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Painting by Howard Chandler Christy of the scene at the Philadelphia Convention which led to the signing of the United States Constitution, an important document in American political and legal philosophy.

American philosophy is the philosophical activity or output of Americans, both within the United States and abroad. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy notes that while American philosophy lacks a "core of defining features, American Philosophy can nevertheless be seen as both reflecting and shaping collective American identity over the history of the nation."[1]

Contents

17th century

The American philosophical tradition began at the time of the European colonization of the New World.[1] The Puritan arrival in New York set the earliest American philosophy into the religious tradition, and there was also an emphasis on the relationship between the individual and the community. This is evident by the early colonial documents such as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641).[1] Thinkers such as John Winthrop emphasized the public life over the private, holding that the former takes precedence over the latter, while other writers, such as Roger Williams (co-founder of Rhode Island) held that religious tolerance was more integral than trying to achieve religious homogeneity in a community.[2]

18th century

18th century American philosophy is often broken into two halves, the earlier half being marked by Puritan Calvinism, and the latter characterized by the American incarnation of the European Enlightenment that is associated with the political thought of the Founding Fathers.[1]

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Calvinism

Jonathan Edwards is considered to be "America's most important and original philosophical theologian."[3] Noted for his energetic sermons, such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (which is said to have begun the First Great Awakening), Edwards emphasized "the absolute sovereignty of God and the beauty of God's holiness."[3] Working to unite Christian Platonism with an empiricist epistemology, with the aid of Newtonian physics, Edwards was deeply influenced by George Berkeley, himself an empiricist, and Edwards derived his importance of the immaterial for the creation human experience from Bishop Berkeley. The non-material mind consists of understanding and will, and it is understanding, interpreted in a Newtonian framework, that leads to Edwards' fundamental metaphysical category of Resistance. Whatever features an object may have, it has these properties because the object resists. Resistance itself is the exertion of God's power, and it can be seen in Newton's laws of motion, where an object is "unwilling" to change its current state of motion; an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion.

Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.

As a Calvinist and hard determinist, Jonathan Edwards also rejected the freedom of the will, saying that "we can do as we please, but we cannot please as we please." According to Edwards, neither good works nor self-originating faith lead to salvation, but rather it is the unconditional grace of God which stands as the sole arbiter of human fortune.

The Age of Enlightenment

While the early 18th century American philosophical tradition was decidedly marked by religious themes, the latter half saw a reliance on reason and science, and, in step with the thought of the Age of Enlightenment, a belief in the perfectibility of human beings, laissez-faire economics, and a general focus on political matters.[1]

Three of the Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison, wrote extensively on political issues. In continuing with the chief concerns of the Puritans in the 17th century, the Founding Fathers debated the relationship between the individual and the state, as well as the nature of the state, importantly concerning the state's relationship to God and religion. It was at this time that the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were written, and they are the result of debate and compromise. The Constitution sets forth a federated republican form of government that is marked by a balance of powers accompanied by a checks and balances system between the three branches of government: a judicial branch, an executive branch led by the President, and a legislative branch composed of a bicameral legislature where the House of Representatives is the lower house and the Senate is the upper house.[4] While the Declaration of Independence does contain within it references to the Creator, the Founding Fathers were decidedly not exclusively theistic, some openly professing personal concepts of deism, as was characteristic of other European Enlightenment thinkers, such as Maximilien Robespierre, François-Marie Arouet (better known by his pen name, Voltaire), and Rousseau.[5]

Thomas Paine, the intellectual, pamphleteer, and revolutionary who wrote Common Sense and Rights of Man was an influential Enlightenment thinker and American Founding Father. Common Sense, which has been described as “the most incendiary and popular pamphlet of the entire revolutionary era"[6] provides justification for the American revolution and independence from the British Crown.

19th century

The 19th century saw the rise of Romanticism in America. The American incarnation of Romanticism was transcendentalism and it stands as a major American innovation. The 19th century also saw the rise of the school of pragmatism, along with a smaller, Hegelian philosophical movement led by George Holmes Howison that was focused in St. Louis, though the influence of American pragmatism far outstripped that of the small Hegelian movement.[1]

Transcendentalism

Ralph Waldo Emerson, ca. 1857
Henry David Thoreau, 1856
Walt Whitman, 1887

Transcendentalism in the United States was marked by an emphasis on subjective human experience, and can be viewed as a reaction against intellectualism in general and the mechanistic, reductionistic worldview in particular. Transcendentalism is marked by the holistic belief in an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical, and this perfect state can only be attained by one's own intuition and personal reflection, as opposed to the prescriptions and doctrines of organized religion. Famous transcendentalist writers include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman.[7]

The transcendentalist writers all desired a deep return to nature, and believed that real, true knowledge is intuitive and personal and arises out of personal immersion and reflection in nature, as opposed to scientific knowledge that is the result of empirical sense experience.[8] Things such as scientific tools, political institutions, and the conventional rules of morality as dictated by traditional religion need to be transcended. This is found in Henry David Thoreau's Walden; or, Life in the Woods where transcendence is achieved through immersion in nature and the distancing of oneself from society.

Darwinism in America

The release of Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory in his 1859 publication of On the Origin of Species had a strong impact on American philosophy. John Fiske and Chauncey Wright both wrote about and argued for the re-conceiving of philosophy through an evolutionary lense. They both wanted to understand morality and the mind in Darwinian terms, setting a precedent for evolutionary psychology and evolutionary ethics.

Darwin's biological theory was also integrated into the social and political philosophies of English thinker Herbert Spencer and American philosopher William Graham Sumner. Herbert Spencer, who coined the oft-misattributed term "survival of the fittest," believed that societies were in a struggle for survival, and that groups within society are where they are because of some level of fitness. This struggle is beneficial to human kind, as in the long run the weak will be weeded out and only the strong will survive. This position is often referred to as Social Darwinism. Sumner, much influenced by Spencer, believed along with the industrialist Andrew Carnegie that the social implication of the fact of the struggle for survival is that laissez-faire capitalism is the natural political-economic system and is the one that will lead to the greatest amount of well-being. William Sumner, in addition to his advocacy of free markets, also espoused anti-imperialism (having been credited with coining the term "ethnocentrism"), and advocated for the gold standard.[9]

Pragmatism

Perhaps the most influential school of thought that is uniquely American is pragmatism. It began in the late nineteenth century in the United States with Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Pragmatism holds that a proposition's meaning is in the conceivable practical consequences of its truth or acceptance.[10]

Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce, an American pragmatist, logician, mathematician, philosopher, and scientist.

Polymath, logician, mathematician, philosopher, and scientist Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced /ˈpɜrs/ like "purse") (1839–1914) coined the term "pragmatism" in the 1870s.[11] He was a member of The Metaphysical Club, which was a conversational club of intellectuals that also included Chauncey Wright, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, and another early figure of pragmatism, William James.[10] In addition to making profound contributions to semiotics, logic, and mathematics, Peirce wrote what are considered to be the founding documents of pragmatism, "The Fixation of Belief" (1877) and "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" (1878).

In "The Fixation of Belief" Peirce argues for the superiority of the scientific method in overcoming doubt, in fixing one's belief. In "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" Peirce argued for pragmatism as summed up in that which he later called the pragmatic maxim: "Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object". Note here that a conception's meaning involves conceiving of effects and is not a definite set of actual practical effects themselves. The maxim is intended to help clarify confusions caused, for example, by distinctions that make formal but not practical differences. Traditionally one analyzes an idea into parts (for example, a definition of truth as a sign's correspondence to its object). To that needful but confined step, the maxim adds a further, and practice-oriented, step (for example, a definition of truth as inquiry's ideal end). It is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection[12] arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances — a method hospitable to the generation of explanatory hypotheses, and conducive to the employment and improvement of verification.[13] Typical of Peirce is his concern with inference to explanatory hypotheses as outside the usual foundational alternative between deductivist rationalism and inductivist empiricism, though he himself was a mathematician of logic and a founder of statistics.

Peirce's philosophy also includes a pervasive three-category system, fallibilism, critical common-sensism (fallibilistic but not radically skeptical), logic as formal semiotic (including semiotic elements and classes of signs, modes of inference, and methods of inquiry), Scholastic realism, theism, objective idealism, and belief in the reality of continuity of space, time, and law, and in the reality of chance, mechanical necessity, and creative love as principles operative in the cosmos and as modes of its evolution.

William James

William James, an American pragmatist and psychologist.

William James (1842–1910) was "an original thinker in and between the disciplines of physiology, psychology and philosophy."[14] He is famous as the author of The Varieties of Religious Experience, his monumental tome Principles of Psychology, and his lecture "The Will to Believe."

James, along with Peirce,[15] saw pragmatism as embodying familiar attitudes elaborated into a radical new philosophical method of thinking and resolving dilemmas. In his 1910 Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking he wrote:

[T]he tangible fact at the root of all our thought-distinctions, however subtle, is that there is no one of them so fine as to consist in anything but a possible difference of practice. To attain perfect clearness in our thoughts of an object, then, we need only consider what conceivable effects of a practical kind the object may involve — what sensations we are to expect from it, and what reactions we must prepare.

James is also known for his radical empiricism which holds that relations between objects are as real as the objects themselves. James was also a pluralist in that he believed that there may actually be multiple correct accounts of truth. He rejected the correspondence theory of truth and instead held that truth involves a belief, facts about the world, other background beliefs, and future consequences of those beliefs. Later in his life James would also come to adopt neutral monism, the view that the ultimate reality is of one kind, and is neither mental nor physical.[16]

John Dewey

John Dewey, an American pragmatist, psychologist, and educational reformer.

John Dewey (1859–1952), while still engaging in the lofty academic philosophical work of James and Peirce before him, also wrote extensively on political and social matters, and his presence in the public sphere was much greater than his pragmatist predecessors. In addition to being one of the founding members of pragmatism, John Dewey was one of the founders of functional psychology and was a leading figure of the progressive movement in U.S. schooling during the first half of the 20th century.[17] Dewey argued against the individualism of classical liberalism, asserting that social institutions are not "means for obtaining something for individuals. They are means for creating individuals."[18] He held that individuals are not things that should be accommodated by social institutions, instead, social institutions are prior to and shape the individuals. These social arrangements are a means of creating individuals and promoting individual freedom.

Dewey is well-known for his work in the applied philosophy of the philosophy of education. Dewey's philosophy of education is one where children learn by doing. Dewey believed that schooling was unnecessarily long and formal, and that children would be better suited to learn by engaging in real-life activities. For example, in math, students could learn by figuring out proportions in cooking or seeing how long it would take to travel distances with certain modes of transportation.[19]

20th century

George Santayana, the most famous Hispanic-American philosopher.

Pragmatism, which began in the 19th century in America, by the beginning of the 20th century began to be accompanied by other philosophical schools of thought, and was eventually eclipsed by them, though only temporarily. The 20th century saw the emergence of process philosophy, itself influenced by the scientific world-view and Einstein's theory of relativity. The middle of the 20th century was witness to the increase in popularity of the philosophy of language and analytic philosophy in America. Existentialism and phenomenology, while very popular in Europe in the 20th century, never achieved the level of popularity in America as they did in continental Europe.[1]

Rejection of idealism

Pragmatism continued its influence into the 20th century, and Spanish-born philosopher George Santayana was one of the leading proponents of pragmatism in this period. He held that idealism was an outright contradiction and rejection of common sense. He held that, if something must be certain in order to be knowledge, then it seems no knowledge may be possible, and the result will be skepticism. According to Santayana, knowledge involved a sort of faith, which he termed "animal faith." In his book Scepticism and Animal Faith he asserts that knowledge is not the result of reasoning. Instead, knowledge is what is required to order to act and successfully engage with the world.[20] As a naturalist, Santayana was a harsh critic of epistemological foundationalism. The explanation of events in the natural world is within the realm of science, while the meaning and value of this action should be studied by philosophers. Santayana was accompanied in the intellectual climate of 'common sense' philosophy by the thinkers of the New Realism movement, such as Ralph Barton Perry.

Process philosophy

Process philosophy embraces the Einsteinian world-view, and its main proponents include Alfred North Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne. The core belief of process philosophy is the claim that events and processes are principle ontological categories.[21] Whitehead asserted in his book The Concept of Nature that the things in nature, what he referred to as "concresences" are a conjunction of events that maintain a permanence of character. Process philosophy is Heraclitan in the sense that a fundamental ontological category is change.[22] Charles Hartshorne was also responsible for developing the process philosophy of Whitehead into process theology.

Analytic philosophy

An image of Quine as seen on his passport.

The middle of the 20th century was the beginning of the dominance of analytic philosophy in America. Analytic philosophy, prior to its arrival in America, had began in Europe with the work of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and the logical positivists. According to logical positivism, the truths of logic and mathematics are tautologies, and those of science are empirically verifiable. Any other claim, including the claims of ethics, aesthetics, theology, metaphysics, and ontology, are meaningless (this theory is called verificationism). With the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, many positivists fled Germany to Britain and America, and this helped reinforce the dominance of analytic philosophy in the United States in subsequent years.[1]

W.V.O. Quine, while not a logical positivist, shared their view that philosophy should stand shoulder to shoulder with science in its pursuit of intellectual clarity and understanding of the world. He criticized the logical positivists and the analytic/synthetic distinction of knowledge in his essay "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" and advocated for his "web of belief," which is a coherentist theory of justificiation. In Quine's epistemology, since no experiences occur in isolation, there is actually a holistic approach to knowledge where every belief or experience is intertwined with the whole. Quine is also famous for inventing the term "gavagai" as part of his theory of the indeterminacy of translation.[23]

Saul Kripke at Juquehy Beach
David Kellogg Lewis

Saul Kripke, a student of Quine at Harvard, has profoundly influenced analytic philosophy. Kripke was ranked among the top ten most important philosophers of the past 200 years in a poll conducted by Brian Leiter (Leiter Reports: a Philosophy Blog; open access poll)[24] Kripke is best known for four contributions to philosophy: (1) Kripke semantics for modal and related logics, published in several essays beginning while he was still in his teens. (2) His 1970 Princeton lectures Naming and Necessity (published in 1972 and 1980), that significantly restructured the philosophy of language and, as some have put it, "made metaphysics respectable again". (3) His interpretation of the philosophy of Wittgenstein.[25] (4) His theory of truth. He has also made important contributions to set theory (see admissible ordinal and Kripke-Platek set theory)

David Kellogg Lewis, another student of Quine at Harvard, was ranked as one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century in a poll conducted by Brian Leiter's blog (open access poll).[26] He is well-known for his controversial advocacy of modal realism, the position which holds that there is an infinite number of concrete and causally isolated possible worlds, of which ours is one.[27] These possible words arise in the field of modal logic.

Thomas Kuhn was an important philosopher and writer who worked extensively in the fields of the history of science and the philosophy of science. He is famous for writing The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, one of the most cited academic works of all time, which argues that science proceeds through different paradigms as scientists find new puzzles to solve, once one there is widespread struggle to find ansers to question, a shift in world views occurs, which is refereed to by Kuhn as a paradigm shift.[28] The work is considered a milestone in the sociology of knowledge.

Return to political philosophy

Ayn Rand

The analytic philosophers troubled themselves with the abstract and the conceptual, and American philosophy did not fully return to social and political concerns (that dominated American philosophy at the time of the founding of the United States) until the 1970s. The return to political and social concerns began with Ayn Rand, the developer of Objectivism. Rand, a Russian-born philosopher and writer, wrote The Fountainhead in 1943 and Atlas Shrugged in 1957. These two novels gave birth to the Objectivist movement, one which started as a small group of students called The Collective, one of whom was a young Alan Greenspan, the well-known libertarian Chairman of the Federal Reserve. Objectivism holds that there is an objective external reality that can be known with reason, that human beings should act in accordance with their own rational self-interest, and that the proper form of economic organization is laissez-faire capitalism.[29] Academic philosophers have been highly critical of the quality and intellectual rigor of Rand's work, but she remains popular within the American libertarian movement.

John Rawls

In 1971 John Rawls published his book A Theory of Justice. The book puts forth Rawls' view of justice as fairness, once which is based on a form of social contract theory. Rawls employs the use of a conceptual mechanism called the veil of ignorance to outline his idea of the original position.[30] In Rawls' philosophy, the original position is the correlate to the Hobbesian state of nature. While in the original position, persons are said to be behind the veil of ignorance, which makes these persons unaware of their individual characteristics and their place in society, such as their race, religion, wealth, etc. The principles of justice are chosen by rational persons while in this original position. The two principles of justice are the equal liberty principle and the principle which governs the distribution of social and economic inequalities. From this, Rawls argues for a system of distributive justice in accordance with the Difference Principle, which says that all social and economic inequalities must be to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged.[31]

Robert Nozick

Viewing Rawls as promoting excessive government control and rights violations, libertarian Robert Nozick published Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book advocates for a minimal state and defends the liberty of the individual. He argues that the role of government should be limited to "police protection, national defense, and the administration of courts of law, with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments – education, social insurance, welfare, and so forth – taken over by religious bodies, charities, and other private institutions operating in a free market."[32] Nozick asserts his view of the entitlement theory of justice, which says that if everyone in society has acquired their holdings in accordance with the principles of acquisition, transfer, and rectification, then any pattern of allocation, no matter how unequal the distribution may be, is just. The entitlement theory of justice holds that the "justice of a distribution is indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to end-state theories), but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the hardest or are most deserving have the most shares."[33]

Alasdair MacIntyre, while he was born and educated in the United Kingdom, has spent around forty years living and working in the United States. He is responsible for the resurgence of interest in virtue ethics, a moral theory first propounded by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle.[34][35] He is considered to be the preeminent Thomist political philosopher. He holds that "modern philosophy and modern life are characterized by the absence of any coherent moral code, and that the vast majority of individuals living in this world lack a meaningful sense of purpose in their lives and also lack any genuine community".[36] He believes that the proper way to correct this state of affairs is to return to genuine political communities where individuals can properly acquire their virtues.

Outside academic philosophy, political and social concerns took center stage with the Civil Rights Movement and the writings of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Feminism

Betty Friedan

While there were earlier writers who would be considered feminist, such as Sarah Grimké, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Anne Hutchinson, the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s, also known as second-wave feminism, is notable for its impact in philosophy.[37] The popular mind was taken with Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. This was accompanied by other feminist philosophers, such as Adrienne Rich. These philosophers critiqued basic assumptions and values of philosophy, such as objectivity and what they believe to be masculine approaches to ethics, for example, rights-based political theories. They wrote that there is no such thing as a value-neutral inquiry and they sought to analyze the social dimensions of philosophical issues.

Modern times

Hilary Putnam
Richard Rorty.

Towards the end of the 20th century there was a resurgence of interest in pragmatism. Largely responsible for this are Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty. Rorty is famous as the author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature and Philosophy and Social Hope. Hilary Putnam is well known for his quasi-empiricism in mathematics[38], his challenge of the brain in a vat thought experiment[39], and his other work in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science.

The debates that occur within the philosophy of mind have taken center stage. American philosophers such as Hilary Putnam, Donald Davidson[40], Daniel Dennett[41], Douglas Hofstadter[42], John Searle[43], as well as Patricia and Paul Churchland[44] continue the discussion of such issues as the nature of mind and the hard problem of consciousness, a philosophical problem indicated by the Australian philosopher David Chalmers.[45]

Noted American legal philosophers Ronald Dworkin and Richard Posner work in the fields of political philosophy and jurisprudence. Posner is famous for his economic analysis of law, a theory which uses microeconomics to understand legal rules and institutions.[46] Dworkin is famous for his theory of law as integrity and legal interpretivism.[47][48]

African-American philosopher Cornel West is known for his analysis of American cultural life with regards to race, gender, and class issues, as well as his associations with pragmatism and transcendentalism.

Alvin Plantinga is a Christian thinker known for his evolutionary argument against naturalism, his assertion that one can know God as a properly basic belief, and his modal version of the ontological argument for the existence of God.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "American philosophy" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved on May 24, 2009
  2. ^ "Religious Tolerance" - Freedom: A History of US: PBS.com Retrieved September 9, 2009
  3. ^ a b Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Jonathan Edwards," First published Tue Jan 15, 2002; substantive revision Tue Nov 7, 2006
  4. ^ "Bicameralism and Enumerated, Implied, Resulting, and Inherent Powers" Retrieved September 7, 2009
  5. ^ "Declaration of Independence & Christianity Myth" Retrieved September 7, 2009
  6. ^ Gordon Wood, The American Revolution: A History (New York: Modern Library, 2002), 55
  7. ^ "Famous Transcendentalists" Retrieved September 9, 2009
  8. ^ "Transcendentalism" at the SEP Retrieved September 9, 2009
  9. ^ "William Graham Sumner" - nndb.com Retrieved September 9, 2009
  10. ^ a b "Pragmatism" at IEP Retrieved on July 30, 2008
  11. ^ "Pragmatism - Charles Sanders Peirce" Retrieved September 9, 2009
  12. ^ Peirce (1902), Collected Papers v. 5, paragraph 13, note 1. See relevant quote at Pragmatic Maxim#6
  13. ^ See Collected Papers, v. 1, paragraph 34, Eprint (in "The Spirit of Scholasticism"), where Peirce attributes the success of modern science not so much to a novel interest in verification as to the improvement of verification.
  14. ^ "William James" at SEPRetrieved on July 30, 2009
  15. ^ See "Pragmatism (Editor [3])", c. 1906, especially the portion published in Collected Papers v. 5 (1934), paragraphs 11-12.
  16. ^ "Neutral Monism" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 9, 2009
  17. ^ Violas, Paul C.; Tozer, Steven; Senese, Guy B.. School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. p. 121. ISBN 0-07-298556-9. 
  18. ^ "Dewey's Political Philosophy" at SEPRetrieved on July 30, 2009
  19. ^ John Dewey: Philosophy of Education"Retrieved on July 30, 2009
  20. ^ "George Santayana" at the Stanford Encylclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 9, 2009
  21. ^ "Process Philosophy" at the SEP Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  22. ^ "Process Philosophy and the New Thought Movement" Retrieved September 7, 2009
  23. ^ "UNDERSTANDING QUINE'S THESES OF INDETERMINACY" by Nick Bostrom Retrieved September 7, 2009
  24. ^ Brian Leiter, "The last poll about philosophers for awhile--I promise!" [1] (March 7, 2009) and "So who *is* the most important philosopher of the past 200 years?" [2] (March 11, 2009), Leiter Reports: A Philosophy Blog.
  25. ^ 1982. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language: an Elementary Exposition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95401-7. Sets out his interpretation of Wittgenstein aka Kripkenstein.
  26. ^ "Let's Settle This Once and For All: Who Really Was the Greatest Philosopher of the 20th-Century?" Retrieved on July 29, 2009
  27. ^ "David K. Lewis" - Princeton University Department of Philosophy Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  28. ^ "Thomas Kuhn" at the SEP Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  29. ^ "INTRODUCING OBJECTIVISM" by Ayn Rand Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  30. ^ "Philosophy: John Rawls vs. Robert Nozick" Retrieved September 7, 2009
  31. ^ "Distributive Justice" at SEP Retrieved December 18, 2009
  32. ^ "Robert Nozick (1938—2002)" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 7, 2009
  33. ^ "Robert Nozick" at IEP Retrieved January 5, 2010
  34. ^ "The Virtues of Alasdair MacIntyre"Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  35. ^ "Virtue Ethics" at SEP Retrieved on September 7, 2009
  36. ^ "Political Philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre" at IEP.com Retrieved December 22, 2009
  37. ^ "Topics in Feminism" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 7, 2009
  38. ^ Putnam, Hilary, 1975, Mind, Language, and Reality. Philosophical Papers, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN 88-459-0257-9
  39. ^ "Brains in a Vat" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 10, 2009
  40. ^ "Donald Davidson" at the Internet Encylclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 10, 2009
  41. ^ "Daniel Dennett" at the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind Retrieved September 10, 2009
  42. ^ Douglas Hofstadter's page at Indiana.edu Retrieved September 10, 2009
  43. ^ "John Searle" at the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind Retrieved September 10, 2009
  44. ^ "Eliminative Materialism" at the Stanford Encylclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 10, 2009
  45. ^ "Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness" - David Chalmers Retrieved September 10, 2009
  46. ^ "The Economic Analysis of Law" by Lewis Kornhauser at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 11, 2009
  47. ^ "Interpretivist Theories of Law" by Nicos Stavropoulos at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 11, 2009
  48. ^ Allan, T. R. S. (1988). "Review: Dworkin and Dicey: The Rule of Law as Integrity". Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 8 (2): 266-277. ISSN 01436503. http://www.jstor.org/stable/764314. Retrieved 2009-09-111. 

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