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The general structure of an alpha amino acid.
Table of Amino Acids.^ The alpha-carbon in alanine is substituted with a levorotatory (l)-methyl group, making it one of the simplest amino acids with respect to molecular structure and is one of the most widely used in protein construction.
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^ The Figure above indicates that an alpha- amino acid forms a five-member chelate ring with a transition metal cation.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Note also that the carbon atom of the carboxylic acid group is part of the ring, as is the alpha-carbon atom of the amino acid.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/11/2/8/2/21662391939378399.png" width="440" height="569" class="thumbimage" />
The twenty-one amino acids found in eukaryotes, grouped according to their side chains' pKa's and charge at physiological pH 7.4
.Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side chain that varies between different amino acids.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ AMINO ACIDS: Any of a class of nitrogen-containing acids.

^ "Reducing variability in amino acid analysis".

.These molecules are particularly important in biochemistry, where this term refers to alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent.^ The term "non-essential" can be misleading since all amino acids are essential for proper metabolism and certain non-essential amino acids, such as glutamine, become very essential.
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^ The Figure above indicates that an alpha- amino acid forms a five-member chelate ring with a transition metal cation.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C ) do not allow an inference to be made as to whether or how these amino acids have changed in frequency since the LUA. .
  • Evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order of Introduction of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code -- Brooks et al. 19 (10): 1645 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .In an alpha amino acid, the amino and carboxylate groups are attached to the same carbon atom, which is called the α–carbon.^ Note also that the carbon atom of the carboxylic acid group is part of the ring, as is the alpha-carbon atom of the amino acid.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In metalloproteins, the metal cation usually coordinates to an amino acid with a side-chain containing a good donor atom (N, O, or S), e.g., histidine, because the amino and carboxylate end-groups are tied up in peptide linkages (except for the two terminal ends of the protein).
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Note also that the carbon atom of the carboxylic acid group is part of the ring, as is the alpha-carbon atom of the amino acid.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In metalloproteins, the metal cation usually coordinates to an amino acid with a side-chain containing a good donor atom (N, O, or S), e.g., histidine, because the amino and carboxylate end-groups are tied up in peptide linkages (except for the two terminal ends of the protein).
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These side chains can vary in size from just a hydrogen atom in glycine, to a methyl group in alanine, through to a large heterocyclic group in tryptophan.^ Amino acids which possess a side chain containing a potentially coordinating atom (N, O, or S) may act as tridentate ligands.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These amino acids can be divided into two broad categories, those which have a side chain containing a potentially coordinating atom, and those whose side chains cannot coordinate.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The latter group can be further subdivided into those with hydrophobic or hydrophilic side chains.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Amino acids are critical to life, and have many functions in metabolism.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ P5P is critical in amino acid processes.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.One particularly important function is as the building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of amino acids.^ You probably know that amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
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^ Amino acids and high protein diets.
  • EFFECTS OF PROTEIN AND AMINO-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC sportsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

.Every protein is chemically defined by this primary structure, its unique sequence of amino acid residues, which in turn define the three-dimensional structure of the protein.^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids and high protein diets.
  • EFFECTS OF PROTEIN AND AMINO-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC sportsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
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.Just as the letters of the alphabet can be combined to form an almost endless variety of words, amino acids can be linked together in varying sequences to form a vast variety of proteins.^ Amino acids and high protein diets.
  • EFFECTS OF PROTEIN AND AMINO-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC sportsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Key Words:  amino acids, protein quality, requirements, immunostimulators .
  • Amino Acid Balance -- Full Technical Report on Amino Acid Balance and Usage in the Body 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.oralchelation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
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[2] .Amino acids are also important in many other biological molecules, such as forming parts of coenzymes, as in S-adenosylmethionine, or as precursors for the biosynthesis of molecules such as heme.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Precursor to the amino acid Taurine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the individual amino acids are precursors of the purines and pyrimidines needed for the synthesis of nucleic acids, the hereditary units that carry information from one generation to the next.  Other amino acids are precursors of small biologically important molecules such as heme, small hormones such as thyroxine and epinephrine, creatine, neurotransmitters, skin pigments, and nitrogenous constituents of phospholipids.
  • Amino Acid Balance -- Full Technical Report on Amino Acid Balance and Usage in the Body 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.oralchelation.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to this central role in biochemistry, amino acids are very important in nutrition.^ The term "non-essential" can be misleading since all amino acids are essential for proper metabolism and certain non-essential amino acids, such as glutamine, become very essential.
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^ Preworkout, intraworkout and postworkout amino acid supplementation maximizes the anabolic window which is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass.
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^ This could be due to a lack of digestive enzymes, which are synthesized by the body combining amino acids; but they may also be supplemented.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

.Amino acids are commonly used in food technology and industry.^ Chromatographic determination of amino acids in foods.

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ Essential - Indicates that the amino acid cannot be made in the body from other amino acids and must be available in the food.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, monosodium glutamate is a common flavor enhancer that gives foods the taste called umami.^ Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a salt of glutamic acid, is sometimes used as a condiment for flavoring foods.
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They are also used in industry. Applications include the production of biodegradable plastics, drugs and chiral catalysts.

Contents

History

.The first few amino acids were discovered in the early 1800s.^ The first step of amino acid analysis involves hydrolyzing these peptide bonds.

.In 1806, the French chemists Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet isolated a compound in asparagus that proved to be asparagine, the first amino acid to be discovered.^ Asparagine amino acid information page .
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^ Asparagine amino acid .
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^ Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid and is closely related to aspartic acid, and can be manufactured from this nutrient and was first isolated in 1932 from asparagus and is also widely available in plant protein, but a great volume of information is not available.
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[3][4] Another amino acid that was discovered in the early 19th century was cystine, in 1810,[5] although its monomer, cysteine, was discovered much later, in 1884.[4][6] Glycine and leucine were also discovered around this time, in 1820.[7]

General structure

.
Lysine contains six carbon atoms.</span><span class=^ Asparagine amino acid information page .
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^ GABA amino acid information page .
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^ Citrulline amino acid information page .
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.The central carbon atom connected to the amino and carboxyl groups is labeled alpha.^ In the alpha amino acids, the amino and carboxylate groups are attached to the same carbon , which is called the α–carbon .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
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^ The alpha-carbon in alanine is substituted with a levorotatory (l)-methyl group, making it one of the simplest amino acids with respect to molecular structure and is one of the most widely used in protein construction.
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.The four carbon atoms in its linear side chain are labeled from beta (closest to the central carbon), gamma, delta, through to the epsilon carbon at the end of the chain and furthest from the central carbon."^ Aliphatic - Aliphatic compounds are non-aromatic organic compounds, in which carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains rather than in rings.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/2/9/0/9911769107992333.png" width="113" height="191" class="thumbimage" />
Lysine with the carbon atoms in the side chain labeled
.In the structure shown at the top of the page, R represents a side chain specific to each amino acid.^ Asparagine amino acid information page .
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^ GABA amino acid information page .
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^ Citrulline amino acid information page .
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.The carbon atom next to the carbonyl group is called the α–carbon and amino acids with a side chain bonded to this carbon are referred to as alpha amino acids.^ The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Table of standard amino acid abbreviations and side chain properties .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are usually classified by the properties of the side chain into four groups.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.These are the most common form found in nature.^ Beyond the amino acids that are found in all forms of life , many non-natural amino acids are also important.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamine is the most common amino acid found in the blood.

.In the alpha amino acids, the α–carbon is a chiral carbon atom, with the exception of glycine.^ GLYCINE Amino acid.

^ Glycine amino acid .
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^ Glycine amino acid information page .
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[8] .In amino acids that have a carbon chain attached to the α–carbon (such as lysine, shown to the right) the carbons are labeled in order as α, β, γ, δ, and so on.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
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^ In the structure shown to the right, the R represents a side chain specific to each amino acid.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

[9] .In some amino acids, the amine group is attached to the β or γ-carbon, and these are therefore referred to as beta or gamma amino acids.^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
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^ The body requires 20 different amino acids of which 8 are referred to as essential amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the human body.
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^ Quantification of the minimum needs for indispensable amino acids to support growth is relatively easy because these are simply the product of the rate of protein deposition and the amino acid composition of the proteins that are deposited.
  • Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans -- Reeds 130 (7): 1835S -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Amino acids are usually classified by the properties of their side chain into four groups.^ The multiple side chains of amino acids can also undergo chemical reactions.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are usually classified by the properties of the side chain into four groups.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.The side chain can make an amino acid a weak acid or a weak base, and a hydrophile if the side chain is polar or a hydrophobe if it is nonpolar.^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
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^ Amino acids combine in an unlimited number of configurations to make all the proteins of which our bodies are composed.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ultimate Nutrition Branch Chain Amino Acids, 500mg/120 Capsules .
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[8] .The chemical structures of the twenty-two standard amino acids, along with their chemical properties, are described more fully in the article on these proteinogenic amino acids.^ This list of standard proteinogenic amino acids details the chemical structures and properties of the twenty standard amino acids used in proteins by living cells.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ If this is so, then these two amino acids are the ultimate precursors of the other nonessential amino acids.
  • Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans -- Reeds 130 (7): 1835S -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The chemical structures of the 20 standard amino acids, along with their chemical properties, are catalogued in the list of standard amino acids .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.The phrase "branched-chain amino acids" or BCAA refers to the amino acids having aliphatic side chains that are non-linear; these are leucine, isoleucine, and valine.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ HMB is a metabolite of the essential branch chain amino acid (BCAA) L-Leucine....

^ Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)supplementation improves endurance performance in competitivecyclists.
  • EFFECTS OF PROTEIN AND AMINO-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC sportsci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Proline is the only proteinogenic amino acid whose side group links to the α-amino group and, thus, is also the only proteinogenic amino acid containing a secondary amine at this position.^ AMINO ACIDS: Any of a class of nitrogen-containing acids.

^ Proline amino acid information page .
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^ Secondary precursor to Proline is Ornithine (minor amino acid).
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[8] Chemically, proline is therefore an imino acid since it lacks a primary amino group,[10] although it is still classed as an amino acid in the current biochemical nomenclature,[11] and may also be called an "N-alkylated alpha-amino acid".[12]
Animation of two mirror image molecules rotating around a central axis.
The two optical isomers of alanine, D-Alanine and L-Alanine

Isomerism

.Of the standard α-amino acids, all but glycine can exist in either of two optical isomers, called L or D amino acids, which are mirror images of each other (see also Chirality).^ GLYCINE Amino acid.

^ Glycine amino acid .
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^ The same trend is observed for all other amino acids .
  • Evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order of Introduction of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code -- Brooks et al. 19 (10): 1645 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.While L-amino acids represent all of the amino acids found in proteins during translation in the ribosome, D-amino acids are found in some proteins produced by enzyme posttranslational modification after translation and translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum, as in exotic sea-dwelling organisms such as cone snails.^ Amino acids and high protein diets.
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^ Correction for amino acid loss during acid hydrolysis of a purified protein.

^ Some 20 amino acids are commonly found in animals and humans.

[13] .They are also abundant components of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria.^ They are also abundant components of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

[14] and D-serine may act as a neurotransmitter in the brain.[15] .The L and D convention for amino acid configuration refers not to the optical activity of the amino acid itself, but rather to the optical activity of the isomer of glyceraldehyde from which that amino acid can theoretically be synthesized (D-glyceraldehyde is dextrorotary; L-glyceraldehyde is levorotary).^ For at least 60 years, it has been the convention to divide amino acids into two categories: indispensable (or essential) and dispensable (or nonessential).
  • Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans -- Reeds 130 (7): 1835S -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proteins of most cereal grains have unbalanced amino acid patterns; they are disproportionately low in lysine.  Such proteins are sometimes referred to as incomplete proteins; this is a misnomer.
  • Amino Acid Balance -- Full Technical Report on Amino Acid Balance and Usage in the Body 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.oralchelation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA's) are of special importance for athletes because they are metabolized in the muscle, rather than in the liver.
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Alternatively, the (S) and (R) designators are used to indicate the absolute stereochemistry. .Almost all of the amino acids in proteins are (S) at the α carbon, with cysteine being (R) and glycine non-chiral.^ GLYCINE Amino acid.

^ In humans, non-protein amino acids also have biologically-important roles.
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^ Glycine amino acid .
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[16] .Cysteine is unusual since it has a sulfur atom at the first position in its side-chain, which has a larger atomic mass than the groups attached to the α-carbon in the other standard amino acids, thus the (R) instead of (S).^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since it is an essential amino acid, it cannot be...

^ One of the sulfur-containing amino acids (the others being Cysteine and the minor amino acid, Taurine).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

An amino acid, which shown in two ionization states. First, it is shown in the same arrangement as the lead image. This is the unionised form. <a name=.It is also shown in the ionized form, after the carboxyl group has lost a hydrogen atom, which introduces a negative charge, and the amino group has gained a hydrogen, which introduces a positive charge."^ SULFHYDRYL GROUP Sulfur when combined with hydrogen, form sulfhydryl groups which are effective in removing poisons and toxins.

^ At a certain pH known as the isoelectric point , the amine group gains a positive charge (is protonated ) and the acid group a negative charge (is deprotonated ).
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Structurally amines resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents such as alkyl and aryl groups.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/4/8/9/4619943479780279.png" width="320" height="156" class="thumbimage" />
An amino acid in its (1) unionized and (2) zwitterionic forms

Zwitterions

.Amino acids have both amine and carboxylic acid functional groups and are therefore both an acid and a base at the same time.^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
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^ Simultaneous analysis of amino acids and amines as their o -phthalaldehyde-ethanethiol-9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatives in cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography.

^ Amino Acid and Protein Requirements: Cognitive Performance, Stress, and Brain Function (289-308) .
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[8] .At a certain pH known as the isoelectric point an amino acid has no overall charge, since the number of protonated ammonium groups (positive charges) and deprotonated carboxylate groups (negative charges) are equal.^ At a certain pH known as the isoelectric point , the amine group gains a positive charge (is protonated ) and the acid group a negative charge (is deprotonated ).
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Preworkout, intraworkout and postworkout amino acid supplementation maximizes the anabolic window which is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

[17] .The amino acids all have different isoelectric points.^ What are the different types of Amino Acids?
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "non-essential" can be misleading since all amino acids are essential for proper metabolism and certain non-essential amino acids, such as glutamine, become very essential.
  • Bodybuilding.com - BCAA Information and Product Listing! BCAA FAQ! 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

.The ions produced at the isoelectric point have both positive and negative charges and are known as a zwitterion, which comes from the German word Zwitter meaning "hermaphrodite" or "hybrid".[18] Amino acids can exist as zwitterions in solids and in polar solutions such as water, but not in the gas phase.^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids in our diet come from protein rich sources such as meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables such as legumes, peas, and grains.
  • Amino Acids : Cheap Supplements | Sports Supplements | Amino Acids 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.elite-supplements.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Tryptophan analysis simultaneously with other amino acids in gas phase hydrochloric acid hydrolyzates using the Pico-Tag Work Station.

[19] .Zwitterions have minimal solubility at their isolectric point and an amino acid can be isolated by precipitating it from water by adjusting the pH to its particular isolectric point.^ At a certain pH known as the isoelectric point , the amine group gains a positive charge (is protonated ) and the acid group a negative charge (is deprotonated ).
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of protein precipitating reagents on the recovery of plasma free amino acids.

^ N. Doi, K. Kakukawa, Y. Oishi, and H. Yanagawa High solubility of random-sequence proteins consisting of five kinds of primitive amino acids Protein Eng.
  • Evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order of Introduction of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code -- Brooks et al. 19 (10): 1645 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Occurrence and functions in biochemistry

A protein depicted as a long unbranched string of linked circles each representing amino acids. <a name=.One circle is magnified, to show the general structure of an amino acid.^ One study found that when a group of individuals was split up and given either 40 g of essential amino acids or a placebo, then followed an identical resistance training program, the group taking amino acids showed greater muscle growth.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As previously mentioned, amino acids are the primary constituents of an array of structures vital to life.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consistent with codon capture, it is plausible that one amino acid was added to the four-codon block first and that this amino acid later gave up two of its codons to the second amino acid which now shares the block.
  • Evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order of Introduction of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code -- Brooks et al. 19 (10): 1645 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is a simplified model of the repeating structure of protein, illustrating how amino acids are joined together in these molecules."^ Amino acids Secondary structure→ .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/3/3/6/6649684786547736.png" width="300" height="184" class="thumbimage" />
A polypeptide is an unbranched chain of amino acids.

Standard amino acids

.Amino acids are the structural units that make up proteins.^ Amino acids Secondary structure→ .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

.They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins.^ When you eat a protein food, it gets digested in the stomach and intestine into individual amino acids and short chains of amino acids that are small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
  • Bodybuilding.com - BCAA Information and Product Listing! BCAA FAQ! 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chains of amino acids synthesized by living systems are called polypeptides (up to about 50 amino acids) and proteins (more than 50 amino acids.

^ Amino acids may be linked together via peptide bonds to form proteins used by the body for anabolic purposes, assisting in the growth and repair of body tissues.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

.These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighbouring amino acids.^ If this is so, then these two amino acids are the ultimate precursors of the other nonessential amino acids.
  • Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans -- Reeds 130 (7): 1835S -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.The process of making proteins is called translation and involves the step-by-step addition of amino acids to a growing protein chain by a ribozyme that is called a ribosome.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ See also: and A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

[20] The order in which the amino acids are added is read through the genetic code from an mRNA template, which is a RNA copy of one of the organism's genes
.Twenty-two amino acids are naturally incorporated into polypeptides and are called proteinogenic or standard amino acids.^ The reason they are called "amino acids" is that they all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R).
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ Digestive enzymes break down the proteins a person consumes into amino acids.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Amino Acids Information and Product Listing! Amino Acids FAQ! 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Of these twenty-two, twenty are directly encoded by the universal genetic code.^ Two of these can be specified by the genetic code, but are rather rare in proteins.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code (as codon UGG ).
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Twenty standard amino acids are used by cells in protein biosynthesis , and these are specified by the general genetic code .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.The remaining two, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, are incorporated into proteins by unique synthetic mechanisms.^ Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally a stop codon.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

Selenocysteine is incorporated when the mRNA being translated includes a SECIS element, which causes the UGA codon to encode selenocysteine instead of a stop codon.[21] .Pyrrolysine is used by some methanogenic archaea in enzymes that they use to produce methane.^ Pyrrolysine is used by some methanogenic archaea in enzymes that they use to produce methane .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the fats in a high-fat diet escape digestion and absorption and end up in the colon where they are oxidized and produce free radicals.

^ When the Glutamate level increases above its set point, the DNA will stop producing the enzyme and Glutamate levels will stay constant until the cell starts using Glutamate in its operation.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is coded for with the codon UAG, which is normally a stop codon in other organisms.^ Amino acids and their corresponding codons are coded as follows: underlined = early; outline = late; normal = undetermined; and gray highlight = most abundant prebiotic.
  • Evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Time: Inferred Order of Introduction of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code -- Brooks et al. 19 (10): 1645 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
The structure of selenocysteine, this differs from the lead image by having the R group (the side chain) replaced by a carbon atom with two hydrogen and a selenium attached.
The amino acid selenocysteine

Non-standard amino acids

.Aside from the twenty-two standard amino acids, there are a vast number of "non-standard" amino acids.^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids combine in an unlimited number of configurations to make all the proteins of which our bodies are composed.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.These non-standard amino acids found in proteins are formed by post-translational modification, which is modification after translation in protein synthesis.^ In humans, non-protein amino acids also have biologically-important roles.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The L -amino acids represent the vast majority of amino acids found in proteins .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by post-translational modification , which is modification after translation in protein synthesis.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.These modifications are often essential for the function or regulation of a protein; for example, the carboxylation of glutamate allows for better binding of calcium cations,[23] and the hydroxylation of proline is critical for maintaining connective tissues.^ Binds with magnesium to displace calcium build up in arterial tissues.

^ This conversion process is very fast, as only a very small amount of Glutamate is needed to be converted, it needs to be so to maintain tight intercellular levels of critical chemicals.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] Another example is the formation of hypusine in the translation initiation factor EIF5A, through modification of a lysine residue.[25] .Such modifications can also determine the localization of the protein, e.g., the addition of long hydrophobic groups can cause a protein to bind to a phospholipid membrane.^ Such modifications can also determine the localization of the protein, e.g., the addition of long hydrophobic groups can cause a protein to bind to a phospholipid membrane.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids determines the tertiary structure of the protein, and their physical location on the outside structure of the proteins influences their quaternary structure .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ By various posttranslational modifications other chains can be attached to the proteins, forming hydrophobic lipoproteins or hydrophilic glycoproteins .
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

[26]
Comparison of the structures of alanine and beta alanine. <a name=.In alanine the side chain is a methyl group, in beta alanine the side chain contains a methylene group connected to an amino group and the alpha carbon lacks an amino group.^ It lacks the NH 2 group because of the cyclization of the side chain.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon.
  • What is Amino Acid? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbohydrates and fats do not contain an amino group.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

.The two amino acids therefore have the same formulae but different structures."^ What are the different types of Amino Acids?
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the two minor amino acids below, Taurine and GABA, are extraordinarily important.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As previously mentioned, amino acids are the primary constituents of an array of structures vital to life.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/1/4/1/02027263785115415.png" width="250" height="122" class="thumbimage" />
β-alanine and its α-alanine isomer
.Examples of nonstandard amino acids that are not found in proteins include lanthionine, 2-aminoisobutyric acid, dehydroalanine and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

.Nonstandard amino acids often occur as intermediates in the metabolic pathways for standard amino acids — for example ornithine and citrulline occur in the urea cycle, part of amino acid catabolism (see below).^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As the body demands higher levels of amino acids when it is put under physical stress, it is often hard for athletes and bodybuilders to consume enough in their daily diets.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid beta alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), which is used in plants and microorganisms in the synthesis of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), a component of coenzyme A.^ ALANINE Amino acid.

^ Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Fatty acids are used by the body as components of nerve cells, cellular membranes and for the production of prostaglandins.

[28]

In human nutrition

.When taken up into the human body from the diet, the twenty two standard amino acids are either used to synthesize proteins and other biomolecules or oxidized to urea and carbon dioxide as a source of energy.^ After protein is consumed, it is broken down into amino acids.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Amino Acids Information and Product Listing! Amino Acids FAQ! 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain essential amino acids need to be sourced from your diet.

^ Then, individual amino acids are used to create necessary body proteins and enzymes.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Amino Acids Information and Product Listing! Amino Acids FAQ! 22 September 2009 11:12 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: Academic]

[29] The oxidation pathway starts with the removal of the amino group by a transaminase, the amino group is then fed into the urea cycle. The other product of transamidation is a keto acid that enters the citric acid cycle.[30] .Glucogenic amino acids can also be converted into glucose, through gluconeogenesis.^ Glutamic acid is plentiful in foods, but it has to be changed into l-glutamine before it can pass through the blood-brain barrier and into the brain itself.

^ Amino acids compete with each other for transport into the brain; insulin clears most aminos from the blood but spares tryptophan.

^ Proteins in food break down into amino acids and will block some of your supplemental aminos from working.

[31]
Pyrrolysine trait is restricted to several microbes, and only one organism has both Pyl and Sec. .Of the twenty-two standard amino acids, eight are called essential amino acids because the human body cannot synthesize them from other compounds at the level needed for normal growth, so they must be obtained from food.^ Essential - Indicates that the amino acid cannot be made in the body from other amino acids and must be available in the food.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the body cannot make or store essential amino acids, they must be consumed in one's diet daily.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body, and must be present in the food that is ingested.

[32] .However, the situation is quite complicated since cysteine, taurine, tyrosine, histidine and arginine are semiessential amino acids in children, because the metabolic pathways that synthesize these amino acids are not fully developed.^ Since it is an essential amino acid, it cannot be...

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ The amino acids considered conditionally essential are: arginine , cysteine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

[33][34] .The amounts required also depend on the age and health of the individual, so it is hard to make general statements about the dietary requirement for some amino acids.^ As the body demands higher levels of amino acids when it is put under physical stress, it is often hard for athletes and bodybuilders to consume enough in their daily diets.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consuming optimal amounts of amino acids including essential, conditionally essential and nonessential amino acids will aid you in your quest to maintain a healthy body.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Information - Learn More about Amino Acids and BCAAs! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

Essential Nonessential
Isoleucine Alanine
Leucine Asparagine
Lysine Aspartic Acid
Methionine Cysteine*
Phenylalanine Glutamic Acid
Threonine Glutamine*
Tryptophan Glycine*
Valine Proline*
Selenocysteine*
Serine*
Tyrosine*
Arginine*
Histidine*
(*) Essential only in certain cases.[35][36]

Non-protein functions

.In humans, non-protein amino acids also have important roles as metabolic intermediates, such as in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

Many amino acids are used to synthesize other molecules, for example:
.
.However, not all of the functions of other abundant non-standard amino acids are known, for example taurine is a major amino acid in muscle and brain tissues, but although many functions have been proposed, its precise role in the body has not been determined.^ As the body demands higher levels of amino acids when it is put under physical stress, it is often hard for athletes and bodybuilders to consume enough in their daily diets.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other twelve are still needed; however, the body is able to produce these, while the essentials must be consumed as part of the diet.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

[42]
.Some non-standard amino acids are used as defenses against herbivores in plants.^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids.

[43] For example canavanine is an analogue of arginine that is found in many legumes,[44] and in particularly large amounts in Canavalia gladiata (sword bean).[45] .This amino acid protects the plants from predators such as insects and can cause illness in people if some types of legumes are eaten without processing.^ P5P is critical in amino acid processes.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some 20 amino acids are commonly found in animals and humans.

[46] .The non-protein amino acid mimosine is found in other species of legume, particularly Leucaena leucocephala.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ High-performance liquid chromatography of tryptophan and other amino acids in hydrochloric acid hydrolysates.

[47] This compound is an analogue of tyrosine and can poison animals that graze on these plants.

Uses in technology

.Amino acids are used for a variety of applications in industry but their main use is as additives to animal feed.^ Protein hydrolysis of animal feeds for amino acid content.

^ In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids.

.This is necessary since many of the bulk components of these feeds, such as soybeans, either have low levels or lack some of the essential amino acids: lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan are most important in the production of these feeds.^ Do not supplement the diet with methionine amino acid.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proteogenic - The term "proteogenic amino acids" is to be understood as meaning all amino acids which are constituents of proteins or polypeptides, and especially the following: aspartic acid, asparagine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine, tryptophan, proline and arginine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of this association, low aspartic acid levels should lead the clinician to test for calcium and/or magnesium deficiencies.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[48] .The food industry is also a major consumer of amino acids, particularly glutamic acid, which is used as a flavor enhancer,[49] and Aspartame (aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) as a low-calorie artificial sweetener.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consuming optimal amounts of amino acids including essential, conditionally essential and nonessential amino acids will aid you in your quest to maintain a healthy body.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Essential - Indicates that the amino acid cannot be made in the body from other amino acids and must be available in the food.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .The remaining production of amino acids is used in the synthesis of drugs and cosmetics.^ In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Deamination of amino acids as a source for ammaonia production in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The synthesis rate of glutamine in muscle is higher than that of any other amino acid.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[48]
Amino acid derivative Pharmaceutical application
5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) Experimental treatment for depression.[51]
L-DOPA (L-dihydroxyphenylalanine) Treatment for Parkinsonism.[52]
Eflornithine Drug that inhibits ornithine decarboxylase and is used in the treatment of sleeping sickness.[53]

Chemical building blocks

.Amino acids are important as low-cost feedstocks.^ Preworkout, intraworkout and postworkout amino acid supplementation maximizes the anabolic window which is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, the two minor amino acids below, Taurine and GABA, are extraordinarily important.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the 3 most important glycogenic amino acids, the others being Alanine and Glycine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.These compounds are used in chiral pool synthesis as enantiomerically-pure building blocks.^ Apart from serving as building blocks for protein synthesis, several amine acids have unique functions in human physiology, and they are marketed as supplements to support these functions.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[54]
Amino acids have been investigated as precursors chiral catalysts, e.g. for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions, although no commercial applications exist.[55]

Biodegradable plastics

.Amino acids are under development as components of a range of biodegradable polymers.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ This unit provides an overview and strategic planning for amino acid analysis, discussing a range of methodologies and issues.

These materials have applications as environmentally-friendly packaging and in medicine in drug delivery and the construction of prosthetic implants. .These polymers include polypeptides, polyamides, polyesters, polysulfides and polyurethanes with amino acids either forming part of their main chains or bonded as side chains.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of branched-chain amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in human subjects.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

These modifications alter the physical properties and reactivities of the polymers.[56] An interesting example of such materials is polyaspartate, a water-soluble biodegradable polymer that may have applications in disposable diapers and agriculture.[57] .Due to its solubility and ability to chelate metal ions, polyaspartate is also being used as a biodegradeable anti-scaling agent and a corrosion inhibitor.^ Required for synthesis of RNA and DNA. Natural chelating agent for heavy metals, such as lead and mercury.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[58][59] .In addition, the aromatic amino acid tyrosine is being developed as a possible replacement for toxic phenols such as bisphenol A in the manufacture of polycarbonates.^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the 3 most important glycogenic amino acids, the others being Alanine and Glycine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As one of the 3 branched-chain amino acids (the other 2 being Isoleucine and Valine), Leucine has all of the properties discussed with Isoleucine, as it pertains specifically to the branched-chain amino acid functions.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[60]

Reactions

.As amino acids have both a primary amine group and a primary carboxyl group, these chemicals can undergo most of the reactions associated with these functional groups.^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amidic - Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acids with an amine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pre-column derivatization of biogenic amines and amino acids with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and heptylamine.

.These include nucleophilic addition, amide bond formation and imine formation for the amine group and esterification, amide bond formation and decarboxylation for the carboxylic acid group.^ Amidic - Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acids with an amine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ingestion of the keto acids of the BCAA (without the amine group) improved performance in the patients.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[61] .The multiple side chains of amino acids can also undergo chemical reactions.^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of branched-chain amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in human subjects.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of infusing branched-chain amino acids during incremental exercise with reduced.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[62] .The types of these reactions are determined by the groups on these side chains and are therefore different between the various types of amino acid.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Different amino acids perform various tasks within the body, the major ones being muscle repair, muscle growth, oxygen transportation and enzyme production.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

For the steps in the reaction, see the text.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis

Chemical synthesis

Several methods exist to synthesize amino acids. .One of the oldest methods, begins with the bromination at the α-carbon of a carboxyic acid.^ Interaction of the BCAA-Aminotransferase Reaction with the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle in Muscle The carbon flux in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the processes which determines the rate of ATP turnover in skeletal muscle.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nucleophilic substitution with ammonia then converts the alkyl bromide to the amino acid.^ Amino acids, ammonia and exercise in man.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: Clues from McArdle's disease.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulation of muscle ammonia production during exercise following branched-chain amino acid supplementation in humans.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[63] .Alternatively, the Strecker amino acid synthesis involves the treatment of an aldehyde with potassium cyanide and ammonia, this produces an α-amino nitrile as an intermediate.^ Amino acids, ammonia and exercise in man.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, amino acids are involved in a number of metabolic pathways that effect the breakdown of food and growth.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ The synthesis rate of glutamine in muscle is higher than that of any other amino acid.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hydrolysis of the nitrile in acid then yields a α-amino acid.^ Amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with methanesulfonic acid hydrolysis and 9-fluorenylmethylchloromate derivatization.

^ Oxidation and hydrolysis determination of sulfur amino acids in food and feed ingredients: Collaborative study.

^ Methionine sulfoxide determination after alkaline hydrolysis of amino acid mixtures, model protein systems, soy products and infant formulas.

[64] .Using ammonia or ammonium salts in this reaction gives unsubstituted amino acids, while substituting primary and secondary amines will yield substituted amino acids.^ Amino acids, ammonia and exercise in man.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: Clues from McArdle's disease.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulation of muscle ammonia production during exercise following branched-chain amino acid supplementation in humans.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[65] .Likewise, using ketones, instead of aldehydes, gives α,α-disubstituted amino acids.^ In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids.

^ Amino acid analysis is used to determine the amino acid content of amino acid–, peptide- and protein-containing samples.

[66] .The classical synthesis gives racemic mixtures of α-amino acids as products, but several alternative procedures using asymmetric auxiliaries [67] or asymmetric catalysts [68][69] have been developed.^ Developments in amino acid analysis using capillary electrophoresis.

^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids.

[70]
Currently the most adopted method is an automated synthesis on a solid support (e.g. polystyrene beads), using protecting groups (e.g. Fmoc and t-Boc) and activating groups (e.g. DCC and DIC).

Peptide bond formation

Two amino acids are shown next to each other. <a name=.One loses a hydrogen and oxygen from its carboxyl group (COOH) and the other loses a hydrogen from its amino group (NH2).^ One of the 3 most important glycogenic amino acids, the others being Alanine and Glycine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As one of the 3 branched-chain amino acids (the other 2 being Isoleucine and Valine), Leucine has all of the properties discussed with Isoleucine, as it pertains specifically to the branched-chain amino acid functions.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the two main excitatory amino acids, the other being Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.This reaction produces a molecule of water (H2O) and two amino acids joined by a peptide bond (-CO-NH-).^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the two minor amino acids below, Taurine and GABA, are extraordinarily important.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ L-Amino Acid - The "L" indicates the molecule has a left hand configuration.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.The two joined amino acids are called a dipeptide."^ In fact, the two minor amino acids below, Taurine and GABA, are extraordinarily important.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the two main excitatory amino acids, the other being Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The amino acid Glycine is a precursor to Serine and the two are inter-convertible.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/1/3/9/6424043809224952.png" width="400" height="328" class="thumbimage" />
The condensation of two amino acids to form a peptide bond
.As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage.^ Amidic - Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acids with an amine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Different amino acids perform various tasks within the body, the major ones being muscle repair, muscle growth, oxygen transportation and enzyme production.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This polymerization of amino acids is what creates proteins.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ The only plasma amino acid that is bound to protein.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.This condensation reaction yields the newly formed peptide bond and a molecule of water.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.In cells, this reaction does not occur directly; instead the amino acid is first activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Determination of amino acids using o -phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol derivatization effect of reaction conditions.

This aminoacyl-tRNA is produced in an ATP-dependent reaction carried out by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.[71] .This aminoacyl-tRNA is then a substrate for the ribosome, which catalyzes the attack of the amino group of the elongating protein chain on the ester bond.^ Supplementation with Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Glutamine, and Protein Hydrolysates: Rationale for Effects on Metabolism and Performance (309-330) .
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Supplementation with Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Glutamine, and Protein Hydrolysates: Rationale for Effects on Metabolism and Performance .
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[72] As a result of this mechanism, all proteins made by ribosomes are synthesized starting at their N-terminus and moving towards their C-terminus.
.However, not all peptide bonds are formed in this way.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

In a few cases, peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. For example, the tripeptide glutathione is an essential part of the defenses of cells against oxidative stress. .This peptide is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids.^ Influence of the postoperative state on the intracellular free amino acids in human muscle tissue.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The sulfur-containing amino acids act as anti-oxidants which neutralize free radicals.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the two minor amino acids below, Taurine and GABA, are extraordinarily important.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[73] .In the first step gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase condenses cysteine and glutamic acid through a peptide bond formed between the side-chain carboxyl of the glutamate (the gamma carbon of this side chain) and the amino group of the cysteine.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first step of amino acid analysis involves hydrolyzing these peptide bonds.

This dipeptide is then condensed with glycine by glutathione synthetase to form glutathione.[74]
In chemistry, peptides are synthesized by a variety of reactions. .One of the most used in solid-phase peptide synthesis, which uses the aromatic oxime derivatives of amino acids as activated units.^ One of the 3 most important glycogenic amino acids, the others being Alanine and Glycine.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As one of the 3 branched-chain amino acids (the other 2 being Isoleucine and Valine), Leucine has all of the properties discussed with Isoleucine, as it pertains specifically to the branched-chain amino acid functions.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the two main excitatory amino acids, the other being Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

These are added in sequence onto the growing peptide chain, which is attached to a solid resin support.[75] .The ability to easily synthesize vast numbers of different peptides by varying the types and order of amino acids (using combinatorial chemistry) has made peptide synthesis particularly important in creating libraries of peptides for use in drug discovery through high-throughput screening.^ "Reducing variability in amino acid analysis".

^ Lipoproteins in the blood are made from amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood vessels are made from amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[76]

Biosynthesis and catabolism

.In plants, nitrogen is first assimilated into organic compounds in the form of glutamate, formed from alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia in the mitochondrion.^ Detoxifies ammonia in the brain by forming glutamine, which can cross the blood-brain barrier, which Glutamic Acid cannot do.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is achieved by rapid conversion of the muscle glutamate pool into α-ketoglutarate (Van Hall et al., 1995a).
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In order to form other amino acids, the plant uses transaminases to move the amino group to another alpha-keto carboxylic acid.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All other immune cells are made from amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Use of free or bound amino acid molecular weights in the determination of amino acid compositions".

.For example, aspartate aminotransferase converts glutamate and oxaloacetate to alpha-ketoglutarate and aspartate.^ The reaction used to achieve that increase is the alanine aminotransferase reaction: glutamate + pyruvate ↔ α-ketoglutarate + alanine (Van Hall et al., 1995a).
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[77] .Other organisms use transaminases for amino acid synthesis too.^ In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Other tracers, [2H5]phenylalanine and [15N2]urea, did not show an increase of amino acid oxidation and net protein breakdown during exercise.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The synthesis rate of glutamine in muscle is higher than that of any other amino acid.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Transaminases are also involved in breaking down amino acids.^ One of the 3 major Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA), all of which are involved with muscle strength, endurance, and muscle stamina.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The amino acid, Lysine, has the opposite effect on viruses, slowing down their growth.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.Degrading an amino acid often involves moving its amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate, forming glutamate.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, amino acids are involved in a number of metabolic pathways that effect the breakdown of food and growth.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Detoxifies ammonia in the brain by forming glutamine, which can cross the blood-brain barrier, which Glutamic Acid cannot do.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.In many vertebrates, the amino group is then removed through the urea cycle and is excreted in the form of urea.^ P5P, an important form of Vitamin B6 is necessary for many amino acid reactions to take place.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, amino acid degradation can produce uric acid or ammonia instead.^ Amino acids, ammonia and exercise in man.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: Clues from McArdle's disease.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulation of muscle ammonia production during exercise following branched-chain amino acid supplementation in humans.
  • The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

For example, serine dehydratase converts serine to pyruvate and ammonia.[78]
.Nonstandard amino acids are usually formed through modifications to standard amino acids.^ Free form amino acid.
  • Supplement Direct - Amino Acids 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC supplementdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ The Figure above indicates that an alpha- amino acid forms a five-member chelate ring with a transition metal cation.
  • Chem 452 Amino Acid Project 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC online.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

For example, homocysteine is formed through the transsulfuration pathway or by the demethylation of methionine via the intermediate metabolite S-adenosyl methionine,[42] while hydroxyproline is made by a posttranslational modification of proline.[79]
.Microorganisms and plants can synthesize many uncommon amino acids.^ P5P, an important form of Vitamin B6 is necessary for many amino acid reactions to take place.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspartic Acid is interconvertible with Asparagine, and therefore the two amino acids have many functions in common.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many amino acid supplements are listed with the "L" shown.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

For example, some microbes make 2-aminoisobutyric acid and lanthionine, which is a sulfide-bridged derivative of alanine. .Both of these amino acids are found in peptidic lantibiotics such as alamethicin.^ This is the reaction that forms peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With minor exceptions, proteins are long linear polymers of amino acids connected to each other via peptide bonds.

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

[80] .While in plants, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is a small disubstituted cyclic amino acid that is a key intermediate in the production of the plant hormone ethylene.^ Methionine sulfoxide determination after alkaline hydrolysis of amino acid mixtures, model protein systems, soy products and infant formulas.

^ Home > Glutamine & Amino Acids Home > Products by Type > Glutamine & Amino Acids .

^ Home Creatine Protein Bars Protein Liquid Drinks Muscle Growth Glutamine & Amino Acids Weight Loss Products by Type Sale Items!

[81]

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids

.Depending on the polarity of the side chain, amino acids vary in their hydrophilic or hydrophobic character.^ "Reducing variability in amino acid analysis".

^ Before each amino acid is discussed, you will read how it is classified within the various categories, such as essential versus non-essential, glycogenic versus ketogenic, etc.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of interlaboratory variation in amino acid analysis and rat growth assays for evaluating protein quality.

[8] These properties are important in protein structure and protein–protein interactions. .The importance of the physical properties of the side chains comes from the influence this has on the amino acid residues' interactions with other structures, both within a single protein and between proteins.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ As the body demands higher levels of amino acids when it is put under physical stress, it is often hard for athletes and bodybuilders to consume enough in their daily diets.
  • Bodybuilding Supplements Amino Acids Amino Blends 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.mrsupplement.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

.The distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids determines the tertiary structure of the protein, and their physical location on the outside structure of the proteins influences their quaternary structure.^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ The only plasma amino acid that is bound to protein.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids combine in an unlimited number of configurations to make all the proteins of which our bodies are composed.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.For example, soluble proteins have surfaces rich with polar amino acids like serine and threonine, while integral membrane proteins tend to have outer rings of hydrophobic amino acids that anchor them into the lipid bilayer.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

.In the case part-way between these two extremes, peripheral membrane proteins have a patch of hydrophobic amino acids on their surface that locks onto the membrane.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

^ The only plasma amino acid that is bound to protein.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

.Similarly, proteins that have to bind to positively-charged molecules have surfaces rich with negatively charged amino acids like glutamate and aspartate, while proteins binding to negatively-charged molecules have surfaces rich with positively charged chains like lysine and arginine.^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Preworkout, intraworkout and postworkout amino acid supplementation maximizes the anabolic window which is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

Recently a new scale of hydrophobicity based on the free energy of hydrophobic association has been proposed.[82]
.The hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions of proteins are not always the result of the properties of their amino acid sidechains.^ "Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids".

^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

.This is because a range of posttranslational modifications can attach other chemical groups to the amino acids in proteins.^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ The only plasma amino acid that is bound to protein.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A complete protein is one that contains all of the essential amino acids where as an incomplete protein does not.
  • Total Amino Acid Supplements Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

For example, these modifications can produce hydrophobic lipoproteins,[83] or hydrophilic glycoproteins.[84] These type of modification allow the reversible targeting of a protein to a membrane. .For example, the addition and removal of the fatty acid palmitic acid to cysteine residues in some signaling proteins causes the proteins to attach and then detach from cell membranes.^ In addition to making up all protein, amino acids have numerous functions...
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[85]

Table of standard amino acid abbreviations and side chain properties

Amino Acid 3-Letter[86] 1-Letter[86] Side chain polarity[86] Side chain charge (pH 7.4)[86] Hydropathy index[87] Absorbance λmax(nm)[88] ε at λmax (x10−3 M−1 cm−1)[88]
Alanine Ala A nonpolar neutral 1.8
Arginine Arg R polar positive −4.5
Asparagine Asn N polar neutral −3.5
Aspartic acid Asp D polar negative −3.5
Cysteine Cys C nonpolar neutral 2.5 250 0.3
Glutamic acid Glu E polar negative −3.5
Glutamine Gln Q polar neutral −3.5
Glycine Gly G nonpolar neutral −0.4
Histidine His H polar positive(10%), neutral(90%) −3.2 211 5.9
Isoleucine Ile I nonpolar neutral 4.5
Leucine Leu L nonpolar neutral 3.8
Lysine Lys K polar positive −3.9
Methionine Met M nonpolar neutral 1.9
Phenylalanine Phe F nonpolar neutral 2.8 257, 206, 188 0.2, 9.3, 60.0
Proline Pro P nonpolar neutral −1.6
Serine Ser S polar neutral −0.8
Threonine Thr T polar neutral −0.7
Tryptophan Trp W nonpolar neutral −0.9 280, 219 5.6, 47.0
Tyrosine Tyr Y polar neutral −1.3 274, 222, 193 1.4, 8.0, 48.0
Valine Val V nonpolar neutral 4.2
.In addition to the specific amino acid codes, placeholders are used in cases where chemical or crystallographic analysis of a peptide or protein can not conclusively determine the identity of a residue.^ Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  • Amino Acids and BCAAs Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ Home Creatine Protein Bars Protein Liquid Drinks Muscle Growth Glutamine & Amino Acids Weight Loss Products by Type Sale Items!

Ambiguous Amino Acids 3-Letter 1-Letter
Asparagine or aspartic acid Asx B
Glutamine or glutamic acid Glx Z
Leucine or Isoleucine Xle J
Unspecified or unknown amino acid Xaa X
Unk is sometimes used instead of Xaa, but is less standard.
Additionally, many non-standard amino acids have a specific code. For example, several peptide drugs, such as Bortezomib or MG132 are artificially synthesized and retain their protecting groups, which have specific codes. Bortezomib is Pyz-Phe-boroLeu and MG132 is Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al. .Additionally, To aid in the analysis of protein structure, photocrosslinking amino acids are available.^ When protein is broken down by digestion the result is 22 known amino acids.

^ Home Creatine Protein Bars Protein Liquid Drinks Muscle Growth Glutamine & Amino Acids Weight Loss Products by Type Sale Items!

These include photoleucine (pLeu) and photomethionine (pMet).[89]

See also

References and notes

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Further reading

  • Doolittle, R.F. (1989) Redundancies in protein sequences. .In Predictions of Protein Structure and the Principles of Protein Conformation (Fasman, G.D. ed) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 599–623
  • David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd edition, 2000, Worth Publishers, ISBN 1-57259-153-6
  • Meierhenrich, U.J.: Amino acids and the asymmetry of life, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, 2008. ISBN 978-3-540-76885-2
  • Morelli, Robert J. "Studies of amino acid absorption from the small intestine."^ Home Creatine Protein Bars Protein Liquid Drinks Muscle Growth Glutamine & Amino Acids Weight Loss Products by Type Sale Items!

    San Francisco: Morelli, 1952.

External links


Simple English

[[File:|thumbnail|200px|The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right.]]

File:D+L-Alanine.gif
The two optical isomers of alanine.

In biology and biochemistry, Amino acids are seen as the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 standard amino acids that almost all proteins are made out of. Some amino acids are glycine, alanine, and tryptophan. In chemistry, an amino acid can refer to any molecule that contains both amine and carboxyl functional groups. In biochemistry, this term refers to alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, were R is one of many side groups side group.


Different alpha amino acids are exactly the same except for their R groups. R groups come in many different sizes. Some are as small as a single hydrogen atom (as in glycine), and other R groups are as large as an indole functional group (as in tryptophan). Amino acids are needed to stay alive and do many different things to keep things alive. One very important thing that amino acids do is that they make proteins, which are very long chains of amino acids. Every protein is has its own sequence of amino acids, and that sequence makes the protein have different shapes. Amino acids are like the alphabet for proteins, even though you only have a couple of letters, if you connect them you can make many different words.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Amino acid, which are similar to those in the above article.








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