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Anarchism in Canada spans a range of anarchist philosophy including anarcho-syndicalism, individualist anarchism, green anarchy and anarchist communism as well as other lesser known forms. Canadian anarchism has been affected by thought from the United States, Great Britain, and continental Europe, although recent influences include a look at North American indigenism, especially on the West Coast.



Historically, anarchism has never attracted large support in Canada, although small groups of activists and writers have often existed in many areas, especially in the larger cities. Today there are anarchists and anarchist projects in most regions, including small towns and mid sized cities. St. John's, Halifax, Fredericton, Saguenay, Quebec City, Montreal, Saint-Jérôme, Ottawa, Toronto, Sudbury, Windsor, Hamilton, London, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver and Victoria all have active anarchists and or anarchist projects.(2)

Notable individuals

Noted anarchist philosophers Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman spent some time in Canada; Goldman died in Toronto in 1940. Rudolf Rocker visited Winnipeg three times, meeting Honoré Jaxon during his first visit in 1913. The Rudolf Rocker Cultural Centre and Emma Goldman Grassroots Centre are part of Winnipeg's main anarchist institution, the Old Market Autonomous Zone.

Prominent Canadian anarchist figures include Honoré Jaxon, George Woodcock, L. Susan Brown, Wendy McElroy, Norman Nawrocki, Larry Gambone, Dimitri Rousopoulos, Dick Martin, Eugene Plawiuk, Ann Hansen, Mark Leier, Jeff Shantz and Jaggi Singh. There are many other individuals who have made long term contributions to Canadian anarchism, among them, Alexandre Popovic, Michael William, Zig Zag, Sea Weed, Bob Melcombe, Jim Campbell, Bruno Massé, and Gary Moffatt. Recently, Taiaiake Alfred has developed Anarcha-Indigenism through his book Wasáse: Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom. Two Quebec-based anarchist academics, Normand Baillargeon and Francis Dupuis-Déry, have also published several books.

As well it is a long-standing tradition among anarchists to use pen names or to sign their work anonymously, so many authors and activists remain unknown.


There are a variety of long-standing anarchist projects, including Montreal's Insoumise bookstore, which in 2004 supplanted the Alternative bookshop an anarchist bookshop founded in the early 1970s. Ottawa's Exile Infoshop founded early 2007, as well as numerous other bookstores, prisoner solidarity groups, study groups, publishing houses, record labels, cafes and squats. There are environmental and anti-poverty direct actionists in many regions and cities.[1]

There are also groups, like the Quebec group La Sociale, who have published several pamphlets.. The Montreal-based Mauvaise Herbe green-anarchist group publishes a zine of the same name and distributes a variety of pamphlets and new books. The Toronto-based collective Punching Out (Jeff Shantz, pj lilley, Mick Black) made important contributions to the theoretical development of NEFAC including preparing the accepted draft of that federation's workplace position paper. In 2008, members of Workers Solidarity Movement (WSM) and NEFAC initiated the founding of Common Cause[1] along with anarchist activists in Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto. Common Cause like NEFAC and the WSM is a project of platformism. Other anarchist projects include a number of publications, radio shows and micro radio stations. There are also many under the radar activities like squatting.

See also


External links



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