Anarchism in Italy: Wikis

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Italian anarchism as a movement came out of the International Revolutionary Brotherhood, a secret society formed by Mikhail Bakunin[1]. Giuseppe Fanelli, who was later involved in the Spanish Revolution, and Errico Malatesta were the earliest faces of the movement. The early Italian anarchist movement was explicitly atheist, due to members of the Brotherhood having to be atheists, and that tradition has mostly continued today[2].

When the Italian section of the International Workingman's Association was formed in 1869, new and more famous (or infamous)anarchists began appearing on the scene, notable individuals include Carlo Cafiero and Errico Malatesta. Within the Italian section of the IWMA the ideas of Anarchist Communism as a clear, cohesive movement were formed. At an 1876 conference in Florence, the Italian section of the International Workingman's Association declared the principles of Anarchist-Communism, proclaiming:

The Italian Federation considers the collective property of the products of labour as the necessary complement to the collectivist programme, the aid of all for the satisfaction of the needs of each being the only rule of production and consumption which corresponds to the principle of solidarity. The federal congress at Florence has eloquently demonstrated the opinion of the Italian International on this point...

It was also in Italy that early Anarchist attempts at revolution began. Bakunin was involved in an insurrection taking place in Florence in 1869[3], and in a failed attempt at insurrection in 1874 in Bologna. In 1877, Errico Malatesta, Carlo Cafeiro, and Costa began an attempt at revolution in Italy. They liberated two villages in Campania before being put down by the military[3].

Contents

The 1870s

Italian Anarchism was first materialized in the Italian section of the First International. The popularity of the IWA skyrocketed with the Paris Commune. Because of limited knowledge of the actual events taking place, many militants had utopian visions of the nature of the Commune, leading to a popularity of Anarchist and other Socialist ideas. [4] The radical republican Giuseppe Mazzini condemned the Commune because it represented everything he hated: class struggle, mass violence, atheism, and materialism. Mazzini's condemnation helped to increase the defection of many republicans to the ranks of the IWA. [5]

As the split between Marx and Bakunin became more prominent, the Italian section of the IWA primarily took the side of Bakunin against the authoritarian behavior of Marx's General Council. Bakunin's defense of the Paris Commune against the attacks of Mazzini and Marx and Engels's incompetence in challenging them led to Bakuninism becoming the prominent strain of thought in the Italian IWA. In 1872, Bakunin, and Cafiero helped to organize a national federation of Italian IWA sections. All the delegates at the founding congress excluding Carlo Terzaghi (a police spy) and two Garibaldian socialists, were Anarchists. [6]

Timeline

See also

Sources

  1. ^ No Gods No Masters, page 154, by Daniel Guerin
  2. ^ No Gods No Masters, page 156, by Daniel Guerin
  3. ^ a b Anarchism, Insurrections, and Insurrectionalism by Joe Black
  4. ^ Pericone, Nunzio; Italian Anarchism 1864-1892, pg 35-36
  5. ^ Pericone, Nunzio, Italian Anarchism 1864-1892 pg 35
  6. ^ Pericone, Nunzio; "Italian Anarchism 1864-1892" pg 58

External links

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