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Anatole France

Born April 16, 1844(1844-04-16)
Paris, France
Died October 12, 1924 (aged 80)
Tours, France
Occupation novelist
Nationality French
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
1921
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Anatole France (16 April 1844—12 October 1924), born François-Anatole Thibault,[1] was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was born in Paris, and died in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was a member of the Académie française, and won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Contents

Early life

The son of a bookseller, France spent most of his life around books. His father's bookstore, called the Librairie France, specialized in books and papers on the French Revolution and was frequented by many notable writers and scholars of the day.[1] Anatole France studied at the Collège Stanislas and after graduation he helped his father by working in his bookstore. After several years he secured the position of cataloguer at Bacheline-Deflorenne and at Lemerre. In 1876 he was appointed librarian for the French Senate.

Literary career

Anatole France began his career as a poet and a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of his poems, La Part de Madeleine. In 1875, he sat on the committee which was in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation. He moved Paul Verlaine and Mallarmé aside of this Parnasse. As a journalist, from 1867, he wrote a lot of articles and notices. He became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881). Its protagonist, skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied France's own personality. The novel was praised for its elegant prose and won him a prize from the French Academy. In La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque (1893) Anatole France ridiculed belief in the occult; and in Les Opinions de Jerome Coignard (1893), France captured the atmosphere of the fin de siècle.

He was elected to the Académie française in 1896.

France took an important part in the Dreyfus Affair. He signed Emile Zola's manifesto supporting Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer who had been falsely convicted of espionage. France wrote about the affair in his 1901 novel Monsieur Bergeret.

France's later works include L'Île des Pingouins (1908) which satirizes human nature by depicting the transformation of penguins into humans - after the animals have been baptized in error by the nearsighted Abbot Mael. La Revolte des Anges (1914) is often considered France's most profound novel. It tells the story of Arcade, the guardian angel of Maurice d'Esparvieu. Arcade falls in love, joins the revolutionary movement of angels, and towards the end realizes that the overthrow of God is meaningless unless "in ourselves and in ourselves alone we attack and destroy Ialdabaoth."

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. He died in 1924 and is buried in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery near Paris.

In the 1920s, France's writings were put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Prohibited Books Index) of the Roman Catholic Church.

Bibliography

Poetry

  • Les Légions de Varus, poem published in 1867 in the Gazette rimée.
  • Poèmes dorés (1873)
  • Les Noces corinthiennes (The Bride of Corinth) (1876)

Prose Fiction

  • Jocaste et Le Chat maigre (Jocasta and the Famished Cat) (1879)
  • Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard) (1881)
  • Les Désirs de Jean Servien (The Aspirations of Jean Servien) (1882)
  • Abeille (Honey-Bee) (1883)
  • Balthasar (1889)
  • Thaïs (1890)
  • L’Étui de nacre (Mother of Pearl) (1892)
  • La Rôtisserie de la reine Pédauque (At the Sign of the Reine Pédauque) (1892)
  • Les Opinions de Jérôme Coignard (The Opinions of Jerome Coignard) (1893)
  • Le Lys rouge (The Red Lily) (1894)
  • Le Jardin d’Épicure (The Garden of Epicurus) (1895)
  • Le Puits de Sainte Claire (The Well of Saint Clare) (1895)
  • L’Histoire contemporaine (A Chronicle of Our Own Times)
    • 1: L’Orme du mail (The Elm-Tree on the Mall)(1897)
    • 2: Le Mannequin d'osier (The Wicker Woman) (1897)
    • 3: L’Anneau d'améthyste (The Amethyst Ring) (1899)
    • 4: Monsieur Bergeret à Paris (Monsieur Bergeret in Paris) (1901)
  • Clio (1900)
  • Histoire comique (A Mummer's Tale) (1903)
  • Sur la pierre blanche (The White Stone) (1905)
  • L'Affaire Crainquebille (1901)
  • L’Île des Pingouins (Penguin Island) (1908)
  • Les Contes de Jacques Tournebroche (The Merrie Tales of Jacques Tournebroche) (1908)
  • Les Sept Femmes de Barbe bleue et autres contes merveilleux (The Seven Wives Of Bluebeard and Other Marvellous Tales) (1909)
  • Les dieux ont soif (The Gods Are Athirst) (1912)
  • La Révolte des anges (The Revolt of the Angels) (1914)

Memoirs

  • Le Livre de mon ami (My Friend's Book) (1885)
  • Pierre Nozière (1899)
  • Le Petit Pierre (Little Pierre) (1918)
  • La Vie en fleur (The Bloom of Life) (1922)

Plays

  • Au petit bonheur (1898)
  • Crainquebille (1903)
  • La Comédie de celui qui épousa une femme muette (The Man Who Married A Dumb Wife) (1908)
  • Le Mannequin d'osier (The Wicker Woman) (1928)

Historical Biography

  • Vie de Jeanne d'Arc (The Life of Joan of Arc) (1908)

Literary Criticism

  • Alfred de Vigny (1869)
  • Le Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte (1888)
  • Le Génie latin (1913)

Social Criticism

  • Opinions sociales (1902)
  • Le Parti noir (1904)
  • Vers les temps meilleurs (1906)
  • Sur la voie glorieuse (1915)
  • Trente ans de vie sociale, in four volumes, (1949, 1953, 1964, 1973)

Famous sayings

  • "I prefer the folly of enthusiasm to the indifference of wisdom."
  • "The law, in its majestic equality, forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal their bread." (Le Lys Rouge)
  • "To accomplish great things, we must not only act but also dream, not only plan but also believe."
  • "Irony is the gaiety of reflection and the joy of wisdom."
  • "Wandering re-establishes the original harmony which once existed between man and the universe."
  • "For every monarchy overthrown the sky becomes less brilliant, because it loses a star. A republic is ugliness set free."
  • "She fought him off vigorously, scratched, cried that she will die before she submits, but the chevalier paid no attention to her words and took her. Afterwards, she smiled coyly and told him: "Do not think, dear chevalier, that you won me against my will. Better thank our good preacher who reminded me that we are mortal, and a pleasure missed today is missed forever. Now we can proceed, for I missed too many pleasures while being too prudent for my own good." (Fable by Anatole France.)
  • "Nine tenths of education is encouragement."
  • "All religions breed crime." (Thaïs)
  • "The people who have no weaknesses are terrible: there is no way of taking advantage of them." (The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard)
  • "It is human nature to think wisely and act in an absurd fashion."
  • "The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards."
  • "Until one has loved an animal, a part of one's soul remains unawakened."
  • "Stupidity is far more dangerous than evil, for evil takes a break from time to time, stupidity does not."
  • "All changes, even the most longed for, have their melancholy; for what we leave behind us is part of ourselves; we must die to one life before we can enter another."
  • "Of all sexual aberrations, chastity is the strangest."

Notes

  1. ^ a b w:fr:Anatole France

Quotes:

"We have never heard the devil's side of the story, God wrote all the book."

External links

Cultural offices
Preceded by
Ferdinand de Lesseps
Seat 38, Académie française
1896-1924
Succeeded by
Paul Valéry

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Irony is the gaiety of reflection and the joy of wisdom.

Anatole France (16 April 184412 October 1924), born Jacques Anatole François Thibault, was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1921)

Contents

Sourced

The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread.
Man is so made that he can only find relaxation from one kind of labor by taking up another.
It is by acts, and not by ideas that people live.
  • Il est dans la nature humaine de penser sagement et d'agir d'une façon absurde.
    • It is human nature to think wisely and to act in an absurd fashion.
  • Il est sage de ne mettre ni crainte, ni espérance dans l’avenir incertain.
  • Le christianisme a beaucoup fait pour l’amour en en faisant un péché.
    • Christianity has done a great deal for love by making it a sin.
    • Variant translation: Religion has done love a great service by making it a sin.
  • La souffrance! quelle divine méconnu! Nous lui devons tout ce qu'il ya de bon en nous, tout ce qui donne du prix à la vie; nous lui devons la pitié, nous lui devons le courage, nous lui devons toutes les vertus.
    • Suffering — how divine it is, how misunderstood! We owe to it all that is good in us, all that gives value to life; we owe to it pity, we owe to it courage, we owe to it all the virtues.
      • Le Jardin d'Épicure [Epicure's Garden] (1894)
  • En art comme en amour, l'instinct suffit.
    • In art as in love, instinct is enough.
      • Le Jardin d'Épicure [The Epicure's Garden] (1894)
  • S’il fallait absolument choisir, j’aimerais mieux faire une chose immorale qu’une chose cruelle.
    • If it were absolutely necessary to choose, I would rather be guilty of an immoral act than of a cruel one.
  • La majestueuse égalité des lois, qui interdit au riche comme au pauvre de coucher sous les ponts, de mendier dans les rues et de voler du pain.
    • The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread.
    • Variant: How noble the law, in its majestic equality, that both the rich and poor are equally prohibited from peeing in the streets, sleeping under bridges, and stealing bread!
  • Pour accomplir de grandes choses il ne suffit pas d'agir il faut rêver; il ne suffit pas de calculer, il faut croire.
    • To accomplish great things we must not only act, but also dream; not only plan, but also believe.
    • Variant: To accomplish great things, we must dream as well as act.
    • Discours de réception, Séance De L'académie Française (introductory speech at a session of the French Academy), 24th December 1896, on Ferdinand de Lesseps' work on the Suez Canal.
  • II n'ya que les pauvres gens qui payent comptant. Ce n'est pas par vertu; c'est parce qu'on ne leur fait pas crédit.
    • It is only the poor who pay cash, and that not from virtue, but because they are refused credit.
  • L'ignorance et l'erreur sont nécessaires à la vie comme le pain et l'eau.
    • Ignorance and error are necessary to life, like bread and water.
  • Ce sont les hommes qui n'aiment pas les femmes qui s'intéressent à la toilette des femmes. Et les hommes qui aiment les femmes ne voient pas seulement comment elles sont habillées.
    • Only men who are not interested in women are interested in women's clothes. Men who like women never notice what they wear.
      • Histoire contemporaine: L'anneau d'améthyste (1899)
  • Dans tout État policé, la richesse est chose sacrée; dans les démocraties elle est la seule chose sacrée.
    • In every well-governed state, wealth is a sacred thing; in democracies it is the only sacred thing.
  • L'innocence, le plus souvent, est un bonheur et non pas une vertu.
    • Innocence most often is a good fortune and not a virtue.
  • Nous avons des remèdes pour faire parler les femmes; nous n'en avons pas pour les faire taire.
    • We have medicines to make women speak; we have none to make them keep silence.
      • La Comédie de celui qui épousa une femme muette [The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife] (1912), Act II, sc. iv
  • Il ne savait rien, ne voulait rien savoir, en quoi il se conformait à son génie, dont il ne surchargeait point l’aimable petitesse, et son heureux instinct lui conseillait de comprendre peu plutôt que de comprendre mal.
    • He had no knowledge and had no desire to acquire any; wherein he conformed to his genius whose engaging fragility he forbore to overload; his instinct fortunately telling him that it was better to understand little than to misunderstand a lot.
  • Un conte sans amour est comme du boudin sans moutarde; c’est chose insipide.
    • A tale without love is like beef without mustard: insipid.
  • Il est à peu près impossible de constituer systématiquement une morale naturelle. La nature n'a pas de principes. Elle ne nous fournit aucune raison de croire que la vie humaine est respectable. La nature, indifférente, ne fait nulle distinction du bien et du mal.
    • It is almost impossible systematically to constitute a natural moral law. Nature has no principles. She furnishes us with no reason to believe that human life is to be respected. Nature, in her indifference, makes no distinction between good and evil.
      • La Révolte des Anges [The Revolt of the Angels] (1914), ch. XXVII
  • De toutes les définitions de l'homme, la plus mauvaise me paraît celle qui en fait un animal raisonnable.
    • Of all the ways of defining man, the worst is the one which makes him out to be a rational animal.
      • Le Petit Pierre (1918), ch. XXXIII
  • On croit mourir pour la patrie; on meurt pour les industriels.
    • You think you are dying for your country; you die for the industrialists.
  • Quand une chose a été dite et bien dite, n'ayez aucun scrupule, prenez-la, copiez.
    • When a thing has been said and well said, have no scruple: take it and copy it.
      • As quoted in Anatole France en pantoufles by Jean-Jacques Brousson (1924); published in English as Anatole France Himself: A Boswellian Record by His Secretary, Jean-Jacques Brousson (1925), trans. John Pollock [Read Books, 2007, ISBN 1-406-75172-3], p. 56
  • On devient bon écrivain comme on devient bon menuisier: en rabotant ses phrases.
    • You become a good writer just as you become a good joiner: by planing down your sentences.
      • As quoted in Anatole France en pantoufles by Jean-Jacques Brousson (1924); published in English as Anatole France Himself: A Boswellian Record by His Secretary, Jean-Jacques Brousson (1925), trans. John Pollock, p. 85
  • If fifty million people say a foolish thing, it is still a foolish thing.
    • As quoted in Listening and Speaking : A Guide to Effective Oral Communication (1954) by Ralph G. Nichols and Thomas R. Lewis, p. 74
      • Also misattributed to Bertrand Russell, by Lawrence J. Peters, in The Peter Prescription : How To Make Things Go Right (1976), but he subsequently attributed to France in Peter's Quotations: Ideas for Our Time (1977).
      • Derived variant: If forty million people say a foolish thing it does not become a wise one, but the wise man is foolish to give them the lie.

Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881)

Full text of translation at Project Gutenberg
  • Je ne sais pas de lecture plus facile, plus attrayante, plus douce que celle d'un catalogue.
    • I do not know any reading more easy, more fascinating, more delightful than a catalogue.
      • La Bûche [The Log] (December 24, 1849)
  • Les livres d'histoire qui ne mentent pas sont tout fort maussades.
    • All the historical books which contain no lies are extremely tedious.
    • Variant: History books that contain no lies are extremely dull.
      • La Bûche [The Log] (December 24, 1849)
  • Les aimants qui aiment bien n'écrivent pas leur bonheur.
    • Lovers who love truly do not write down their happiness.
      • La Bûche [The Log] (November 30, 1859)
  • Savoir n'est rien, imaginer est tout.
    • To know is nothing at all; to imagine is everything.
      • Pt. II, ch. 2
  • Il se flattait d'être sans préjugés, et cette prétention était à elle seule un gros préjugé.
    • He flattered himself on being a man without any prejudices; and this pretension itself is a very great prejudice.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • Les hommes qui se sont occupés du bonheur des peuples ont rendu leurs proches bien malheureux.
    • Those who have given themselves the most concern about the happiness of peoples have made their neighbors very miserable.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • L'homme est ainsi fait qu'il ne se délasse d'un travail que par un autre.
    • Man is so made that he can only find relaxation from one kind of labor by taking up another.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • J'ai toujours préferé la folie des passions à la sagesse de l'indifference.
    • I prefer the folly of enthusiasm to the wisdom of indifference.
    • Variant: I prefer the errors of enthusiasm to the wisdom of indifference.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • Les gens qui n'eurent point de faiblesses sont terribles; on n'a point de prise sur eux.
    • People who have no weaknesses are terrible; there is no way of taking advantage of them.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • L'art d'enseigner n'est que l'art d'éveiller la curiosité des jeunes âmes pour la satisfaire ensuite.
    • The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4
  • Tous les changements, même les plus souhaités ont leur mélancolie, car ce que nous quittons, c'est une partie de nous-mêmes; il faut mourir à une vie pour entrer dans une autre.
    • All changes, even the most longed for, have their melancholy; for what we leave behind us is a part of ourselves; we must die to one life before we can enter another.
      • Pt. II, ch. 4

La Vie Littéraire (1888-1892)

All changes, even the most longed for, have their melancholy; for what we leave behind us is a part of ourselves; we must die to one life before we can enter another.
  • C'est d'actes et non d'idées que vivent les peuples.
    • It is by acts, and not by ideas that people live.
  • On reproche aux gens de parler d’eux-mêmes. C’est pourtant le sujet qu’ils traitent le mieux.
    • We reproach people for talking about themselves but it is the subject they treat best.
  • Les plus beaux mots du monde ne sont que de vains sons, si on ne les comprend pas.
  • Il est bon que le cœur soit naïf et que l’esprit ne le soit pas.
    • It is well for the heart to be naive and for the mind not to be.
  • Le bon critique est celui qui raconte les aventures de son âme au milieu des chefs-d'œuvre.
    • The good critic is one who tells of his mind's adventures among masterpieces.
      • Series II : M. Jules Lemaître
  • L'ironie, c'est la gaieté de la réflexion et la joie de la sagesse.
    • Irony is the gaiety of reflection and the joy of wisdom.

Misattributed

  • Chance is perhaps the pseudonym of God when He did not want to sign.
    • Le hasard, c'est peut-être le pseudonyme de Dieu, quand il ne veut pas signer.Théophile Gautier, La Croix de Berny (1845), letter III: Edgard Meilhan au Prince de Monbert [4]
  • Devout believers are safeguarded in a high degree against the risk of certain neurotic illnesses; their acceptance of the universal neurosis spares them the task of constructing a personal one.
    • Sigmund Freud, "The Future of an Illusion" (1927), ch. 8, from The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey and Anna Freud (London, Hogarth Press, 1961), vol. 21, p. 44
  • It was one of the deadliest and heaviest feelings of my life to feel that I was no longer a boy. From that moment I began to grow old in my own esteem — and in my esteem age is not estimable.
  • No government ought to be without censors; and where the press is free, none ever will.
  • Of all the sexual aberrations, chastity is the strangest.
    • De toutes les aberrations sexuelles, la plus singulière est peut-être encore la chasteté.
      • Remy de Gourmont, La Physique de l'Amour: Essai sur l'Instinct Sexuel (1903), ch. 18: La question des aberrations [5].
    • Variant: Of all sexual aberrations, perhaps the most curious is chastity.
      • Remy de Gourmont, The Natural Philosophy of Love (1922), the Ezra Pound translation of La Physique de l'Amour: Essai sur l'Instinct Sexuel
  • Silence is the wit of fools, and one of the virtues of the wise.
  • Can any thing in this world be more foolish than to think that all this rare fabric of heaven and earth can come by chance, when all the skill of art is not able to make an oyster!
    • Jeremy Taylor, "Apples of Sodom," Part II, Sermon XX of Twenty-Five Sermons for the Winter Half-Year, Preached at Golden Grove (1653)
    • Variant: What can be more foolish than to think that all this rare fabric of heaven and earth could come by chance, when all the skill of art is not able to make an oyster!
  • You learn to speak by speaking, to study by studying, to run by running, to work by working; in just the same way, you learn to love by loving.
    • Je ne sais point de plus grande finesse pour parvenir à aimer que d'aimer, comme on apprend à étudier en étudiant, à parler en parlant, à travailler en travaillant.
      • Francis de Sales, quoted in Vie de saint François de Sales, évèque et prince de Genève by André Jean Marie Hamon (Librairie Victor Lecoffre, Paris, 1896), Vol. II, Book VII, Ch. V: Son amour pour Dieu
    • Variant of sourced quotation: Comme on apprend à étudier en étudiant, à jouer du luth en jouant, à nager en nageant; aussi apprend-on à aimer Dieu et le prochain en l'aimant. — Francis de Sales, quoted in Jean-Pierre Camus, "L'esprit du bienheureux saint François de Sales" (1641), Part I, Section 31; published in Oeuvres complètes de saint François de Sales, ed. Jean-Irénée Depéry (Berche et Tralin, Paris, 1875), Vol. I

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANATOLE FRANCE (1844-), French critic, essayist and novelist (whose real name was Jacques Anatole Thibault), was born in Paris on the 16th of April 1844. His father was a book- seller, one of the last of the booksellers, if we are to believe the Goncourts, into whose establishment men came, not merely to order and buy, but to dip, and turn over pages and discuss. As a child he used to listen to the nightly talks on literary subjects which took place in his father's shop. Nurtured in an atmosphere so essentially bookish, he turned naturally to literature. In 1868 his first work appeared, a study of Alfred de Vigny, followed in 1873 by a volume of verse, Les Poemes dores, dedicated to Leconte de Lisle, and, as such a dedication suggests, an outcome of the "Parnassian" movement; and yet another volume of verse appeared in 1876, Les Noces corinthiennes. But the poems in these volumes, though unmistakably the work of a man of great literary skill and cultured taste, are scarcely the poems of a man with whom verse is the highest form of expression.

He was to find his richest vein in prose. He himself, avowing his preference for a simple, or seemingly simple, style as compared with the artistic style, vaunted by the Goncourts - a style compounded of neologisms and "rare" epithets, and startling forms of expression - observes: "A simple style is like white light. It is complex, but not to outward seeming. In language, a beautiful and desirable simplicity is but an appearance, and results only from the good order and sovereign economy of the various parts of speech." And thus one may say of his own style that its beautiful translucency is the result of many qualities - felicity, grace, the harmonious grouping of words, a perfect measure. Anatole France is a sceptic. The essence of his philosophy, if a spirit so light, evanescent, elusive, can be said to have a philosophy, is doubt. He is a doubter in religion, metaphysics, morals, politics, aesthetics, science - a most genial and kindly doubter, and not at all without doubts even as to his own negative conclusions. Sometimes his doubts are expressed in his own person - as in the Jardin d'epicure (1894) from which the above extracts are taken, or Le Livre de mon ami (1885), which may be accepted, perhaps, as partly autobiographical; sometimes, as in La Rotisserie de la reine Pedauque (1893) and Les Opinions de M. Jerome Coignard (1893), or L'Orme du mail (1897), Le Mannequin d'osier (1897), L'Anneau d'amethyste (1899), and M. Bergeret a Paris (1901), he entrusts the expression of his opinions, dramatically, to some fictitious character - the abbe Coignard, for instance, projecting, as it were, from the 18th century some very effective criticisms on the popular political theories of contemporary France - or the M. Bergeret of the four last-named novels, which were published with the collective title of Histoire contemporaine. This series deals with some modern problems, and particularly, in L'Anneau d'amethyste and M. Bergeret a Paris, with the humours and follies of the anti-Dreyfusards. All this makes a piquant combination. Neither should reference be omitted to his Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881), crowned by the Institute, nor to works more distinctly of fancy, such as Balthasar (1889), the story of one of the Magi or Thais (1890), the story of an actress and courtesan of Alexandria, whom a hermit converts, but with the loss of his own soul. His ironic comedy, Crainquebille (Renaissance theatre, 1903), was founded on his novel (1902) of the same year. His more recent work includes his anti-clerical Vie de Jeanne d'Arc (1908); his pungent satire the lie des penguins (1908); and a volume of stories, Les Sept Femmes de la Barbe-Bleue (1909).

Lightly as he bears his erudition, it is very real and extensive, and is notably shown in his utilization of modern archaeological and historical research in his fiction (as in the stories in Sur une pierre blanche). As a critic - see the Vie litteraire (1888-1892), reprinted mainly from Le Temps - he is graceful and appreciative. Academic in the best sense, he found a place in the French Academy, taking the seat vacated by Lesseps, and was received into that body on the 24th of December 1896. In the affaire Dreyfus he sided with M. Zola.

For studies of M. Anatole France's talent see Maurice Barres, Anatole France (1885); Jules Lemaitre, Les Contemporains (2nd series, 1886); and G. Brandes, Anatole France (1908). In 1908 Frederic Chapman began an edition of The works of Anatole France in an English translation (John Lane).


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Simple English

Anatole France, born François-Anatole Thibault (16 April 1844, Paris - 12 October 1924, Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire), was a French poet, critic, and novelist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1921. He was a member of the Académie française.

Contents

Early life

Anatole France was a son of a bookseller. He studied at the Collége Stanislas. He got married in 1877 but he get divorced in 1892. He was librarian for the French Senate in 1876 - 1890.

Literary career

Anatole France start his career as a parnassianism poet. Later he became an impressionist and he was an atheist. From 1867 he was a journalist. In 1881 he became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard, membre de l'Institut. It's about an old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, Bonnard wants to make good, but he commits a crime. This novel won France a prize from the French Academy. In 1893 he captured the atmosphere of the fin de siecle in Les Opinions de Jerome Coignard.

France took a part in the Dreyfus Affair. He signed Emile Zola's manifesto supporting Dreyfus. Alfred Dreyfus was a French artillery officer and he was charged with high treason. In 1901 France wrote Monsieur Bergeret about this affair. He stood out against colonialism.

In 1921 he was awarded the Nobel Prize. He died in 1924 and he is buried near Paris in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery.

Bibliography

Poetry

  • Poèmes dorés (1873)
  • Les Noces corinthiennes (1876)

Prose

  • Jocaste et Le Chat maigre (1879)
  • Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard, membre de l’Institut (1881)
  • Les Désirs de Jean Servien (1882)
  • Abeille, conte (1883)
  • Balthasar (1889)
  • Thaïs (1890)
  • L’Étui de nacre (1892)
  • La Rôtisserie de la reine Pédauque (1892)
  • Les Opinions de Jérôme Coignard (1893)
  • Le Lys rouge (1894)
  • Le Jardin d’Épicure (1895)
  • Le Puits de Sainte Claire (1895)
  • L’Histoire contemporaine
    • L’Orme du mail (1897), (L’Histoire contemporaine, I)
    • Le Mannequin d'osier (1897), (L’Histoire contemporaine, II)
    • L’Anneau d'améthyste (1899), (L’Histoire contemporaine, III)
    • Monsieur Bergeret à Paris (1901), (L’Histoire contemporaine, IV)
  • Clio (1900)
  • Le Procurateur de Judée (1902)
  • Histoires comiques (1903)
  • Sur la pierre blanche (1905)
  • L'Affaire Crainquebille (1901)
  • L’Île des Pingouins (1908)
  • Les Contes de Jacques Tournebroche (1908)
  • Les Sept Femmes de Barbe bleue et autres contes merveilleux (1909)
  • Les dieux ont soif (1912)
  • La Révolte des anges (1914)

Memoirs

  • Le Livre de mon ami (1885)
  • Pierre Nozière (1899)
  • Le Petit Pierre (1918)
  • La Vie en fleur (1922)

Plays

Historical Biography

  • Vie de Jeanne d'Arc (1908)

Literary Criticism

  • Alfred de Vigny, étude (1869)
  • Le Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte (1888)
  • Le Génie Latin (1913)

Social Criticism

  • Opinions sociales (1902)
  • Le Parti noir (1904)
  • Vers les temps meilleurs (1906)
  • Sur la voie glorieuse (1915)

Other websites


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