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Amitriptyline
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-(10,11-dihydro- 5H-dibenzo[[a,d]]cycloheptene- 5-ylidene)- N,N-dimethyl- 1-propanamine
Identifiers
CAS number 50-48-6
ATC code N06AA09
PubChem 2160
DrugBank APRD00227
ChemSpider 2075
Chemical data
Formula C 20H23N 
Mol. mass 277.403 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 30–60% due to first pass metabolism
Protein binding > 90%
Metabolism Hepatic
CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2D6
Half life 10–50 hours, with an average of 15 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(US)
Legal status Unscheduled (AU) POM (UK)
Routes Oral
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Amitriptyline (Elavil, Tryptizol, Laroxyl) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).^ The first generation antidepressants are the tricyclic antidepressants (TCA).
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Pharmacotherapy of Depression 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Description: Nortriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant of the dibenzocycloheptene type and is the active metabolite of amitriptyline.

^ Genotoxicity evaluation of the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and imipramine using human lymphocyte cultures.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Contents

History

.Amitriptyline, under the brand name Elavil, was approved on April 7, 1961 for the treatment of major depression in the United States.^ Amitriptyline Brand name (Elavil and Endep) .
  • Amitriptyline. Find out the true side Amitriptyline effects. Amitriptyline side effects, warnings, Amitriptyline precautions, Amitriptyline adverse effects, Amitriptyline overdose, Amitriptyline withdrawal symptoms and  Amitriptyline natural alternatives. 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Brand: Elavil Manuf.brand: Amitriptyline HCL .
  • Buy Amitriptyline 50mg 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.pillsfordiet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of depressive states by amitriptyline.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] It has seen widespread usage throughout the world ever since.

Indications

Approved

.Amitriptyline is approved for the treatment of major depression, as well as clinical/endogenous depression and also involutional melancholia or "depression of late life", which is no longer seen as a disease in its own right.^ Treatment of depressive states by amitriptyline.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alprazolam compared to amitriptyline in treatment of major depression.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Pharmacotherapy of Depression 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Phenelzine and amitriptyline in the treatment of depression.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Pharmacotherapy of Depression 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Adult typical dosages are 25 to 150 mg daily, with half this dose initially for elderly or adolescent patients.^ Maintenance PO 25-150 mg (0.5-3 mg/kg) daily at bedtime.

^ In elderly patients and adolescents, a lower initial dosage may be needed.
  • Etrafon (Perphenazine and Amitriptyline) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dosage for Adolescent and Elderly Patients - In general, lower dosages are recommended for these patients.
  • Inhouse Pharmacy (UK) AMITRIPTYLINE hydrochloride is a potent antidepressant with sedative properties 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.inhousepharmacy.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Children between the ages of 7 to 10 years typically have a dose of 10 to 20 mg; older children 25 to 50 mg at night.^ Children 6 to 10 years of age may receive 10 to 20 mg of Amitriptyline per day.
  • Inhouse Pharmacy (UK) AMITRIPTYLINE hydrochloride is a potent antidepressant with sedative properties 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.inhousepharmacy.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ A dose of 10 mg at bedtime has been found effective in children under six years of age.
  • Inhouse Pharmacy (UK) AMITRIPTYLINE hydrochloride is a potent antidepressant with sedative properties 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.inhousepharmacy.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Children 6 to 12 years of age10 to 20 mg a day.
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants for Migraines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.migraines.org [Source type: General]

.It should be gradually withdrawn at the end of the course, which overall should be of no more than three months.^ Those mice scoring less than three and more than six falls in the pretest were rejected (20%).
  • Role of Gi Proteins in the Antidepressant-like Effect of Amitriptyline and Clomipramine 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) 1 and, in particular, amitriptyline (AT) have been the cornerstones of antidepressive therapy for more than three decades.
  • Amitriptyline or Not, That Is the Question: Pharmacogenetic Testing of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Identifies Patients with Low or High Risk for Side Effects in Amitriptyline Therapy -- Steimer et al. 51 (2): 376 -- Clinical Chemistry 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.clinchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But could not sleep more than 2-3 hours, this went on for months.
  • Amitriptyline for sleep [Archive] - NeuroTalk Communities 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Amitriptyline is used in ankylosing spondylitis for pain relief and in some European countries it is officially approved as a preventive for patients with frequent/chronic migraines, usually 25 to 75 mg.^ Long term use in chronic pain for tolerant patients .
  • A thru C 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.vasg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Elavil is also used for chronic/Nerve pain.
  • Amitriptyline for sleep [Archive] - NeuroTalk Communities 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Buy Generic Amitriptyline 25 mg .
  • Generic Amitriptyline: - Buy Generic Amitriptyline Cheap at RaPharmacy.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.rapharmacy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also used as a preventive for patients with recurring biliary dyskinesia (sphincter of Oddi dysfunction), usually 10 mg daily[4].^ Before initiating this regimen, patients should be informed of the possibility of chronic daily headache and instructed to limit their use of the combination to twice weekly.
  • Tension-Type Headache - September 1, 2002 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraine prophylaxis (unlabeled use): Oral: Initial: 10-25 mg at bedtime; usual dose: 150 mg; reported dosing ranges: 10-400 mg/day .
  • Amitriptyline 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Amitriptyline - Peoples Rx - Austin's Favorite Pharmacy 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.peoplesrx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Elavil (amitriptyline HCl) is supplied as 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg tablets and as a sterile solution for intramuscular use.
  • Amitriptyline - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugbuyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Unapproved / Off-label

.Amitriptyline may be prescribed for other conditions such as insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),[5] migraine, rebound headache, chronic pain, tinnitus, chronic cough, postherpetic neuralgia (persistent pain following a shingles attack), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), fibromyalgia, vulvodynia, interstitial cystitis, male chronic pelvic pain syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neurological pain, and painful paresthesias related to multiple sclerosis and at low doses as a prophylaxis (preventive) for patients with chronic migraines.^ Irritable Bowel Syndrome (13) .
  • Amitriptyline discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Your prescriber or health care professional may prescribe amitriptyline for other conditions, such as relief from nerve pain.
  • Amitriptyline 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC amitriptylines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In postherpetic neuralgia when amitriptyline fails.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Typically lower dosages are required for pain modification of 10 to 50 mg daily.^ Elavil (amitriptyline HCl) is supplied as 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg tablets and as a sterile solution for intramuscular use.
  • Amitriptyline - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugbuyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For tablet dosage form: For depression: AdultsAt first, 50 milligrams (mg) two to three times a day.
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants for Migraines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.migraines.org [Source type: General]

^ Took 50 mgs for pain - burning and shock pain (maybe ms, some kind of nerve thing).
  • Amitriptyline for sleep [Archive] - NeuroTalk Communities 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Amitriptyline in low doses is also sometimes prescribed to help ease the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome.^ A study of low-dose amitriptyline overdoses.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reply 55 Summer January 13, 2010 at 3:30 pm I started taking amitriptyline 2 months ago after a year of chronic fatigue/pain and anxiety.
  • Amitriptyline For Pain Relief « ChronicallyMe 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC chronicallyme.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gur A, Karakoc M, Nas K, Cevik R, Sarac J, Ataoglu S. Effects of low power laser and low dose amitriptyline therapy on clinical symptoms and quality of life in fibromyalgia: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • Amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of its efficacy -- Nishishinya et al. 47 (12): 1741 -- Rheumatology 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is thought to help combat symptoms of insomnia primarily, in addition to other selected symptoms of the affliction.^ Amitriptyline was thought to be preferred in patients with absence of mood reactivity, relative absence of anxiety symptoms, terminal insomnia, and weight loss.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Pharmacotherapy of Depression 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The tricyclics may also be used to help the symptoms of anxiety and a number of other symptoms.
  • TREATMENTS FOR DEPRESSION - TRICYCLICS 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These medications can help prevent suicidal thoughts/attempts and provide other important benefits.
  • Amitriptyline Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Perphenazine-Amitriptyline Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Etrafon (Perphenazine and Amitriptyline) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.A randomized controlled trial published in June 2005 found that amitriptyline was effective in functional dyspepsia that did not respond to a first-line treatment (famotidine or mosapride).^ Why did this patient not respond to the initial trial of amitriptyline?
  • Column - Polypharmacy in a Patient with Refractory Major Depression: Part I: The Case 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.preskorn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amitriptyline in depressive states:a controlled trial.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of spinal manipulation and a common pharmaceutical treatment (amitriptyline) for chronic tension-type headache.
  • Spinal Manipulation vs. Amitriptyline for the Treatment of Chronic Tension-type Headaches: A Randomized Clinical Trial 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.chiro.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Pharmacology

.Amitriptyline acts primarily as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, with strong actions on the norepinephrine transporter, and moderate effects on the serotonin transporter.^ The analgesic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  • NEJM -- Effects of desipramine, amitriptyline, and fluoxetine on pain in diabetic neuropathy 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and it does not act primarily by stimulation of the central nervous system.
  • Amitriptyline - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugbuyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the mode of action of amitriptyline is not fully understood, evidence suggests that it acts at the central level by inhibiting the neuronal re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain [ 12 ], with an effect quite independent from its antidepressant action [ 15 ].
  • Head & Face Medicine | Full text | Intra-oral orthosis vs amitriptyline in chronic tension-type headache: a clinical and laser evoked potentials study 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.head-face-med.com [Source type: Academic]

[8][9] .It has negligible influence on the dopamine transporter and therefore does not affect dopamine reuptake, being nearly 1,000 times weaker on it than on serotonin.^ At that time, tricyclic antidepressants were challenged by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as the antidepressant drugs of choice for treatment of depression.
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants, QT Interval Prolongation, and Torsade de Pointes -- Vieweg and Wood 45 (5): 371 -- Psychosomatics 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC psy.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amitriptyline is less well tolerated than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  • Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials -- BARBUI and HOTOPF 178 (2): 129 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Slightly more patients treated with amitriptyline make a recovery than with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  • Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials -- BARBUI and HOTOPF 178 (2): 129 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.Amitriptyline additionally functions as a 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, H1, and mACh receptor antagonist, and σ1 receptor agonist.^ On the other hand, there is an explanation that is consistent with all of the available data: substantial alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blockade secondary to amitriptyline.
  • Column - Polypharmacy in a Patient with Refractory Major Depression: Part I: The Case 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.preskorn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interaction between antidepressants and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonists on the binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Charney, D. S., Heninger, G. R. & Sternberg, D. (1984 b ) The effect of mianserin on alpha-2 adrenergic receptor function in depressed patients.
  • Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials -- BARBUI and HOTOPF 178 (2): 129 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] [11][12][13] .It has also been shown to be a relatively weak NMDA receptor negative allosteric modulator at the same binding site as phencyclidine.^ The 5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor-selective radioligand 3HRo 63-0563 labels 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor binding sites in rat and porcine striatum.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Amitriptyline inhibits sodium channels, L-type calcium channels, and Kv1.1, Kv7.2, and Kv7.3 voltage-gated potassium channels, and therefore acts as a sodium, calcium, and potassium channel blocker as well.^ Compared with bupivacaine, it was reported that amitriptyline seems to be a more potent blocker of neuronal Na + channels 4 and presents more potent antioxidant properties.
  • Contralateral effect of amitriptyline and bupivacaine for sciatic nerve block in an animal model of inflammation -- Estebe et al. 93 (5): 705 -- British Journal of Anaesthesia 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC bja.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This page on the eMedTV Web site explains what other calcium channel blockers are available and lists other classes of blood pressure medications.
  • Amitriptyline Sexual Side Effects - Animals With Rabies Articles 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants act primarily on sodium (fast) channels but also on delayed rectifier potassium (I Kr ) channels.
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants, QT Interval Prolongation, and Torsade de Pointes -- Vieweg and Wood 45 (5): 371 -- Psychosomatics 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC psy.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[15][16][17]
.Recently, amitriptyline has been demonstrated to act as an agonist of the TrkA and TrkB receptors.^ CLONIDINE (CATAPRES): Therapeutic Effects and Mechanism: Clonidine hydrochloride is classified as a centrally acting antihypertensive agent which is an agonist and activates alpha-2 adrenergic receptors.
  • Drugs Used for Symptoms Associated with Transverse Myelitis 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.myelitis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-selectivity of amitriptyline for subtypes of brain muscarinic receptors demonstrated in binding and functional assays.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .It promotes the heterodimerization of these proteins in the absence of NGF and has potent neurotrophic activity both in-vivo and in-vitro in mouse models.^ AMITRIPTYLINE IN THE TREATMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS. Absence of anticholinergic activity of rolipram, an antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action, in three different animal models in vivo.
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bcl-2 is a membrane-associated protein with both antiapoptotic and neurotrophic properties ( Bernier and Parent, 1998a ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Dose-Related Effects of Chronic Antidepressants on Neuroprotective Proteins BDNF, Bcl-2 and Cu//Zn-SOD in Rat Hippocampus 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithium up-regulates the cytoprotective protein Bcl-2 in the CNS in vivo: A role for neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in manic depressive illness.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Dose-Related Effects of Chronic Antidepressants on Neuroprotective Proteins BDNF, Bcl-2 and Cu//Zn-SOD in Rat Hippocampus 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]

Side effects

.Common side effects of using amitriptyline are mostly due to its anticholinergic activity, including: weight gain, dry mouth, changes in appetite, drowsiness, muscle stiffness, nausea, constipation, nervousness, dizziness, blurred vision, urinary retention, insomnia and changes in sexual function.^ After that I got used to it and had no side effects.
  • Amitriptyline For Pain Relief « ChronicallyMe 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC chronicallyme.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anticholinergic Effects: dry mouth, blurred vision, disturbance of accommodation , constipation, paralytic ileus , urinary retention, dilatation of urinary tract .
  • Etrafon (Perphenazine and Amitriptyline) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another amitriptyline side-effect?
  • Amitriptyline online references 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC hairmillion.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some rare side effects include tinnitus, hypotension, mania, psychosis, sleep paralysis, hypnagogia, hypnopompia, heart block, arrhythmias, lip and mouth ulcers, extrapyramidal symptoms, depression, and hepatic toxicity.^ There are other rare side-effects.
  • TREATMENTS FOR DEPRESSION - TRICYCLICS 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side effects of the amitriptyline that you may experience are dry mouth (anticholinergic effect) and some blurring of your vision, maybe.
  • Nerve pain, help! - CareCure Forums 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: General]

^ [Evidence level A, RCT] Anticholinergic side effects (dry mouth, blurred vision, orthostasis) and weight gain can limit its usefulness in some persons.
  • Tension-Type Headache - September 1, 2002 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Overdose

.The symptoms and the treatment of an overdose are largely the same as for the other TCAs.^ This portion of the eMedTV library describes some of the symptoms of an Anafranil overdose and outlines some treatment options for a recent overdose.
  • Amitriptyline Sexual Side Effects - Animals With Rabies Articles 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This eMedTV resource lists the specific signs or symptoms of an amlodipine overdose and describes various treatment options that are available.
  • Amitriptyline Sexual Side Effects - Animals With Rabies Articles 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This eMedTV resource explores other potential effects and explains what treatment options are available for an overdose of amoxicillin.
  • Amitriptyline Sexual Side Effects - Animals With Rabies Articles 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Barbui C, Hotopf M (February 2001). "Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials". The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science 178: 129–44. PMID 11157426. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11157426.  
  2. ^ Fangmann P, Assion HJ, Juckel G, González CA, López-Muñoz F (February 2008). "Half a century of antidepressant drugs: on the clinical introduction of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclics, and tetracyclics. Part II: tricyclics and tetracyclics". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 28 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e3181627b60. PMID 18204333. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=28&issue=1&spage=1.  
  3. ^ a b British National Formulary 45 (March 2003).
  4. ^ S. G. Hubscher et al. (2006). Functional biliary type pain syndrome. In P. J. Pasricha, W. D. Willis & G. F. Gebhart (Eds.), ' ' italics' ' Chronic Abdominal and Visceral Pain' 'italics' '. London: Informa Healthcare, pp. 459-461.
  5. ^ National Institute for Clinical Excellence: The Treatment of PTSD in Adults and Children
  6. ^ Ziegler D, Hurwitz A, Hassanein R, Kodanaz H, Preskorn S, Mason J (1987). "Migraine prophylaxis. A comparison of propranolol and amitriptyline". Arch Neurol 44 (5): 486–9. PMID 3579659.  
  7. ^ Otaka M, Jin M, Odashima M, et al. (June 2005). "New strategy of therapy for functional dyspepsia using famotidine, mosapride and amitriptyline". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 21 (Suppl 2): 42–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02473.x. PMID 15943846. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/apt/2005/00000021/A00201s2/art00008.  
  8. ^ http://www.cnsforum.com/content/pictures/imagebank/hirespng/antidep_uptake_specific.png
  9. ^ a b Tatsumi; Groshan, K; Blakely, RD; Richelson, E (1997). "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters". European journal of pharmacology 340 (2-3): 249–58. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01393-9. PMID 9537821.   edit
  10. ^ Owens; Morgan, WN; Plott, SJ; Nemeroff, CB (1997). "Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 283 (3): 1305–22. PMID 9400006.   edit
  11. ^ Alan F. Schatzberg, Charles B. (2006). Essentials of clinical psychopharmacology. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 7. ISBN 1585622435, 9781585622436.  
  12. ^ Rauser; Savage, JE; Meltzer, HY; Roth, BL (2001). "Inverse agonist actions of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs at the human 5-hydroxytryptamine(2C) receptor". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 299 (1): 83–9. PMID 11561066.   edit
  13. ^ Werling; Keller, A.; Frank, J.; Nuwayhid, S. (2007). "A comparison of the binding profiles of dextromethorphan, memantine, fluoxetine and amitriptyline: treatment of involuntary emotional expression disorder". Experimental neurology 207 (2): 248–257. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.06.013. PMID 17689532.   edit
  14. ^ Sills; Loo, PS (1989). "Tricyclic antidepressants and dextromethorphan bind with higher affinity to the phencyclidine receptor in the absence of magnesium and L-glutamate". Molecular pharmacology 36 (1): 160–5. PMID 2568580.   edit
  15. ^ Pancrazio; Kamatchi, GL; Roscoe, AK; Lynch C, 3rd (1998). "Inhibition of neuronal Na+ channels by antidepressant drugs". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 284 (1): 208–14. PMID 9435180.   edit
  16. ^ Zahradnik, I.; Minarovic, I.; Zahradnikova, A. (2008). "Inhibition of the cardiac L-type calcium channel current by antidepressant drugs". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 324 (3): 977–984. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.132456. PMID 18048694.   edit
  17. ^ Punke MA, Friederich P (May 2007). "Amitriptyline is a potent blocker of human Kv1.1 and Kv7.2/7.3 channels". Anesthesia and Analgesia 104 (5): 1256–64, tables of contents. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000260310.63117.a2. PMID 17456683. http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17456683.  
  18. ^ a b Jang; Liu, X.; Chan, C.; Weinshenker, D.; Hall, R.; Xiao, G.; Ye, K. (2009). "Amitriptyline is a TrkA and TrkB receptor agonist that promotes TrkA/TrkB heterodimerization and has potent neurotrophic activity". Chemistry & biology 16 (6): 644–656. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.05.010. PMID 19549602.   edit

Further reading

.
  • PubChem Substance Summary: Amitriptyline National Center for Biotechnology Information.
  • TREPILINE-10 TABLETS; TREPILINE-25 TABLETS South African Electronic Package Inserts.^ Elavil (amitriptyline HCl) is supplied as 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg tablets and as a sterile solution for intramuscular use.
    • Amitriptyline - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugbuyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Available in 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg tablets .
    • A thru C 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.vasg.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But it’s made my migraine medication an average of 6-10 tablets a month instead of that 30 or more I was taking (and still getting migraines) before amitriptyline.
    • Amitriptyline For Pain Relief « ChronicallyMe 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC chronicallyme.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .12 May 1978. Revised February 2004.
  • SAROTEN RETARD 25 mg Capsules; SAROTEN RETARD 50 mg Capsules South African Electronic Package Inserts.^ Thursday, December 10th, 2009 Posted by OP-Mall in Florida , North American Property Amitriptyline may be prescribed for other conditions such as insomnia, post TREPILINE-10 TABLETS; TREPILINE-25 TABLETS South African Electronic Package Inserts.

    ^ In another study in which 12 normal subjects received 25 mg Amitriptyline hydrochloride t.i.d.
    • Inhouse Pharmacy (UK) AMITRIPTYLINE hydrochloride is a potent antidepressant with sedative properties 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.inhousepharmacy.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Interestingly, the clinical effects seen with amitriptyline 25 mg were not seen with amitriptyline 50 mg.
    • Amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of its efficacy -- Nishishinya et al. 47 (12): 1741 -- Rheumatology 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .December 1987. Updated May 2000.
  • AMITRIP Amitriptyline hydrochloride 10 mg, 25 mg and 50 mg Capsules Medsafe NZ Physician Data Sheet.^ Interestingly, the clinical effects seen with amitriptyline 25 mg were not seen with amitriptyline 50 mg.
    • Amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of its efficacy -- Nishishinya et al. 47 (12): 1741 -- Rheumatology 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Results: amitriptyline 50 mg .
    • Amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of its efficacy -- Nishishinya et al. 47 (12): 1741 -- Rheumatology 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tablet, as hydrochloride: 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg .
    • Amitriptyline 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
    • Amitriptyline - Peoples Rx - Austin's Favorite Pharmacy 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.peoplesrx.com [Source type: Academic]

    November 2004.
  • Endep Consumer Medicine Information, Australia. .December 2005.
  • MedlinePlus Drug Information: Amitriptyline.^ Amitriptyline Information from Drugs.com .
    • Buy Amitriptyline 50mg 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.pillsfordiet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Further information: Information about AMITRIPTYLINE on wikipedia.org Information about AMITRIPTYLINE on drugs.com .
    • Buy Amitriptyline 50mg 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.pillsfordiet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ View complete and up to date Amitriptyline information - part of the Drugs.com trusted medication database.
    • Buy Amitriptyline 50mg 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.pillsfordiet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .US National Institutes of Health.^ Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
    • Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials -- BARBUI and HOTOPF 178 (2): 129 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cowdry RW, Gardner DL. - Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda Arch Gen Psychiatry.
    • AAPEL - BPD molecule study - borderline personality disorer studies 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aapel.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD J Clin Psychiatry.
    • AAPEL - BPD molecule study - borderline personality disorer studies 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aapel.org [Source type: Academic]

    January 2008.

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Up to date as of December 29, 2010

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