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Amphibians
Fossil range: Late Devonian–present
Western Spadefoot Toad, Spea hammondii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Amphibia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subclasses and Orders
   Order Temnospondyliextinct
Subclass Lepospondyliextinct
Subclass Lissamphibia
   Order Anura
   Order Caudata
   Order Gymnophiona
.Amphibians (class Amphibia), such as frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold-blooded) animals that either metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, to an adult air-breathing form, or paedomorph and retain some juvenile characteristics.^ Class Amphibia includes toads, frogs, newts, salamanders and gymnophiona.
  • Amphibian Facts 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cold-Blooded: Amphibians are cold-blooded or ectothermic animals.
  • Facts and Characteristics of Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physical Characteristics of Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded, vertebrate animals.
  • Amphibian Facts 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mudpuppies and waterdogs are good examples of paedomorphic species. .Though amphibians typically have four limbs, the caecilians are notable for being limbless.^ Most amphibians have four limbs.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most amphibians also have four limbs.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, amphibians have four limbs.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike other land vertebrates (amniotes), amphibians lay eggs in water.^ Where can Amphibians lay eggs?
  • amphibian – FREE amphibian information | Encyclopedia.com: Find amphibian research 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most amphibians lay their eggs inside the water.
  • Amphibian Facts 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oviparous = egg laying most amphibians .
  • Amphibian Reproduction 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC itech.pjc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles.^ Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reptiles and amphibians are in fact distantly related to each other and they do have lot of similarities, but still there are few differences between the two.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The salamanders and newts are superficially the most similar to ancestral amphibians, having long tails and front and hind legs of approximately equal size.
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Amphibians are ecological indicators, and in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations around the globe.^ So what could be the causes of declining amphibian populations?
  • Amphibian Extinction crisis and amphibian declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.nzfrogs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent decades, there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations around the globe and many species are now threatened or extinct.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibian population declines and species extinctions .
  • Amphibian contacts 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC portal.isis.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many species are now threatened or extinct.^ Amphibians persisted as the dinosaurs came and went, but today as many as half of all species are threatened with extinction.
  • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amphibian Ark now has a new group on Facebook ( Amphibian Ark - keeping threatened amphibian species afloat ) and a cause page ( Amphibian Ark ).

^ Almost 1/3 (32%) of the world's amphibian species are now threatened with extinction; compared to 12% of all bird and 23% of all mammal species.
  • Cheyenne Mountain Zoo – Amphibian Crisis 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.cmzoo.org [Source type: General]

.Amphibians evolved in the Devonian Period and were top predators in the Carboniferous and Permian Periods, but many lineages were wiped out during the Permian–Triassic extinction.^ In the Carboniferous Period, the amphibians moved up in the food chain and began to occupy the ecological position where we now find crocodiles.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards the end of the Permian Period and the Triassic Period, the amphibians started having competition with proto-crocodiles which led to their drop in size in the temperate zones or leaving for the poles.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amphibians of the Labyrinthodontia, which lived during the late Devonian through Triassic periods (345 to 190 million years ago), include the most primitive amphibians represented by the genus Ichthyostega.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One group, the metoposaurs, remained important predators during the Triassic, but as the world became drier during the Early Jurassic they died out, leaving a handful of relict temnospondyls like Koolasuchus and the modern orders of Lissamphibia.^ They are divided into three subclasses , of which two are only known as extinct subclasses: Subclass Labyrinthodontia (diverse Paleozoic and early Mesozoic group) Subclass Lepospondyli (small Paleozoic group) Subclass Lissamphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, etc.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All recent amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, which is usually considered a clade (which means that it is thought that they evolved from a common ancestor apart from other extinct groups), although it has also been suggested also that salamanders arose separately from a temnospondyl-like ancestor (Carroll, 2007).
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The modern, extant orders of the Amphibia are placed in the subclass Lissamphibia.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology

.Amphibian is derived from the Ancient Greek term ἀμφίβιος amphíbios which means both kinds of life, amphi meaning “both” and bio meaning life.^ The word amphibian means both sides of life.
  • Amphibian (animal) - MSN Encarta 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word amphibian comes from the Greek amphibios meaning "both lives".
  • Amphibian - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both amphibians and reptiles are ectotherms, meaning that they derive heat from the environment, rather than producing it internally.
  • Amphibian - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term was initially used for all kinds of combined natures.^ Print version Contact and enquiries Accessibility Site map Terms of use © 2009 The Natural History Museum.
  • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Sapos - a beautiful new book from Ecuador Our friends from Ecuador have done it again, this time using the surreal patterns and colors of naturally beautiful amphibians in combination with and as inspiration for graphic art.

^ Our friends from Ecuador have done it again, this time using the surreal patterns and colors of naturally beautiful amphibians in combination with and as inspiration for graphic art.
  • Amphibian Ark (Amphibian Ark) | MySpace 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually it was used to refer to animals that live both in the water and on land.^ As they mature, they typically develop lungs and legs by a process called metamorphosis, so they are able to leave water and live on land.
  • AFCD HK Species 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.afcd.gov.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians are vertebrates that spend part of their lives under water (breathing with gills) and the remainder on land (breathing with lungs).

^ The red-spotted newt of eastern North American spends its juvenile stage on land as the red eft, returning to water to develop and live as an adult.
  • Amphibians - History, Characteristics, Life cycle, Three major groupings, Recent decline 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Evolutionary history

.The first major groups of amphibians developed in the Devonian Period from fish similar to the modern coelacanth and lungfish which had evolved multi-jointed leg-like fins that enabled them to crawl along the sea bottom.^ The first major groups of amphibians developed in the Devonian Period( A period of geological time around 350 million years ago) from fishes similar to the modern coelocanth where the fins had evolved into legs.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians evolved in the Devonian period .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first major groups of amphibians developed in the Devonian Period from fish similar to the modern coelacanth where the fins had evolved into legs.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These amphibians were as much as one to five meters in length.^ These amphibians were around five meters long.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These amphibians were around five meters long in length, which is rare now.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, large geographic areas (e.g., Africa and much of Asia) have not yet been surveyed for declining amphibian populations or for the occurrence of these pathogens.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, amphibians never developed the ability to live their entire lives on land, having to return to water to lay their shell-less eggs.^ Where can Amphibians lay eggs?
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • amphibian – FREE amphibian information | Encyclopedia.com: Find amphibian research 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species live entirely on land or in water.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most reptiles live on land and reproduce by laying eggs.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Carboniferous Period, the amphibians moved up in the food chain and began to occupy the ecological position currently occupied by crocodiles.^ In the Carboniferous Period , the amphibians moved up in the food chain and began to occupy the ecological position where we now find crocodiles.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians — of which frogs make up the majority — are a vital part of the food chain, eating insects that other animals don't touch and connecting the world of aquatic animals to land dwellers.
  • 'Amphibian Ark' to protect frogs from fungus - World environment- msnbc.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Amphibians are an important link in the food chain and depend on a variety of foods including: crayfish, earthworms, snails, insects and their larvae, and algae.

.These amphibians were notable for eating the mega insects on land and many types of fishes in the water.^ These amphibians were notable for eating the mega-insects on land and many types of fishes in the water.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like birds, reptiles, mammals, and fishes,amphibians are vertebrates -- that is, creatures with a backbone and an internal skeleton.Amphibians live part of their life in water and part on land.
  • amphibians on Yahoo! Kids Animals 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC kids.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Amphibians — of which frogs make up the majority — are a vital part of the food chain, eating insects that other animals don't touch and connecting the world of aquatic animals to land dwellers.
  • 'Amphibian Ark' to protect frogs from fungus - World environment- msnbc.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.During the Triassic Period, the better land-adapted proto-crocodiles began to compete with amphibians, leading to their reduction in size and importance in the biosphere.^ In the Carboniferous Period, the amphibians moved up in the food chain and began to occupy the ecological position where we now find crocodiles.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards the end of the Permian Period and the Triassic Period, the amphibians started having competition with proto-crocodiles which led to their drop in size in the temperate zones or leaving for the poles.
  • Amphibian vs Reptile - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Carboniferous Period , the amphibians moved up in the food chain and began to occupy the ecological position where we now find crocodiles.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taxonomy

.Traditionally, amphibians have included all tetrapod vertebrates that are not amniotes.^ Traditionally, amphibians have included all tetrapods that are not amniotes .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians are taken to include all tetrapods that are not amniotes.

^ Of all the vertebrates, amphibians lead some of the strangest lives.
  • BBC NEWS | Science & Environment | Crisis for the world�s amphibians 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

They are divided into three subclasses, of which two are only known as extinct subclasses:
.
  • Subclass Labyrinthodontia† (diverse Paleozoic and early Mesozoic group)
  • Subclass Lepospondyli† (small Paleozoic group)
  • Subclass Lissamphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, etc.^ They are divided into three subclasses , of which two are only known as extinct subclasses: Subclass Labyrinthodontia (diverse Paleozoic and early Mesozoic group) Subclass Lepospondyli (small Paleozoic group) Subclass Lissamphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, etc.
    • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amphibians include frogs, toads, and salamanders.

    ^ Newt Newts are small, brightly-colored salamanders.

    )
.Of these only the last subclass includes recent species.^ Of these only the last subclass includes recent species.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to recent budget cuts and staff reductions, these facilities are generally open by appointment only from 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Monday and Tuesday, and 9:00 A.M. to 12:00 noon on Wednesday.
  • University of Arizona Amphibian and Reptile Collection 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC eebweb.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These include such familiar species as the California newt (Taricha torosa) and the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense).
  • Amphibians of the Kern River Valley 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC natureali.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the phylogenetic revolution, this classification has been modified, or changed, and the Labyrinthodontia discarded as being a paraphyletic group without unique defining features apart from shared primitive characteristics.^ With the phylogenetic revolution, this classification has been modified, or changed, and the Labyrinthodontia discarded as being a paraphyletic group without unique defining features apart from shared primitive characteristics .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians, a unique group of animals found world-wide, are apparently being affected by direct and indirect human activities.
  • AVE: Amphibian Sentinels 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aveweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They comprise a group of animals with highly varied external morphology and habits, yet sharing some common characteristics.
  • AFCD HK Species 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.afcd.gov.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Classification varies according to the preferred phylogeny of the author, whether they use a stem-based or node-based classification.^ Classification varies according to the preferred phylogeny of the author, and whether they use a stem-based or node-based classification.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally amphibians are defined as the group that includes the common ancestors of all living amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc.^ Amphibians include frogs, toads, and salamanders.

^ Amphibians include salamanders, toads, and frogs.
  • The Animal World - What Is The Difference Between A Reptile And An Amphibian?: Science Fact Finder 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians are vertebrates that include frogs , toads , newts and salamanders .
  • amphibian@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) and all their descendants. .This may also include extinct groups like the temnospondyls (traditionally placed in the disbanded subclass “labyrinthodontia”), and the Lepospondyls.^ This may also include extinct groups like the temnospondyls (traditionally placed in the disbanded subclass "labyrinthodontia"), and the Lepospondyls.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All recent amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, which is usually considered a clade (which means that it is thought that they evolved from a common ancestor apart from other extinct groups), although it has also been suggested also that salamanders arose separately from a temnospondyl-like ancestor (Carroll, 2007).
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are divided into three subclasses , of which two are only known as extinct subclasses: Subclass Labyrinthodontia (diverse Paleozoic and early Mesozoic group) Subclass Lepospondyli (small Paleozoic group) Subclass Lissamphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, etc.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that there are a now large number of basal Devonian and Carboniferous tetrapod groups, described as “amphibians” in earlier books, that are no longer placed in the formal Amphibia.^ I no longer breed amphibians and do not have any for sale.
  • Amphibian Care >> Amphibian and Reptile Information >> Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.amphibiancare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that there are a now large number of basal Devonian and Carboniferous tetrapod groups, described as "amphibians" in earlier books, that are no longer placed in the formal Amphibia.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibians are no longer present in some areas where they were recently abundant, including relatively pristine, undisturbed habitats.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All recent amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, which is usually considered a clade (which means that it is thought that they evolved from a common ancestor apart from other extinct groups), although it has also been suggested that salamanders arose separately from a temnospondyl-like ancestor.^ All recent amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, which is usually considered a clade (which means that it is thought that they evolved from a common ancestor apart from other extinct groups), although it has also been suggested also that salamanders arose separately from a temnospondyl-like ancestor (Carroll, 2007).
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of a long tail and two pairs of limbs of about equal size distinguishes newts and salamanders (order Caudata ) from other amphibians, although members of the eel-like family Sirenidae have no hind limbs.
  • amphibian (animal) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The reasons for many of the amphibian declines, however, are not clear, although they share common attributes: frogs and toads that live in high elevation streams appear to be the most affected.
  • Spotlight: Climate Variability and Amphibian Declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.esrl.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Authorities also disagree on whether Salientia is a Superorder that includes the order Anura, or whether Anura is a sub-order of the order Salientia.^ Authorities also disagree on whether Salientia is a Superorder that includes the order Anura, or whether Anura is a sub-order of the order Salientia.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, Salientia includes all three recent orders plus a single Triassic proto-frog, Triadobatrachus .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CLASSIFICATION The order Anura or Salientia, the frogs and toads, includes 22 to 24 families, according to current classifications.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Practical considerations seem to favor using the former arrangement now.^ Practical considerations seem to favour using the former arrangement now.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, are traditionally divided into three orders, but an extinct salamander-like family, the Albanerpetontidae, is now considered part of the Lissamphibia, besides the superorder Salientia.^ The Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, are traditionally divided into three orders , but an extinct salamander-like family, the Albanerpetontidae, is now considered part of the Lissamphibia, besides the superorder Salientia.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of a long tail and two pairs of limbs of about equal size distinguishes newts and salamanders (order Caudata ) from other amphibians, although members of the eel-like family Sirenidae have no hind limbs.
  • amphibian (animal) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All recent amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, superorder Salientia, which is usually considered a clade (which means that it is thought that they evolved from a common ancestor apart from other extinct groups), although it has also been suggested also that salamanders arose separately from a temnospondyl-like ancestor (Carroll, 2007).
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, Salientia includes all three recent orders plus a single Triassic proto-frog, Triadobatrachus.^ Furthermore, Salientia includes all three recent orders plus a single Triassic proto-frog, Triadobatrachus .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are all in the salientia order.
  • Amphibia 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order Anura, or Salientia), the salamanders and newts (order Urodela, or Caudata), and the caecilians , or limbless amphibians (order Apoda, or Gymnophiona), a little known tropical group.
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Class Amphibia
.The actual number of species partly also depends on the taxonomic classification followed, the two most common classifications being the classification of the website AmphibiaWeb, University of California (Berkeley) and the classification by herpetologist Darrel Frost and The American Museum of Natural History, available as the online reference database Amphibian Species of the World.^ The numbers of species cited above follow Frost.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globale Invasive Species Database [online].
  • Amphibians and Reptiles 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC fl.biology.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297 :1–370.
  • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The numbers of species cited above follow Frost.^ The numbers of species cited above follow Frost.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reproductive system

Caecilian from the San Antonio zoo
.For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians require fresh water.^ For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians are bound to have fresh water .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because most amphibians lay their eggs in water, droughts can have a devastating effect on them.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ability of amphibians to readily absorb substances from the water and air makes them more sensitive than most other animals to environmental conditions.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A few (e.g. .Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water and even survive (though not thrive) in seawater, but there are no true marine amphibians.^ A few tolerate brackish water , but there are no true seawater amphibians.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no records of amphibians or reptiles for this refuge in the MTNHP database.
  • Amphibian and Reptile Survey on Montana Refuges: 1996 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mtnhp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Good Water Chemistry Even the oxygen level in the water has an effect on amphibians.
  • Keeping Your Amphibian Healthy 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

.Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus, the Pacific Platymantines, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water for breeding in the wild.^ Recent phylogenetic analysis of the ranid frogs of North America has resulted in the reassignment of these species to the genus Lithobates, by some authorities, but has been disputed by others.

^ Volunteers are assigned a roadside route where a “frog call” survey is conducted several times during the calling season, to catch the early through late breeding species http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/frogquiz/ .
  • Where Have All the Frogs Gone? UV Radiation and Amphibian Declines (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species require water for breeding and development, but many other species breed on land and forgo the larval stage.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water.^ They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most frog species have tadpoles, a free-living larval stage; a few have direct development or retain developing young in the body of the female.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Almost all of these frogs live in wet tropical rainforests and their eggs hatch directly into miniature versions of the adult, passing through the tadpole stage within the egg.^ Fully formed, miniature salamanders hatch directly from the eggs on land.
  • Amphibians of the Kern River Valley 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC natureali.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tadpoles are the larval stage of frogs and toads.
  • Amphibian Care >> Amphibian and Reptile Information >> Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.amphibiancare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embryonic, Larval, and Young Amphibians - The typical life cycle of an amphibian begins with a gelatinous egg that hatches into an aquatic larvae, followed by metamorphosis into a terrestrial or aquatic amphibian.

.Several species have also adapted to arid and semi-arid environments, but most of them still need water to lay their eggs.^ Most frogs and toads lay their eggs in water.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several species have also adapted to arid and semi-arid environments, but most of them still need water to lay their eggs.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus , the Pacific Platymantines, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water whatsoever.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symbiosis with single celled algae that lives in the jelly-like layer of the eggs has evolved several times.^ Symbiosis with single celled algae that lives in the jelly-like layer of the eggs has evolved several times.
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical amphibian lives on the land until it is time to breed and lay eggs, when it returns to the water.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is lined with a single endothelial cell layer surrounded by a sparse mesenchyme, a single inner radial, and an outer longitudinal muscle cell layer.

.The larvae (tadpoles or polliwogs) breathe with exterior gills.^ The larvae (tadpoles or polliwogs) breathe with exterior gills .
  • Amphibian encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically they undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic, water-breathing, limbless larva (called a tadpole) to a terrestrial or partly terrestrial, air-breathing, four-legged adult.
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphibians hatch out as aquatic larvae (tadpoles), breathing through gills.
  • AFCD HK Species 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.afcd.gov.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After hatching, they start to transform gradually into the adult's appearance.^ They can be animals that are born or hatched as result of harvesting wild caught adults, confining them in large outdoor areas, and allowing them to breed naturally.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC markmlucas.com [Source type: General]

^ Eggs hatch into aquatic larvae (immature organisms), which live in the water until undergoing metamorphosis (changing into adults).
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This process is called metamorphosis.^ During a process called metamorphosis, physical changes occur and external gills give way to lungs.
  • Amphibians - History, Characteristics, Life cycle, Three major groupings, Recent decline 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: General]

.Typically, the animals then leave the water and become terrestrial adults, but there are many interesting exceptions to this general way of reproduction.^ There are many exceptions to the three ways of sexing frogs mentioned above.
  • Amphibian Care >> Amphibian and Reptile Information >> Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.amphibiancare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically they undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic, water-breathing, limbless larva (called a tadpole) to a terrestrial or partly terrestrial, air-breathing, four-legged adult.
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Outdoor Events Aristotle and Animals: His Work in Zoology Aristotle's work in the field of zoology was exceptionally ahead of its time in many aspects.

.The most obvious part of the amphibian metamorphosis is the formation of four legs in order to support the body on land.^ Most amphibians also have four limbs.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As they mature, they typically develop lungs and legs by a process called metamorphosis, so they are able to leave water and live on land.
  • AFCD HK Species 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.afcd.gov.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically they undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic, water-breathing, limbless larva (called a tadpole) to a terrestrial or partly terrestrial, air-breathing, four-legged adult.
  • amphibian Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

But there are several other changes:
  • The gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, i.e., lungs.
  • The skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration.
  • The eyes develop eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water.
  • An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear.
  • In frogs and toads, the tail disappears.

Conservation

.
The Golden Toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica was among the first casualties of amphibian declines.
^ Effects of Climate Change on Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in the Costa Rica Highlands The golden toad (Bufo periglenes), known only from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest, vanished in the wake of a mysterious population crash in 1987.
  • USGCRP Seminar: Amphibian Declines in the Cloud Forests of Costa Rica: Responses to Climate Change? 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.usgcrp.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientific community first began to learn about amphibian population declines at the First World Congress of Herpetology [the study of reptiles and amphibians], held in Canterbury, England, in 1989.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Honegger (1981) recorded the first post-1600 AD amphibian extinctions, declining amphibian populations world wide have become the subject of growing concern (e.g.

Formerly abundant, it was last seen in 1989.
.Dramatic declines in amphibian populations, including population crashes and mass localized extinction, have been noted in the past two decades from locations all over the world, and amphibian declines are thus perceived as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity.^ Thus, any change in amphibian population alarms conservationists the most.
  • Pune Alive - AMPHIBIAN DECLINE IN PUNE CITY 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.ranwa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions.
  • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why are amphibian populations declining?
  • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of causes are believed to be involved, including habitat destruction and modification, over-exploitation, pollution, introduced species, climate change, endocrine-disrupting pollutants, destruction of the ozone layer (ultraviolet radiation has shown to be especially damaging to the skin, eyes, and eggs of amphibians), and diseases like chytridiomycosis.^ A large number of amphibian species are in serious decline due 1to factors such as habitat loss, pollution, and climate change.
  • Imperiled Amphibians and Reptiles - Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Acid rain, ozone depletion, pollution by toxic chemicals and heavy metals, predation and/or competition by exotic species, habitat alteration, climatic changes, disease, immune system problems, and combinations of several of these factors have all been suggested as possible causes (Corn and Fogelman 1984, Phillips 1990, Yoffe 1992).
  • Amphibian and Reptile Survey on Montana Refuges: 1996 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mtnhp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphibians are no longer present in some areas where they were recently abundant, including relatively pristine, undisturbed habitats.
  • Amphibians 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.webspawner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, many of the causes of amphibian declines are still poorly understood, and are a topic of ongoing discussion.^ However, large geographic areas (e.g., Africa and much of Asia) have not yet been surveyed for declining amphibian populations or for the occurrence of these pathogens.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many scientists now think multiple factors come into play to create amphibian deformities and declines.
  • Chasing Frogs and Phantoms: The Mystery of Amphibian Declines - National Zoo| FONZ 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observers have seen malformations in amphibian populations that appeared to be stable, and they have noted a decline in numbers among many amphibian populations that have no malformations.
  • Howstuffworks "The Declining Amphibian Population" 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A global strategy to stem the crisis has been released in the form of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (available at http://www.amphibians.org).^ PARC Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Southeastern United States : http://www.parcplace.org/habitat_management_guide.html .
  • Amphibian Ecology and Conservation 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC fwf.ag.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphibians are one of nature's less familiar groups - an issue that presents major challenges to establishing the conservation action they so urgently require.
  • BBC NEWS | Science & Environment | Crisis for the world�s amphibians 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Thanks to the generosity of the authors, we have a group of these wonderful books available to help raise funds for amphibian conservation through the Amphibian Ark.

.Developed by over 80 leading experts in the field, this call to action details what would be required to curtail amphibian declines and extinctions over the next 5 years - and how much this would cost.^ Amphibian population declines and species extinctions .
  • Amphibian contacts 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC zims.isis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions.
  • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read the scientists’ call for action to stem amphibian declines.
  • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Amphibian Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) is spearheading efforts to implement a comprehensive global strategy for amphibian conservation.^ Developing a National Conservation strategy for Amphibian conservation .
  • Amphibian partnerships 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC portal.isis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motivate, training, create and increase the interest of the Local comunitities about amphibians from the regions where they live, and involve them within conservation strategies.
  • Amphibian partnerships 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC portal.isis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force (DAPTF), founded by the World Conservation Union's (IUCN's) Species Survival Commission in 1990, is bringing together amphibian researchers from around the world.
  • Chasing Frogs and Phantoms: The Mystery of Amphibian Declines - National Zoo| FONZ 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On January 21, 2008, Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE), as given by chief Helen Meredith, identified nature's most endangered species: "The EDGE amphibians are amongst the most remarkable and unusual species on the planet and yet an alarming 85% of the top 100 are receiving little or no conservation attention." The top 10 endangered species (in the List of endangered animal species) include: the Chinese giant salamander, a distant relative of the newt, the tiny Gardiner's Seychelles, the limbless Sagalla caecilian, South African ghost frogs, lungless Mexican salamanders, the Malagasy rainbow frog, Chile's Darwin frog (Rhinoderma rufum) and the Betic Midwife Toad.[4][5][6][7]

References

Further reading

.
  • Carroll, Robert L. (1988).^ Carroll, Robert L. 1988, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution ,(New York: Freeman).
    • Fish to Amphibian Transition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC chem.tufts.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution.^ Carroll, Robert L. 1988, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution ,(New York: Freeman).
    • Fish to Amphibian Transition 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC chem.tufts.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.. 
  • Carroll, Robert L. (2009).^ Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York.
    • Amphibians and Reptiles 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC fl.biology.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This Broken Archopelago: Cape Cod and the Islands, Amphibians and Reptiles.  Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., New York.  250 pp.
    • Amphibians and Reptiles 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC fl.biology.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1945.
    • Roebling's Amphibian The Origin Of The Assault Amphibian 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Rise of Amphibians: 365 Million Years of Evolution.^ Amphibians have been around for over 360 million years, enduring at least three mass extinction events including the one that eliminated the dinosaurs.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Leap Frog A Look into the Life of the Wood Frog Frogs; those short bodied, webbed toed, protruding eyed amphibians have been around for over 213 million years.

    Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. .ISBN 978-0-8018-9140-3. 
  • Duellman, William E.; Linda Trueb (1994).^ Chap 3 (Courtship and Mating, Duellman and Trueb 1994) .
    • Amphibian Ecology and Conservation 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC fwf.ag.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chap 6 (Larvae, Duellman and Trueb 1994; pp.
    • Amphibian Ecology and Conservation 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC fwf.ag.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chap 8 (Relationships with the Environment, Duellman and Trueb 1994; pp.
    • Amphibian Ecology and Conservation 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC fwf.ag.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Biology of Amphibians. Johns Hopkins University Press. .ISBN 978-0801847806. 
  • Frost, Darrel R.; Taran Grant, Julián Faivovich, Raoul H. Bain, Alexander Haas, Célio F.B. Haddad, Rafael O. De Sá, Alan Channing, Mark Wilkinson, Stephen C. Donnellan, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Boris L. Blotto, Paul Moler, Robert C. Drewes, Ronald A. Nussbaum, John D. Lynch, David M. Green, Ward C. Wheeler (March 2006).^ Frost, D. R., Grant, T., Faivovich, J., Bain, R. H., Haas, A., Haddad, C. F. B., de Sà.
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Loader, S. P., Gower, D. J., Howell, K. M., Doggart, N., Rödel, M.-O., Clarke, B. T., de Sá, R. O., Cohen, B. L. & Wilkinson, M. 2004.
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ R. O., Channing, A., Wilkinson, M. , Donnellan, S. C. Raxworthy, C. J., Campbell, J. A., Blotto, B., Moler, P., Drewes, R. C., Nussbaum, R. A., Lynch, J., Green, D. M. & Wheeler, W. C. 2006.
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ."The Amphibian Tree of Life".^ Living amphibians on the tree of life .
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL2.0.CO;2].^ University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 13(5):289-308.
    • Amphibian and Reptile Survey on Montana Refuges: 1996 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC mtnhp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Print version Contact and enquiries Accessibility Site map Terms of use © 2009 The Natural History Museum.
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297 :1–370.
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    http://hdl.handle.net/2246/5781
    . 
  • Pounds, J. Alan; Martín R. Bustamante, Luis A. Coloma, Jamie A. Consuegra, Michael P. L. Fogden, Pru N. Foster, Enrique La Marca, Karen L. Masters, Andrés Merino-Viteri, Robert Puschendorf, Santiago R. Ron, G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa, Christopher J. Still and Bruce E. Young (January 2006). ."Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming".^ Read Scott Norris’s feature, “Ghosts in Our Midst,” about the global amphibian extinction in BioScience magazine.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Climate change effects (Increased ultraviolet light from ozone depletion; Acid rain; Global warming; Disease (fungal, parasitic, viral)) .
    • AVE: Amphibian Sentinels 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.aveweb.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics.
    • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Nature 439: 161–167. doi:10.1038/nature04246. .http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7073/full/nature04246.html. 
  • San Mauro, Diego; Miguel Vences, Marina Alcobendas, Rafael Zardoya and Axel Meyer (May 2005).^ To find out more about Harold and his story, please visit http://www.frogdaze.com/If_frogs_could_talk.html .

    ^ Retrieved January 16, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/21445/amphibian .
    • amphibian (animal) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ San Mauro, D., Gower, D. J., Zardoya, R. & Wilkinson, M .
    • Mark Wilkinson curriculum vitae - Natural History Museum 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ."Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea". American Naturalist 165: 590–599. doi:10.1086/429523. 
  • Solomon Berg Martin, Biology
  • Stuart, Simon N.; Janice S. Chanson, Neil A. Cox, Bruce E. Young, Ana S. L. Rodrigues, Debra L. Fischman, Robert W. Waller (December 2004).^ The occurrence of chytridiomycosis in free-living North American amphibians ( Table 1 ) suggests a less obvious pattern of dissemination than in Central America and Australia.
    • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ."Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide".^ Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A third of all species of amphibian are threatened with extinction; nearly half are in decline, and they are the most threatened of all the vertebrate groups.
    • BBC NEWS | Science & Environment | Crisis for the world�s amphibians 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .Science 306 (5702): 1783–1786. doi:10.1126/science.1103538.^ Science 306: 1783-1786.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    PMID 15486254. .http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/306/5702/1783. 
  • S.N.Stuart, M.Hoffmann, J.S.Chanson, N.A.Cox, R.J.Berridge, P.Ramani, B.E. Young (editors), Collective work.^ PARC Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Southeastern United States : http://www.parcplace.org/habitat_management_guide.html .
    • Amphibian Ecology and Conservation 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC fwf.ag.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Available at URL: http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/2002/sept/frogs/index.html.
    • Amphibians and Reptiles 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC fl.biology.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Available at URL: http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/.
    • Amphibians and Reptiles 10 September 2009 20:44 UTC fl.biology.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    (September 2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. .Published by Lynx Edicions, in association with IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe..^ The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) has joined with the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and ASG to form the Amphibian Ark, or AArk for short.
    • Why Do We Need an Amphibian Ark? (ActionBioscience) 10 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has just released its 2009 Red List, and it includes over 17,000 species that are currently threatened by extinctin.

    ^ Miss Lontay is helping support The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, Amphibian Ark and Orchid Conservation International by donating 10% of her net profits to help developing conservation programs in zoological and botanical worlds.

    ISBN 978-84-96553-41-5. http://www.hbw.com/lynx/en/lynx-edicions/portada-lynx/MON0017-threatened-amphibians-world.html.  776 pages

External links


Simple English

Amphibians
Fossil range: Carboniferous – Recent
File:Eryops megacephalus skeleton
Eryops, a Carboniferous amphibian
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Amphibia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subclasses and Orders
†: extinct
File:Oophaga.pumilio.
Strawberry Poison-dart Frog, Oophaga pumilio. Like many living amphibia, poison and warning colouration protects it.

Amphibians are a group of four-legged animals. They form the class Amphibia (Amphi- = both; bios = life). They live in shallow water and on land, and must lay their eggs in water. They have a larval stage in water, and the adult stage usually lives mostly on land.

Early amphibia, from the Carboniferous, were quite large predators with flat skulls. The amphibia which survive today are much smaller and more specialised forms. Frogs and toads (Anura), newts and salamanders (Caudata) and caecilians are all amphibians.

As amphibia grow from a larva to an adult, they change shape. This is metamorphosis. They lose their gills and tails, and grow front and hind legs. Larval frogs, toads or salamanders are called tadpoles.

Adult females lay as many as 4000 eggs, usually in the water or in wet places. They eat other animals, especially insects. Amphibians are cold blooded, which means that their body temperature does not adapt to the weather.

In terms of species numbers, amphibians are still quite successful. They are just limited in the habitats they can live in. There are about 5,700 living species of amphibia. For comparison, there are about 4,000 mammalian species.

Examples

Taxonomy

Look up Amphibia in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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frr:Amfiibie


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Amphibian, which are similar to those in the above article.








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