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.An analgesic (also known as a painkiller) is any member of the group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia).^ The drug was thought to be Advil, an analgesic which can be used as a painkiller.
  • Analgesic: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ANALGESIC an lje zik, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain.
  • Analgesic: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Analgesic drugs are used in the management of pain.
  • DAN 24/7 - Definition of the term: Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.dan247.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The word analgesic derives from Greek an- ("without") and algos ("pain").^ Adjective: analgesic    ,a-n(u)l'jee-sik or ,a-n(u)l'jee-zik Capable of relieving pain "an analgesic effect "; - analgetic , anodyne Noun: analgesic    ,a-n(u)l'jee-sik or ,a-n(u)l'jee-zik A medicine used to relieve pain - anodyne , painkiller , pain pill Derived forms: analgesics .
  • analgesic, analgesics- WordWeb dictionary definition 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.wordwebonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The word analgesic derives from Greek an-("without ...
  • analgesia - Search Results - MSN Encarta 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • painkiller - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 8:58 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Based on a formula derived from these plant sources, Health King & Balanceuticals PainEase Analgesic Formula delivers powerful pain relief without that aspirin punch!
  • PainEase Analgesic Formula | Provides Natural & Fast Pain Relief 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC americasnutrition.com [Source type: General]

.Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol (para-acetylaminophenol, also known in the US as acetaminophen), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and tramadol.^ Analgesic Anti-inflammatory Patches .
  • Intenurse- A topical analgesic anti-inflammatory patch with Indomethacin 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nichiin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory medications .
  • Dog Arthritis - treatments and pain relief of arthritis in dogs with Recovery sa 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.recoverysa.com [Source type: General]

^ The classes of analgesics act, in various ways, on the peripheral and central nervous system.
  • analgesic - Toxipedia 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.toxipedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.In choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the WHO pain ladder, originally developed in cancer-related pain, is widely applied to find suitable drugs in a stepwise manner.^ Narcotic agents are potent analgesics which are effective for the relief of severe pain.
  • Drugs - CNS Narcotics 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Index » Opioid and other Analgesic Medication Opioid and other Analgesic Medication .
  • Chronic Pain Forums of the Pain Relief Network (PRN) / Opioid and other Analgesic Medication 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC painreliefnetwork.org [Source type: General]

^ It is the drug of choice for severe cancer pain occurring at any stage of a patient's disease.
  • CANCER PAIN : ANALGESIC DRUGS FOR CANCER PAIN TREATMENT 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.txcancer.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .The analgesic choice is also determined by the type of pain: for neuropathic pain, traditional analgesics are less effective, and there is often benefit from classes of drugs that are not normally considered analgesics, such as tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants.^ Tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants are often used in the treatment of neuropathic pain {SEE ADJUVANT THERAPIES, Page --}.
  • CANCER PAIN : ANALGESIC DRUGS FOR CANCER PAIN TREATMENT 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.texascancercouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs effectively manage pain.
  • CIGNA - Narcotic painkillers 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants (amitryptiline, imipramine) are effective analgesics for chronic pain, especially neuropathic or cancer-related pain.

[2]

Contents

The major classes

Paracetamol and NSAIDs

.The exact mechanism of action of paracetamol/acetaminophen is uncertain, but it appears to be acting centrally.^ Mechanism of action: Acetaminophen's exact mechanism of action is unknown.

^ Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol (acetaminophen), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, narcotic drugs such as morphine, synthetic drugs with narcotic properties such as tramadol, and various others.
  • pain killer | painkiller | pain relief | analgesic | natural pain killer | pain killer drug | best pain killer | herbal pain killer 18 September 2009 8:58 UTC www.painkiller.biz [Source type: General]

^ Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous system; they include paracetamol (acetaminophen), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, narcotic drugs such as morphine, synthetic drugs with narcotic properties such as tramadol, and various others..

.Aspirin and the other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenases, leading to a decrease in prostaglandin production.^ Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 3.

^ [Medline] McCormack K. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and spinal nociceptive processing.
  • The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain -- MEHLISCH 133 (7): 861 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In single dose studies, ketorolac has also compared favourably with aspirin, paracetamol and other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)5-8.
  • A multiple dose comparison of ketorolac tromethamine with ibuprofen for analgesic activity. Anaokar SM, Parulekar SV, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA - J Postgrad Med 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This reduces pain and also inflammation (in contrast to paracetamol and the opioids).^ When applied over an affected joint, it reduces the amount of a neurotransmitter called substance P, which is thought to release inflammation-causing enzymes and possibly trigger pain impulses to the brain.
  • Dromeo Pain Relief - Analgesic Lotion 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC dromeo.com [Source type: General]

^ The transmission of pain impulses to the brain can be inhibited at a number of levels by opioid analgesics and also by paracetamol.
  • ANALGESIC PROTOCOL 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of multimodal adjuvant drugs for postoperative pain may reduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia.
  • Preventing the Development of Chronic Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery with Preventive Multimodal Analgesic Techniques -- Reuben and Buvanendran 89 (6): 1343 -- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ejbjs.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Paracetamol has few side effects and is regarded as safe, although excessive doses can lead to fatal kidney and liver damage in the form of analgesic nephropathy and paracetamol hepatotoxicity, respectively.^ Does Analgesic Top have any side effects?
  • Analgesic Top : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Analgesic Top Drug information on Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, and User Reviews on RxList 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC fdb.rxlist.com [Source type: General]

^ Analgesic nephropathy involves damage to one...
  • DC Health - Analgesic nephropathy. Analgesic nephropathy involves damage to one... 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analgesic nephropathy involves damage within the internal structures of the kidney.
  • Analgesic nephropathy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Scripps Health - San Diego 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Health Information 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.nmh.org/nm/1-000482 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nmh.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Analgesic Nephropathy - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Analgesic Nephropathy - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Overview 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC health.marylandgeneral.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.sjhsyr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC symptomnav.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mercksource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Adventist HealthCare 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.adventisthealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic Nephropathy - Health Information Library - Penn State Hershey 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.pennstatehershey.org [Source type: Academic]

.NSAIDs predispose to peptic ulcers, renal failure, allergic reactions, and occasionally hearing loss, and they can increase the risk of hemorrhage by affecting platelet function.^ They detected no increase in the risk of renal failure among daily users of NSAIDs.
  • Hotline - Risk of Renal Failure With Analgesic Use 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.rheumatology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation is due to inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme, whereas inhibition of the COX-1 enzyme may to lead to gastrointestinal toxicity and loss of normal platelet function (1) .
  • The Analgesic Efficacy of Etoricoxib Compared with Oxycodone/Acetaminophen in an Acute Postoperative Pain Model: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial -- Chang et al. 99 (3): 807 -- Anesthesia & Analgesia 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.anesthesia-analgesia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The extended use of paracetamol in high doses of paracetamol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , except aspirin, increase the risk of occurrence of late renal Insufficient.
  • Tramadol-Paracetamol - CLL Pharma - Antalgic Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.cllpharma.com [Source type: Academic]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The use of aspirin in children under 16 suffering from viral illness may contribute to Reye syndrome.^ Aspirin can cause a serious disease called Reye's syndrome in children and teenagers who have chicken pox, flu, or similar infections.
  • Healthopedia.com - Decongestant/Analgesic (Oral) (666 Cold Maximum Strength; Advil Cold & Sinus; Aleve Cold & Sinus; Aleve Sinus & Headache; Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Sinus; Allerest No Drowsiness; BC Sinus-Cold; Cepacol Sore Throat; Cetafen Cold; Coldonyl; Coldrine; Dristan Cold Maximum Strength; Dristan Sinus; Genapap Sinus Maximum Strength; Ibu-profen Cold & Sinus; Ibuprofen Cold & Sinus; Ibuprofen Cold Children's; Medi-Synal; Motrin Cold Children's; Motrin Sinus Headache; Non-Aspirin Sinus; Ornex; Ornex Maximum Strength; Proprinal Cold & Sinus; Sine-Off Maximum Strength; Sinus Relief; Sinutab Sinus; Sudafed Sinus & Cold; Sudafed Sinus; Suphedrin Sinus Maximum Strength; Tylenol Cold Children's; Tylenol Cold Infants'; Tylenol Sinus Children's; Tylenol Sinus Maximum Strength) - Drugs Information, Side Effects, & Interactions 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.healthopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Analgesic/decongestant (By mouth) 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC ahss.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspirin should also be avoided in children, especially in those under the age of 12 years due to the possible cross reaction in those who may suffer from Reyes syndrome.
  • Dentalwisdom.com - Dental Pain 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC www.dentalwisdom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reye syndrome is associated with the use of aspirin to treat children with viral infections, such as chicken pox or the flu.
  • Pain medications: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

COX-2 inhibitors

.These drugs have been derived from NSAIDs.^ These types of Nonsteriodal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) can have significant side effects and their effectiveness can vary between different patients.
  • Analgesic Creams | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ These medicines include acetaminophen (i.e., Tylenol), aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs.
  • Analgesic Nephropathy Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibited by NSAIDs was discovered to have at least 2 different versions: COX1 and COX2. Research suggested that most of the adverse effects of NSAIDs were mediated by blocking the COX1 (constitutive) enzyme, with the analgesic effects being mediated by the COX2 (inducible) enzyme.^ Most NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But some research suggests it can also result in an analgesic effect.
  • The Horse | Shock Wave: Swiss Study Finds No Analgesic Effect 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: Academic]
  • The Horse | Shock Wave: Swiss Study Finds No Analgesic Effect 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For years non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, have underpinned symptomatic relief of OA. NSAIDs work by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, so preventing the formation of inflammatory prostaglandins from metabolism of arachidonic acid.
  • Licofelone - Novel Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent for Osteoarthritis - Drug Development Technology 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.drugdevelopment-technology.com [Source type: Academic]

.The COX2 inhibitors were thus developed to inhibit only the COX2 enzyme (traditional NSAIDs block both versions in general).^ The robust R&D environment within the company for both drug discovery and development reflects our commitment to be a leader in the generics space and offer value added formulations.
  • Analgesic tablet,antiretroviral tablet,analgesic tablet exporter,antiretroviral tablet India 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC triveniformulation.tradeindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romsing J, Moiniche S. A systematic review of COX-2 inhibitors compared with traditional NSAIDs, or different COX-2 inhibitors for post-operative pain.
  • Preventing the Development of Chronic Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery with Preventive Multimodal Analgesic Techniques -- Reuben and Buvanendran 89 (6): 1343 -- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ejbjs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, current evidence for ibuprofen to be generally recognized as safe and effective for OTC use is only sufficient for tablet formulations.
  • Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of the Tentative Final Monograph, and Related Labeling | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These drugs (such as rofecoxib and celecoxib) are equally effective analgesics when compared with NSAIDs, but cause less gastrointestinal hemorrhage in particular.^ These drugs effectively manage pain.
  • CIGNA - Narcotic painkillers 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other classes of drugs not normally considered analgesics are used to treat neuropathic pain syndromes; these include tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants.
  • pain killer | painkiller | pain relief | analgesic | natural pain killer | pain killer drug | best pain killer | herbal pain killer 18 September 2009 8:58 UTC www.painkiller.biz [Source type: General]

^ The report stated, “Results clearly indicate that TPGold is helpful in relieving pain in patients who have gastrointestinal intolerance to NSAID’s (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).” .
  • TP Gold - Topical Analgesic Lotion 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.tpgold.com [Source type: Academic]
  • TP Gold - Topical Analgesic Lotion 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC ehd.tpgold.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, post-launch data indicated increased risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events with these drugs due to an increased likelihood of clotting in the blood due to a decrease in the production of protoglandin around the platelets causing less clotting factor to be released, and rofecoxib was subsequently withdrawn from the market.^ Causes, incidence, and risk factors .
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Scripps Health - San Diego 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Analgesic nephropathy - Health Information 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.nmh.org/nm/1-000482 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nmh.org [Source type: Academic]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Analgesic nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who take high doses of acetaminophen, however, run an increased risk of liver damage, especially if they are heavy alcohol drinkers.
  • ANALGESIC, 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analgesic drugs may be placed in drinking water or food for oral delivery, but these methods run the risk of inaccurate dosing, lack of consumption due to palatability and degradation of the drug over time as it sits in the water bottle or food product.
  • Senior Vice President for Research - Animal Resource Program 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.research.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Senior Vice President for Research - Animal Resource Program 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.research.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The role for this class of drug is debated.

Opiates and morphinomimetics

.Morphine, the archetypal opioid, and various other substances (e.g.^ Method of simultaneously enhancing analgesic potency and attenuating dependence liability caused by morphine and other bimodally-acting opioid agonists .
  • Analgesic compositions - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have also shown that morphine and some other opioids can be safely administered in increasing amounts until the pain is relieved with no fear of an overdose.

^ These findings, he says, suggest that histamine works with morphine or other opioid compounds to relieve pain through a shared brain pathway.
  • NIDA Research Expands Horizon for Analgesia Alternatives 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, diamorphine, pethidine) all exert a similar influence on the cerebral opioid receptor system.^ It has proven to be a very weak opioid with an analgesic potency roughly similar to pethidine that is due primarily to non-opioid actions.

^ Weak opioids such as codeine or hydrocodone are appropriate therapies for pain of mild to moderate intensity that moderately restricts activities of daily living.
  • CANCER PAIN : ANALGESIC DRUGS FOR CANCER PAIN TREATMENT 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.texascancercouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the isolation of the opiate receptor and the discovery of the opioid peptides, an obvious question was the functional significance of this system, especially as it related to pain inhibition.
  • Stress-Induced Analgesia 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC qcpages.qc.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Tramadol and buprenorphine are thought to be partial agonists of the opioid receptors.^ Partial Opioid Agonist Buprenorphine (Buprenex©) is a partial agonist available in a parenteral formation.
  • CANCER PAIN : ANALGESIC DRUGS FOR CANCER PAIN TREATMENT 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.txcancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, mixed agonist-antagonist opioids such as pentazocine, butorphanol, and nalbuphine and the partial agonist opioids such as buprenorphine do have a ceiling effect and are poor choices for patients with severe pain.
  • Analgesic Effect of Pain Medications 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tramadol still targeted the opioid receptors, but its characteristics of being synthetic, man-made, and a milder version of common narcotic pain relievers set it apart.
  • Pain Relievers — Review & Guides of Pain Relievers. Compare Pain Relievers prices, read reviews and merchant ratings. 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.pain-relievers.org [Source type: General]

.February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Tramadol is structurally closer to venlafaxine than to codeine and delivers analgesia by not only delivering "opiate-like" effects (through mild agonism of the mu receptor) but also by acting as a weak but fast-acting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.^ The tramadol is an opiate analgesic with weak central effect.
  • Tramadol-Paracetamol - CLL Pharma - Antalgic Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.cllpharma.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For analgesia, a mu receptor agonist is ideal.
  • CS Educational Materials 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC classes.kumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The modes of action of tramadol are still unknown, we know that in addition to his fixation on morphine receptors, it would prevent the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, depending on the dosage made.
  • Tramadol-Paracetamol - CLL Pharma - Antalgic Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.cllpharma.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nevertheless, dosing of all opioids may be limited by opioid toxicity (confusion, respiratory depression, myoclonic jerks and pinpoint pupils), seizures (Tramadol), but there is no dose ceiling in patients who tolerate this.^ There is no ceiling effect for pure opioid agonists.
  • Analgesic Effect of Pain Medications 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the "ceiling" for respiratory depression may be higher than the typical analgesic doses.
  • The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain -- MEHLISCH 133 (7): 861 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For most patients tolerance is not a problem at all.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

.Opioids, while very effective analgesics, may have some unpleasant side-effects.^ Very effective in relieving pain but have many side effects.
  • HON Allergy Glossary Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.hon.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ SIDE effect, may be affected.
  • Charity Folks - Online Auctions 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.charityfolks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does Analgesic Top have any side effects?
  • Analgesic Top : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Analgesic Top Drug information on Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, and User Reviews on RxList 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC fdb.rxlist.com [Source type: General]

.Up to 1 in 3 patients starting morphine may experience nausea and vomiting (generally relieved by a short course of antiemetics).^ Co-morbidities -- general debility or cardiopulmonary diseases may predispose to hypoxia should the patient become over sedated.
  • PRN Range analgesic orders 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light infestation generally causes no symptoms or may cause slight nausea .

^ Unfortunately, the side effects of some analgesic techniques can cause patients to experience nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and lower limb weakness, all of which can interfere with mobility.
  • What has pain relief to do with acute surgical woundhealing? 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.worldwidewounds.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pruritus (itching) may require switching to a different opioid.^ The movement of opioids may occur only between duly authorized parties, and a medical prescription is required before opioids may be dispensed to a patient.

^ Switching from methadone to a different opioid: what is the equianalgesic dose ratio?
  • Methadone as an Analgesic - Psychiatric Times 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No confounding factors were identified that may lead to a difference in analgesic medication requirement among patients admitted to the bright or dim side of the hospital unit.
  • The Effect of Sunlight on Postoperative Analgesic Medication Use: A Prospective Study of Patients Undergoing Spinal Surgery -- Walch et al. 67 (1): 156 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Constipation occurs in almost all patients on opioids, and laxatives (lactulose, macrogol-containing or co-danthramer) are typically co-prescribed.^ The movement of opioids may occur only between duly authorized parties, and a medical prescription is required before opioids may be dispensed to a patient.

^ This need for laxatives should be anticipated at the outset of therapy and not when constipation becomes a problem, as it almost inevitably does.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients on very high doses of opioids do not necessarily require higher laxative doses to compensate than do those on lower doses.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

.When used appropriately, opioids and similar narcotic analgesics are otherwise safe and effective, however risks such as addiction and the body becoming used to the drug (tolerance) can occur.^ Opioids, such as morphine, are effective and widely used drugs for the control of pain.
  • Researchers Separate Analgesic Effects From Addictive Aspects Of Pain-killing Drugs 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Analgesic drugs are used in the management of pain.
  • DAN 24/7 - Definition of the term: Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.dan247.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Opioid (Narcotic) analgesic converter .
  • Opioid - Narcotic - Converter 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.globalrph.com [Source type: Academic]

.The effect of tolerance means that drug dosing may have to be increased if for a chronic disease.^ This may increase the chance of side effects.

^ Meloxicam in low doses may be tolerable.

^ The limitations of currently available analgesic drugs often result in failure to alleviate suffering in patients with chronic diseases and cancer, patients at the end of life, and in vulnerable populations.
  • American Pain Society – Improving Analgesic Drug Development: What 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ampainsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.In toxicity tolerant patients, there is no ceiling limit for the drug.^ There were no patients or participants in this study.
  • Physicians Charged with Opioid Analgesic-Prescribing Offenses. 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ "There are no safe drugs.
  • Painkillers for Dogs: Dog and Canine hip dysplasia, arthritis, joint and OCD treatment for dogs - Dog's Health 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC www.dogshealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The limitations of currently available analgesic drugs often result in failure to alleviate suffering in patients with chronic diseases and cancer, patients at the end of life, and in vulnerable populations.
  • American Pain Society – Improving Analgesic Drug Development: What 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ampainsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, though there is no upper limit, toxic doses are possible even if the body has become accustomed to higher doses.^ Though there are no major negative effects associated with white willow, people with peptic ulcers or gastritis are advised against using it.
  • Natural Pain Killers - Herbal Remedies For Pain 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC lifestyle.iloveindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, one study with higher dose famotidine, 40 mg BID, did show a protective effect.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as described above, when the narcotic analgesic agents are administered in relatively high doses or repeatedly administered for longer periods even in low doses, the habitual administration of the analgesics and the craving for the analgesic agents can be developed.
  • Medicament component of berberine for the use of prevention and treatment of psycological dependence on and analgesic tolerance to morphine invention 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

Specific agents

.In patients with chronic or neuropathic pain, various other substances may have analgesic properties.^ Longer-term analgesic therapy also may be indicated for patients with chronic orofacial pain.
  • The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain -- MEHLISCH 133 (7): 861 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analgesic: a substance used to relieve pain .
  • Hairfacts: Hair removal terms: A 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.hairfacts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Keyword(s): Addiction, Chronic non-malignant pain, Controlled substance regulations, Pain, Pain assessment, Pain treatment .
  • Pain Management In Nursing Homes: Analgesic Prescribing Tips 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tricyclic antidepressants, especially amitriptyline, have been shown to improve pain in what appears to be a central manner.^ Tricyclic antidepressants (amitryptiline, imipramine) are effective analgesics for chronic pain, especially neuropathic or cancer-related pain.

^ The pathophysiology of pain is a complex central and peripheral nervous system process, and the use of combination analgesics that act at multiple pain sites can improve pain relief after a dental procedure.
  • The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain -- MEHLISCH 133 (7): 861 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chest injuries, especially multiple rib fractures continue to be an important area where anaesthetists can significantly improve pain relief and improve patient outcome.
  • Analgesia for Chest Injuries — ANZCA 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.anzca.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.Nefopam is used in Europe for pain relief with concurrent opioids.^ It can be used for the relief of may types of pain.
  • Drugs - CNS Narcotics 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcotic Analgesic Drugs - ChemWiki 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the age old systems ,the derivative of chillies(capsaicin) is used for relief of pain especially in the knees and joints.However,it has been found that they also cause gastric irritation .
  • Piramal Prize » View Entry » Formulation of capsaicin as an Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.piramalprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides the immediate dangers of mixing alcohol with nonsteroidal and opioid analgesics, using alcohol to manage pain increases the risk of poor health in the future.
  • Alcohol as Analgesic: Older Drinkers Numb the Pain 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jointogether.org [Source type: Academic]

.The exact mechanism of carbamazepine, gabapentin and pregabalin is similarly unclear, but these anticonvulsants are used to treat neuropathic pain with differing degrees of success.^ This has been used with varying degrees of success in the management of postoperative pain.

^ It is also used to treat pain from cancer and orthopedics.

^ Acetaminophen Acetaminophen is used to treat pain such as headaches, dental pain, dysmenorrhea, myalgias, neuralgias and fever particularly in patients who cannot take aspirin.

.Anticonvulsants are most commonly used for neuropathic pain as their mechanism of action tends to decrease the firing of specific nerve systems.^ Acepromazine is the most commonly used.
  • Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ahc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the age old systems ,the derivative of chillies(capsaicin) is used for relief of pain especially in the knees and joints.However,it has been found that they also cause gastric irritation .
  • Piramal Prize » View Entry » Formulation of capsaicin as an Analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.piramalprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal of acupuncture is to improve the flow of qi, the body?s vital energy; it is commonly used to manage pain and reduce addiction cravings.
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: HIV/AIDS Glossary 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: Academic]

Specific forms and uses

Combinations

.Analgesics are frequently used in combination, such as the paracetamol and codeine preparations found in many non-prescription pain relievers.^ The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain .
  • The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain -- MEHLISCH 133 (7): 861 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This combination medication is used to relieve moderate to severe pain.
  • NARCOTIC ANALGESIC/APAP/CAFFEINE/BUTALBITAL - ORAL side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An analgesic is a pain reliever.

.They can also be found in combination with vasoconstrictor drugs such as pseudoephedrine for sinus-related preparations, or with antihistamine drugs for allergy sufferers.^ In addition, the invention also relates to an analgesic drug whose active ingredient is the combination of fuziline with one or more than one other aconite ingredients.
  • Pharmaceutical composition having analgesic effects - Patent application 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems that through their work, they have found that methadone can be deadly even when it is taken as prescribed whether the goal is pain management or drug addiction.
  • Painkillers - Blog Toplist 9 October 2009 20:12 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

^ An advantage over drug therapy is that the patient no longer suffers any of the possible side-effects of pain-killers such as impaired reactions.
  • biegler.com - P-STIM point therapy stimulation 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.biegler.com [Source type: Academic]

.The use of paracetamol, as well as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and other NSAIDS concurrently with weak to mid-range opiates (up to about the hydrocodone level) has been shown to have beneficial synergistic effects by combatting pain at multiple sites of action—NSAIDs reduce inflammation which, in some cases, is the cause of the pain itself while opiates dull the perception of pain—thus, in cases of mild to moderate pain caused in part by inflammation, it is generally recommended that the two be prescribed together.^ Paracetamol, Aspirin and Ibuprofen are the first line treatment of mild to moderate pain, which is acute or chronic.
  • ANALGESIC PROTOCOL 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonopiod drugs are used to treat mild to moderate pain.

^ This means acetaminophen can relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce fever.

[3]

Topical or systemic

.Topical analgesia is generally recommended to avoid systemic side-effects.^ A local analgesic effect of Cymbalta was treated with PYRIDIUM side generic deign urinary tract infection!
  • Charity Folks - Online Auctions 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.charityfolks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because only small, systemically inactive doses of opioids are required to provide sustained analgesia with minimal side effects, intraarticular administration is an important technique in the management of pain following orthopaedic surgery.
  • Preventing the Development of Chronic Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery with Preventive Multimodal Analgesic Techniques -- Reuben and Buvanendran 89 (6): 1343 -- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ejbjs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A main focus of NIDA-supported analgesia research is to develop medications that relieve pain without producing unwanted side effects.
  • NIDA Research Expands Horizon for Analgesia Alternatives 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Painful joints, for example, may be treated with an ibuprofen- or diclofenac-containing gel; capsaicin also is used topically.^ Preparation of topical analgesic containing capsaicin .
  • Topical analgesic using water soluble capsaicin - Patent 5910512 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It can be used for the relief of may types of pain.
  • Drugs - CNS Narcotics 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcotic Analgesic Drugs - ChemWiki 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paracetamol may be used to treat: a.
  • Anaesthesia UK : Perioperative analgesic pharmacology in children 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.frca.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Lidocaine, an anesthetic, and steroids may be injected into painful joints for longer-term pain relief.^ It can be used for the relief of may types of pain.
  • Drugs - CNS Narcotics 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcotic Analgesic Drugs - ChemWiki 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SURGERY If your pet’s joint/s becomes severely damaged or if the pain is intense, your veterinarian may recommend surgery.
  • Dog Arthritis - treatments and pain relief of arthritis in dogs with Recovery sa 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.recoverysa.com [Source type: General]

^ These groups have recommended further study into the therapeutic benefits of cannabis and cannabinoids, particularly in relation to the relief of chronic pain.
  • eMJA: Vaughan & Christie, An analgesic role for cannabinoids 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.Lidocaine is also used for painful mouth sores and to numb areas for dental work and minor medical procedures.^ Addictive Advil (ibuprofen) Causes Xerostomia/Dry Mouth/Cotton Mouth Ibuprofen, a painkiller and anti-inflammatory drug commonly sold as Advil in both prescription and non-prescription doses, is a common medication used for the aches and pains and cold and flu, headaches, dental work and minor injuries.

^ Acetaminophen Acetaminophen is used to treat pain such as headaches, dental pain, dysmenorrhea, myalgias, neuralgias and fever particularly in patients who cannot take aspirin.

^ American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on breastfeeding Research indicates that breastfeeding your baby during a minor painful procedure (immunization, blood draw, etc.
  • kellymom.com :: Breastfeeding during immunizations or other painful procedures 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.kellymom.com [Source type: Academic]

Psychotropic agents

.Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and some other cannabinoids, either from the Cannabis sativa plant or synthetic, have analgesic properties, although the use of cannabis derivatives is currently illegal in many countries.^ The analgesic properties of delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine.
  • eMJA: Vaughan & Christie, An analgesic role for cannabinoids 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis Research - Medical Uses - analgesic .
  • Cannabis Research - Medical Uses - analgesic 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ukcia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Every household had some, usually mixed with alcohol in the form of laudanum, and used it as an analgesic for aches and pains, hangovers, toothache, and hysteria.
  • Analgesic: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A recent study finds that inhaled cannabis is effective in alleviating neuropathy and pain resulting from e.g.^ This study suggests that clinicians need to ask patients with problem drinking about pain and ask patients with pain about alcohol use; counsel both groups about the risks of using alcohol as an analgesic; and help them find safer, more effective methods of pain relief.
  • Alcohol as Analgesic: Older Drinkers Numb the Pain 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jointogether.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The agency has evaluated the reports and agrees that the studies support the effectiveness of ibuprofen as an OTC drug product for a variety of pain and fever models.
  • Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of the Tentative Final Monograph, and Related Labeling | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Capsaicin has been proven clinically effective in controlling pain from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, painful diabetic neuropathy and neuralgias such as the pain following shingles (herpes zoster).
  • Topical analgesic using water soluble capsaicin - Patent 5910512 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

spinal injury and multiple sclerosis. .[4] Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and other α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, and mexiletine and other local anaesthetic analogues.^ Other types of drugs that may afford pain relief for some conditions include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, alpha-2-adrenergic agonists (such as clonidine and tizanidine), and muscle relaxants.
  • ANALGESIC, 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of preemptive analgesia can involve the provision of opioids, NSAIDs, local anaesthetic blocks and NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine.
  • What has pain relief to do with acute surgical woundhealing? 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.worldwidewounds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The patch includes a drug reservoir film containing neurotensin, neurotensin analog, or neurotensin receptor agonist, a transdermal patch film, and a porator film.
  • TOPICAL CORNEAL ANALGESIA USING NEUROTENSIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS AND SYNERGISTIC NEUROTENSIN COMBINATIONS WITHOUT DELAYING WOUND HEALING - Patent application 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Atypical and/or adjuvant analgesics

.Orphenadrine, cyclobenzaprine, scopolamine, atropine, gabapentin, first-generation antidepressants and other drugs possessing anticholinergic and/or antispasmodic properties are used in many cases along with analgesics to potentiate centrally acting analgesics such as opioids when used against pain especially of neuropathic origin and to modulate the effects of many other types of analgesics by action in the parasympathetic nervous system.^ An analgesic effect may be produced by a direct action on the pain threshold.

^ Opioids are a class of drugs that are used in hospitals for severe pain.

^ Given the reports in the literature, its potential for seizures, its effects on the central nervous system, and its anticholinergic effect, meperidine may not be the optimal analgesic for the treatment of pain.

.Dextromethorphan has been noted to slow the development of tolerance to opioids and exert additional analgesia by acting upon the NMDA receptors; some analgesics such as methadone and ketobemidone and perhaps piritramide have intrinsic NMDA action.^ Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) relieve pain by decreasing inflammation and, in some instances, direct analgesic action.
  • Senior Vice President for Research - Animal Resource Program 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.research.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some drugs, such as the opiates (example: buprenorphine or morphine), provide pain relief through their action on the central nervous system.
  • Senior Vice President for Research - Animal Resource Program 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.research.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analgesics are classified by the mechanism of their pain-relieving action as opioids (opiates and similar synthetic compounds), which act on receptors in the brain to inhibit pain impulses, or nonopioids (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, as well as acetaminophen and phenacetin), which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins.
  • analgesic (drug) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.High-alcohol liquor has been used in the past as an agent for dulling pain, due to the CNS depressant effects of ethyl alcohol, a notable example being the American Civil War.^ Hepatotoxicity possible in chronic alcoholics following various dose levels; severe or recurrent pain or high or continued fever may indicate a serious illness; contained in many OTC products and combined use with these products may result in toxicity due to cumulative doses exceeding recommended maximum dose .
  • Sunburn: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Emergency Medicine 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Every household had some, usually mixed with alcohol in the form of laudanum, and used it as an analgesic for aches and pains, hangovers, toothache, and hysteria.
  • Analgesic: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides the immediate dangers of mixing alcohol with nonsteroidal and opioid analgesics, using alcohol to manage pain increases the risk of poor health in the future.
  • Alcohol as Analgesic: Older Drinkers Numb the Pain 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jointogether.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the ability of alcohol to "kill pain" may be inferior to many analgesics used today (e.g.^ It can be used for the relief of may types of pain.
  • Drugs - CNS Narcotics 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcotic Analgesic Drugs - ChemWiki 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of OTC analgesics containing more than one active ingredient Chronic headache Chronic backache or musculoskeletal pain Emotional or behavioral changes History of dependent behaviors including smoking, alcoholism, and excessive use of tranquilizers Pain with menstrual periods Persons with this condition may also have a history of the following conditions: .

^ Classic analgesic nephropathy is a slowly progressive disease resulting from the daily use for many years of mixtures containing at least two antipyretic analgesics and usually caffeine or codeine (or both), which may lead to psychological dependence.
  • NEJM -- Analgesic Nephropathy 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

morphine, codeine). .As such, the idea of alcohol for analgesia is generally considered a primitive practice in virtually all industrialized countries today.^ Intravenous fluids before epidural analgesia with what are now considered to be high-dose local anaesthetics (such as 0.25% bupivacaine or greater) reduces hypotension.
  • Management of Regional Analgesia for Labour — ANZCA 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.anzca.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Second, for all of his 20 years in practice, he was a general practitioner and was familiar with obstetrics, delivering many of his own patients.
  • ASA September 1997 Newsletter 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.asahq.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of adjuvant analgesics is an important and growing part of the pain-control field and new discoveries are made practically every year.^ NIDA's commitment to basic neuroscience research continues to result in important advances in the understanding of pain and how it might be controlled more effectively.
  • NIDA Research Expands Horizon for Analgesia Alternatives 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PGE 2 is an important inducer of inflammatory pain and its production is blocked by commonly used NSAIDs like ibuprofen.
  • Array BioPharma's Oral p38 Inhibitor Demonstrates Significant Analgesic Benefit and Systemic Anti-Inflammatory Activity  |  October 26, 2008  | By BusinessWire - Investopedia Advisor 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC community.investopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides the immediate dangers of mixing alcohol with nonsteroidal and opioid analgesics, using alcohol to manage pain increases the risk of poor health in the future.
  • Alcohol as Analgesic: Older Drinkers Numb the Pain 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jointogether.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many of these drugs combat the side effects of opioid analgesics, an added bonus.^ These drugs tend to have synergistic effects.
  • Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ahc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analgesics may also be combined with other drugs in some types of medications (for example, analgesics are combined with decongestants and/or antihistamine in many over-the-counter cold remedies).
  • Analgesic definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: General]

^ Some compounds show both remarkable analgesic activity and good BBB permeation profiles, and these compounds might be developed for treatment of opioid tolerance and dependence.
  • Abstract: Synthesis and Analgesic Activity Evaluation of Some Agmatine Derivatives - MDPI 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mdpi.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, antihistamines including orphenadrine combat the release of histamine caused by many opioids, methylphenidate, caffeine, ephedrine, dextroamphetamine, and cocaine work against heavy sedation and may elevate mood in distressed patients as do the antidepressants.^ Ataxia has many causes, locomotor ataxia may be due to syphilis for example.

^ Analgesics may also be combined with other drugs in some types of medications (for example, analgesics are combined with decongestants and/or antihistamine in many over-the-counter cold remedies).
  • Analgesic definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: General]

^ The caffeine withdrawal headache can be very severe, and many patients suffer through this withdrawal on weekends, when they abruptly decrease their caffeine.
  • Sample Case: Analgesic Rebound Headache 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.headachedrugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A well-accepted benefit of THC to chronic pain patients on opioids is its superior anti-nauseant action.^ Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) relieve pain by decreasing inflammation and, in some instances, direct analgesic action.
  • Senior Vice President for Research - Animal Resource Program 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.research.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For chronic and acute pain, and for chronic pain patients, P-Stim auriculo should always be used for 4 days of therapy.
  • biegler.com - P-STIM point therapy stimulation 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.biegler.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the horrors observed in addicts do not occur in patients who take opioids for pain relief.
  • Classes of Analgesics 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.mywhatever.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some think it would make more sense to use the synthetic THC capsule (trade name Marinol), which is administered orally.^ These cases involved a single dose in some instances and generally short-term analgesic use of not more than 10 days.
  • Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys) 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC kidney.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PM This would make a good sticky I thinks.....
  • All downloads of Painkiller files [Archive] - DreamCatcher Forums 18 September 2009 8:58 UTC www.dreamcatchergames.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For future research, it would be preferable to use more sophisticated equipment that has the ability to continuously monitor sunlight intensity inpatient rooms.
  • The Effect of Sunlight on Postoperative Analgesic Medication Use: A Prospective Study of Patients Undergoing Spinal Surgery -- Walch et al. 67 (1): 156 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, in patients suffering from nausea, the swallowing of the capsule itself may provoke vomiting.^ The dose is usually 30mg every 4 hours; doubling the dose to 60mg may provide some additional pain relief but at the cost of more nausea and vomiting.
  • ANALGESIC PROTOCOL 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of patients needed to treat to prevent any withdrawal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, nervousness, dizziness, etc.
  • What is the best treatment for analgesic rebound headaches? — The Journal of Family Practice 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Postoperatively it was found that opioid requirements and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were reduced, and patients were able to be discharged sooner from hospital.
  • What has pain relief to do with acute surgical woundhealing? 10 September 2009 20:54 UTC www.worldwidewounds.com [Source type: Academic]

.Likewise, the use of medicinal cannabis remains a debated issue.^ Therapeutic use of cannabis: clarifying the debate.
  • eMJA: Vaughan & Christie, An analgesic role for cannabinoids 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Why does the US Government make cannabis researchers use only Government-issued marijuana?
  • [BOT] IN STUDIO: A Local Take on Controversial Heroin Education Program 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC drugpolicycentral.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ Anonymous (1990). Cancer pain relief and palliative care; report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 804. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. pp. 1–75. ISBN 924120804X. 
  2. ^ Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, et al. (2003). "Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations". Arch. Neurol. 60 (11): 1524–34. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.11.1524. PMID 14623723. http://archneur.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/60/11/1524. 
  3. ^ Mehlisch DR (2002). "The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain". J Am Dent Assoc 133 (7): 861–71. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.11.1524. PMID 12148679. http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/133/7/861. 
  4. ^ CMCR: CMCR Report February 17th, California, 2010. http://www.cmcr.ucsd.edu/CMCR_REPORT_FEB17.pdf

External links


Simple English

Analgetics (one Analgetic) (or Analgesics) is a term for some drugs that are used to stop pain. These are also known as painkillers. There are several kinds of painkillers. All act on the nervous system. Most painkillers have the problem that they can make people addicted (not want to stop taking them) if they are taken over longer periods of time.

Different kinds


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Analgesic, which are similar to those in the above article.








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