by Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold , and on Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Since the artillery now overlooked the British positions, Howe's situation was untenable, and the British fled on March 17, 1776, sailing to their naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia[10] Washington then moved most of the Continental Army to fortify New York City.^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
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^ Earlier that fall Howe had sailed from New York to Chesapeake Bay , and once ashore he had defeated Washington’s forces at Brandywine Creek on September 11 and occupied the American capital of Philadelphia on September 25.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Two Quebec Regiments join the Americans

.Colonel James Livingston led the 1st Canadian Regiment at the Battle of Quebec and Moses Hazen led the 2nd Canadian Regiment to support the American cause at the Battle of Saint-Pierre.^ Moses Grimes was a "mulatto" who served in the Virginia Regiment commanded by Colonel Gibson and waited on Colonel Brent during the Revolution.
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  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moses Carter was a "man of color" who enlisted as a private in Captain Joseph Rhodes' 1st Regiment on 19 July 1782 until 1 July 1783.
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  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Harris was a resident of Charles City County when he enlisted in the 2nd Virginia Regiment.
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They both continued to fight for the Americans until the end of the war.^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Continue reading Red Lion doctor treated both Revolutionary War soldier and people alive today .
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ After the fighting at Lexington and Concord that began the war, rebel forces began a siege of Boston that ended when the American Gen.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Canada

Main article: Invasion of Canada (1775)
.During the long standoff at Boston, the Continental Congress sought a way to seize the initiative elsewhere.^ Comments (0) This panel of Mad Anthony Wayne celebrates his visit to York County during the Continental Congress' visit in 1777-78.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Southern Carolinian Henry Laurens was not one of the younger men to serve in the Continental Congress during its nine-month stay in York County.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The York, Pa., lawyer also served in the Continental Congress during that body's visit to York County after British troops forced members from Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Congress had initially invited the French Canadians to join them as the fourteenth colony, but when that failed to happen, Congress authorized an invasion of Canada.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The goal was to remove British rule from the primarily francophone province of Quebec (comprising present-day Quebec).^ Comments (0) Camp Security, in present-day Springettsbury Township, probably resembled this British prisoner-of-war encampment in Charlottesville, Va.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

Two Canada-bound expeditions were undertaken. .On September 16, 1775, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery marched north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,700 militiamen, capturing Montreal on November 13.^ September 16, 1775.
  • Prentice Thomas Tinney Family Lineages: American Revolutionary War Descendant 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.academic-genealogy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sterling, Courthouse lawn, US 60 Description: Named for General Richard Montgomery, Revolutionary War officer.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

General Guy Carleton, the governor of Canada, escaped to Quebec City. .The second expedition, led by Colonel Benedict Arnold, was a logistical nightmare, with many men succumbing to smallpox.^ Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, but, as he approached Albany, he was twice defeated by an American force led by Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold , and on Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.By the time Arnold reached Quebec City in early November, he had but 600 of his original 1,100 men.^ Page 293 reached only 3,600, it will be seen that the 'men of color' were present in much larger proportion than their numbers in the country warranted.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Montgomery's force joined Arnold's, and they attacked Quebec City on December 31, but were soundly defeated by Carleton.^ Killed in Quebec attack, December 31, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard Montgomery invaded Canada in the fall of 1775, captured Montreal, and launched an unsuccessful attack on Quebec , in which Montgomery was killed.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Its members marched to Boston to join George Washington's forces in the seige of that city in 1775.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.The remaining Americans held on outside Quebec City until the spring of 1776, and then withdrew.^ Trough Spring remained his home until death, 1811.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans maintained a siege on the city until the arrival of British reinforcements in the spring and then retreated to Fort Ticonderoga.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.So Canada stood firmly on the front line of the war with many more forces than in America.^ To what extent did differences occur within the overall development of a rapidly expanding economy in which many were moving upward, though some more rapidly than others?
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all the Loyalists were, in one way or another, more afraid of America than they were of Britain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - American Revolution as a People's War: A Bibliographical Essay by William Marina, 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But few of the nation's founders, young or hold, suffered more in the war than Henry Laurens...
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Another attempt was made by the Americans to push back towards Quebec, but they failed at Trois-Rivières on June 8, 1776.^ French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An attempt was then made to procure a reprieve; but a great multitude had assembled to witness the executions, and the excitement was so great, that it was considered impossible to return the prisoners to prison; they were, accordingly, burned at the stake.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Way back during the American revolution the founding fathers had this whole constitutional republic mapped out to replace the English monarchy they were fighting.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Carleton then launched his own invasion and defeated Arnold at the Battle of Valcour Island in October. .Arnold fell back to Fort Ticonderoga, where the invasion of Canada had begun.^ Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, but, as he approached Albany, he was twice defeated by an American force led by Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold , and on Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The invasion of Canada ended as a disaster for the Americans, but Arnold's efforts in 1776 delayed a full-scale British counteroffensive until the Saratoga campaign of 1777.
.The invasion cost the Americans their base of support in British public opinion, "So that the violent measures towards America are freely adopted and countenanced by a majority of individuals of all ranks, professions, or occupations, in this country."^ He was living in the State of Jersey, and parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the servant of a captain of the British army, in the Revolution, and, at the age of sixteen, deserted to the American army, and has remained in this country ever since.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11]

New York and New Jersey

Main article: New York and New Jersey campaign
.Having withdrawn his army from Boston, General Howe now focused on capturing New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
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^ New York City was built on Corruption.
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^ I am indebted to Rev. Theodore Parker, of Boston, for the following historical sketch of the New York colored soldiery:-- .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To defend the city, General Washington divided his 20,000 soldiers between Long Island and Manhattan.^ Jean-Pierre Allex spoke of the generations-long interplay between France and America building on a foundation between best friends Lafayette and George Washington.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ It has long been well known, that to the colored soldiers belonged the honor of first erecting the cotton-bale defences which so signally contributed to General Jackson's victory.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Americans refused this offer of peace, General Howe landed on Long Island and on August 27 defeated the army led by Washington , who retreated into Manhattan .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.While British troops were assembling on Staten Island for the campaign, Washington had the newly issued Declaration of American Independence read to his men.^ Topics of correspondence from 1776 includes the appointment of generals, the purchase of arms, Dickinson’s reservations regarding the Declaration of Independence, and Dickinson’s service with his troops in New Jersey.
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^ Letters regarding a shipment of supplies for British and Hessian prisoners date from that year, as does a circular from George Washington regarding raising troops, and a resolution of Congress regarding privateers.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also included are various types of correspondence, records of British fleet and troop movements in Delaware and the Delaware Bay, and pay rolls for officers and men in the Continental Army.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No longer was there any possibility of compromise.^ There is no longer any room for hope.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I warn you that it is simply no longer possible to make the finest laces; the fine linen threads are no longer produced, nor are the hair-fine pins needed, and the techniques have been lost.
  • Lace In American Revolutionary War Reenacting 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no longer time to change this situation one election at a time.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 27, 1776, after landing about 22,000 men on Long Island, the British drove the Americans back to Brooklyn Heights in the largest battle of the entire Revolution.^ They first saw combat on 27 August, in the Battle of Long Island.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By contrast, the British army was composed of reliable and well-trained professionals, numbering about 42,000 regulars, supplemented by about 30,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Howe then laid siege to fortifications there, but Washington managed to evacuate his army to Manhattan.^ When the Americans refused this offer of peace, General Howe landed on Long Island and on August 27 defeated the army led by Washington , who retreated into Manhattan .
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Howe drew him north, defeated his army at Chatterton Hill near White Plains on October 28, and then stormed the garrison Washington had left behind on Manhattan, seizing prisoners and supplies.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Washington’s army and a force under the French Count de Rochambeau placed Yorktown under siege, and Cornwallis surrendered his army of more than 7,000 men on Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.On September 15, Howe landed about 12,000 men on lower Manhattan, quickly taking control of New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier that fall Howe had sailed from New York to Chesapeake Bay , and once ashore he had defeated Washington’s forces at Brandywine Creek on September 11 and occupied the American capital of Philadelphia on September 25.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Americans withdrew to Harlem Heights, where they skirmished the next day but held their ground.^ Haslet’s men fought bravely at Brooklyn Heights that day, although the American forces were defeated.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More and more, each and every day, those Americans are coming to terms with the fact they are listening to a gang of lying traitors.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He steered eastwardly in the day time, but put about at night, and thus kept near the American coast, until the 26th of August, when they were taken by Lieut.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When Howe moved to encircle Washington's army in October, the Americans again fell back, and a battle at White Plains was fought on October 28. Once more Washington retreated, and Howe returned to Manhattan and captured Fort Washington in mid November, taking about 2,000 prisoners (with an additional 1,000 having been captured during the battle for Long Island).^ In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Continental Army was concerned that the British would detach a unit to free the prisoners, many of whom had surrendered about four years earlier at Saratoga, N.Y. About 2,000 mostly British prisoners were housed there from 1781 to 1783.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Lord Charles Cornwallis , having taken Washington’s other garrison at Fort Lee , drove the American army across New Jersey to the western bank of the Delaware River and then quartered his troops for the winter at outposts in New Jersey.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Thus began the infamous "prison ships" system the British maintained in New York for the remainder of the war, in which more American soldiers and sailors died of neglect than died in every battle of the entire war, combined.^ Died in New York, 1794.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Emanuel Leutze's stylized depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851) is an iconic image of heroic action by Washington.
.General Lord Cornwallis continued to chase Washington's army through New Jersey, until the Americans withdrew across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania in early December.^ Haslet’s men again guarded the rear of the army as the Americans crossed the Delaware into Pennsylvania.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the loss of Forts Washington and Lee in November, the American army withdrew from New York into New Jersey, with British troops in pursuit.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord Charles Cornwallis , having taken Washington’s other garrison at Fort Lee , drove the American army across New Jersey to the western bank of the Delaware River and then quartered his troops for the winter at outposts in New Jersey.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

With the campaign at an apparent conclusion for the season, the British entered winter quarters. .Although Howe had missed several opportunities to crush the diminishing American army, he had killed or captured over 5,000 Americans.^ Still, American privateers swarmed around the British Isles, and by the end of the war they had captured 1,500 British merchant ships and 12,000 sailors.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On land the Americans assembled both state militias and the Continental (national) Army, with approximately 20,000 men, mostly farmers, fighting at any given time.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The outlook of the Continental Army was bleak. ."These are the times that try men's souls," wrote Thomas Paine, who was with the army on the retreat.^ Sir, these were times which tried men's souls.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And who knows but these same sort of traders may, in a short time, in like manner bewail the loss of the African traffic, to their shame and confusion?
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These facts were given me on the spot, at the time of the laying of the cornerstone, by two veterans who were present at the battle."
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The army had dwindled to fewer than 5,000 men fit for duty, and would be reduced to 1,400 after enlistments expired at the end of the year.^ On 25 October 1776, the roughly 280 men still fit for duty in the regiment took part in the battle of White Plains.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I served in the Revolution, in General Washington's army, three years under one enlistment.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 31 December, the end of the enlistment term, only six men, officers included, remained.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Congress had abandoned Philadelphia in despair, although popular resistance to British occupation was growing in the countryside.^ The York, Pa., lawyer also served in the Continental Congress during that body's visit to York County after British troops forced members from Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Continental Congress came here in 1777-78 after the British pushed them out of the comforts of Philadelphia.
  • York Town Square: American Revolution Archives 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.yorkblog.com [Source type: General]

.Washington decided to take the offensive, stealthily crossing the Delaware on Christmas night and capturing nearly 1,000 Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on December 26, 1776.^ In the engravings of Washington crossing the Delaware on the evening previous to the battle of Trenton, Dec.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On Christmas night Washington stealthily crossed the Delaware and attacked Cornwallis’s garrison at Trenton, taking nearly 1,000 prisoners.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cornwallis marched to retake Trenton but was outmaneuvered by Washington, who successfully attacked the British rearguard at Princeton on January 3, 1777.^ Though Cornwallis soon recaptured Trenton, Washington escaped and went on to defeat British reinforcements at Princeton.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Contains references to the Revolution, and poetic and prose descriptions of events at Trenton and Princeton in 1776-1777.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Washington then entered winter quarters at Morristown, having given a morale boost to the American cause.^ Lord Charles Cornwallis , having taken Washington’s other garrison at Fort Lee , drove the American army across New Jersey to the western bank of the Delaware River and then quartered his troops for the winter at outposts in New Jersey.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After a mildly successful attack at Germantown , Pa., on October 4, Washington quartered his 11,000 troops for the winter at Valley Forge , Pa.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During the Revolutionary War, he was commended for supplying American troops with baked goods at the Burlington docks, and reportedly given a silver piece by General Washington.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Jersey militia continued to harass British and Hessian forces throughout the winter, forcing the British to retreat to their base in and around New York City.^ New York City minister and abolitionist.
  • History of American Thought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.pragmatism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York City was built on Corruption.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the harsh winter of 1779, Tye was among an elite group of twenty-four black Loyalists, known as the Black Brigade, who joined with the Queen's Rangers, a British guerrilla unit, to protect New York City and to conduct raids for food and fuel.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At every stage the British strategy assumed a large base of Loyalist supporters who would rally to the King given some military support.^ Loyalists remaining in the area staged raids on the Delaware coast, even as the British attacked area shipping.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He later learned that the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, was enlisting slaves and indentured servants into the British army with the promise of "freedom to all slaves who would join the King's army."
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every U.S. citizen who cares about FREEDOM,and LIBERTY needs to be at this historic rally.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February 1776 Clinton took 2,000 men and a naval squadron to invade North Carolina, which he called off when he learned the Loyalists had been crushed at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge.^ Militia from 1776-1780, Cash took part in the battles of Brandywine and Monmouth, several skirmishes, and was with Washington at Valley Forge.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 October 1776, the roughly 280 men still fit for duty in the regiment took part in the battle of White Plains.
  • GUIDE TO REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECORDS 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC archives.delaware.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He recorded a certificate of his discharge from his service as a soldier in the North Carolina Line on 18 February 1788 in New Hanover County [ NCGSJ XI:114].
  • Revolutionary War 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC www.freeafricanamericans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June he tried to seize Charleston, the leading port in the South, hoping for a simultaneous rising in South Carolina.^ Installment "A-15", 12 June 1779, pp.123-128 , South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine , V.16, South Carolina Historical Society, 1915.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Installment "A-14", 1 June 1779, pp.80-85 , South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine , V.16, South Carolina Historical Society, 1915.
  • Online Library of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lib.jrshelby.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was living in South Carolina when he entered the service in Charleston.
  • African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War: story, pictures and information - Footnote.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It seemed a cheap way of waging the war but it failed as the naval force was defeated by the forts and because no local Loyalists attacked the town from behind.^ An advocate of colonial freedom, he commanded continental forces in the north, capturing first British colors in war, Fort St. Johns, 1775.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged expedient to fortify, without delay, the principal towns and cities exposed to similar attacks.
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Not to mention the insertion of Local Union thugs who are now physically attacking attendants (opponents) of Obamacare at these town hall meetings.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The loyalists were too poorly organized to be effective, but as late as 1781 senior officials in London, misled by Loyalist exiles, placed their confidence in their rising.

Saratoga and Philadelphia

.When the British began to plan operations for 1777, they had two main armies in North America: Carleton's army in Canada, and Howe's army in New York.^ Baldwin, in the United States Senate, 'When the Constitution of the United States was framed, colored men voted in a majority of these States; they voted in the State of New York, in Pennsylvania, in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware and North Carolina; and long after the adoption .
  • William Cooper Nell. The Colored Patriots of the AmericanRevolution... 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Captured by the British at Brandywine, 1777, and held prisoner two years.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Woodford was taken prisoner at fall of Charleston, later died in captivity under the British at New York, 1780.
  • KY:Historical Society - Historical Marker Database - Search for Markers 10 February 2010 11:27 UTC migration.kentucky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In London, Lord George Germain approved campaigns for these armies which, because of miscommunication, poor planning, and rivalries between commanders, did not work in conjunction.^ As they recently did to one man who was working at the event, he was thrown on the ground and kicked repeatedly by four of these Union cowards.
  • The Start Of The Second American Revolution? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington through the Continental Army camp at …[Credits : The Granger Collection, New York] Surrender of Lord Cornwallis (at Yorktown, Oct.
  • United States :: The American Revolutionary War -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Although Howe successfully captured Philadelphia, the northern army was lost in a disastrous surrender at Saratoga.<