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Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Gray's Anatomy.
Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open. Also from the Greek word "anatome"--ana: apart, tome: to cut-->To cut apart.) is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. .It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy).^ General Health Care Products > Human Anatomy .

.In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology,[1] through common roots in evolution.^ Anatomy Of The Shoulder : A detailed, 11 page look at the shoulder's anatomy, and some of the injuries that can occur from common activities such as throwing and general overextension.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on all the Sciences 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: Academic]

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy.[1] .Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye.^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9693PU The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Laminated The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

^ Anatomy and optical properties of the eye Remember that the visual field is seen by both eyes (because they face forwards) and that an inverted image of the visual field is projected onto both retinas.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

[1] .Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues),[1] and cytology (the study of cells).^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9693PU The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Laminated The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

^ Anatomy of the Inner Ear Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9891PU Shows the temporal bone and the structures of the ...

.The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body.^ Memmler's Structure and Function of the Human Body This abridged version of Memmler's The Human Body ...

.Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI imaging.^ In man and in all other vertebrate animals, the nervous system has two divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) is contained in the axial skeleton, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is distributed through most of the other parts of the body ( Plan of the whole human nervous system ).
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ There are one-hour lectures, but the anatomy is studied principally by examination of whole and dissected specimens of human brains in the Wednesday lab classes.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs.^ The Ear - Organs of Hearing and Balance Anatomical Chart Laminated Illustrates ear anatomy including right auricle, r...

^ The Ear: Organs of Hearing and Balance Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9890PU This chart illustrates ear anatomy including right...

^ Anatomy and Pathology: The World's Best Anatomical Charts, 4E The 4th edition of Anatomy and Pathology: The Worl...

Contents

Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily seen from the contours or the surface of the body.[1] With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians or veterinary surgeons gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.

Human anatomy

Para-sagittal MRI scan of the head
An X-ray of a human chest.
.Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.^ Later work, including studies of human subjects with bilateral temporal lobe lesions (from surgery and disease) indicated that the hippocampal formation was the part of the temporal lobe involved in learning.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ The Thin Man: Sequential Human Anatomy Program Charts Lets students explore body regions layer-by-layer ...

^ There are one-hour lectures, but the anatomy is studied principally by examination of whole and dissected specimens of human brains in the Wednesday lab classes.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

[1]
.Generally, students of certain biological sciences, paramedics, physiotherapists, occupational therapy, nurses, and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials.^ Owing to current limitations in laboratory and other facilities the course was largely restricted to students in the Occupational Therapy (OT) and Physical Therapy (PT) programmes.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Anatomy and Injuries of the Hip Anatomical Chart Laminated Illustrates general hip anatomy including bones, m...

^ Hip and Knee Inflammations Anatomical Chart Paper Unmounted Shows general hip and knee anatomy, as well as hip...

.The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).^ Every year a few graduate students took Anatomy & Cell Biology 530a , which was 350a with an additional assignment and exam.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ The Thin Man: Sequential Human Anatomy Program Charts Lets students explore body regions layer-by-layer ...

^ Students need to know the anatomy as shown by dissection and should also be able to identify the structures seen in: .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school.^ Every year a few graduate students took Anatomy & Cell Biology 530a , which was 350a with an additional assignment and exam.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ The Thin Man: Sequential Human Anatomy Program Charts Lets students explore body regions layer-by-layer ...

^ Medical Students > Medical Books > Dictionaries, Reference, Practice Standards & Management > General Medical Reference > Nursing Reference .

.Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically;[1] that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems.^ The Thin Man: Sequential Human Anatomy Program Charts Lets students explore body regions layer-by-layer ...

^ Illustrated Pocket Anatomy - Respiratory System and Disorders 20 Pack This folding study guide takes our most popular an...

^ Illustrated Pocket Anatomy - Anatomy of the Muscles and Skeletal Systems 20 Pack These folding study guides take our most popular a...

The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format,[2][3] in line with modern teaching methods. .A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.^ Some will be shown in 350a classes.  All are available in the Taylor Library .  Several of these tapes include more details than are needed for Anatomy 350a.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Academic human anatomists are usually employed by universities, medical schools or teaching hospitals.^ Medical Education & Training > Models (Anatomical, Skeletal Training & more) > Human Anatomical Models > Dental Models & Teaching Aids .

.They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells.^ The myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland contract, pushing the milk from the secretory units into the duct system.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

Other branches

.
  • Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals.^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9693PU The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

    ^ Structural Anatomy of the Eye Anatomical Chart Laminated The main image illustrates a cross section of they...

    ^ Anatomy of the Inner Ear Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9891PU Shows the temporal bone and the structures of the ...

    [1]
  • Anthropological anatomy or physical anthropology relates to the comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans.
  • Artistic anatomy relates to anatomic studies for artistic reasons.

See also

General anatomy:

Notes

References

.
  • "Anatomy of the Human Body". 20th edition.^ The Thin Man: Sequential Human Anatomy Program Charts Lets students explore body regions layer-by-layer ...

    ^ Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease Softbound, 10th Edition 0-7817-4232-3: Memmler's The Human Body in Health ...

    1918. Henry Gray

External links

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANATOMY (Gr. avaro�17, from .ava-ri wecv, to cut up), literally dissection or cutting asunder, a term always used to denote the study of the structure of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and vegetable anatomy (phytotomy).^ Literally, cutting up, or dissection; now used to signify the science of the form and structure of living beings.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anatomists are scientists who study anatomy or the function and structure of living things.
  • Tag: Anatomy - Explore content tagged Anatomy on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Many scholars in Islam lauded the study of anatomy, primarily as a way of demonstrating the design and wisdom of God, and there are some references in medical writings to dissection, though to what extent these reflect actual practice is problematic.
  • Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology, or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy. From a utilitarian point of view the study of Man is the most important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points of view.^ From a utilitarian point of view the study of Man is the most important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points of view.

^ Scientists who are studying the same parts, but in different animals, are engaged in comparative anatomy.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary: Challenging Terminology Overview 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC anatomyphysiology.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How is human anatomy studied?
  • anatomy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.From that of the medical man it consists of a knowledge of the exact form, position, size and relationship of the various structures of the human body in health, and to this study the term descriptive or topographical human anatomy is given, though it is often, less happily, spoken of as Anthropotomy. An accurate knowledge of all the details of the human body takes years of patient observation to gain and is possessed by only a few.^ All of this knowledge had been gained from dissections of animals.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anatomical position of human body.
  • Anatomical Illustrations and Stock Art. 2057 Anatomical illustration and vector EPS clipart graphics available to search from over 15 royalty free stock clip art publishers. 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body .
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.So intricate is man's body that only a small number of professional human anatomists are complete masters of all its details, and most of them specialize on certain parts, such as the brain, viscera, &c.; contenting themselves with a good working knowledge of the rest.^ People especially young people are often curious where certain body parts are, how those body parts work, and if their body parts are normal.
  • Reproductive & Sexual Anatomy - Planned Parenthood 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.plannedparenthood.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are often forced to assume an awkward work posture such as the head bent over the eye tubes, the upper part of the body bent forward, the hand reaching high up for a focusing control, or with the wrists bent in an unnatural position.
  • Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Anatomy of the Microscope 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC micro.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Anatomists revere his expertise and cite his recognition of the ciliary muscle of the eye as a muscular structure and not a tendon as completely original work.
  • Hektoen Institute - Journal 22 September 2009 11:13 UTC www.hektoen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

^ Human Anatomy Online "...Study the anatomy of the human body.
  • Martindale's Anatomy & Histology Center: Gross Anatomy & Structure, Radiology Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, Osteology, Exams, Courses, Lectures, Lessons, Videos, Movies, etc. 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.martindalecenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Study the anatomy of the human body.
  • Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.eduq.com [Source type: General]

.It is no more a science than a pilot's knowledge is, and, like that knowledge, must be exact and available in moments of emergency.^ It is no more a science than a pilot's knowledge is, and, like that knowledge, must be exact and available in moments of emergency.

^ I'd like to show you some awesome nature related work from more or less unknown artists which deserve more attention - this is a MUST SEE, you won't regret it!!!
  • Anatomy by ~X-etc on deviantART 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC x-etc.deviantart.com [Source type: General]

^ In crabs, the females have a longer and significantly wider telson, the males is no more than a triangle, and segments three to five of the short abdomen are fused together.

.From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of Man, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or ontogeny, phylogeny and histology.^ Study the Science of Anatomy & Structural Biology Click here to view our movie.
  • Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology - Anatomy Museum 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC anatomy.otago.ac.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Select from map Anatomy Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body.
  • Anatomy: MedlinePlus 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ How is human anatomy studied?
  • anatomy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pathological or morbid anatomy is the study of diseased organs, while sections of normal anatomy, applied to various purposes, receive special names such as medical, surgical, gynaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy.^ Pathological or morbid anatomy is the study of diseased organs, while sections of normal anatomy, applied to various purposes, receive special names such as medical, surgical, gynaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy.

^ Anatomy Arcade A fun interactive site with games that will help you learn the formal names, say, of muscles, bones, and such.

^ Further important divisions are: physiological anatomy, the study of parts in relation to their functions; surgical or topographical anatomy which considers the relations of different parts, and pathological anatomy which treats of the changes brought on by disease, in various organs or tissues.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The comparison of the anatomy of different races of mankind is part of the science of physical anthropology or anthropological anatomy.^ The comparison of the anatomy of different races of mankind is part of the science of physical anthropology or anthropological anatomy.

^ Many great anatomists of the period were reluctant to accept microscopic anatomy as part of their science.

^ He collected about 3,000 specimens, mostly in the fields of evolutionary morphology, physical anthropology and regular anatomy.
  • Anatomical Theatre 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.astropop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the present edition of this work the subject of anatomy is treated systematically rather than topographically.^ In the present edition of this work the subject of anatomy is treated systematically rather than topographically.

^ Of The article in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia , dealing with the history of anatomy, and written by the late Dr Craigie of Edinburgh , has gained such a just reputation as the classical work on the subject in the English language that it is substantially reproduced.

^ Following these up, Virchow, studying morbid anatomy rather than normal tissues, still did much to advance anatomical knowledge .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each anatomical article contains first a description of the structures of an organ or system (such as nerves, arteries, heart, &c.^ Each anatomical article contains first a description of the structures of an organ or system (such as nerves, arteries , heart , &c.

^ This web site contains separate articles on each of the systems and organs mentioned to which the reader is referred for more comprehensive discussions.

^ The sixth sense of a fish.  The lateral line consists of a series of scales, each modified by a pore, which connects with a system of canals containing sensory cells and nerve fibers.

), as it.
is found in .Man; and this is followed by an account of the development or embryology and comparative anatomy or morphology, as far as vertebrate animals are concerned; but only those parts of the lower animals which are of interest in explaining Man's structure are here dealt with.^ Man; and this is followed by an account of the development or embryology and comparative anatomy or morphology, as far as vertebrate animals are concerned; but only those parts of the lower animals which are of interest in explaining Man's structure are here dealt with.

^ Comparative anatomy is concerned with the structural differences of plant and animal forms.
  • anatomy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryology (see embryo ) deals with developing plants or animals until hatching or birth (or germination, in plants); cell biology covers the internal anatomy of the cell, while histology is concerned with the study of aggregates of similarly specialized cells, called tissues.
  • anatomy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The articles have a twofold purpose; first, to give enough details of man's structure to make the articles on physiology, surgery, medicine and pathology intelligible; and, secondly, to give the non-expert inquirer, or the worker in some other branch of science, the chief theories on which the modern scientific groundwork of anatomy is built.^ The articles have a twofold purpose; first, to give enough details of man's structure to make the articles on physiology , surgery , medicine and pathology intelligible; and, secondly, to give the non- expert inquirer, or the worker in some other branch of science, the chief theories on which the modern scientific groundwork of anatomy is built.

^ Bailey covers for the Chief when he makes a very basic mistake in surgery, and his odd behavior as of late is finally explained.
  • Grey's Anatomy Recaps 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.tvguide.com [Source type: General]

^ From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of Man, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or ontogeny, phylogeny and histology .

.The following separate anatomical articles will be found under their own headings: - Alimentary canal.^ The following separate anatomical articles will be found under their own headings: - Alimentary canal .

^ Other subdivisions, such as surgical anatomy and anatomical art, are based on the relationship of anatomy to other branches of activity under the general heading of applied anatomy.

^ These are written from a structural rather than a bibliographical point of view, and will be found under the following headings: " Atlas and Epistropheus," J. Anat.

Nervous system.
Arteries. Nerve.
.Coelom and serous membranes.^ Coelom and serous membranes .

Pharynx.
.Epithelial, endothelial and glanScalp.^ Epithelial, endothelial and glanScalp.

dular tissues. Skeleton.
Heart. Skull.
Liver. Teeth.
.Mouth and salivary glands.^ Mouth and salivary glands.

Vascular system.
.History Of Anatomy In tracing the history of the origin of anatomy, it may be justly said that more learning than judgment has been displayed.^ History Of Anatomy In tracing the history of the origin of anatomy, it may be justly said that more learning than judgment has been displayed.

^ There will always be discussion about whether Knox, who always denied any knowledge of where his specimens came from, knew more about the origins of the Burke and Hare cadavers than he said he did.
  • Hektoen Institute - Journal 22 September 2009 11:13 UTC www.hektoen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More important than that is construction, as the belt loop size, placement, and mounting method should be displayed.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some writers claim for it the highest antiquity, and pretend to find its first rudiments alternately in the animal sacrifices of the shepherd kings, the Jews and other ancient nations, and in the art of embalming as practised by the Egyptian priests.'^ Some writers claim for it the highest antiquity, and pretend to find its first rudiments alternately in the animal sacrifices of the shepherd kings, the Jews and other ancient nations, and in the art of embalming as practised by the Egyptian priests.'

^ From the archives: Cubital , from the Latin cubitus, elbow; also: the distance from the elbow to the fingertips (a "cubit"), an ancient unit of measurement used by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, among others.

^ As the works of neither have been preserved, great uncertainty prevails as to the respective merits of these ancient anatomists; and all that is now known of their anatomical researches is obtained from the occasional notices of Galen, Oribasius and some other writers.

.Even the descriptions of wounds in the Iliad have been supposed adequate to prove that in the time of Homer mankind had distinct notions of the structure of the human body.^ Even the descriptions of wounds in the Iliad have been supposed adequate to prove that in the time of Homer mankind had distinct notions of the structure of the human body.

^ From ancient times humans have sought to unravel the secret mechanisms of the body, developing in the process a wealth of medical expertise.

^ Human Anatomy Online Contains over one hundred illustrations of the human body with animations and descriptive text.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Of the first it may be said that the rude information obtained by the slaughter of animals for sacrifice does not imply profound anatomical knowledge; and those who adduce the second as evidence are deceived by the language of the poet of the Trojan War, which, distinguishing certain parts by their ordinary Greek epithets, as afterwards used by Hippocrates, Galen and all anatomists, has been rather too easily supposed to prove that the poet had studied systematically the structure of the human frame.^ Of the first it may be said that the rude information obtained by the slaughter of animals for sacrifice does not imply profound anatomical knowledge; and those who adduce the second as evidence are deceived by the language of the poet of the Trojan War, which, distinguishing certain parts by their ordinary Greek epithets, as afterwards used by Hippocrates , Galen and all anatomists, has been rather too easily supposed to prove that the poet had studied systematically the structure of the human frame.

^ Anatomy and Drawing by Victor Perard Excellent line drawings and annotations of anatomical structure provide the beginning artist with just about everything one needs to know about drawing all parts of the human anatomy.

^ People especially young people are often curious where certain body parts are, how those body parts work, and if their body parts are normal.
  • Reproductive & Sexual Anatomy - Planned Parenthood 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.plannedparenthood.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With not much greater justice has the cultivation of anatomical knowledge been ascribed to Hippocrates, who, because he is universally allowed to be the father of medicine, has also been thought to be the creator of the science of anatomy.^ With not much greater justice has the cultivation of anatomical knowledge been ascribed to Hippocrates, who, because he is universally allowed to be the father of medicine, has also been thought to be the creator of the science of anatomy.

^ Those of Lancisi, who combined clinical and anatomical knowledge ; Valsalva, famous for his work on the ear; Santorini, who added much to our knowledge of the face and its appendages, and Morgagni whose main work was concerned with morbid anatomy, but who also added to knowledge in normal anatomy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first real development of anatomy as a science , however, did not come until the time of Hippocrates of Cos, about 400 B.C. The Grecian Father of Medicine knew the bones well, probably because of the ready opportunities for their study to be found in tombs , but did not know the distinction between veins and arteries, and uses the term artiria in reference to the trachea.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of The article in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia, dealing with the history of anatomy, and written by the late Dr Craigie of Edinburgh, has gained such a just reputation as the classical work on the subject in the English language that it is substantially reproduced.^ Of The article in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia , dealing with the history of anatomy, and written by the late Dr Craigie of Edinburgh , has gained such a just reputation as the classical work on the subject in the English language that it is substantially reproduced.

^ He no longer cared about gaining position and reputation in Edinburgh.
  • Hektoen Institute - Journal 22 September 2009 11:13 UTC www.hektoen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only the Bull itself did not forbid dissection, but a review of the history of anatomy just after its issuance shows that it was not misinterpreted so as to hamper anatomical progress.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here and there points of special or biographical interest are drawn attention to in the shape of footnotes, but any reader interested in the subject would do well to consult, with this article, the work of R. R. von Toply, Studien zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1898).^ Here and there points of special or biographical interest are drawn attention to in the shape of footnotes, but any reader interested in the subject would do well to consult, with this article, the work of R. R. von Toply, Studien zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1898).

^ What we are trying to convey to interested readers is that the things we describe here are "normal " even though they may differ from the mean or usual.
  • Martindale's Anatomy & Histology Center: Gross Anatomy & Structure, Radiology Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, Osteology, Exams, Courses, Lectures, Lessons, Videos, Movies, etc. 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.martindalecenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of The article in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia , dealing with the history of anatomy, and written by the late Dr Craigie of Edinburgh , has gained such a just reputation as the classical work on the subject in the English language that it is substantially reproduced.

.In addition to this Professor A. Macalister has published a series of articles, under the head of "Archaeologia Anatomica," in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. These are written from a structural rather than a bibliographical point of view, and will be found under the following headings: " Atlas and Epistropheus," J. Anat. vol.^ In addition to this Professor A. Macalister has published a series of articles, under the head of "Archaeologia Anatomica," in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.

^ These are written from a structural rather than a bibliographical point of view, and will be found under the following headings: " Atlas and Epistropheus," J. Anat.

^ The first of these is 1867, when the first volume of the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology appeared.

xxxiii. p. .204; " Veins of Forearm," vol.^ Veins of Forearm," vol.

xxxiii. p. .343; " Poupart's Ligament," vol.^ Poupart's Ligament ," vol.

xxxiii. p. .493; " Tendo-Achillis," vol.^ Tendo-Achillis," vol.

xxxiii. p. 676; " Parotid," vol. xxxv. p. 117; " Trochanter," vol. xxxv. p. 269.
.The oldest anatomical treatise extant is an Egyptian papyrus probably written sixteen centuries before our era.^ The oldest anatomical treatise extant is an Egyptian papyrus probably written sixteen centuries before our era.

^ The oldest known systematic study of anatomy is contained in an Egyptian papyrus dating from about 1600 BC. The treatise reveals knowledge of the larger viscera but little concept of their functions.

^ It has been pointed out by Dr J. F. Payne that Vicary's work is merely an abridged copy of an unpublished English anatomical treatise of the 14th century.

.It shows that the heart, vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, ureters and bladder were recognized, and that the blood-vessels were known to come from the heart.^ It shows that the heart, vessels, liver, spleen , kidneys, ureters and bladder were recognized, and that the blood-vessels were known to come from the heart.

^ Scheme of blood vessels 9-2 The human heart..
  • ø The #1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Course ø | Learn About The Human Body With Illustrations and Pictures ø 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.humananatomycourse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross section of the right kidney showing the major blood vessels.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other vessels are described, some carrying air, some mucus, while two to the right ear are said to carry the breath of life, and two to the left ear the breath of death.^ Other vessels are described, some carrying air , some mucus, while two to the right ear are said to carry the breath of life, and two to the left ear the breath of death.

^ These he represents to be two in number, placed before the spinal column, the larger on the right, the smaller on the left, which, he also remarks, is by some called aorta (aoprrt), the first time we observe that this.

^ Some athletes and other remarkably strong people have been found to carry one mutant myostatin gene.
  • Muscles 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See A. Macalister, " Archaeologia Anatomica," J. Anat.^ See A. Macalister, " Archaeologia Anatomica," J. Anat.

^ In addition to this Professor A. Macalister has published a series of articles, under the head of "Archaeologia Anatomica," in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.

and Phys.
vol. xxxii. p. .775. But see also the article Omen.^ But see also the article Omen .

the seven individuals of the family of the .Heracleidae who bore this celebrated name, the second, who was the son of Heraclides and Phenarita, and grandson of the first Hippocrates, was indeed distinguished as a physician of great observation and experience, and the first who appreciated the value of studying accurately the phenomena, effects and terminations of disease.^ Heracleidae who bore this celebrated name, the second, who was the son of Heraclides and Phenarita, and grandson of the first Hippocrates, was indeed distinguished as a physician of great observation and experience, and the first who appreciated the value of studying accurately the phenomena, effects and terminations of disease.

^ He is the first who studied accurately the anatomy of the teeth, and the phenomena of the first and second dentition.

^ Almost coeval may be placed Charles Etienne (1503-1564), a younger brother of the celebrated printers, and son to Henry , who Hellenized the family name by the classical appellation of Stephen (IT 4 avos).

.It does not appear, however, notwithstanding the vague and general panegyrics of J. Riolan, Bartholin, D. le Clerc, and A. Portal, that the anatomical knowledge of this illustrious person was either accurate or profound.^ It does not appear, however, notwithstanding the vague and general panegyrics of J. Riolan, Bartholin, D. le Clerc, and A. Portal, that the anatomical knowledge of this illustrious person was either accurate or profound.

^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

^ In general, however, the period of successful investigation into anatomical problems seems to be only just opening up.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the works ascribed to Hippocrates, five only are genuine.^ Of the works ascribed to Hippocrates, five only are genuine.

^ The matter of this work is so excellent that it can only be ascribed to ignorance that it has received so little attention.

.Most of them were written either by subsequent authors of the same name, or by one or other of the numerous impostors who took advantage of the zealous munificence of the Ptolemies, by fabricating works under that illustrious name.^ Most of them were written either by subsequent authors of the same name, or by one or other of the numerous impostors who took advantage of the zealous munificence of the Ptolemies , by fabricating works under that illustrious name.

^ In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

.Of the few which are genuine, there is none expressly devoted to anatomy; and of his knowledge on this subject the only proofs are to be found in the exposition of his physiological opinions, and his medical or surgical instructions.^ Of the few which are genuine, there is none expressly devoted to anatomy; and of his knowledge on this subject the only proofs are to be found in the exposition of his physiological opinions, and his medical or surgical instructions.

^ Anatomy textbooks include non-anatomical information (e.g., physiologic function, pathological lesions, clinical cases) in order to illustrate the relevance of anatomical knowledge to clinical practice.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

.From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology, but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.^ From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology , but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.

^ It shows the superficial muscles of the human body.

^ The result of these assiduous labours appeared at intervals in the form of dissertations by himself, or under the name of some one of his pupils, finally published in a collected shape between 1746 and 1 751 ( Disputationes Anatomicae Selectiores ), and in eight numbers of most accurate and beautiful engravings, representing the most important parts of the human body, e.g.

.In his book on injuries of the head, and in that on fractures, he shows that he knew the sutures of the cranium and the relative situation of the bones, and that he had some notion of the shape of the bones in general and of their mutual connexions.^ In his book on injuries of the head, and in that on fractures, he shows that he knew the sutures of the cranium and the relative situation of the bones, and that he had some notion of the shape of the bones in general and of their mutual connexions.

^ The coronal suture of the skull, linking the frontal bone to the parietals, is arranged vertically instead of encircling the cranium.

^ Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.

.Of the muscles, of the soft parts in general, and of the internal organs, his ideas are confused, indistinct and erroneous.^ Of the muscles, of the soft parts in general, and of the internal organs, his ideas are confused, indistinct and erroneous.

^ From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology , but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.

^ In contrast, glands, cardiac muscle, and the smooth muscle of blood vessels and internal organs are supplied by neurons in ganglia of the autonomic system.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.The term SAE/ he seems, in imitation of the colloquial Greek, to have used generally to signify a blood-vessel, without being aware of the distinction of vein and artery; and the term aprrlp:a, or air-holder, is restricted to the windpipe.^ The term SAE/ he seems, in imitation of the colloquial Greek, to have used generally to signify a blood-vessel, without being aware of the distinction of vein and artery; and the term aprrlp:a, or air-holder, is restricted to the windpipe .

^ Comparative structure of blood vessels, Artery, Vein .
  • Anatomy Drill and Practice 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fallopius also described vessels belonging to the liver distinct from arteries and veins; and similar vessels appear to have been noticed by Nicolaus Massa (1499-1569).

.He appears to have been unaware of the existence of the nervous chords; and the term nerve is used by him, as by Grecian authors in general, to signify a sinew or tendon. On other points his views are so much combined with peculiar physiological doctrines, that it is impossible to assign them the character of anatomical facts; and even the works in which these doctrines are contained are with little probability to be ascribed to the second Hippocrates.^ On other points his views are so much combined with peculiar physiological doctrines, that it is impossible to assign them the character of anatomical facts; and even the works in which these doctrines are contained are with little probability to be ascribed to the second Hippocrates.

^ He used the term nerve to signify a sinew or tendon.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He appears to have been unaware of the existence of the nervous chords; and the term nerve is used by him, as by Grecian authors in general, to signify a sinew or tendon.

.If, however, we overlook this difficulty, and admit what is contained in the genuine Hippocratic writings to represent at least the sum of knowledge possessed by Hippocrates and his immediate descendants, we find that he represents the brain as a gland, from which exudes a viscid fluid; that the heart is muscular and of pyramidal shape, and has two ventricles separated by a partition, the fountains of life - and two auricles, receptacles of air; that the lungs consist of five ash-coloured lobes, the substance of which is cellular and spongy, naturally dry, but refreshed by the air; and that the kidneys are glands, but possess an attractive faculty, by virtue of which the moisture of the drink is separated and descends into the bladder.^ If, however, we overlook this difficulty, and admit what is contained in the genuine Hippocratic writings to represent at least the sum of knowledge possessed by Hippocrates and his immediate descendants, we find that he represents the brain as a gland, from which exudes a viscid fluid; that the heart is muscular and of pyramidal shape, and has two ventricles separated by a partition , the fountains of life - and two auricles, receptacles of air; that the lungs consist of five ash -coloured lobes, the substance of which is cellular and spongy, naturally dry, but refreshed by the air; and that the kidneys are glands, but possess an attractive faculty, by virtue of which the moisture of the drink is separated and descends into the bladder.

^ He distinguishes the windpipe or air-holder ( aprnpia ) from the oesophagus , because it is placed before the latter, because food or drink passing into it causes distressing cough and suffocation, and because there is no passage from the lung to the stomach .

^ Terminal hair (as that of scalp) have a central core known as the medulla consisting of specialized cells which contain air spaces (see: Types of Hair).
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.He distinguishes the bowels into colon and rectum (i apxos). The knowledge possessed by the second Hippocrates was transmitted in various degrees of purity to the descendants and pupils, chiefly of the family of the Heracleidae, who succeeded him.^ He distinguishes the bowels into colon and rectum ( i apxos).

^ The knowledge possessed by the second Hippocrates was transmitted in various degrees of purity to the descendants and pupils, chiefly of the family of the Heracleidae, who succeeded him.

^ Heracleidae who bore this celebrated name, the second, who was the son of Heraclides and Phenarita, and grandson of the first Hippocrates, was indeed distinguished as a physician of great observation and experience, and the first who appreciated the value of studying accurately the phenomena, effects and terminations of disease.

.Several of these, with feelings of grateful affection, appear to have studied to preserve the written memory of his instructions, and in this manner to have contributed to form part of that collection of treatises which have long been known to the learned world under the general name of the Hippocratic writings. Though composed, like the genuine remains of the physicians of Cos, in the Ionian dialect, all of them differ from these in being more diffuse in style, more elaborate in form, and in studying to invest their anatomical and medical matter with the fanciful ornaments of the Platonic philosophy.^ Though composed, like the genuine remains of the physicians of Cos , in the Ionian dialect , all of them differ from these in being more diffuse in style , more elaborate in form, and in studying to invest their anatomical and medical matter with the fanciful ornaments of the Platonic philosophy .

^ Several of these, with feelings of grateful affection , appear to have studied to preserve the written memory of his instructions, and in this manner to have contributed to form part of that collection of treatises which have long been known to the learned world under the general name of the Hippocratic writings.

^ Learn more about citation styles .
  • anatomy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Hippocrates had the merit of early recognizing the value of facts apart from opinions, and of those facts especially which lead to general results; and in the few genuine writings which are now extant it is easy to perceive that he has recourse to the simplest language, expresses himself in terms which, though short and pithy, are always precise and perspicuous, and is averse to the introduction of philosophical dogmas.^ Hippocrates had the merit of early recognizing the value of facts apart from opinions, and of those facts especially which lead to general results; and in the few genuine writings which are now extant it is easy to perceive that he has recourse to the simplest language, expresses himself in terms which, though short and pithy, are always precise and perspicuous, and is averse to the introduction of philosophical dogmas.

^ The results of previous and coeval inquiry, obtained by extensive reading , he sedulously verified by personal observation; and though he never rejected facts stated on credible authorities, he in all cases laboured to ascertain their real value by experiment.

^ It has long been generally agreed that memory for perceived facts and events is a function of the forebrain, and especially of the cerebral cortex.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Of the greater part of the writings collected under his name, on the contrary the general character is verboseness, prolixity and a great tendency to speculative opinions.^ Of the greater part of the writings collected under his name, on the contrary the general character is verboseness, prolixity and a great tendency to speculative opinions.

^ Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.

^ Though he admits only seven cerebral pairs, he has the merit of distinguishing and tracing the distribution of the greater part of both classes of nerves with great accuracy.

.For these reasons, as well as for others derived from internal evidence, while the Aphorisms, the Epidemics and the works above mentioned, bear distinct marks of being the genuine remains of Hippocrates, it is impossible to regard the book Hepi c 500s a Opcbrov as entirely the composition of that physician; and it appears more reasonable to view it as the work of some one of the numerous disciples to whom the author had communicated the results of his observation, which they unwisely attempted to combine with the philosophy of the Platonic school and their own mysterious opinions.^ For these reasons, as well as for others derived from internal evidence, while the Aphorisms, the Epidemics and the works above mentioned, bear distinct marks of being the genuine remains of Hippocrates, it is impossible to regard the book Hepi c 500s a Opcbrov as entirely the composition of that physician; and it appears more reasonable to view it as the work of some one of the numerous disciples to whom the author had communicated the results of his observation, which they unwisely attempted to combine with the philosophy of the Platonic school and their own mysterious opinions.

^ Naples , - and though the school of Salerno , in the territory of the latter, was still in high repute, - it appears, from the testimony of M. Sarti, that medicine was in the highest esteem in Bologna, and that it was in such perfection as to require a division of its professors into physicians, surgeons, physicians for wounds, barber -surgeons, oculists and even some others.

^ On other points his views are so much combined with peculiar physiological doctrines, that it is impossible to assign them the character of anatomical facts; and even the works in which these doctrines are contained are with little probability to be ascribed to the second Hippocrates.

.Among those who aimed at this distinction, the most fortunate in the preservation of his name is Polybus, the son-in-law of the Pay physician of Cos.^ Among those who aimed at this distinction, the most fortunate in the preservation of his name is Polybus, the son-in-law of the Pay physician of Cos.

^ In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.

^ Another distinguished name is that of Bérenger of Carpi, who did most of his work at Bologna at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This person, who must not be n confounded with the monarch of Corinth, immortalized by Sophocles in the tragic story of Oedipus, is represented as a recluse, severed from the world and its enjoyments, and devoting himself to the study of anatomy and physiology, and to the composition of works on these subjects.^ This person, who must not be n confounded with the monarch of Corinth , immortalized by Sophocles in the tragic story of Oedipus , is represented as a recluse, severed from the world and its enjoyments, and devoting himself to the study of anatomy and physiology, and to the composition of works on these subjects.

^ Practically everybody who has been a main character on the show and their view on what is love and their own personal love stories and how they got to where they are.
  • Grey's Anatomy FanFiction Archive - FanFiction.Net 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: General]

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

.To him has been ascribed the whole of the book on the Nature of the Child and most of that On Man; both physiological treatises interspersed with anatomical sketches.^ To him has been ascribed the whole of the book on the Nature of the Child and most of that On Man; both physiological treatises interspersed with anatomical sketches.

^ His description of the organs of generation is rather brief, and is, like most of his anatomical sketches, too much blended with physiological dogmas.

.His anatomical information, with which we are specially concerned, appears to have been rude and inaccurate, like that of his preceptor.^ His anatomical information, with which we are specially concerned, appears to have been rude and inaccurate, like that of his preceptor .

.He represents the large vessels of the body as consisting of four pairs; the first proceeding from the head by the back of the neck and spinal cord to the hips, lower extremities and outer ankle; the second, consisting of the jugular vessels (al o 4 ayiru es), proceeding to the loins, thighs, hams and inner ankle; the third proceeding from the temples by the neck to the scapula and lungs, and thence by mutual intercrossings to the spleen and left kidney, and the liver and right kidney, and finally to the rectum; and the fourth from the fore-part of the neck to the upper extremities, the fore-part of the trunk, and the organs of generation.^ It encloses and protects the spinal cord and supports the trunk of the body and the head.
  • Skeletal System | Labeled Skeletal System 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.innerbody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muscles of the upper extremity, Muscles of the lower extremity, Muscles of trunk, etc.
  • Dr. Ross's Biol 217 Anatomy and Physiology I at CBU 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He represents the large vessels of the body as consisting of four pairs; the first proceeding from the head by the back of the neck and spinal cord to the hips, lower extremities and outer ankle ; the second, consisting of the jugular vessels (al o 4 ayiru es), proceeding to the loins, thighs, hams and inner ankle; the third proceeding from the temples by the neck to the scapula and lungs, and thence by mutual intercrossings to the spleen and left kidney, and the liver and right kidney, and finally to the rectum; and the fourth from the fore-part of the neck to the upper extremities, the fore-part of the trunk , and the organs of generation.

.This specimen of the anatomical knowledge of one of the most illustrious of the Hippocratic disciples differs not essentially from that of Syennesis, the physician of Cyprus, and Diogenes, the philosopher of Apollonia, two authors for the preservation of whose opinions we are indebted to Aristotle.^ This specimen of the anatomical knowledge of one of the most illustrious of the Hippocratic disciples differs not essentially from that of Syennesis, the physician of Cyprus , and Diogenes , the philosopher of Apollonia , two authors for the preservation of whose opinions we are indebted to Aristotle .

^ By the appearance of Aristotle this species of knowledge, which was hitherto acquired in a desultory and irregular manner, began to be cultivated systematically and with a definite object; and among the services which the philosopher of Stagira rendered to mankind, one of the greatest and most substantial is, that he was the founder of Comparative Anatomy, and was the first to apply its facts to the elucidation of zoology .

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

.They may be admitted as representing the state of anatomical knowledge among the most enlightened men at that time, and they only show how rude and erroneous were their ideas on the structure of the animal body.^ They may be admitted as representing the state of anatomical knowledge among the most enlightened men at that time, and they only show how rude and erroneous were their ideas on the structure of the animal body.

^ But when i start the show they say: it can only streamd from the UNITED-STATES. .
  • Grey's Anatomy - TV Show - Watch Online, Latest Season & Episodes - SideReel 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.sidereel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparative anatomy , the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.It may indeed, without injustice, be said that the anatomy of the Hippocratic school is not only erroneous, but fanciful and imaginary in often substituting mere supposition and assertion for what ought to be matter of fact.^ It may indeed, without injustice, be said that the anatomy of the Hippocratic school is not only erroneous, but fanciful and imaginary in often substituting mere supposition and assertion for what ought to be matter of fact.

^ This is the act which governs the practice of anatomy in the British Isles up to the present day, and which has only been slightly modified as to the time during which bodies may be kept unburied in the schools.

^ Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology , or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy.

.From this censure it is impossible to exempt even the name of Plato himself, for whom some notices in the Timaeus on the structure of the animal body, as taught by Hippocrates and Polybus, have procured a place in the history of the science.^ From this censure it is impossible to exempt even the name of Plato himself, for whom some notices in the Timaeus on the structure of the animal body, as taught by Hippocrates and Polybus, have procured a place in the history of the science.

^ From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology , but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.

^ Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.

.Amidst the general obscurity in which the early history of anatomy is involved, only two leading facts may be admitted Aristotle. with certainty.^ Amidst the general obscurity in which the early history of anatomy is involved, only two leading facts may be admitted Aristotle.

^ Though a follower of the Arabian school, the assiduity with which he cultivated anatomy has rescued his name from the inglorious obscurity in which the Arabian doctors have in general slumbered.

^ Not only the Bull itself did not forbid dissection, but a review of the history of anatomy just after its issuance shows that it was not misinterpreted so as to hamper anatomical progress.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first is, that previous to the time of Aristotle there was no accurate knowledge of anatomy; and the second, that all that was known was derived from the dissection of the lower animals only.^ All of this knowledge had been gained from dissections of animals.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is, that previous to the time of Aristotle there was no accurate knowledge of anatomy; and the second, that all that was known was derived from the dissection of the lower animals only.

^ The military expedition of his royal pupil into Asia , by laying open the animal stores of that vast and little-known continent, furnished Aristotle with the means of extending his knowledge, not only of the animal tribes, but of their structure, and of communicating more accurate and distinct notions than were yet accessible to the world.

.By the appearance of Aristotle this species of knowledge, which was hitherto acquired in a desultory and irregular manner, began to be cultivated systematically and with a definite object; and among the services which the philosopher of Stagira rendered to mankind, one of the greatest and most substantial is, that he was the founder of Comparative Anatomy, and was the first to apply its facts to the elucidation of zoology.^ By the appearance of Aristotle this species of knowledge, which was hitherto acquired in a desultory and irregular manner, began to be cultivated systematically and with a definite object; and among the services which the philosopher of Stagira rendered to mankind, one of the greatest and most substantial is, that he was the founder of Comparative Anatomy, and was the first to apply its facts to the elucidation of zoology .

^ The caliph Mansur combined with his official knowledge of Moslem law the successful cultivation of astronomy ; but to his grandson Mamun , the seventh prince of the line of the Abbasids, belongs the merit of undertaking to render his subjects philosophers and physicians.

^ Pathological anatomy was established as a branch of the science by the Italian physician Giovanni Morgagni, and in the late 18th century comparative anatomy was systematized by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier.

.The works of this ardent and original naturalist show that his zootomical knowledge was extensive and often accurate; and from several of his descriptions it is impossible to doubt that they were derived from frequent personal dissection.^ The works of this ardent and original naturalist show that his zootomical knowledge was extensive and often accurate; and from several of his descriptions it is impossible to doubt that they were derived from frequent personal dissection.

^ Practically everybody who has been a main character on the show and their view on what is love and their own personal love stories and how they got to where they are.
  • Grey's Anatomy FanFiction Archive - FanFiction.Net 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: General]

^ There seems to be no doubt that this Grecian philosopher frequently dissected animals.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aristotle, who was born 384 years before the Christian era, or in the first year of the 99th Olympiad, was at the age of thirty-nine requested by Philip to undertake the education of his son Alexander.^ Aristotle, who was born 384 years before the Christian era, or in the first year of the 99th Olympiad , was at the age of thirty-nine requested by Philip to undertake the education of his son Alexander.

^ This event, which, as is generally known, succeeded the death of Alexander, 320 years before the Christian era, collected into one spot the scattered embers of literature and science, which were beginning to languish in Greece under a weak and distracted government and an unsettled state of society.

^ Of all the authors of antiquity, however, none possesses so just a claim to the title of anatomist as Claudius Galenus, the celebrated physician of Pergamum , who was born about the 130th year of the Christian era, and lived under the reigns of Hadrian , the Antonines, Commodus and Severus .

.During this period it is said he composed several works on anatomy, which, however, are now lost.^ During this period it is said he composed several works on anatomy, which, however, are now lost.

^ Another adaptation with avian skin is the brood patch , an area over the breast that becomes thickened, very vascular and the feathers are lost during the brooding period.

^ If it becomes necessary to remove the tonsils during adulthood, the convalescence period is about two weeks of severe pain, especially upon swallowing.

.The military expedition of his royal pupil into Asia, by laying open the animal stores of that vast and little-known continent, furnished Aristotle with the means of extending his knowledge, not only of the animal tribes, but of their structure, and of communicating more accurate and distinct notions than were yet accessible to the world.^ The military expedition of his royal pupil into Asia , by laying open the animal stores of that vast and little-known continent, furnished Aristotle with the means of extending his knowledge, not only of the animal tribes, but of their structure, and of communicating more accurate and distinct notions than were yet accessible to the world.

^ The first is, that previous to the time of Aristotle there was no accurate knowledge of anatomy; and the second, that all that was known was derived from the dissection of the lower animals only.

^ The works of the Italian anatomists were unknown; and it is a proof of the tardy communication of knowledge that, while the structure of the human body had been taught in Italy for more than a century by Mondino and his followers, these anatomists are never mentioned by Etienne, who flourished long after.

.A sum of Boo talents, and the concurrent aid of numerous intelligent assistants in Greece and Asia, were intended to facilitate his researches in composing a system of zoological knowledge; but it has been observed that the number of instances in which he was thus compelled to trust to the testimony of other observers.^ A sum of Boo talents, and the concurrent aid of numerous intelligent assistants in Greece and Asia, were intended to facilitate his researches in composing a system of zoological knowledge; but it has been observed that the number of instances in which he was thus compelled to trust to the testimony of other observers.

^ With the aid of Tyson and his own researches, which were both extensive and accurate, he composed a system of anatomical knowledge in which he not only gives ample and accurate descriptions of the structure of the human body, and the various morbid changes to which the organs are liable, but illustrates the whole by accurate and interesting sketches of the peculiarities of the lower animals.

^ Other noninvasive techniques that have been developed include the use of ultrasonic waves for imaging soft tissues and the application of nuclear magnetic resonance systems to research and diagnosis.

led him to commit errors in description which personal observation might have enabled him to avoid.
.The first three books of the History of Animals, a treatise consisting of ten books, and the four books on the Parts of Animals, constitute the great monument of the Aristotelian Anatomy.^ The first three books of the History of Animals, a treatise consisting of ten books, and the four books on the Parts of Animals, constitute the great monument of the Aristotelian Anatomy.

^ In France , Winslow like Steno, a Dane, and like him, also, a convert to Catholicism , wrote the first treatise of descriptive anatomy founded on observation alone, and began the series of text-books which made this century famous.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first time in the history of anatomy that the word aorta, Greek aorti , a knapsack, was used.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From these we find that Aristotle was the first who corrected the erroneous statements of Polybus, Syennesis and Diogenes regarding the blood-vessels, which they made, as we have seen, to arise from the head and brain.^ From these we find that Aristotle was the first who corrected the erroneous statements of Polybus, Syennesis and Diogenes regarding the blood-vessels, which they made, as we have seen, to arise from the head and brain.

^ Because of the vast number of people coming on line, there are always those who do not know what a crawler is, because this is the first one they have seen.
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^ Birds also are uricotelic , meaning that they excrete the end product of nitrogen metabolism as uric acid , which is made in the liver and they excreted from the blood.

.These he represents to be two in number, placed before the spinal column, the larger on the right, the smaller on the left, which, he also remarks, is by some called aorta (aoprrt), the first time we observe that this.^ These he represents to be two in number, placed before the spinal column, the larger on the right, the smaller on the left, which, he also remarks, is by some called aorta (aoprrt), the first time we observe that this.

^ This is the first time in the history of anatomy that the word aorta, Greek aorti , a knapsack, was used.
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^ Both he represents to arise from the heart, the larger from the largest upper cavity, the smaller or aorta from the middle cavity, but in a different manner and forming a narrower canal.

epithet occurs in the history. .Both he represents to arise from the heart, the larger from the largest upper cavity, the smaller or aorta from the middle cavity, but in a different manner and forming a narrower canal.^ Both he represents to arise from the heart, the larger from the largest upper cavity, the smaller or aorta from the middle cavity, but in a different manner and forming a narrower canal.

^ The blood completes its circuit by passing through small veins that join to form increasingly larger vessels until it reaches the largest veins, the inferior and superior venae cavae, which return it to the right side of the heart.

^ These he represents to be two in number, placed before the spinal column, the larger on the right, the smaller on the left, which, he also remarks, is by some called aorta (aoprrt), the first time we observe that this.

.He also distinguishes the thick, firm and more tendinous structure of the aorta from the thin and membranous structure of vein.^ He also distinguishes the thick, firm and more tendinous structure of the aorta from the thin and membranous structure of vein.

^ He distinguishes the pleura by the name of inclosing membrane ( i)i,* U7TE- Wkws , membrana succingens ), and remarks its similitude in structure to that of the peritoneum, and the covering which it affords to all the organs.

^ The thick and thin filaments are anchored near the plasma membrane (with the help of intermediate filaments) ).
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.In describing the distribution of the later, however, he confounds the vena cava and pulmonary artery, and, as might be expected, he confounds the ramifications of_the former with those of the arterial tubes in general.^ In describing the distribution of the later, however, he confounds the vena cava and pulmonary artery, and, as might be expected, he confounds the ramifications of_the former with those of the arterial tubes in general.

^ The later volumes are, however, pervaded with the general spirit by which the others are impressed, and are highly creditable to the learning, the judgment and the diligence of P. J. Roux and M. F. R. Buisson.

^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

.While he represents the lung to be liberally supplied with blood, he describes the brain as an organ almost destitute of this fluid.^ While he represents the lung to be liberally supplied with blood, he describes the brain as an organ almost destitute of this fluid.

^ In the account of the stomach he describes the several tissues of which that organ is composed, and which he represents to be three, and a fourth from the peritoneum; and afterwards notices the rugae of its villous surface.

^ It has no blood supply of its own, but obtains nutrients from tissue fluid.
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.His account of the distribution of the aorta is wonderfully correct.^ His account of the distribution of the aorta is wonderfully correct.

.Though he does not notice the coeliac, and remarks that the aorta sends no direct branches to the liver and spleen, he had observed the mesenteric, the renal and the common iliac arteries.^ Though he does not notice the coeliac, and remarks that the aorta sends no direct branches to the liver and spleen, he had observed the mesenteric, the renal and the common iliac arteries.

^ The vertebral and basilar arteries send branches to the brain stem and cerebellum.
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^ Though, in opposition to the opinions of Praxagoras and Erasistratus, he proved that the arteries in the living animal contain not air but blood, it does not appear to have occurred to him to determine in what direction the blood flows, or whether it was movable or stationary.

.It is nevertheless singular that though he remarks particularly that the renal branches of the aorta go to the substance and not the pelvis
(KotXia) of the kidney, he appears to mistake the ureters for branches of the aorta.^ It is nevertheless singular that though he remarks particularly that the renal branches of the aorta go to the substance and not the pelvis (KotXia) of the kidney, he appears to mistake the ureters for branches of the aorta.

^ Though he does not notice the coeliac, and remarks that the aorta sends no direct branches to the liver and spleen, he had observed the mesenteric, the renal and the common iliac arteries.

^ Representing the left ventricle of the heart as the common origin of all the arteries, though he is misled by the pulmonary artery, he nevertheless traces the distribution of the branches of the aorta with some accuracy.

Of the nerves (v�vpa) he appears to have the most confused notions. .Making them arise from the heart, which he says has nerves (tendons) in its largest cavity, he represents the aorta to be a nervous or tendinous vein (vevpans '4AM).' By and by, afterwards saying that all the articulated bones are connected by nerves, he makes them the same as ligaments.^ Making them arise from the heart, which he says has nerves (tendons) in its largest cavity, he represents the aorta to be a nervous or tendinous vein ( vevpans '4AM).'

^ By and by, afterwards saying that all the articulated bones are connected by nerves, he makes them the same as ligaments.

^ Toward the front, for example, extensor retinacula connect the tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) as well as the calcaneus (Achilles tendon) and tissue of the sole of the foot.
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.He distinguishes the windpipe or air-holder (aprnpia) from the oesophagus, because it is placed before the latter, because food or drink passing into it causes distressing cough and suffocation, and because there is no passage from the lung to the stomach.^ Air goes down the trachea to the lungs and food and drink go down the esophagus into the stomach.

^ He distinguishes the windpipe or air-holder ( aprnpia ) from the oesophagus , because it is placed before the latter, because food or drink passing into it causes distressing cough and suffocation, and because there is no passage from the lung to the stomach .

^ I use the term thong tube and thong less frequently these days, as there might be confusion with modern female undergarments- and that is no place for a knife!
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.He knew the situation and use of the epiglottis, seems to have had some indistinct notions of the larynx, represents the windpipe to be necessary to convey air to and from the lungs, and appears to have a tolerable understanding of the structure of the lungs.^ He knew the situation and use of the epiglottis, seems to have had some indistinct notions of the larynx, represents the windpipe to be necessary to convey air to and from the lungs, and appears to have a tolerable understanding of the structure of the lungs.

^ From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology , but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.

^ The term SAE/ he seems, in imitation of the colloquial Greek, to have used generally to signify a blood-vessel, without being aware of the distinction of vein and artery; and the term aprrlp:a, or air-holder, is restricted to the windpipe .

.He repeatedly represents the heart, the shape and site of which he describes accurately, to be the origin of the blood-vessels, in opposition to those who made them descend from the head; yet, though he represents it as full of blood and the source and fountain of that fluid, and even speaks of the blood flowing from the heart to the veins, and thence to every part of the body, he says nothing of the circular motion of the blood.^ Scheme of blood vessels 9-2 The human heart..
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^ He repeatedly represents the heart, the shape and site of which he describes accurately, to be the origin of the blood-vessels, in opposition to those who made them descend from the head; yet, though he represents it as full of blood and the source and fountain of that fluid, and even speaks of the blood flowing from the heart to the veins, and thence to every part of the body, he says nothing of the circular motion of the blood.

^ The blood completes its circuit by passing through small veins that join to form increasingly larger vessels until it reaches the largest veins, the inferior and superior venae cavae, which return it to the right side of the heart.

The diaphragm he distinguishes by the name 8caq'w�a, and irri*-co,ua. .With the liver and spleen, and the whole alimentary canal, he seems well acquainted.^ With the liver and spleen, and the whole alimentary canal, he seems well acquainted.

.The several parts of the quadruple stomach of the ruminating animals are distinguished and named; and he even traces the relations between the teeth and the several forms of stomach, and the length or brevity, the simplicity or complication of the intestinal tube.^ The several parts of the quadruple stomach of the ruminating animals are distinguished and named; and he even traces the relations between the teeth and the several forms of stomach, and the length or brevity, the simplicity or complication of the intestinal tube.

^ Francis Glisson l distinguished himself by a minute description of the liver (1654), and a clearer account of the stomach and intestines, than had yet been given.

^ He enumerates the sutures and several of the holes of the cranium, and describes at great length the superior and inferior maxillary bones and the teeth.

.Upon the same principle he distinguishes the jejunum (' //Cants), or the empty portion of the small intestines in animals (TO g vrepov X eirrOv), the caecum erthOov TL Kai i'yKwBes), the colon (rO Kw%ov), and the sigmoid flexure (aTEvcJTEpov Kai ElXvy i i'ov).^ Upon the same principle he distinguishes the jejunum (' //Cants), or the empty portion of the small intestines in animals ( TO g vrepov X eirrOv), the caecum erthOov TL Kai i'yKwBes ), the colon (rO Kw%ov ), and the sigmoid flexure (aTEvcJTEpov Kai ElXvy i i'ov).

^ In speaking of the intestines he treats first of the rectum, then the colon, the left or sigmoid flexure of which, as well as the transverse arch and its connexion with the stomach, he particularly remarks; then the caecum or monoculus, after this the small intestines in general under the heads of ileum and jejunum, and latterly the duodenum, making in all six bowels.

.The modern epithet of rectum is the literal translation of his description of the straight progress (EUBi") of the bowel to the anus (7rpco?crO). He knew the nasal cavities and the passage from the tympanal cavity of the ear to the palate, afterwards described by B. Eustachius.^ The word rectum is the literal translation of his description of the straight process of the bowel to the anus.
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^ The modern epithet of rectum is the literal translation of his description of the straight progress (EUBi") of the bowel to the anus ( 7rpco?crO).

^ He knew the nasal cavities and the passage from the tympanal cavity of the ear to the palate , afterwards described by B. Eustachius.

.He distinguishes as " partes similares " those structures, such as bone, cartilage, vessels, sinews, blood, lymph, fat, flesh, which, not confined to one locality, but distributed throughout the body generally, we now term the tissues or textures, whilst he applies the term " partes dissimilares " to the regions of the head, neck, trunk and extremities.^ He distinguishes as " partes similares " those structures, such as bone , cartilage , vessels, sinews, blood, lymph , fat, flesh, which, not confined to one locality, but distributed throughout the body generally, we now term the tissues or textures, whilst he applies the term " partes dissimilares " to the regions of the head, neck, trunk and extremities.

^ Comparative structure of blood vessels, Capillary .
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^ He represents the large vessels of the body as consisting of four pairs; the first proceeding from the head by the back of the neck and spinal cord to the hips, lower extremities and outer ankle ; the second, consisting of the jugular vessels (al o 4 ayiru es), proceeding to the loins, thighs, hams and inner ankle; the third proceeding from the temples by the neck to the scapula and lungs, and thence by mutual intercrossings to the spleen and left kidney, and the liver and right kidney, and finally to the rectum; and the fourth from the fore-part of the neck to the upper extremities, the fore-part of the trunk , and the organs of generation.

.Next to Aristotle occur the names of Diodes of Carystus and Praxagoras of Cos, the last of the family of the Asclepiadae.^ Next to Aristotle occur the names of Diodes of Carystus and Praxagoras of Cos, the last of the family of the Asclepiadae.

.The latter is remarkable for being the first who distinguished the arteries from the veins, and the author of the opinion that the former were air-vessels.^ The latter is remarkable for being the first who distinguished the arteries from the veins, and the author of the opinion that the former were air-vessels.

^ Fallopius also described vessels belonging to the liver distinct from arteries and veins; and similar vessels appear to have been noticed by Nicolaus Massa (1499-1569).

^ Izzie Stevens is a former model who doesn't get any special treatment on her first day.
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.Hitherto anatomical inquiry was confined to the examination of the bodies of brute animals.^ Hitherto anatomical inquiry was confined to the examination of the bodies of brute animals.

^ He finally applied his anatomical discoveries to explain many of the physiological and pathological phenomena of the animal body.

^ Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.

.We have, indeed, no testimony of the human body being submitted to examination previous Alexan- to the time of Erasistratus and Herophilus; and it is drian p school. vain to look for authentic facts on this point before the foundation of the Ptolemaic dynasty of sovereigns in Egypt.^ We have, indeed, no testimony of the human body being submitted to examination previous Alexan- to the time of Erasistratus and Herophilus; and it is drian p school.

^ Ptolemaic dynasty of sovereigns in Egypt .

^ From ancient times humans have sought to unravel the secret mechanisms of the body, developing in the process a wealth of medical expertise.

.This event, which, as is generally known, succeeded the death of Alexander, 320 years before the Christian era, collected into one spot the scattered embers of literature and science, which were beginning to languish in Greece under a weak and distracted government and an unsettled state of society.^ This event, which, as is generally known, succeeded the death of Alexander, 320 years before the Christian era, collected into one spot the scattered embers of literature and science, which were beginning to languish in Greece under a weak and distracted government and an unsettled state of society.

^ The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.The children of her divided states, whom domestic discord and the uncertainties of war rendered unhappy at home, wandered into Egypt, and found, under the fostering hand of the Alexandrian monarchs, the means of cultivating the sciences, and repaying with interest to the country of Thoth and Osiris the benefits which had been conferred on the infancy of Greece by Thales and Pythagoras.^ The children of her divided states, whom domestic discord and the uncertainties of war rendered unhappy at home, wandered into Egypt, and found, under the fostering hand of the Alexandrian monarchs, the means of cultivating the sciences, and repaying with interest to the country of Thoth and Osiris the benefits which had been conferred on the infancy of Greece by Thales and Pythagoras .

^ This event, which, as is generally known, succeeded the death of Alexander, 320 years before the Christian era, collected into one spot the scattered embers of literature and science, which were beginning to languish in Greece under a weak and distracted government and an unsettled state of society.

^ The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.

.Alexandria became in this manner the repository of all the learning and knowledge of the civilized world; and while other nations were sinking under the effects of internal animosities and mutual dissensions, or ravaging the earth with the evils of war, the Egyptian Greeks kept alive the sacred flame of science, and preserved mankind from relapsing into their original barbarism.^ Alexandria became in this manner the repository of all the learning and knowledge of the civilized world; and while other nations were sinking under the effects of internal animosities and mutual dissensions, or ravaging the earth with the evils of war, the Egyptian Greeks kept alive the sacred flame of science, and preserved mankind from relapsing into their original barbarism.

^ After a century and a half of foreign warfare or internal animosity, under the successive dynasties of the Omayyads and Abbasids , in which the propagation of Islam was the pretext for the extinction of learning and civilization, and the most remorseless system of rapine and destruction, the Saracens began, under the latter dynasty of princes, to recognize the value of science, and especially of that which prolongs life, heals disease and alleviates the pain of wounds and injuries.

^ The other interns learn that in order to be a good surgeon and doctor, much more than medial knowledge is needed.
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These happy effects are to be ascribed in an eminent degree to the enlightened government and liberal opinions of Ptolemy Soter, and his immediate successors Philadelphus and Euergetes. .The two latter princes, whose authority was equalled only by the zeal with which they patronized science and its professors, were the first who enabled physicians to dissect the human body, and prevented the prejudices of ignorance and superstition from compromising the welfare of the human race.^ First he dissected human bodies to show you how they work.

^ The two latter princes, whose authority was equalled only by the zeal with which they patronized science and its professors, were the first who enabled physicians to dissect the human body, and prevented the prejudices of ignorance and superstition from compromising the welfare of the human race.

^ In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.

.To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

^ None of the world’s oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Both these physicians flourished under Ptolemy Soter, and probably Ptolemy Philadelphus, and were indeed the principal supports of what has been named in medical history the Alexandrian School, to which their reputation seems to have attracted numerous pupils.^ Both these physicians flourished under Ptolemy Soter, and probably Ptolemy Philadelphus, and were indeed the principal supports of what has been named in medical history the Alexandrian School , to which their reputation seems to have attracted numerous pupils.

^ Both of these are anti-fungal medications.

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

.But though the concurrent testimony of antiquity assigns to these physicians the merit of dissecting the humon body, time, which wages endless war with the vanity and ambition of man, has dealt hardly with the monuments of their labours.^ But though the concurrent testimony of antiquity assigns to these physicians the merit of dissecting the humon body, time, which wages endless war with the vanity and ambition of man, has dealt hardly with the monuments of their labours.

^ The English law , since the time of Henry VIII ., allowed only the bodies of persons executed for murder to be dissected, and the supply seems to have been sufficient for the humble needs of the time.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

.As the works of neither have been preserved, great uncertainty prevails as to the respective merits of these ancient anatomists; and all that is now known of their anatomical researches is obtained from the occasional notices of Galen, Oribasius and some other writers.^ Galen had himself ascertained by personal research from that which was known by other anatomists.

^ Dissection is basic to all anatomical research.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the works of neither have been preserved, great uncertainty prevails as to the respective merits of these ancient anatomists; and all that is now known of their anatomical researches is obtained from the occasional notices of Galen, Oribasius and some other writers.

.From these it appears that Erasistratus recognized the valves of the heart, Erasis- and distinguished them by the names of tricuspidd and tratus. g y p sigmoid; that he studied particularly the shape and structure of the brain, and its divisions, and cavities, and membranes, and likened the convolutions to the folds of the jejunum; that he first formed a distinct idea of the nature of the nerves, which he made issue from the brain; and that he discovered lymphatic vessels in the mesentery, first in brute animals, and afterwards, it is said, in man.^ From these it appears that Erasistratus recognized the valves of the heart, Erasis- and distinguished them by the names of tricuspidd and tratus.

^ He studied the convolutions of the brain and recognized the nature of nerves which he described as coming from the brain.
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^ Erasistratus discovered the heart valves and called them, from their forms, sigmoid and tricuspid.
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.He appears also to have distinguished the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.^ He distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ He appears also to have distinguished the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ Like Erasistratus, he appears to have studied carefully the configuration of the brain; and though, like him, he distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of voluntary motion, he adds to them the ligaments and tendons.

.Of Herophilus it is said that he had extensive anatomical knowledge, acquired by dissecting not only brutes but human bodies.^ Anatomical position of human body.
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^ Of Herophilus it is said that he had extensive anatomical knowledge, acquired by dissecting not only brutes but human bodies.

^ On the Fabric of the Human Body Online, full-text access to an illustrated Renaissance anatomical atlas written between 1543-1555 by Andreas Vesalius.
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.Of these he probably dissected more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.^ Of these he probably dissected more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.

^ He declared that he had dissected more than one hundred human bodies.
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^ His dissections of the eye and of the ear made anatomical knowledge of these structures, also, much more definite.
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.Devoted to the assiduous cultivation of anatomy, he appears to have studied with particular attention those parts which were least understood.^ Devoted to the assiduous cultivation of anatomy, he appears to have studied with particular attention those parts which were least understood.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

^ After this he appears to have visited various cities distinguished for philosophical or medical teachers; and, finally, to have gone to Alexandria with the view of cultivating more accurately and intimately the study of anatomy under Heraclianus.

.He recognized the nature of the pulmonary artery, which he denominates arterious vein; he knew the vessels of the mesentery, and showed that they did not go to the vena portae, but to certain glandular bodies; and he first applied the name of twelve-inch or duodenum (8c08EKaSaKTvXos) to that part of the alimentary canal which is next to the stomach.^ Digestive Tract This 3-part model shows the alimentary canal from ...

^ He recognized the nature of the pulmonary artery, which he denominates arterious vein; he knew the vessels of the mesentery, and showed that they did not go to the vena portae, but to certain glandular bodies; and he first applied the name of twelve- inch or duodenum (8c08EKaSaKTvXos ) to that part of the alimentary canal which is next to the stomach.

^ Herophilus applied the name of twelve inch portion of the intestine to the part which has since been called the duodenum.
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.Like Erasistratus, he appears to have studied carefully the configuration of the brain; and though, like him, he distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of voluntary motion, he adds to them the ligaments and tendons.^ He distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ Like Erasistratus, he appears to have studied carefully the configuration of the brain; and though, like him, he distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of voluntary motion, he adds to them the ligaments and tendons.

^ He appears also to have distinguished the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

.A tolerable description of the liver by this anatomist is preserved in the writings of Galen.^ A tolerable description of the liver by this anatomist is preserved in the writings of Galen.

.He first applied the name of choroid or vascular membrane to that which is found in the cerebral ventricles; he knew the straight venous sinus which still bears his name; and to him the linear furrow at the bottom of the fourth ventricle is indebted for its name of calamus scriptorius. The celebrity of these two great anatomists appears to have thrown into the shade for a long period the names of all other inquirers; for, among their numerous and rather celebrated successors in the Alexandrian school, it is impossible to recognize a name which is entitled to distinction in the history of anatomy.^ He first applied the name of choroid or vascular membrane to that which is found in the cerebral ventricles; he knew the straight venous sinus which still bears his name; and to him the linear furrow at the bottom of the fourth ventricle is indebted for its name of calamus scriptorius.

^ The celebrity of these two great anatomists appears to have thrown into the shade for a long period the names of all other inquirers; for, among their numerous and rather celebrated successors in the Alexandrian school, it is impossible to recognize a name which is entitled to distinction in the history of anatomy.

^ While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.

.In a chasm so wide it is not uninteresting to find, in one who combined the characters of the greatest orator and philosopher of Rome, the most distinct traces of attention to anatomical knowledge.^ In a chasm so wide it is not uninteresting to find, in one who combined the characters of the greatest orator and philosopher of Rome , the most distinct traces of attention to anatomical knowledge.

^ By the appearance of Aristotle this species of knowledge, which was hitherto acquired in a desultory and irregular manner, began to be cultivated systematically and with a definite object; and among the services which the philosopher of Stagira rendered to mankind, one of the greatest and most substantial is, that he was the founder of Comparative Anatomy, and was the first to apply its facts to the elucidation of zoology .

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.Cicero, in his treatise De Natura Deorum, in a short sketch of physiology, such as it was taught by Aristotle and his disciples, introduces various anatomical notices, from which the classical reader may form some idea of the state of anatomy at that time.^ Cicero , in his treatise De Natura Deorum, in a short sketch of physiology, such as it was taught by Aristotle and his disciples, introduces various anatomical notices, from which the classical reader may form some idea of the state of anatomy at that time.

^ The idea behind the series was that by looking at the basic anatomy and physiology of the various body systems from a doctor's perspective, we gain a unique perspective.
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

.The Roman orator appears to have formed a pretty distinct idea of the shape and connexions of the windpipe and lungs; and though he informs his readers that he knows the alimentary canal, he omits the details through motives of delicacy.^ The Roman orator appears to have formed a pretty distinct idea of the shape and connexions of the windpipe and lungs; and though he informs his readers that he knows the alimentary canal, he omits the details through motives of delicacy.

^ He had formed a just idea of the articular connexions, and is desirous to impress the fact that none is formed without cartilage.

^ He gave the first distinct ideas on the organization of the lung, and the mode in which the bronchial tubes and vessels terminate in that organ.

.In imitation of Aristotle, he talks of the blood being conveyed by the veins (venue), that is, blood-vessels, through the body at large; and, like Praxagoras, of the air inhaled by the lungs being conveyed through the arteries.^ Comparative structure of blood vessels, Artery, Vein .
  • Anatomy Drill and Practice 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In imitation of Aristotle, he talks of the blood being conveyed by the veins (venue), that is, blood-vessels, through the body at large; and, like Praxagoras, of the air inhaled by the lungs being conveyed through the arteries.

^ Thus it regulates the flow of blood in the arteries moves your breakfast along through your gastrointestinal tract expels urine from your urinary bladder sends babies out into the world from the uterus regulates the flow of air through the lungs The contraction of smooth muscle is generally not under voluntary control.
  • Muscles 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aretaeus, though chiefly known as a medical author, makes some observations on the lung and the pleura, maintains the glandular structure of the kidney, and describes the anastomosis or communications of the capillary extremities of the vena cava with those of the portal vein.
.The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus, one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

^ The system of A. Portal is a valuable and correct digest of anatomical and French pathological knowledge, which, in exact literary systematic information, is worthy of ' the author of the Histoire anatode l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, and, in accuracy of mists.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.He left, indeed, no Celsus. express anatomical treatise; but from the introductions to the 4th and 8th books of his work, De Medicine, with incidental remarks in the 7th, the modern reader may form very just ideas of his anatomical attainments.^ He left, indeed, no Celsus.

^ De Medicine, with incidental remarks in the 7th, the modern reader may form very just ideas of his anatomical attainments.

^ The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.From these it appears that Celsus was well acquainted with the windpipe and lungs and the heart; with the difference between the windpipe and oesophagus (stomachus), which leads to the stomach (ventriculus); and with the shape, situation and relations of the diaphragm.^ From these it appears that Celsus was well acquainted with the windpipe and lungs and the heart; with the difference between the windpipe and oesophagus ( stomachus ), which leads to the stomach ( ventriculus); and with the shape, situation and relations of the diaphragm.

^ He distinguishes the windpipe or air-holder ( aprnpia ) from the oesophagus , because it is placed before the latter, because food or drink passing into it causes distressing cough and suffocation, and because there is no passage from the lung to the stomach .

^ He enumerates also the principal facts relating to the situation of the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and the stomach.

.He enumerates also the principal facts relating to the situation of the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and the stomach.^ He enumerates also the principal facts relating to the situation of the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and the stomach.

^ It shows that the heart, vessels, liver, spleen , kidneys, ureters and bladder were recognized, and that the blood-vessels were known to come from the heart.

^ The first seven plates illustrate the history of the kidneys and some of the facts relating to the structure of the ear.

.He appears, however, to have been unaware of the distinction of duodenum or twelve-inch bowel, already admitted by Herophilus, and represents the stomach as directly connected by means of the pylorus with the jejunum or upper part of the small intestine.^ He appears, however, to have been unaware of the distinction of duodenum or twelve-inch bowel, already admitted by Herophilus, and represents the stomach as directly connected by means of the pylorus with the jejunum or upper part of the small intestine .

^ In speaking of the intestines he treats first of the rectum, then the colon, the left or sigmoid flexure of which, as well as the transverse arch and its connexion with the stomach, he particularly remarks; then the caecum or monoculus, after this the small intestines in general under the heads of ileum and jejunum, and latterly the duodenum, making in all six bowels.

^ He recognized the nature of the pulmonary artery, which he denominates arterious vein; he knew the vessels of the mesentery, and showed that they did not go to the vena portae, but to certain glandular bodies; and he first applied the name of twelve- inch or duodenum (8c08EKaSaKTvXos ) to that part of the alimentary canal which is next to the stomach.

.The 7th and 8th books, which are devoted to the consideration of those diseases which are treated by manual operation, contain sundry anatomical notices necessary to explain the nature of the diseases or mode of treatment.^ The 7th and 8th books, which are devoted to the consideration of those diseases which are treated by manual operation, contain sundry anatomical notices necessary to explain the nature of the diseases or mode of treatment.

^ You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing any medication.

^ If a product or treatment is recommended in these pages, it is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these, indeed, the merit is unequal; and it is not wonderful that the ignorance of the day prevented Celsus from understanding rightly the mechanism of Herophilus. the pathology of hernia.^ Of these, indeed, the merit is unequal; and it is not wonderful that the ignorance of the day prevented Celsus from understanding rightly the mechanism of Herophilus.

.He appears, however, to have formed a tolerably just idea of the mode of cutting into the urinary bladder; and even his obstetrical instructions show that his knowledge of the uterus, vagina and appendages was not contemptible.^ He appears, however, to have formed a tolerably just idea of the mode of cutting into the urinary bladder; and even his obstetrical instructions show that his knowledge of the uterus, vagina and appendages was not contemptible.

^ He had formed a just idea of the articular connexions, and is desirous to impress the fact that none is formed without cartilage.

^ De Medicine, with incidental remarks in the 7th, the modern reader may form very just ideas of his anatomical attainments.

.It is in osteology, however, that the information of Celsus is chiefly conspicuous.^ It is in osteology, however, that the information of Celsus is chiefly conspicuous.

.He enumerates the sutures and several of the holes of the cranium, and describes at great length the superior and inferior maxillary bones and the teeth.^ He enumerates the sutures and several of the holes of the cranium, and describes at great length the superior and inferior maxillary bones and the teeth.

^ He names and distinguishes the bones and sutures of the cranium nearly in the same manner as at present.

^ The lateral nasal walls contain 3 pairs each of small, thin, shell-like bones: the superior, middle, and inferior conchae, which form the bony framework of the turbinates.
  • Nose Anatomy: eMedicine Clinical Procedures 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.With a good deal of care he describes the vertebrae and the ribs, and gives very briefly the situation and shape of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna, and even of the carpal and metacarpal bones, and then of the different bones of the pelvis and lower extremities.^ With a good deal of care he describes the vertebrae and the ribs, and gives very briefly the situation and shape of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna, and even of the carpal and metacarpal bones, and then of the different bones of the pelvis and lower extremities.

^ SCOI Hand Anatomy Labeled schematics demonstrate how the hand is composed of many small bones called carpals, metacarpals and phalanges.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The integumentary derivatives (appendages) 3-3 A bursa--the simplest serous cavity 4-1 A mature long bone (femur) 4-2 A "typical synovial joint"--diagrammatic 4-3A Anterior view of the human skeleton 4-3B Posterior view of the human skeleton 4-4 A typical vertebra (superior and side views) 4-5 The human thorax with bones of the shoulder region 4-6 The human skull (front and side views) 4-7 A general pattern of the upper and lower members 4-8 The human scapula and clavicle (pectoral girdle) 4-9 The humerus, radius, and ulna 4-10 The human hand 4-11 The bony pelvis (two pelvic bones and sacrum).
  • ø The #1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Course ø | Learn About The Human Body With Illustrations and Pictures ø 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.humananatomycourse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He had formed a just idea of the articular connexions, and is desirous to impress the fact that none is formed without cartilage.^ He had formed a just idea of the articular connexions, and is desirous to impress the fact that none is formed without cartilage.

^ De Medicine, with incidental remarks in the 7th, the modern reader may form very just ideas of his anatomical attainments.

.From his mention of many minute holes (multa et tenuia foramina) in the recess of the nasal cavities, it is evident that he was acquainted with the perforated plate of the ethmoid bone; and from saying that the straight part of the auditory canal becomes flexuous and terminates in numerous minute cavities (multa et tenuia foramina diducitur), it is inferred by Portal that he knew the semicircular canals.^ From his mention of many minute holes ( multa et tenuia foramina) in the recess of the nasal cavities, it is evident that he was acquainted with the perforated plate of the ethmoid bone; and from saying that the straight part of the auditory canal becomes flexuous and terminates in numerous minute cavities ( multa et tenuia foramina diducitur ), it is inferred by Portal that he knew the semicircular canals.

^ Quiz # 5 will cover the skull (ID bones, parts of bones, sutures, and foramina from diagrams, photos, and/or real skulls or model skulls).
  • Dr. Ross's Biol 217 Anatomy and Physiology I at CBU 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Posterosuperiorly, the bony nasal septum is composed of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid (see Image 5 ).
  • Nose Anatomy: eMedicine Clinical Procedures 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

.It is at least certain that the appearance of Marinus during the reign of Nero is mentioned by authors as an era remarkable for anatomical inquiry, and that this person is distinguished by Galen as the restorer of a branch of knowledge which had been before him suffered to fall into undeserved neglect.^ It is at least certain that the appearance of Marinus during the reign of Nero is mentioned by authors as an era remarkable for anatomical inquiry, and that this person is distinguished by Galen as the restorer of a branch of knowledge which had been before him suffered to fall into undeserved neglect.

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

.From Galen also we learn that Marinus gave an accurate account of the muscles, that he studied particularly the glands, and that he discovered those of the mesentery.^ From Galen also we learn that Marinus gave an accurate account of the muscles, that he studied particularly the glands, and that he discovered those of the mesentery.

^ From Vesalius’ exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels , nervous system , and digestive tract , his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems .
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.He fixed the number of nerves at seven; he observed the palatine nerves, which he rated as the fourth pair; and described as the fifth the auditory and facial, which he regards as one pair, and the hypoglossal as the sixth.^ He fixed the number of nerves at seven; he observed the palatine nerves, which he rated as the fourth pair; and described as the fifth the auditory and facial, which he regards as one pair, and the hypoglossal as the sixth.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

.Not long after Marinus appeared Rufus (or Ruffus) of Ephesus, a Greek physician, who in the reign of Trajan was much attached to physiology, and as a means of cultivating this science R studied Comparative Anatomy and made sundry experiments on living animals.^ Not long after Marinus appeared Rufus (or Ruffus) of Ephesus , a Greek physician, who in the reign of Trajan was much attached to physiology, and as a means of cultivating this science R studied Comparative Anatomy and made sundry experiments on living animals.

^ Comparative anatomy of animals .
  • Anatomy - Related Items - MSN Encarta 22 September 2009 11:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This person, who must not be n confounded with the monarch of Corinth , immortalized by Sophocles in the tragic story of Oedipus , is represented as a recluse, severed from the world and its enjoyments, and devoting himself to the study of anatomy and physiology, and to the composition of works on these subjects.

.Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.^ Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.

^ Regions of the human body 1-2 Anatomical position and medial-lateral relationships 1-3A The sagittal plane 1-3B The horizontal plane.
  • ø The #1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Course ø | Learn About The Human Body With Illustrations and Pictures ø 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.humananatomycourse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

.He appears, however, to have directed attention particularly to the tortuous course of the uterine vessels, and to have recognized even at this early period the Fallopian tube.^ He appears, however, to have directed attention particularly to the tortuous course of the uterine vessels, and to have recognized even at this early period the Fallopian tube.

^ The attention of anatomists was now directed to the elucidation of the most obscure and least explored parts of the human frame - the lymphatic vessels and the nerves.

^ Relationship of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes to the ovaries, uterus, and associated structures (Part 2) .
  • Anatomy Drill and Practice 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.^ He distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ He appears also to have distinguished the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ Like Erasistratus, he appears to have studied carefully the configuration of the brain; and though, like him, he distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of voluntary motion, he adds to them the ligaments and tendons.

.He knew the recurrent nerve.^ He knew the recurrent nerve.

.His name is further associated with the ancient experiment of compressing in the situation of the carotid arteries the pneumogastric nerve, and thereby inducing insensibility and loss of voice.^ His name is further associated with the ancient experiment of compressing in the situation of the carotid arteries the pneumogastric nerve, and thereby inducing insensibility and loss of voice.

.Of all the authors of antiquity, however, none possesses so just a claim to the title of anatomist as Claudius Galenus, the celebrated physician of Pergamum, who was born about the 130th year of the Christian era, and lived under the reigns of Hadrian, the Antonines, Commodus and Severus.^ Of all the authors of antiquity, however, none possesses so just a claim to the title of anatomist as Claudius Galenus, the celebrated physician of Pergamum , who was born about the 130th year of the Christian era, and lived under the reigns of Hadrian , the Antonines, Commodus and Severus .

^ Soranus the anatomist must be distinguished from the physician of that name, who was also a native of Ephesus.

^ And thanks to all of you who sent me links about this exhibition!

.He was trained by his father Nicon (whose memory he embalms as an eminent mathematician, architect and astronomer) in all the learning of the day, and initiated particularly into the mysteries of the Aristotelian philosophy.^ He was trained by his father Nicon (whose memory he embalms as an eminent mathematician, architect and astronomer) in all the learning of the day, and initiated particularly into the mysteries of the Aristotelian philosophy.

.In an order somewhat whimsical he afterwards studied philosophy successively in the schools of the Stoics, the Academics, the Peripatetics and the Epicureans.^ In an order somewhat whimsical he afterwards studied philosophy successively in the schools of the Stoics , the Academics, the Peripatetics and the Epicureans.

.When he was seventeen years of age, his father, he informs us, was admonished by a dream to devote his son to the study of medicine; but it was fully two years after that Galen entered on this pursuit, under the auspices of an instructor whose name he has thought proper to conceal.^ When he was seventeen years of age, his father, he informs us, was admonished by a dream to devote his son to the study of medicine; but it was fully two years after that Galen entered on this pursuit, under the auspices of an instructor whose name he has thought proper to conceal.

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

^ The death of Galen, which took place at Pergamum in the seventieth year of his age and the tooth of the Christian era, may be regarded as the downfall of anatomy in ancient times.

.Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

^ It is wonderful, however, how much descriptive anatomy was taught in the days before text-books were ,coi o .and how much of what is essential to the study of surgery and medicine the students knew.

.He had scarcely attained the age of twenty when he had occasion to deplore the loss of the first and most affectionate guide of his studies; and soon after he proceeded to Smyrna to obtain the anatomical instructions of Pelops, who, though mystified by some of the errors of Hippocrates, is commemorated by his pupil as a skilful anatomist.^ He had scarcely attained the age of twenty when he had occasion to deplore the loss of the first and most affectionate guide of his studies; and soon after he proceeded to Smyrna to obtain the anatomical instructions of Pelops , who, though mystified by some of the errors of Hippocrates, is commemorated by his pupil as a skilful anatomist.

^ Of the first it may be said that the rude information obtained by the slaughter of animals for sacrifice does not imply profound anatomical knowledge; and those who adduce the second as evidence are deceived by the language of the poet of the Trojan War, which, distinguishing certain parts by their ordinary Greek epithets, as afterwards used by Hippocrates , Galen and all anatomists, has been rather too easily supposed to prove that the poet had studied systematically the structure of the human frame.

^ Illustrated Pocket Anatomy - Anatomy of the Muscles and Skeletal Systems 20 Pack These folding study guides take our most popular a...

.After this he appears to have visited various cities distinguished for philosophical or medical teachers; and, finally, to have gone to Alexandria with the view of cultivating more accurately and intimately the study of anatomy under Heraclianus.^ After this he appears to have visited various cities distinguished for philosophical or medical teachers; and, finally, to have gone to Alexandria with the view of cultivating more accurately and intimately the study of anatomy under Heraclianus.

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.Here he remained till his twenty-eighth year, when he regarded himself as possessed of all the knowledge then attainable through the medium of teachers.^ Here he remained till his twenty-eighth year, when he regarded himself as possessed of all the knowledge then attainable through the medium of teachers.

^ An accurate knowledge of all the details of the human body takes years of patient observation to gain and is possessed by only a few.

He now returned to Pergamum to exercise the art which he had so anxiously studied, and received, in his� twenty-ninth year, an unequivocal testimony of the confidence which his fellow-citizens reposed in his skill, by being intrusted with the treatment of the wounded gladiators; and in this capacity he is said to have treated wounds with success which were fatal under former treatment. .A seditious tumult appears to have caused him to form the resolution of quitting Pergamum and proceeding to Rome at the age of thirty-two.^ A seditious tumult appears to have caused him to form the resolution of quitting Pergamum and proceeding to Rome at the age of thirty-two.

^ Anxiety, however, to complete his preparations detained him at Florence till the close of 1785; and from these causes his work did not appear till 1787.

^ Though he died at the early age of thirty-two, he acquired a reputation not inferior to that of the most eminent of his contemporaries.

.Here, however, he remained only five years; and returning once more to Pergamum, after travelling for some time, finally settled in Rome as physician to the emperor Commodus.^ Here, however, he remained only five years; and returning once more to Pergamum, after travelling for some time, finally settled in Rome as physician to the emperor Commodus.

^ Here I have highlighted some more components.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of all the authors of antiquity, however, none possesses so just a claim to the title of anatomist as Claudius Galenus, the celebrated physician of Pergamum , who was born about the 130th year of the Christian era, and lived under the reigns of Hadrian , the Antonines, Commodus and Severus .

.The anatomical writings ascribed to Galen, which are numerous, are to be viewed not merely as the result of personal research and information, but as the common depository of the anatomical knowledge of the day, and as combining all that he had learnt from the several teachers under whom he successively studied with whatever personal investigation enabled him to acquire.^ The anatomical writings ascribed to Galen, which are numerous, are to be viewed not merely as the result of personal research and information, but as the common depository of the anatomical knowledge of the day, and as combining all that he had learnt from the several teachers under whom he successively studied with whatever personal investigation enabled him to acquire.

^ The 16th century had commenced before France began to acquire anatomical distinction in the names of Jacques Dubois , Jean Fernel and Charles Etienne; and even these celebrated teachers were less solicitous in the personal study of the animal body than in the faithful explanation of the anatomical writings of Galen.

^ To him has been ascribed the whole of the book on the Nature of the Child and most of that On Man; both physiological treatises interspersed with anatomical sketches.

It is on this. account not always easy to distinguish what .Galen had himself ascertained by personal research from that which was known by other anatomists.^ Galen had himself ascertained by personal research from that which was known by other anatomists.

^ As the works of neither have been preserved, great uncertainty prevails as to the respective merits of these ancient anatomists; and all that is now known of their anatomical researches is obtained from the occasional notices of Galen, Oribasius and some other writers.

.This, however, though of moment to the history of Galen as an anatomist, is of little consequence to the science itself; and from the anatomical remains of this author a pretty just idea may be formed both of the progress and of the actual state of the science at that time.^ This, however, though of moment to the history of Galen as an anatomist, is of little consequence to the science itself; and from the anatomical remains of this author a pretty just idea may be formed both of the progress and of the actual state of the science at that time.

^ With greater coarseness in his manners and language than even the rude state of society in his times can palliate, with much varied learning and considerable eloquence, he was a blind, indiscriminate and irrational admirer of Galen, and interpreted the anatomical and physiological writings of that author in preference to giving demonstrations from the subject.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.The osteology of Galen is undoubtedly the most perfect of the departments of the anatomy of the ancients.^ The osteology of Galen is undoubtedly the most perfect of the departments of the anatomy of the ancients.

^ The death of Galen, which took place at Pergamum in the seventieth year of his age and the tooth of the Christian era, may be regarded as the downfall of anatomy in ancient times.

^ Though in myology Galen appears to less advantage than in osteology, he nevertheless had carried this part of anatomical knowledge to greater perfection than any of his predecessors.

.He names and distinguishes the bones and sutures of the cranium nearly in the same manner as at present.^ He names and distinguishes the bones and sutures of the cranium nearly in the same manner as at present.

^ He enumerates the sutures and several of the holes of the cranium, and describes at great length the superior and inferior maxillary bones and the teeth.

^ In his book on injuries of the head, and in that on fractures, he shows that he knew the sutures of the cranium and the relative situation of the bones, and that he had some notion of the shape of the bones in general and of their mutual connexions.

.Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.^ Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.

^ Besides the first good description of the sphenoid bone, he showed that the sternum consists of three portions and the sacrum of five or six; and described accurately the vestibule in the interior of the temporal bone.

^ His general manner is to notice shortly the situation and shape or distribution of textures or membranes, and then to mention the disorders to which they are subject.

.Of the ethmoid, which he omits at first, he afterwards speaks more at large in another treatise.^ Of the ethmoid, which he omits at first, he afterwards speaks more at large in another treatise.

.The malar he notices under the name of zygomatic bone; and he describes at length the upper maxillary and nasal bones, and the connexion of the former with the sphenoid.^ The malar he notices under the name of zygomatic bone; and he describes at length the upper maxillary and nasal bones, and the connexion of the former with the sphenoid.

^ Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

.He gives the first clear account of the number and situation of the vertebrae, which he divides into cervical, dorsal and lumbar, and distinguishes from the sacrum and coccyx.^ He gives the first clear account of the number and situation of the vertebrae, which he divides into cervical, dorsal and lumbar, and distinguishes from the sacrum and coccyx.

^ All the thoracic (T1 - T12), lumbar (L1 - L5) and sacral (S1 - S5) nerves go through foramina below the equivalently numbered vertebrae.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ C8 emerges between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae.
  • Spinal Cord, Topographical and Functional Anatomy: eMedicine Clinical Procedures 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Under the head Bones of the Thorax, he enumerates the sternum, the ribs (ai irXevpai), and the dorsal vertebrae, the connexion of which with the former he designates.^ Under the head Bones of the Thorax , he enumerates the sternum, the ribs (ai irXevpai), and the dorsal vertebrae, the connexion of which with the former he designates.

^ Most of the vertebrae, pelvis, sternum and rib bones are hollow and the marrow has been eliminated.

^ In his book on injuries of the head, and in that on fractures, he shows that he knew the sutures of the cranium and the relative situation of the bones, and that he had some notion of the shape of the bones in general and of their mutual connexions.

as a variety of .diarthrosis. The description of the bones of the extremities and their articulations concludes the treatise.^ The description of the bones of the extremities and their articulations concludes the treatise.

.Though in myology Galen appears to less advantage than in osteology, he nevertheless had carried this part of anatomical knowledge to greater perfection than any of his predecessors.^ Though in myology Galen appears to less advantage than in osteology, he nevertheless had carried this part of anatomical knowledge to greater perfection than any of his predecessors.

^ These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.

^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

.He describes a frontal muscle, the six muscles of the eye and a seventh proper to animals; a muscle to each ala nasi, four muscles of the lips, the thin cutaneous muscle of the neck, which he first termed platysma myoides or muscular expansion, two muscles of the eyelids, and four pairs of muscles of the lower jaw - the temporal to raise, the masseter to draw to one side, and two depressors, corresponding to the digastric and internal pterygoid muscles.^ He describes a frontal muscle , the six muscles of the eye and a seventh proper to animals; a muscle to each ala nasi, four muscles of the lips, the thin cutaneous muscle of the neck, which he first termed platysma myoides or muscular expansion, two muscles of the eyelids, and four pairs of muscles of the lower jaw - the temporal to raise, the masseter to draw to one side, and two depressors, corresponding to the digastric and internal pterygoid muscles.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

^ Spinal nerves (yellow) have emerged from between every two vertebrae and travel down the lower limbs to innervate (give life to) the skin and muscle.
  • Disc Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.chirogeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After speaking of the muscles which move the head and the scapula, he adverts to those by which the windpipe is opened and shut, and the intrinsic or proper muscles of the larynx and hyoid bone.^ After speaking of the muscles which move the head and the scapula, he adverts to those by which the windpipe is opened and shut, and the intrinsic or proper muscles of the larynx and hyoid bone.

^ The smooth, dome-shaped head of the bone lies at an angle to the shaft and fits into a shallow socket of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint.
  • Skeletal System | Labeled Skeletal System 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.innerbody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SCOI Shoulder Anatomy Labeled schematics demonstrate the bones of the shoulder- the humerus and the scapula, the glenohumeral cavity and muscle attachments and relationships.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Then follow those of the tongue, pharynx and neck, those of the upper extremities, the trunk and the lower extremities successively; and in the course of this description he swerves so little from the actual facts that most of the names by which he distinguishes the principal muscles have been retained by the best modern anatomists.^ Then follow those of the tongue, pharynx and neck, those of the upper extremities, the trunk and the lower extremities successively; and in the course of this description he swerves so little from the actual facts that most of the names by which he distinguishes the principal muscles have been retained by the best modern anatomists.

^ Muscles of the upper extremity, Muscles of the lower extremity, Muscles of trunk, etc.
  • Dr. Ross's Biol 217 Anatomy and Physiology I at CBU 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Those most distinguished by the.

.It is chiefly in the minute account of these organs, and especially in reference to the minuter muscles, that he appears inferior to the moderns.^ It is chiefly in the minute account of these organs, and especially in reference to the minuter muscles, that he appears inferior to the moderns.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

^ He appears, however, not to have understood well the inferior recesses; and his account of the nerves is confused by regarding the optic as the first pair, the third as the fifth and the fifth as the seventh.

.The angiological knowledge of Galen, though vitiated by the erroneous physiology of the times and ignorance of the separate uses of arteries and veins, exhibits, nevertheless, some accurate facts which show the diligence of the author in dissection.^ The angiological knowledge of Galen, though vitiated by the erroneous physiology of the times and ignorance of the separate uses of arteries and veins, exhibits, nevertheless, some accurate facts which show the diligence of the author in dissection.

^ The works of this ardent and original naturalist show that his zootomical knowledge was extensive and often accurate; and from several of his descriptions it is impossible to doubt that they were derived from frequent personal dissection.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.Though, in opposition to the opinions of Praxagoras and Erasistratus, he proved that the arteries in the living animal contain not air but blood, it does not appear to have occurred to him to determine in what direction the blood flows, or whether it was movable or stationary.^ Though, in opposition to the opinions of Praxagoras and Erasistratus, he proved that the arteries in the living animal contain not air but blood, it does not appear to have occurred to him to determine in what direction the blood flows, or whether it was movable or stationary.

^ In imitation of Aristotle, he talks of the blood being conveyed by the veins (venue), that is, blood-vessels, through the body at large; and, like Praxagoras, of the air inhaled by the lungs being conveyed through the arteries.

^ Like Erasistratus, he appears to have studied carefully the configuration of the brain; and though, like him, he distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of voluntary motion, he adds to them the ligaments and tendons.

.Representing the left ventricle of the heart as the common origin of all the arteries, though he is misled by the pulmonary artery, he nevertheless traces the distribution of the branches of the aorta with some accuracy.^ Representing the left ventricle of the heart as the common origin of all the arteries, though he is misled by the pulmonary artery, he nevertheless traces the distribution of the branches of the aorta with some accuracy.

^ The phrenic nerves and the oesophageal branches of the vagus were studied by Haase; the phrenic, the abdominal and the pharyngeal nerves, by Wrisberg; those of the heart most minutely by Andersch; and the origins, formation and distribution of the intercostal nerves, by Iwanov, C. G. Ludwig, and Girardi.

^ Columbus, as his immediate successor in Padua, and afterwards as professor at Rome, distinguished himself by rectify ing and improving the anatomy of the bones; by giving correct accounts of the shape and cavities of the heart, of the pulmonary artery and aorta and their valves, and tracing the course of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart; by a good description of the brain and its vessels, and by correct understanding of the internal ear, and the first good account of the ventricles of the larynx.

.The versa azygos also, and the jugular veins, have contributed to add to the confusion of his description, and to render his angiology the most imperfect of his works.^ The versa azygos also, and the jugular veins, have contributed to add to the confusion of his description, and to render his angiology the most imperfect of his works.

^ The most elaborate work of the French school is the great treatise of M. J. Bourgery, consisting of four divisions,on descriptive, general, surgical and philosophical anatomy (1832-1854).

^ The anatomical descriptions are on this account not only the most valuable part of his work, but the most valuable that had then or for a long time after appeared.

.In neurology we find him to be the author of the dogma that the brain is the origin of the nerves of sensation, and the spinal cord of those of motion; and he distinguishes the former from the latter by their greater softness or less consistence.^ He distinguishes the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

^ Internal anatomy of the spinal cord and the spinal nerves .
  • Anatomy Drill and Practice 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He appears also to have distinguished the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion.

.Though he admits only seven cerebral pairs, he has the merit of distinguishing and tracing the distribution of the greater part of both classes of nerves with great accuracy.^ Though he admits only seven cerebral pairs, he has the merit of distinguishing and tracing the distribution of the greater part of both classes of nerves with great accuracy.

^ Of the greater part of the writings collected under his name, on the contrary the general character is verboseness, prolixity and a great tendency to speculative opinions.

^ Representing the left ventricle of the heart as the common origin of all the arteries, though he is misled by the pulmonary artery, he nevertheless traces the distribution of the branches of the aorta with some accuracy.

.His description of the brain is derived from dissection of the lower animals, and his distinctions of the several parts of the organ have been retained by modern anatomists.^ His description of the brain is derived from dissection of the lower animals, and his distinctions of the several parts of the organ have been retained by modern anatomists.

^ The works of this ardent and original naturalist show that his zootomical knowledge was extensive and often accurate; and from several of his descriptions it is impossible to doubt that they were derived from frequent personal dissection.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

.His mode of demonstrating this organ, which indeed is clearly described, consists of five different steps.^ His mode of demonstrating this organ, which indeed is clearly described, consists of five different steps.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

^ Few passages in early science are indeed so interesting as the description of the process for demonstrating the brain and other internal organs which is given by this patient and enthusiastic observer of nature.

In the first the bisecting membrane - i.e. the falx (. iivey & X oro 7 .couora) - and the connecting blood-vessels are removed; and the dissector, commencing at the anterior extremity of the great fissure, separates the hemispheres gently as far as the torcular, and exposes a smooth surface (T17v x05pav TVX(.;.)677 7rws ouvav), the mesolobe of the moderns, or the middle band. .In the second he exposes by successive sections the ventricles, the choroid plexus and the middle partition.^ In the second he exposes by successive sections the ventricles, the choroid plexus and the middle partition.

^ He speaks at large of the choroid plexus, and gives a particular description of the fourth ventricle, under the name of cistern of the cerebellum, as a discovery of his own.

^ He describes shortly the lateral ventricles, with their anterior and posterior cornua, and the choroid plexus as a blood-red substance like a long worm.

The third exhibits the pineal body (QC:a�a KwvoEt&s) or conarium, concealed by a membrane with numerous veins, meaning that part of the plexus which is now known by the name of velum interpositum, and a complete view of the ventricles. .The fourth unfolds the third ventricle (7-1s CtXX0 7p1777 KotXia), the communication between the two lateral ones, the arch-like body (o-Co k ta tliaXtboEt&s) fornix, and the passage from the third to the fourth ventricle.^ The fourth unfolds the third ventricle ( 7-1s CtXX0 7p1777 KotXia ), the communication between the two lateral ones, the arch-like body ( o-Co k ta tliaXtboEt&s) fornix, and the passage from the third to the fourth ventricle.

^ In the fifth he gives an accurate description of the relations of the third and fourth ventricle, of the situation of the two pairs of eminences, notes (yXovr t) and testes (&5v zLa or bpxas ), the scolecoid or worm -like process, anterior and posterior, and lastly the linear furrow, called by Herophilus calamus scriptorius.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

.In the fifth he gives an accurate description of the relations of the third and fourth ventricle, of the situation of the two pairs of eminences, notes (yXovr t) and testes (&5v zLa or bpxas), the scolecoid or worm-like process, anterior and posterior, and lastly the linear furrow, called by Herophilus calamus scriptorius. In the account of the thoracic organs equal accuracy may be recognized.^ In the account of the thoracic organs equal accuracy may be recognized.

^ In the fifth he gives an accurate description of the relations of the third and fourth ventricle, of the situation of the two pairs of eminences, notes (yXovr t) and testes (&5v zLa or bpxas ), the scolecoid or worm -like process, anterior and posterior, and lastly the linear furrow, called by Herophilus calamus scriptorius.

^ The fourth unfolds the third ventricle ( 7-1s CtXX0 7p1777 KotXia ), the communication between the two lateral ones, the arch-like body ( o-Co k ta tliaXtboEt&s) fornix, and the passage from the third to the fourth ventricle.

.He distinguishes the pleura by the name of inclosing membrane (i)i,* U7TE-Wkws, membrana succingens), and remarks its similitude in structure to that of the peritoneum, and the covering which it affords to all the organs.^ He distinguishes the pleura by the name of inclosing membrane ( i)i,* U7TE- Wkws , membrana succingens ), and remarks its similitude in structure to that of the peritoneum, and the covering which it affords to all the organs.

^ He finally gives a very distinct view of the arrangement of the internal membranes of cavities, those named serous and fibro-serous, and the manner of their distribution over the contained organs.

.The pericardium also he describes as a membranous sac with a circular basis corresponding to the base of the heart and a conical apex; and after an account of the tunics of the arteries and veins, he speaks shortly of the lung, and more at length of the heart, which, however, he takes some pains to prove not to be muscular, because it is harder, its fibres are differently arranged, and its action is incessant, whereas that of muscle alternates with the state of rest; he gives a good account of the valves and of the vessels; and notices especially the bony ring formed in the heart of the horse, elephant and other large animals.^ In his account of the vessels and their valves he confirms some of Hewson's observations and rectifies others.

^ The pericardium also he describes as a membranous sac with a circular basis corresponding to the base of the heart and a conical apex ; and after an account of the tunics of the arteries and veins, he speaks shortly of the lung, and more at length of the heart, which, however, he takes some pains to prove not to be muscular, because it is harder, its fibres are differently arranged, and its action is incessant, whereas that of muscle alternates with the state of rest; he gives a good account of the valves and of the vessels; and notices especially the bony ring formed in the heart of the horse , elephant and other large animals.

^ On the preliminary circumstances authors are not agreed; but the most general account states that when Vesalius was dissecting, with the consent of his kinsmen, the body of a Spanish grandee , it was observed that the heart still gave some feeble palpitations when divided by the knife .

.The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.^ The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.

^ He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions ( Isagogae ), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.

^ In modern times, there are much more descriptive and accurate terms.
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.Our limits, however, do not permit us to give any abstract of them; and it is sufficient in general to say that Galen gives correct views of the arrangement of the peritoneum and omentum, and distinguishes accurately the several divisions of the alimentary canal and its component tissues.^ Our limits, however, do not permit us to give any abstract of them; and it is sufficient in general to say that Galen gives correct views of the arrangement of the peritoneum and omentum, and distinguishes accurately the several divisions of the alimentary canal and its component tissues.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

^ He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions ( Isagogae ), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.

.In the liver, which he allows to receive an envelope from the peritoneum, he admits, in imitation of Erasistratus, a proper substance or parenchyma, interposed between the vessels, and capable of removal by suitable dissection.^ In the liver, which he allows to receive an envelope from the peritoneum, he admits, in imitation of Erasistratus, a proper substance or parenchyma, interposed between the vessels, and capable of removal by suitable dissection.

.His description of the organs of generation is rather brief, and is, like most of his anatomical sketches, too much blended with physiological dogmas.^ His description of the organs of generation is rather brief, and is, like most of his anatomical sketches, too much blended with physiological dogmas.

^ To him has been ascribed the whole of the book on the Nature of the Child and most of that On Man; both physiological treatises interspersed with anatomical sketches.

^ The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.

.This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

^ The system of A. Portal is a valuable and correct digest of anatomical and French pathological knowledge, which, in exact literary systematic information, is worthy of ' the author of the Histoire anatode l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, and, in accuracy of mists.

^ Dream Anatomy Drawn mainly from the collections of the National Library of Medicine, Dream Anatomy shows off the anatomical imagination in some of its most astonishing incarnations, from 1500 to the present.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Though evidently confined, perhaps entirely by the circumstances of the times, to the dissection of brute animals, so indefatigable and judicious was he in the mode of acquiring knowledge, that many of his names and distinctions are still retained with advantage in the writings of the moderns.^ Though evidently confined, perhaps entirely by the circumstances of the times, to the dissection of brute animals, so indefatigable and judicious was he in the mode of acquiring knowledge, that many of his names and distinctions are still retained with advantage in the writings of the moderns.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

.Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

^ In accounting for the great aversion which there has always been from dissection in England, it should be remembered that, although capital punishment was the penalty for very many offences at the beginning of the 19th century, only the bodies of murderers were handed over to the anatomists.

^ The English law , since the time of Henry VIII ., allowed only the bodies of persons executed for murder to be dissected, and the supply seems to have been sufficient for the humble needs of the time.

.His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.^ His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.

^ To the same period generally is referred the Anatomical Introduction of an anonymous author, first published in 1618 by Lauremberg, and afterwards by C. Bernard.

^ Their origin he proves by inference much in the same manner as Cruikshank; but he anticipates this author in the account of the glands, and he gives the most minute description of the superficial and deep lymphatics, both in the members and in the internal organs.

animated. .Few passages in early science are indeed so interesting as the description of the process for demonstrating the brain and other internal organs which is given by this patient and enthusiastic observer of nature.^ Few passages in early science are indeed so interesting as the description of the process for demonstrating the brain and other internal organs which is given by this patient and enthusiastic observer of nature.

^ He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.

^ His description of the brain is derived from dissection of the lower animals, and his distinctions of the several parts of the organ have been retained by modern anatomists.

.To some it may appear absurd to speak of anything like good anatomical description in an author who writes in the Greek language, or anything like an interesting and correct manner in a writer who flourished at a period when taste was depraved or extinct and literature corrupted - when the philosophy of Antoninus and the mild virtues of Aurelius could do little to soften the iron sway of Lucius Verus.^ His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.

^ To some it may appear absurd to speak of anything like good anatomical description in an author who writes in the Greek language , or anything like an interesting and correct manner in a writer who flourished at a period when taste was depraved or extinct and literature corrupted - when the philosophy of Antoninus and the mild virtues of Aurelius could do little to soften the iron sway of Lucius Verus.

^ With greater coarseness in his manners and language than even the rude state of society in his times can palliate, with much varied learning and considerable eloquence, he was a blind, indiscriminate and irrational admirer of Galen, and interpreted the anatomical and physiological writings of that author in preference to giving demonstrations from the subject.

and .Commodus; but the habit of faithful observation in Galen seems to have been so powerful that in the description of material objects, his genius invariably rises above the circumstances of his age.^ Commodus; but the habit of faithful observation in Galen seems to have been so powerful that in the description of material objects, his genius invariably rises above the circumstances of his age.

.Though not so directly connected with this subject, it is nevertheless proper to mention that he appears to have been the first anatomist who can be said, on authentic grounds, to have attempted to discover the uses of organs by vivisection and experiments on living animals.^ Though not so directly connected with this subject, it is nevertheless proper to mention that he appears to have been the first anatomist who can be said, on authentic grounds, to have attempted to discover the uses of organs by vivisection and experiments on living animals.

^ These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.In this manner he ascertained the position and demonstrated the action of the heart; and he mentions two instances in which, in consequence of disease or injury, he had an opportunity of observing the motions of this.^ In this manner he ascertained the position and demonstrated the action of the heart; and he mentions two instances in which, in consequence of disease or injury, he had an opportunity of observing the motions of this.

^ Alzheimer's Disease / Genetic vs. Environmental : A 10 page paper that provides an overview of the two major arguments surrounding Alzheimer's disease and demonstrates increasing support for the genetic theory.
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organ in the human body. .In short, without eulogizing an ancient author at the expense of critical justice, or commending his anatomical descriptions as superior to those of the moderns, it must be admitted that the anatomical writings of the physician of Pergamum form a remarkable era in the history of the science; and that by diligence in dissection and accuracy in description he gave the science a degree of importance and stability which it has retained through a lapse of many centuries.^ In short, without eulogizing an ancient author at the expense of critical justice, or commending his anatomical descriptions as superior to those of the moderns, it must be admitted that the anatomical writings of the physician of Pergamum form a remarkable era in the history of the science; and that by diligence in dissection and accuracy in description he gave the science a degree of importance and stability which it has retained through a lapse of many centuries.

^ Tyson ( in Edward Tyson (English physician) ) Vesalius ( in Andreas Vesalius (Belgian physician) ; in Western philosophy: Philosophy of nature ; in history of science: The diffusion of scientific method ) history of .
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then follow those of the tongue, pharynx and neck, those of the upper extremities, the trunk and the lower extremities successively; and in the course of this description he swerves so little from the actual facts that most of the names by which he distinguishes the principal muscles have been retained by the best modern anatomists.

.The death of Galen, which took place at Pergamum in the seventieth year of his age and the tooth of the Christian era, may be regarded as the downfall of anatomy in ancient times.^ The death of Galen, which took place at Pergamum in the seventieth year of his age and the tooth of the Christian era, may be regarded as the downfall of anatomy in ancient times.

^ At the time of his death he was scarcely fifty years of age.

^ The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.
  • anatomy (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.After this period we recognize only two names of any celebrity in the history of the science - those of Soranus and Oribasius, with the more obscure ones of Meletius and Theophilus, the latter the chief of the imperial guard of Heraclius.^ After this period we recognize only two names of any celebrity in the history of the science - those of Soranus and Oribasius, with the more obscure ones of Meletius and Theophilus , the latter the chief of the imperial guard of Heraclius .

^ While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.

^ Their seclusion for that period in the papal library has given celebrity to many names which would have been known only in the verification of the discoveries of Eustachius.

.Soranus, who was an Ephesian, and flourished under the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, distinguished himself by his researches on the female organs of generation.^ Soranus, who was an Ephesian, and flourished under the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, distinguished himself by his researches on the female organs of generation.

^ Soranus the anatomist must be distinguished from the physician of that name, who was also a native of Ephesus.

^ Without talent for original research or discovery himself, his envy and jealousy made him detest every one who gave proofs of either.

.He appears to have dissected the human subject; and this perhaps is one reason why his descriptions of these parts are more copious and more accurate than those of Galen, who derived his knowledge from the bodies of the lower animals.^ His assiduity was indefatigable; and he declares that he dissected above one hundred human bodies.

^ Of these he probably dissected more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.

^ He appears to have dissected the human subject; and this perhaps is one reason why his descriptions of these parts are more copious and more accurate than those of Galen, who derived his knowledge from the bodies of the lower animals.

.He denies the existence of the hymen, but describes accurately the clitoris.^ He denies the existence of the hymen , but describes accurately the clitoris.

.Soranus the anatomist must be distinguished from the physician of that name, who was also a native of Ephesus.^ Soranus the anatomist must be distinguished from the physician of that name, who was also a native of Ephesus.

^ Among those who aimed at this distinction, the most fortunate in the preservation of his name is Polybus, the son-in-law of the Pay physician of Cos.

^ Soranus, who was an Ephesian, and flourished under the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, distinguished himself by his researches on the female organs of generation.

.Oribasius, who was born at Pergamum, is said to have been at once the friend and physician of the emperor Julian, and to have contributed to the elevation of that apostate to the imperial throne.^ Oribasius, who was born at Pergamum, is said to have been at once the friend and physician of the emperor Julian , and to have contributed to the elevation of that apostate to the imperial throne.

^ Here, however, he remained only five years; and returning once more to Pergamum, after travelling for some time, finally settled in Rome as physician to the emperor Commodus.

.For this he appears to have suffered the punishment of a temporary exile under Valens and Valentinian; but was soon recalled, and lived in great honour till the period of his death (387).^ For this he appears to have suffered the punishment of a temporary exile under Valens and Valentinian ; but was soon recalled, and lived in great honour till the period of his death (387).

.By le Clerc, Oribasius is regarded as a compiler; and indeed his anatomical writings bear so close a correspondence with those of Galen that the character is not altogether groundless.^ It is to be regarded as a compilation formed on the model of Galen and Oribasius.

^ By le Clerc, Oribasius is regarded as a compiler; and indeed his anatomical writings bear so close a correspondence with those of Galen that the character is not altogether groundless.

^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

.In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

^ After this he appears to have visited various cities distinguished for philosophical or medical teachers; and, finally, to have gone to Alexandria with the view of cultivating more accurately and intimately the study of anatomy under Heraclianus.

.To the same period generally is referred the Anatomical Introduction of an anonymous author, first published in 1618 by Lauremberg, and afterwards by C. Bernard.^ To the same period generally is referred the Anatomical Introduction of an anonymous author, first published in 1618 by Lauremberg, and afterwards by C. Bernard.

^ His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.

^ He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions ( Isagogae ), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.

.It is to be regarded as a compilation formed on the model of Galen and Oribasius.^ It is to be regarded as a compilation formed on the model of Galen and Oribasius.

^ By le Clerc, Oribasius is regarded as a compiler; and indeed his anatomical writings bear so close a correspondence with those of Galen that the character is not altogether groundless.

.The same character is applicable to the treatises of Meletius and Theophilus.^ The same character is applicable to the treatises of Meletius and Theophilus.

.The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.^ The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.

^ This event, which, as is generally known, succeeded the death of Alexander, 320 years before the Christian era, collected into one spot the scattered embers of literature and science, which were beginning to languish in Greece under a weak and distracted government and an unsettled state of society.

.The sanguinary conflicts in which the southern countries of Europe were repeatedly engaged with their northern neighbours between the 2nd and 8th centuries tended gradually to estrange their minds from scientific pursuits; and the hordes of barbarians by which the Roman empire was latterly overrun, while they urged them to the necessity of making hostile resistance, and adopting means of self-defence, introduced such habits of ignorance and barbarism, that science was almost universally forgotten.^ The sanguinary conflicts in which the southern countries of Europe were repeatedly engaged with their northern neighbours between the 2nd and 8th centuries tended gradually to estrange their minds from scientific pursuits; and the hordes of barbarians by which the Roman empire was latterly overrun, while they urged them to the necessity of making hostile resistance, and adopting means of self-defence, introduced such habits of ignorance and barbarism, that science was almost universally forgotten.

^ Saracens , had gradually coalesced under various leaders; and by their habits of endurance, as well as of enthusiastic valour in successive expeditions against the eastern division of the Roman empire, had acquired such military reputation as to render them formidable wherever they appeared.

^ Nowadays, it's hard to make friends if you carry a zebra skinner on your hip no matter how open-minded they are.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.^ While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.

^ Italy, though rich in anatomical talent, has probably few greater names than that of Constantio Varoli (b.

^ Their seclusion for that period in the papal library has given celebrity to many names which would have been known only in the verification of the discoveries of Eustachius.

.Anatomical learning, thus neglected by European nations, is believed to have received a temporary cultivation from the Arabian Asiatics.^ Anatomical learning, thus neglected by European nations, is believed to have received a temporary cultivation from the Arabian Asiatics.

^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

.Of these, several nomadic tribes, known Physi- to Europeans under the general denomination of Arabs clans. and Saracens, had gradually coalesced under various leaders; and by their habits of endurance, as well as of enthusiastic valour in successive expeditions against the eastern division of the Roman empire, had acquired such military reputation as to render them formidable wherever they appeared.^ Of these, several nomadic tribes, known Physi- to Europeans under the general denomination of Arabs clans.

^ Saracens , had gradually coalesced under various leaders; and by their habits of endurance, as well as of enthusiastic valour in successive expeditions against the eastern division of the Roman empire, had acquired such military reputation as to render them formidable wherever they appeared.

^ The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.

.After a century and a half of foreign warfare or internal animosity, under the successive dynasties of the Omayyads and Abbasids, in which the propagation of Islam was the pretext for the extinction of learning and civilization, and the most remorseless system of rapine and destruction, the Saracens began, under the latter dynasty of princes, to recognize the value of science, and especially of that which prolongs life, heals disease and alleviates the pain of wounds and injuries.^ After a century and a half of foreign warfare or internal animosity, under the successive dynasties of the Omayyads and Abbasids , in which the propagation of Islam was the pretext for the extinction of learning and civilization, and the most remorseless system of rapine and destruction, the Saracens began, under the latter dynasty of princes, to recognize the value of science, and especially of that which prolongs life, heals disease and alleviates the pain of wounds and injuries.

^ Alexandria became in this manner the repository of all the learning and knowledge of the civilized world; and while other nations were sinking under the effects of internal animosities and mutual dissensions, or ravaging the earth with the evils of war, the Egyptian Greeks kept alive the sacred flame of science, and preserved mankind from relapsing into their original barbarism.

^ This era, indeed, is distinguished for the appearance of Mondino (Mundinus), under whose zealous cultivation the science first began to rise from the ashes in which it had been buried.

.The caliph Mansur combined with his official knowledge of Moslem law the successful cultivation of astronomy; but to his grandson Mamun, the seventh prince of the line of the Abbasids, belongs the merit of undertaking to render his subjects philosophers and physicians.^ The caliph Mansur combined with his official knowledge of Moslem law the successful cultivation of astronomy ; but to his grandson Mamun , the seventh prince of the line of the Abbasids, belongs the merit of undertaking to render his subjects philosophers and physicians.

^ In a chasm so wide it is not uninteresting to find, in one who combined the characters of the greatest orator and philosopher of Rome , the most distinct traces of attention to anatomical knowledge.

.By the directions of this prince the works of the Greek and Roman authors were translated into Arabic; and the favour and munificence with which literature and its professors were patronized speedily raised a succession of learned Arabians.^ By the directions of this prince the works of the Greek and Roman authors were translated into Arabic; and the favour and munificence with which literature and its professors were patronized speedily raised a succession of learned Arabians.

.The residue of the rival family of the Omayyads, already settled in Spain, was prompted by motives of rivalry or honourable ambition to adopt the same course; and while the academy, hospitals and library of Bagdad bore testimony to the zeal and liberality of the Abbasids, the munificence of the Omayyads was not less conspicuous in the literary institutions of Cordova, Seville and Toledo.^ The residue of the rival family of the Omayyads, already settled in Spain , was prompted by motives of rivalry or honourable ambition to adopt the same course; and while the academy, hospitals and library of Bagdad bore testimony to the zeal and liberality of the Abbasids, the munificence of the Omayyads was not less conspicuous in the literary institutions of Cordova , Seville and Toledo .

.Notwithstanding the efforts of the Arabian princes, however, and the diligence of the Arabian physicians, little was done for anatomy, and the science made no substantial acquisition.^ Notwithstanding the efforts of the Arabian princes, however, and the diligence of the Arabian physicians, little was done for anatomy, and the science made no substantial acquisition.

^ Not long after Marinus appeared Rufus (or Ruffus) of Ephesus , a Greek physician, who in the reign of Trajan was much attached to physiology, and as a means of cultivating this science R studied Comparative Anatomy and made sundry experiments on living animals.

.The Koran denounces as unclean the person who touches a corpse; the rules of Islam forbid dissection; and whatever their instructors taught was borrowed from the Greeks.^ The Koran denounces as unclean the person who touches a corpse ; the rules of Islam forbid dissection; and whatever their instructors taught was borrowed from the Greeks.

.AbuBekr Al-Rasi, Abu-Ali Ibn-Sina, Abul-Qasim and Abul Walid ibn Rushd, the Rhazes, Avicenna, Abulcasis and Averroes of European authors, are their most celebrated names in medicine; yet to none of these can the historian with justice ascribe any anatomical merit.^ AbuBekr Al-Rasi, Abu-Ali Ibn-Sina, Abul-Qasim and Abul Walid ibn Rushd, the Rhazes, Avicenna , Abulcasis and Averroes of European authors, are their most celebrated names in medicine; yet to none of these can the historian with justice ascribe any anatomical merit.

^ Dream Anatomy Drawn mainly from the collections of the National Library of Medicine, Dream Anatomy shows off the anatomical imagination in some of its most astonishing incarnations, from 1500 to the present.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These are the major divisions of the CNS: In this list the most commonly used names are in bold type.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Rhazes has indeed left descriptions of the eye, of the ear and its meatus, and of the heart; and Avicenna, Abul-Qasim and Averroes give anatomical descriptions of the parts of the human body.^ Rhazes has indeed left descriptions of the eye, of the ear and its meatus, and of the heart; and Avicenna, Abul-Qasim and Averroes give anatomical descriptions of the parts of the human body.

^ AbuBekr Al-Rasi, Abu-Ali Ibn-Sina, Abul-Qasim and Abul Walid ibn Rushd, the Rhazes, Avicenna , Abulcasis and Averroes of European authors, are their most celebrated names in medicine; yet to none of these can the historian with justice ascribe any anatomical merit.

^ Order a human skeletal model with anatomical parts that are removable!
  • Human anatomical model and anatomical charts 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.catalogs.com [Source type: General]

.But of these the general character is, that they are copies from Galen, sometimes not very just, and in all instances mystified with a large proportion of the fanciful and absurd imagery and inflated style of the Arabian writers.^ But of these the general character is, that they are copies from Galen, sometimes not very just, and in all instances mystified with a large proportion of the fanciful and absurd imagery and inflated style of the Arabian writers.

^ These humps have underlying bone and hard gum tissue covering them, and they are persistent, permanent parts of the mouth, even if all the upper teeth are extracted.

^ These terms may not be all this side is called, but they are the most common in our industry.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief reason of their obtaining a place in anatomical history is, that by the influence which their medical authority enabled them to exercise in the European schools, the nomenclature which they employed was adopted by European anatomists,and continued till the revival of ancient learning restored the original nomenclature of the Greek physicians.^ The chief reason of their obtaining a place in anatomical history is, that by the influence which their medical authority enabled them to exercise in the European schools, the nomenclature which they employed was adopted by European anatomists,and continued till the revival of ancient learning restored the original nomenclature of the Greek physicians.

^ It has just been announced that next year's European Association of Museums for the History of Medical Sciences (EAMHMS) conference will be hosted by the Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen .

^ The reformation of this antiquated and imperfect system took place in 1747, when Hunter established complete courses of anatomical lectures and opened a school for dissection.

.Thus, the cervix, or nape of the neck, is nucha; the oesophagus is meri; the umbilical region is sumen or sumac; the abdomen is myrach; the peritoneum is siphac; and the omentum, zirbus. From the general character now given justice requires that we except Abdallatif, the annalist of Egyptian affairs.^ Thus, the cervix, or nape of the neck, is nucha; the oesophagus is meri; the umbilical region is sumen or sumac; the abdomen is myrach; the peritoneum is siphac; and the omentum, zirbus.

^ From the general character now given justice requires that we except Abdallatif , the annalist of Egyptian affairs.

^ The peritoneum he describes under the name of siphac, in imitation of the Arabians, the omentum under that of zirbus, and the mesentery or eucharus as distinct from both.

.This author, who maintains that it is impossible to learn anatomy from books, and that the authority of Galen must yield to personal inspection, informs us that the Moslem doctors did not neglect opportunities of studying the bones of the human body in cemeteries; and that he himself, by once examining a collection of bones in this manner, ascertained that the lower jaw is formed of one piece; that the sacrum, though sometimes composed of several, is most generally of one; and that Galen is mistaken when he asserts that these bones are not single.^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

^ Galen had himself ascertained by personal research from that which was known by other anatomists.

^ Study the human body in a 3D environment!
  • ø The #1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Course ø | Learn About The Human Body With Illustrations and Pictures ø 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.humananatomycourse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The era of Saracen learning extends to the 13th century; and after this we begin to approach happier times.^ The era of Saracen learning extends to the 13th century; and after this we begin to approach happier times.

.The university of Bologna, which, as a school of literature and law, was already celebrated in the 12th century, became, in the course of the following one, not less distinguished for its medical teachers.^ The university of Bologna , which, as a school of literature and law, was already celebrated in the 12th century, became, in the course of the following one, not less distinguished for its medical teachers.

^ After the acquisition of a medical degree in the university of Montpellier , at the ripe age of fifty-one Dubois returned to Paris to resume a course of anatomical instruction.

^ Cyberanatomy Tutorials at Newcastle Multimedia tutorials on human anatomy topics prepared by medical students at the Anatomy & Clinical Skills Centre at Newcastle University Medical School.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Though the misgovernment of the municipal rulers of Bologna had disgusted both teachers and students, and given rise to the foundation of similar institutions in Padua and.^ Though the misgovernment of the municipal rulers of Bologna had disgusted both teachers and students, and given rise to the foundation of similar institutions in Padua and.

.Naples, - and though the school of Salerno, in the territory of the latter, was still in high repute, - it appears, from the testimony of M. Sarti, that medicine was in the highest esteem in Bologna, and that it was in such perfection as to require a division of its professors into physicians, surgeons, physicians for wounds, barber-surgeons, oculists and even some others.^ Naples , - and though the school of Salerno , in the territory of the latter, was still in high repute, - it appears, from the testimony of M. Sarti, that medicine was in the highest esteem in Bologna, and that it was in such perfection as to require a division of its professors into physicians, surgeons, physicians for wounds, barber -surgeons, oculists and even some others.

^ Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII .

^ Morris compiled data, many of which had appeared elsewhere (e.g., Fields, 1980), but he remeasured none of the trackways, even though he claims to have "improved" some of Fields's measurements.
  • Foot Notes of an Anatomist 22 September 2009 11:13 UTC ncseweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notwithstanding these indications of refinement, however, anatomy was manifestly cultivated rather as an appendage of surgery than a branch of medical science; and according to the testimony of Guy de Chauliac, the cultivation of anatomical knowledge was confined to Roger of Parma, Roland, Jamerio, Bruno, and Lanfranc or Lanfranchi of Milan; and this they borrowed chiefly from Galen.^ Notwithstanding these indications of refinement, however, anatomy was manifestly cultivated rather as an appendage of surgery than a branch of medical science; and according to the testimony of Guy de Chauliac, the cultivation of anatomical knowledge was confined to Roger of Parma , Roland , Jamerio, Bruno , and Lanfranc or Lanfranchi of Milan ; and this they borrowed chiefly from Galen.

^ The decline indicated by these languid efforts soon sank into a state of total inactivity; and the unsettled state of society during the latter ages of the Roman empire was extremely unfavourable to the successful cultivation of science.

^ The system of A. Portal is a valuable and correct digest of anatomical and French pathological knowledge, which, in exact literary systematic information, is worthy of ' the author of the Histoire anatode l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, and, in accuracy of mists.

.In this state matters appear to have proceeded with the medical school of Bologna till the commencement of the 14th century, when the circumstance of possessing a teacher Mondino. of originality enabled this university to be the agent of as great an improvement in medical science as she had already effected in jurisprudence.^ In this state matters appear to have proceeded with the medical school of Bologna till the commencement of the 14th century, when the circumstance of possessing a teacher Mondino.

^ The university of Bologna , which, as a school of literature and law, was already celebrated in the 12th century, became, in the course of the following one, not less distinguished for its medical teachers.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.This era, indeed, is distinguished for the appearance of Mondino (Mundinus), under whose zealous cultivation the science first began to rise from the ashes in which it had been buried.^ This era, indeed, is distinguished for the appearance of Mondino (Mundinus), under whose zealous cultivation the science first began to rise from the ashes in which it had been buried.

^ Both these errors were much amended, if not entirely removed, by the exertions of a young Fleming, whose appearance forms a conspicuous era in the history of anatomy.

^ The several labours of Albinus, indeed, constitute an important era in the history of the science.

.This father of modern anatomy, who taught in Bologna about the year 1315, quickly drew the curiosity of the medical profession by well-ordered demonstrations of the different parts of the human body.^ This father of modern anatomy, who taught in Bologna about the year 1315, quickly drew the curiosity of the medical profession by well-ordered demonstrations of the different parts of the human body.

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

^ From ancient times humans have sought to unravel the secret mechanisms of the body, developing in the process a wealth of medical expertise.

.In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.^ In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.

^ "Human Anatomy & Physiology Course" , Containing years of research with over hundreds of Human Anatomy & Physiology topics.
  • ø The #1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Course ø | Learn About The Human Body With Illustrations and Pictures ø 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.humananatomycourse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He recognized the figure of the four eminences in the human subject; he remarked the mammillary bodies; and he discovered the sinus which passes under his name.

.But while he seems to have had sufficient original force of intellect to direct his own route, J. Riolan accuses him of copying Galen; and it is certain that his descriptions are corrupted by the barbarous leaven of the Arabian schools, and his Latin defaced by the exotic nomenclature of Avicenna and Rhazes.^ But while he seems to have had sufficient original force of intellect to direct his own route, J. Riolan accuses him of copying Galen; and it is certain that his descriptions are corrupted by the barbarous leaven of the Arabian schools, and his Latin defaced by the exotic nomenclature of Avicenna and Rhazes.

^ There seems to be quite a bit of confusion about the origins, name, and description of this blade style, which is frequently called "Nessmuk."
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhazes has indeed left descriptions of the eye, of the ear and its meatus, and of the heart; and Avicenna, Abul-Qasim and Averroes give anatomical descriptions of the parts of the human body.

He died, according to G. Tiraboschi, in 1325.
.Mondino divides the body into three cavities (venires), the upper containing the animal members, as the head, the lower containing the natural members, and the middle containing the spiritual members.^ Mondino divides the body into three cavities ( venires ), the upper containing the animal members, as the head, the lower containing the natural members, and the middle containing the spiritual members.

^ It develops in three parts: an upper portion, or "manubrium," a middle "body," and a lower "xiphoid process" that projects down.
  • Skeletal System | Labeled Skeletal System 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.innerbody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both he represents to arise from the heart, the larger from the largest upper cavity, the smaller or aorta from the middle cavity, but in a different manner and forming a narrower canal.

.He first describes the anatomy of the lower cavity or the abdomen, then proceeds to the middle or School of Bologna. thoracic organs, and concludes with the upper, comprising the head and its contents and appendages.^ He first describes the anatomy of the lower cavity or the abdomen, then proceeds to the middle or School of Bologna.

^ Both he represents to arise from the heart, the larger from the largest upper cavity, the smaller or aorta from the middle cavity, but in a different manner and forming a narrower canal.

^ Its first president was Prof. Murray Humphry of Cambridge, and its official organ is the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.

.His general manner is to notice shortly the situation and shape or distribution of textures or membranes, and then to mention the disorders to which they are subject.^ His general manner is to notice shortly the situation and shape or distribution of textures or membranes, and then to mention the disorders to which they are subject.

^ Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.

^ He finally gives a very distinct view of the arrangement of the internal membranes of cavities, those named serous and fibro-serous, and the manner of their distribution over the contained organs.

.The peritoneum he describes under the name of siphac, in imitation of the Arabians, the omentum under that of zirbus, and the mesentery or eucharus as distinct from both.^ The peritoneum he describes under the name of siphac, in imitation of the Arabians, the omentum under that of zirbus, and the mesentery or eucharus as distinct from both.

^ Thus, the cervix, or nape of the neck, is nucha; the oesophagus is meri; the umbilical region is sumen or sumac; the abdomen is myrach; the peritoneum is siphac; and the omentum, zirbus.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

.In speaking of the intestines he treats first of the rectum, then the colon, the left or sigmoid flexure of which, as well as the transverse arch and its connexion with the stomach, he particularly remarks; then the caecum or monoculus, after this the small intestines in general under the heads of ileum and jejunum, and latterly the duodenum, making in all six bowels.^ In speaking of the intestines he treats first of the rectum, then the colon, the left or sigmoid flexure of which, as well as the transverse arch and its connexion with the stomach, he particularly remarks; then the caecum or monoculus, after this the small intestines in general under the heads of ileum and jejunum, and latterly the duodenum, making in all six bowels.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ Upon the same principle he distinguishes the jejunum (' //Cants), or the empty portion of the small intestines in animals ( TO g vrepov X eirrOv), the caecum erthOov TL Kai i'yKwBes ), the colon (rO Kw%ov ), and the sigmoid flexure (aTEvcJTEpov Kai ElXvy i i'ov).

.The liver and its vessels are minutely, if not accurately, examined; and the cava, under the name chilis, a corruption from the Greek KoLXn, is treated at length, with the emulgents and kidneys.^ The liver and its vessels are minutely, if not accurately, examined; and the cava, under the name chilis, a corruption from the Greek KoLXn, is treated at length, with the emulgents and kidneys.

^ The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.

^ It shows that the heart, vessels, liver, spleen , kidneys, ureters and bladder were recognized, and that the blood-vessels were known to come from the heart.

.His anatomy of the heart is wonderfully accurate; and it is a remarkable fact, which seems to be omitted by all subsequent authors, that his description contains the rudiments of the circulation of the blood.^ His anatomy of the heart is wonderfully accurate; and it is a remarkable fact, which seems to be omitted by all subsequent authors, that his description contains the rudiments of the circulation of the blood.

^ Human Anatomy Online Contains over one hundred illustrations of the human body with animations and descriptive text.
  • Medical Matrix - Anatomy 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The facts unfolded in these figures are so important that it is justly remarked by Lauth, that if the author himself had been fortunate enough to publish them, anatomy would have attained the perfection of the 18th century two centuries earlier at least.

." Postea vero versus pulmonem est aliud orificium venae arterialis, quae portat sanguinem ad pulmonem a corde; quia cum pulmo deserviat cordi secundum modum dictum, ut ei recompenset, cor ei transmittit sanguinem per hanc venam, quae vocatur vena arterialis; est vena, quia portat sanguinem, et arterialis, quia habet duas tunicas; et habet duas tunicas, primo quia vadit ad membrum quod existit in continuo motu, et secundo quia portat sanguinem valde subtilem et cholericum."^ Postea vero versus pulmonem est aliud orificium venae arterialis, quae portat sanguinem ad pulmonem a corde; quia cum pulmo deserviat cordi secundum modum dictum, ut ei recompenset, cor ei transmittit sanguinem per hanc venam, quae vocatur vena arterialis; est vena, quia portat sanguinem, et arterialis, quia habet duas tunicas; et habet duas tunicas, primo quia vadit ad membrum quod existit in continuo motu, et secundo quia portat sanguinem valde subtilem et cholericum."

^ Confirmat hoc magnitudo insignis venae arteriosae, quae nec talis nec tanta esset facia, nec tantam a corde ipso vim purissimi sanguinis in pulmones emitteret, ob solum eorum nutrimentum; nec cor pulmonibus hac ratione serviret, cum praesertim antea in embryone solerent pulmones ipsi aliunde nutriri, ob membranulas illas seu valvulas cordis, usque ad horum nativitatem; ut docet Galenus, &c.

^ Quod ita per pulmones fiat communicatio et praeparatio, docet conjunctio varia , et communicatio venae arteriosae cum arteria venosa in pulmonibus.

.The merit of these distinctions, however, he afterwards destroys by repeating the old assertion that the left ventricle ought to contain spirit or air, which it generates from the blood.^ The merit of these distinctions, however, he afterwards destroys by repeating the old assertion that the left ventricle ought to contain spirit or air, which it generates from the blood.

^ The later volumes are, however, pervaded with the general spirit by which the others are impressed, and are highly creditable to the learning, the judgment and the diligence of P. J. Roux and M. F. R. Buisson.

^ The term SAE/ he seems, in imitation of the colloquial Greek, to have used generally to signify a blood-vessel, without being aware of the distinction of vein and artery; and the term aprrlp:a, or air-holder, is restricted to the windpipe .

.His osteology of the skull is erroneous.^ His osteology of the skull is erroneous.

.In his account of the cerebral membranes,though short, he notices the principal characters of the dura mater. He describes shortly the lateral ventricles, with their anterior and posterior cornua, and the choroid plexus as a blood-red substance like a long worm.^ In his account of the cerebral membranes,though short, he notices the principal characters of the dura mater.

^ He describes shortly the lateral ventricles, with their anterior and posterior cornua, and the choroid plexus as a blood-red substance like a long worm.

^ In the fifth he gives an accurate description of the relations of the third and fourth ventricle, of the situation of the two pairs of eminences, notes (yXovr t) and testes (&5v zLa or bpxas ), the scolecoid or worm -like process, anterior and posterior, and lastly the linear furrow, called by Herophilus calamus scriptorius.

.He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton. In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

^ He appears, however, not to have understood well the inferior recesses; and his account of the nerves is confused by regarding the optic as the first pair, the third as the fifth and the fifth as the seventh.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

.Notwithstanding the misrepresentations into which this early anatomist was betrayed, his book is valuable, and has been illustrated by the successive commentaries of Alessandro Achillini, Jacopo Berengario and Johann Dryander (1500-1560) .^ Notwithstanding the misrepresentations into which this early anatomist was betrayed, his book is valuable, and has been illustrated by the successive commentaries of Alessandro Achillini , Jacopo Berengario and Johann Dryander (1500-1560) .

.Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli, near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.He is the first who represents the ovaries of the female in the correct light in which they were subsequently regarded by Nicolas Steno or Stensen (1638-1687).^ He is the first who represents the ovaries of the female in the correct light in which they were subsequently regarded by Nicolas Steno or Stensen (1638-1687).

^ From these we find that Aristotle was the first who corrected the erroneous statements of Polybus, Syennesis and Diogenes regarding the blood-vessels, which they made, as we have seen, to arise from the head and brain.

^ Nicolas Steno, or Stensen, described with accuracy (1660) the lacrymal gland and passages, and rediscovered the parotid duct.

.Objections similar to those already urged in speaking of Mondino apply to another eminent anatomist of those times.^ Objections similar to those already urged in speaking of Mondino apply to another eminent anatomist of those times.

.Gabriel de Zerbis, who flourished at Verona towards the conclusion of the 15th century, is celebrated as the author of a system in which he is obviously more anxious to astonish his readers by the wonders of a verbose and complicated style than to instruct by precise and faithful description.^ Gabriel de Zerbis, who flourished at Verona towards the conclusion of the 15th century, is celebrated as the author of a system in which he is obviously more anxious to astonish his readers by the wonders of a verbose and complicated style than to instruct by precise and faithful description.

^ The works of the Italian anatomists were unknown; and it is a proof of the tardy communication of knowledge that, while the structure of the human body had been taught in Italy for more than a century by Mondino and his followers, these anatomists are never mentioned by Etienne, who flourished long after.

^ Aranzi is the first anatomist who describes distinctly the inferior cornua of the ventricles of the cerebrum, who recognizes the objects by which they are distinguished, and who gives them the name by which they are still known (hip pocampus); and his account is more minute and perspicuous than that of the authors of the subsequent century.

.In the vanity of his heart he assumed the title of Medicus Theoricus; but though, like Mondino, he derived his information from the dissection of the human subject, he is not entitled to the merit either of describing truly or of adding to the knowledge previously acquired.^ In the vanity of his heart he assumed the title of Medicus Theoricus; but though, like Mondino, he derived his information from the dissection of the human subject, he is not entitled to the merit either of describing truly or of adding to the knowledge previously acquired.

^ Dissectible Human Heart Model A life-size model depicting atrium cordis, ventric...

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.He is superior to Mondino, however, in knowing the olfactory nerves.^ He is superior to Mondino, however, in knowing the olfactory nerves.

.Eminent in the history of the science, and more distinguished than any of this age in the history of cerebral anatomy, Achillini of Bologna (1463-1512), the pupil and commentator of Mondino, appeared at the close of the 15th century.^ Eminent in the history of the science, and more distinguished than any of this age in the history of cerebral anatomy, Achillini of Bologna (1463-1512), the pupil and commentator of Mondino, appeared at the close of the 15th century.

^ But the circumstance which chiefly distinguished the history of anatomy at the beginning of the 17th century was the appear- Willis.

^ The works of the Italian anatomists were unknown; and it is a proof of the tardy communication of knowledge that, while the structure of the human body had been taught in Italy for more than a century by Mondino and his followers, these anatomists are never mentioned by Etienne, who flourished long after.

.Though a follower of the Arabian school, the assiduity with which he cultivated anatomy has rescued his name from the inglorious obscurity in which the Arabian doctors have in general slumbered.^ Though a follower of the Arabian school, the assiduity with which he cultivated anatomy has rescued his name from the inglorious obscurity in which the Arabian doctors have in general slumbered.

^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

^ Besides these large and magnificent works, illustrated by the most beautiful engravings, six books of Academical Annotations were the fruits of his long and assiduous cultivation of anatomy.

.He is known in the history of anatomical discovery as the first who described the two tympanal bones, termed malleus and incus. In 1503 he showed that the tarsus consists of seven bones; he rediscovered the fornix and the infundibulum; and he was fortunate enough to observe the course of the cerebral cavities into the inferior cornua, and to remark peculiarities to which the anatomists of a future age did not advert.^ He is known in the history of anatomical discovery as the first who described the two tympanal bones, termed malleus and incus.

^ In 1503 he showed that the tarsus consists of seven bones; he rediscovered the fornix and the infundibulum; and he was fortunate enough to observe the course of the cerebral cavities into the inferior cornua, and to remark peculiarities to which the anatomists of a future age did not advert.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

.He mentions the orifices of the ducts, afterwards described by Thomas Wharton (1610-1673).^ He mentions the orifices of the ducts, afterwards described by Thomas Wharton (1610-1673).

.He knew the ileo-caecal valve; and his description of the duodenum, ileum and colon shows that he was better acquainted with the site and disposition of these bowels than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.^ Of these he probably dissected more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.

^ He knew the ileo-caecal valve ; and his description of the duodenum, ileum and colon shows that he was better acquainted with the site and disposition of these bowels than any of his predecessors or contemporaries.

.Not long after, the science boasts of one of its most distinguished founders.^ Not long after, the science boasts of one of its most distinguished founders.

.Berengario, commonly called Berenger of Carpi, in the Modenese territory, flourished at Bologna at the beginning of the 16th century.^ Berengario, commonly called Berenger of Carpi , in the Modenese territory, flourished at Bologna at the beginning of the 16th century.

.In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.^ In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.

^ Soranus the anatomist must be distinguished from the physician of that name, who was also a native of Ephesus.

^ He recognized the figure of the four eminences in the human subject; he remarked the mammillary bodies; and he discovered the sinus which passes under his name.

.In the former character he surpassed both predecessors and contemporaries; and it was long before the anatomists of the following.^ In the former character he surpassed both predecessors and contemporaries; and it was long before the anatomists of the following.

age could boast of equalling him. .His assiduity was indefatigable; and he declares that he dissected above one hundred human bodies.^ His assiduity was indefatigable; and he declares that he dissected above one hundred human bodies.

^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions (Isagogae), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.^ He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions ( Isagogae ), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.

^ In myology he rectified several mistakes of Vesalius.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

.He is the first who undertakes a systematic view of the several textures of which the human body is composed; and in a preliminary commentary he treats successively of the anatomical characters and properties of fat, of membrane in general (panniculus), of flesh, of nerve, of villus or fibre (filum), of ligament, of sinew or tendon, and of muscle in general.^ He is the first who undertakes a systematic view of the several textures of which the human body is composed; and in a preliminary commentary he treats successively of the anatomical characters and properties of fat, of membrane in general ( panniculus ), of flesh, of nerve, of villus or fibre ( filum ), of ligament, of sinew or tendon, and of muscle in general.

^ Of the formation and connexions of the sympathetic nerve especially he gave views which have been generally adopted by subsequent anatomists.

^ Ruffini endings in the human digits have several expanded endings branching from a single myelinated afferent fibre; the endings are directly related to collagen fibrils; they are stretch receptors.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.He then proceeds to describe with considerable precision the muscles of the abdomen, and illustrates their site and connexions by woodcuts which, though rude, are spirited, and show that anatomical drawing was in that early age beginning to be understood.^ He then proceeds to describe with considerable precision the muscles of the abdomen, and illustrates their site and connexions by woodcuts which, though rude, are spirited, and show that anatomical drawing was in that early age beginning to be understood.

^ Drawing that shows some anatomical features of the ear .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Head And Neck Anatomical Chart Styrene Plastic Center illustration shows muscles, veins, nerves a...

.In his account of the peritoneum he admits only the intestinal division of that membrane, and is at some pains to prove that Gentilis Fulgineus, who justly admits the muscular division also, is in error.^ In his account of the peritoneum he admits only the intestinal division of that membrane, and is at some pains to prove that Gentilis Fulgineus, who justly admits the muscular division also, is in error.

.In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall-bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum (quidam porus portans choleram). In the account of the stomach he describes the several tissues of which that organ is composed, and which he represents to be three, and a fourth from the peritoneum; and afterwards notices the rugae of its villous surface.^ In the account of the stomach he describes the several tissues of which that organ is composed, and which he represents to be three, and a fourth from the peritoneum; and afterwards notices the rugae of its villous surface.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ He gives a luminous account of the arteries and veins of the intestines, represents with singular fidelity and beauty the bones of the foetus, inquires into the structure of the skin and the cause of its colour in different races; represents the changes incident to the womb in different periods of pregnancy, and describes the relations of the thoracic duct and the vena azygos with the contiguous parts.

.He is at considerable pains to explain the organs of generation in both sexes, and gives a long account of the anatomy of the foetus.^ He is at considerable pains to explain the organs of generation in both sexes, and gives a long account of the anatomy of the foetus.

^ Their origin he proves by inference much in the same manner as Cruikshank; but he anticipates this author in the account of the glands, and he gives the most minute description of the superficial and deep lymphatics, both in the members and in the internal organs.

^ The science might have derived still greater advantages from the genius of Regnier de Graaf, who investigated with accuracy the structure of the pancreas and of the organs of generation in both sexes, had he not been cut off at the early age of thirty-two.

.He was the first who recognized the larger proportional size of the chest in the male than in the female, and conversely the greater capacity of the female than of the male pelvis.^ He was the first who recognized the larger proportional size of the chest in the male than in the female, and conversely the greater capacity of the female than of the male pelvis.

^ He is the first who represents the ovaries of the female in the correct light in which they were subsequently regarded by Nicolas Steno or Stensen (1638-1687).

.In the larynx he discovered the two arytenoid cartilages.^ In the larynx he discovered the two arytenoid cartilages.

.He gives the first good description of the thymus; distinguishes the oblique situation of the heart; describes the pericardium, and maintains the uniform presence of pericardial liquor.^ He gives the first good description of the thymus; distinguishes the oblique situation of the heart; describes the pericardium, and maintains the uniform presence of pericardial liquor.

^ With a good deal of care he describes the vertebrae and the ribs, and gives very briefly the situation and shape of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna, and even of the carpal and metacarpal bones, and then of the different bones of the pelvis and lower extremities.

^ Besides the first good description of the sphenoid bone, he showed that the sternum consists of three portions and the sacrum of five or six; and described accurately the vestibule in the interior of the temporal bone.

.He then describes the cavities of the heart; but perplexes himself, as did all the anatomists of that age, about the spirit supposed to be contained.^ He then describes the cavities of the heart; but perplexes himself, as did all the anatomists of that age, about the spirit supposed to be contained.

^ In 1503 he showed that the tarsus consists of seven bones; he rediscovered the fornix and the infundibulum; and he was fortunate enough to observe the course of the cerebral cavities into the inferior cornua, and to remark peculiarities to which the anatomists of a future age did not advert.

.The aorta he properly makes to arise from the left ventricle; but confuses himself with the arteria venalis, the pulmonary vein, and the vena arterialis, the pulmonary artery.^ The aorta he properly makes to arise from the left ventricle; but confuses himself with the arteria venalis, the pulmonary vein, and the vena arterialis, the pulmonary artery.

^ Making them arise from the heart, which he says has nerves (tendons) in its largest cavity, he represents the aorta to be a nervous or tendinous vein ( vevpans '4AM).'

^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

.His account of the brain is better.^ His account of the brain is better.

.He gives a minute and clear account of the ventricles, remarks the corpus striatum, and has the sagacity to perceive that the choroid plexus consists of veins and arteries; he then describes the middle or third ventricle, the infundibulum or lacuna of Mondino, and the pituitary gland; and lastly, the passage to the fourth ventricle, the conarium or pineal gland, and the fourth or posterior ventricle itself, the relations of which he had studied accurately.^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

^ He gives a minute and clear account of the ventricles, remarks the corpus striatum, and has the sagacity to perceive that the choroid plexus consists of veins and arteries; he then describes the middle or third ventricle, the infundibulum or lacuna of Mondino, and the pituitary gland; and lastly, the passage to the fourth ventricle, the conarium or pineal gland, and the fourth or posterior ventricle itself, the relations of which he had studied accurately.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

.He rectifies the mistake of Mondino as to the olfactory or first pair of nerves, gives a good account of the optic and others, and is entitled to the praise of originality in being the first observer who contradicts the fiction of the wonderful net and indicates the principal divisions of the carotid arteries.^ He rectifies the mistake of Mondino as to the olfactory or first pair of nerves, gives a good account of the optic and others, and is entitled to the praise of originality in being the first observer who contradicts the fiction of the wonderful net and indicates the principal divisions of the carotid arteries.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

^ His name is further associated with the ancient experiment of compressing in the situation of the carotid arteries the pneumogastric nerve, and thereby inducing insensibility and loss of voice.

.He enumerates the tunics and humours of the eye, and gives an account of the internal ear, in which he notices the malleus and incus. Italy long retained the distinction of giving birth to the first eminent anatomists in Europe, and the glory she acquired in the names of Mondino, Achillini, Berenger and N. Massa, French p w as destined to become more conspicuous in the labours school. of R. Columbus, G. Fallopius and Eustachius.^ Italy long retained the distinction of giving birth to the first eminent anatomists in Europe, and the glory she acquired in the names of Mondino, Achillini, Berenger and N. Massa , French p w as destined to become more conspicuous in the labours school.

^ He enumerates the tunics and humours of the eye, and gives an account of the internal ear, in which he notices the malleus and incus.

^ It is on this account that Vesalius, though a Fleming by birth and trained originally in the French school, belongs, as an anatomist, to the Italian, and may be viewed as the first of an illustrious line of teachers by whom the anatomical reputation of that country was in the course of the 16th century raised to the greatest eminence .

.While Italy, however, was thus advancing the progress of science, the other nations of Europe were either in profound ignorance or in the most supine indifference to the brilliant career of their zealous neighbours.^ While Italy, however, was thus advancing the progress of science, the other nations of Europe were either in profound ignorance or in the most supine indifference to the brilliant career of their zealous neighbours.

^ A more valuable compendium than either is, however, that of John Banister (1578), entitled The Historie of Man, from the most approved Anathomistes in this Present Age.

^ Most of them were written either by subsequent authors of the same name, or by one or other of the numerous impostors who took advantage of the zealous munificence of the Ptolemies , by fabricating works under that illustrious name.

.The 16th century had commenced before France began to acquire anatomical distinction in the names of Jacques Dubois, Jean Fernel and Charles Etienne; and even these celebrated teachers were less solicitous in the personal study of the animal body than in the faithful explanation of the anatomical writings of Galen.^ The 16th century had commenced before France began to acquire anatomical distinction in the names of Jacques Dubois , Jean Fernel and Charles Etienne; and even these celebrated teachers were less solicitous in the personal study of the animal body than in the faithful explanation of the anatomical writings of Galen.

^ Almost coeval may be placed Charles Etienne (1503-1564), a younger brother of the celebrated printers, and son to Henry , who Hellenized the family name by the classical appellation of Stephen (IT 4 avos).

^ With greater coarseness in his manners and language than even the rude state of society in his times can palliate, with much varied learning and considerable eloquence, he was a blind, indiscriminate and irrational admirer of Galen, and interpreted the anatomical and physiological writings of that author in preference to giving demonstrations from the subject.

.The infancy of the French school had to contend with other difficulties.^ The infancy of the French school had to contend with other difficulties.

.The small portion of knowledge which had been hitherto diffused in the country was so inadequate to eradicate the prejudices of ignorance, that it was either difficult or absolutely impossible to procure human bodies for the purposes of science; and we are assured, on the testimony of A. Vesalius and other competent authorities, that the practical part of anatomical instruction was obtained entirely from the bodies of the lower animals.^ Hitherto anatomical inquiry was confined to the examination of the bodies of brute animals.

^ The small portion of knowledge which had been hitherto diffused in the country was so inadequate to eradicate the prejudices of ignorance, that it was either difficult or absolutely impossible to procure human bodies for the purposes of science; and we are assured, on the testimony of A. Vesalius and other competent authorities, that the practical part of anatomical instruction was obtained entirely from the bodies of the lower animals.

^ The knowledge with which his dissections had furnished him proved how many errors were daily taught and learned under the broad mantle of Galenian authority; and he perceived the necessity of a new system of anatomical instruction, divested of the omissions of ignorance and the misrepresentations of prejudice and fancy.

.The works of the Italian anatomists were unknown; and it is a proof of the tardy communication of knowledge that, while the structure of the human body had been taught in Italy for more than a century by Mondino and his followers, these anatomists are never mentioned by Etienne, who flourished long after.^ The works of the Italian anatomists were unknown; and it is a proof of the tardy communication of knowledge that, while the structure of the human body had been taught in Italy for more than a century by Mondino and his followers, these anatomists are never mentioned by Etienne, who flourished long after.

^ The military expedition of his royal pupil into Asia , by laying open the animal stores of that vast and little-known continent, furnished Aristotle with the means of extending his knowledge, not only of the animal tribes, but of their structure, and of communicating more accurate and distinct notions than were yet accessible to the world.

^ Gabriel de Zerbis, who flourished at Verona towards the conclusion of the 15th century, is celebrated as the author of a system in which he is obviously more anxious to astonish his readers by the wonders of a verbose and complicated style than to instruct by precise and faithful description.

.Such was the aspect of the times at the appearance of Jacques Dubois (1478-1555), who, under the Romanized name of Jacobus.^ Such was the aspect of the times at the appearance of Jacques Dubois (1478-1555), who, under the Romanized name of Jacobus.

^ Doctors take care of Daniel, a man who wants a sexual reassignment surgery and who now goes under the name Donna.
  • Watch Greys Anatomy Online For Free - Watching Season 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC greysanatomy-online.com [Source type: General]

.Sylvius, according to the fashion of the day, has been fortunate in acquiring a reputation to which his researches do not entitle him.^ Sylvius, according to the fashion of the day, has been fortunate in acquiring a reputation to which his researches do not entitle him.

.For the name of Dubois the history of anatomy, it is said, is indebted to his inordinate love of money.^ For the name of Dubois the history of anatomy, it is said, is indebted to his inordinate love of money.

^ History Of Anatomy In tracing the history of the origin of anatomy, it may be justly said that more learning than judgment has been displayed.

^ I love the "Knife Anatomy, Knife Parts, Knife Names, Knife Components".
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the instance of his brother Francis, who was professor of eloquence in the college of Tournay at Paris, he devoted himself to the study of the learned languages and mathematics; but discovering that these elegant accomplishments do not invariably reward their cultivators with the goods of fortune, Dubois betook himself to medicine.^ At the instance of his brother Francis , who was professor of eloquence in the college of Tournay at Paris , he devoted himself to the study of the learned languages and mathematics ; but discovering that these elegant accomplishments do not invariably reward their cultivators with the goods of fortune, Dubois betook himself to medicine.

^ This person, who must not be n confounded with the monarch of Corinth , immortalized by Sophocles in the tragic story of Oedipus , is represented as a recluse, severed from the world and its enjoyments, and devoting himself to the study of anatomy and physiology, and to the composition of works on these subjects.

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

.After the acquisition of a medical degree in the university of Montpellier, at the ripe age of fifty-one Dubois returned to Paris to resume a course of anatomical instruction.^ After the acquisition of a medical degree in the university of Montpellier , at the ripe age of fifty-one Dubois returned to Paris to resume a course of anatomical instruction.

^ The university of Bologna , which, as a school of literature and law, was already celebrated in the 12th century, became, in the course of the following one, not less distinguished for its medical teachers.

^ By 1828 the annual supply of bodies had dropped to about 450, and about 200 English students were forced each year to go to Paris for their anatomical instruction.

.Here he taught anatomy to a numerous audience in the college of Trinquet; and on the departure of Vidus Vidius for Italy was appointed to succeed that physician as professor of surgery to the Royal College.^ Here he taught anatomy to a numerous audience in the college of Trinquet; and on the departure of Vidus Vidius for Italy was appointed to succeed that physician as professor of surgery to the Royal College.

^ It is wonderful, however, how much descriptive anatomy was taught in the days before text-books were ,coi o .and how much of what is essential to the study of surgery and medicine the students knew.

.His character is easily estimated.^ His character is easily estimated.

.With greater coarseness in his manners and language than even the rude state of society in his times can palliate, with much varied learning and considerable eloquence, he was a blind, indiscriminate and irrational admirer of Galen, and interpreted the anatomical and physiological writings of that author in preference to giving demonstrations from the subject.^ With greater coarseness in his manners and language than even the rude state of society in his times can palliate, with much varied learning and considerable eloquence, he was a blind, indiscriminate and irrational admirer of Galen, and interpreted the anatomical and physiological writings of that author in preference to giving demonstrations from the subject.

^ The heart of a bird can pump much more blood than a man or dog (about seven times as much!

^ His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.

.Without talent for original research or discovery himself, his envy and jealousy made him detest every one who gave proofs of either.^ Without talent for original research or discovery himself, his envy and jealousy made him detest every one who gave proofs of either.

^ Soranus, who was an Ephesian, and flourished under the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, distinguished himself by his researches on the female organs of generation.

^ One is available but he does not want it because he does not believe Santa gave it to him as his mother said.
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.We are assured by Vesalius, who was some time his pupil, that his manner of teaching was calculated neither to advance the science nor to rectify the mistakes of his predecessors.^ In myology he rectified several mistakes of Vesalius.

^ We are assured by Vesalius, who was some time his pupil, that his manner of teaching was calculated neither to advance the science nor to rectify the mistakes of his predecessors.

^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

.A human body was never seen in the theatre of Dubois; the carcases of dogs and other animals were the materials from which he taught; and so difficult even was it to obtain human bones, that unless Vesalius and his fellow-students had collected assiduously from the Innocents and other cemeteries, they must have committed numerous errors in acquiring the first principles.^ A human body was never seen in the theatre of Dubois; the carcases of dogs and other animals were the materials from which he taught; and so difficult even was it to obtain human bones, that unless Vesalius and his fellow-students had collected assiduously from the Innocents and other cemeteries, they must have committed numerous errors in acquiring the first principles.

^ The small portion of knowledge which had been hitherto diffused in the country was so inadequate to eradicate the prejudices of ignorance, that it was either difficult or absolutely impossible to procure human bodies for the purposes of science; and we are assured, on the testimony of A. Vesalius and other competent authorities, that the practical part of anatomical instruction was obtained entirely from the bodies of the lower animals.

^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

.This assertion, however, is contradicted by J. Riolan, and afterwards by K. P. J. Sprengel and T. Lauth, the last of whom decidedly censures Vesalius for this ungrateful treatment of his instructor.^ This assertion, however, is contradicted by J. Riolan, and afterwards by K. P. J. Sprengel and T. Lauth, the last of whom decidedly censures Vesalius for this ungrateful treatment of his instructor.

^ The merit of these distinctions, however, he afterwards destroys by repeating the old assertion that the left ventricle ought to contain spirit or air, which it generates from the blood.

.It is certain that opportunities of inspecting the human body were by no means so frequent as to facilitate the study of the science.^ It is certain that opportunities of inspecting the human body were by no means so frequent as to facilitate the study of the science.

^ We have, indeed, no testimony of the human body being submitted to examination previous Alexan- to the time of Erasistratus and Herophilus; and it is drian p school.

^ Few students dissected the human body, because for such dissection they had no opportunities.

.Though his mention of injections has led some to suppose him the discoverer of that art, he appears to have made no substantial addition to the information already acquired; and the first acknowledged professor of anatomy to the university of Paris appears in history as one who lived without true honour and died without just celebrity.^ Though his mention of injections has led some to suppose him the discoverer of that art, he appears to have made no substantial addition to the information already acquired; and the first acknowledged professor of anatomy to the university of Paris appears in history as one who lived without true honour and died without just celebrity.

^ While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.

^ By the appearance of Aristotle this species of knowledge, which was hitherto acquired in a desultory and irregular manner, began to be cultivated systematically and with a definite object; and among the services which the philosopher of Stagira rendered to mankind, one of the greatest and most substantial is, that he was the founder of Comparative Anatomy, and was the first to apply its facts to the elucidation of zoology .

.He must not be confounded with Franciscus Sylvius (de le Boe), who is mentioned by F. Ruysch and M. V. G. Malacarne as the author of a particular method of demonstrating the brain.^ He must not be confounded with Franciscus Sylvius (de le Boe), who is mentioned by F. Ruysch and M. V. G. Malacarne as the author of a particular method of demonstrating the brain.

^ To repel the audacious and calumnious aspersions with which Louis de Bils attacked de le Boe and van Horne, Ruysch published his tract on the valves of the lymphatics, which completely established his character as an anatomist of originality and research.

^ He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.

Almost coeval may be placed Charles Etienne (1503-1564), a younger brother of the celebrated printers, and son to Henry, who Hellenized the family name by the classical appellation of Stephen (IT �4 avos). .It is uncertain whether he taught publicly.^ It is uncertain whether he taught publicly.

.But his tranquillity was disturbed, and his pursuits interrupted, by the oppressive persecutions in which their religious opinions involved the family; and Charles Etienne drew the last breath of a miserable life in a dungeon in 1564. Etienne, though sprung of a family whose classical taste has been their principal glory, does not betray the same servile imitation of the Galenian anatomy with which Dubois is charged.^ Etienne, though sprung of a family whose classical taste has been their principal glory, does not betray the same servile imitation of the Galenian anatomy with which Dubois is charged.

^ But his tranquillity was disturbed, and his pursuits interrupted, by the oppressive persecutions in which their religious opinions involved the family; and Charles Etienne drew the last breath of a miserable life in a dungeon in 1564.

^ Almost coeval may be placed Charles Etienne (1503-1564), a younger brother of the celebrated printers, and son to Henry , who Hellenized the family name by the classical appellation of Stephen (IT 4 avos).

.He appears to have been the first to detect valves in the orifice of the hepatic veins.^ He appears to have been the first to detect valves in the orifice of the hepatic veins.

^ He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.

.He was ignorant, however, of the researches of the Italian anatomists; and his description of the brain is inferior to that given sixty years before by Achillini.^ He was ignorant, however, of the researches of the Italian anatomists; and his description of the brain is inferior to that given sixty years before by Achillini.

^ His description of the brain is derived from dissection of the lower animals, and his distinctions of the several parts of the organ have been retained by modern anatomists.

^ The seventeenth contains the brain and spinal cord; and the eighteenth more accurate views of the origin, course and distribution of the nerves than had been given before.

.His comparison of the cerebral cavities to the human ear has persuaded F. Portal that he knew the inferior cornua, the hippocampus and its prolongations; but this is no reason for giving him that honour to the detriment of the reputation of Achillini, to whom, so far as historical testimony goes, the first knowledge of this fact is due.^ His comparison of the cerebral cavities to the human ear has persuaded F. Portal that he knew the inferior cornua, the hippocampus and its prolongations; but this is no reason for giving him that honour to the detriment of the reputation of Achillini, to whom, so far as historical testimony goes, the first knowledge of this fact is due.

^ Just because this side of the knife is called undecorated and reverse , this is no reason to give it any less importance than the obverse side.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer describes the life of Yuri Gagarin, first human in space (Russian), traces his historic space flight and his life following that event.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on all the Sciences 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: Academic]

.The researches of Etienne into the structure of the nervous system are, however, neither useless nor inglorious; and the circumstance of demonstrating a canal through the entire length of the spinal cord, which had neither been suspected by contemporaries nor noticed by successors till J. B. Senac (1693-1770) made it known, is sufficient to place him high in the rank of anatomical discoverers.^ The researches of Etienne into the structure of the nervous system are, however, neither useless nor inglorious; and the circumstance of demonstrating a canal through the entire length of the spinal cord, which had neither been suspected by contemporaries nor noticed by successors till J. B. Senac (1693-1770) made it known, is sufficient to place him high in the rank of anatomical discoverers.

^ Length of the spinal cord.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.

.The French anatomy of the 16th century was distinguished by two circumstances unfavourable to the advancement of the science - extravagant admiration of antiquity, with excessive confidence in the writings of Galen, and the general practice of dissecting principally the bodies of the lower animals.^ The French anatomy of the 16th century was distinguished by two circumstances unfavourable to the advancement of the science - extravagant admiration of antiquity, with excessive confidence in the writings of Galen, and the general practice of dissecting principally the bodies of the lower animals.

^ On the preliminary circumstances authors are not agreed; but the most general account states that when Vesalius was dissecting, with the consent of his kinsmen, the body of a Spanish grandee , it was observed that the heart still gave some feeble palpitations when divided by the knife .

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.Both these errors were much amended, if not entirely removed, by the exertions of a young Fleming, whose appearance forms a conspicuous era in the history of anatomy.^ Both these errors were much amended, if not entirely removed, by the exertions of a young Fleming, whose appearance forms a conspicuous era in the history of anatomy.

^ This era, indeed, is distinguished for the appearance of Mondino (Mundinus), under whose zealous cultivation the science first began to rise from the ashes in which it had been buried.

^ Of these we cannot speak in detail; but historical justice requires us to notice shortly those to whose exertions the science of anatomy has been most indebted.

.Andreas Vesalius, (1 514-1564), a native of Brussels, after acquiring at Louvain the ordinary classical attainments of the day, began at the age of fourteen to study anatomy under the auspices of Dubois.^ Andreas Vesalius, (1 514-1564 ), a native of Brussels , after acquiring at Louvain the ordinary classical attainments of the day, began at the age of fourteen to study anatomy under the auspices of Dubois.

^ Shortly after he betook himself to the study of anatomy under Satyrus, a pupil of Quintus, and of medicine under Stratonicus, a Hippocratic physician, and Aeschrion, an empiric.

^ Etienne, though sprung of a family whose classical taste has been their principal glory, does not betray the same servile imitation of the Galenian anatomy with which Dubois is charged.

.Though the originality of his mind soon led him to abandon the prejudices by which he was environed, and take the most direct course for attaining a knowledge of the structure of the human frame, he neither underrated the Galenian anatomy nor was indolent in the dissection of brute animals.^ Though the originality of his mind soon led him to abandon the prejudices by which he was environed, and take the most direct course for attaining a knowledge of the structure of the human frame, he neither underrated the Galenian anatomy nor was indolent in the dissection of brute animals.

^ The knowledge with which his dissections had furnished him proved how many errors were daily taught and learned under the broad mantle of Galenian authority; and he perceived the necessity of a new system of anatomical instruction, divested of the omissions of ignorance and the misrepresentations of prejudice and fancy.

^ At this period, however, the prejudice against Comparative Anatomy began to subside; and animal dissection, though not substituted for that of the human body, was employed, as it ought always to have been, to illustrate obscurities, to determine doubts and to explain difficulties, and, in short, to enlarge and rectify the knowledge of the structure of animal bodies generally.

.The difficulties, however, with which the practical pursuit of human anatomy was beset in France, and the dangers with which he had to contend, made him look to Italy as a suitable field for the cultivation of the science; and in 1536 we find him at Venice, at once pursuing the study of human anatomy with the utmost zeal, and requested, ere he had attained his twenty-second year, to demonstrate publicly in the university of Padua.^ The difficulties, however, with which the practical pursuit of human anatomy was beset in France, and the dangers with which he had to contend, made him look to Italy as a suitable field for the cultivation of the science; and in 1536 we find him at Venice , at once pursuing the study of human anatomy with the utmost zeal, and requested, ere he had attained his twenty-second year, to demonstrate publicly in the university of Padua.

^ From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of Man, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or ontogeny, phylogeny and histology .

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.After remaining here about seven years, Vesalius went by express invitation to Bologna, and shortly afterwards to Pisa; and thus professor in three universities, he appears to have carried on his anatomical investigations and instructions alternately at Padua, Bologna and Pisa, in the course of the same winter.^ After remaining here about seven years , Vesalius went by express invitation to Bologna, and shortly afterwards to Pisa ; and thus professor in three universities, he appears to have carried on his anatomical investigations and instructions alternately at Padua, Bologna and Pisa, in the course of the same winter.

^ Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII .

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.

.It is on this account that Vesalius, though a Fleming by birth and trained originally in the French school, belongs, as an anatomist, to the Italian, and may be viewed as the first of an illustrious line of teachers by whom the anatomical reputation of that country was in the course of the 16th century raised to the greatest eminence.^ It is on this account that Vesalius, though a Fleming by birth and trained originally in the French school, belongs, as an anatomist, to the Italian, and may be viewed as the first of an illustrious line of teachers by whom the anatomical reputation of that country was in the course of the 16th century raised to the greatest eminence .

^ The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino , near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu.

^ Fabricius, though succeeded by his pupil Julius Casserius of Placenza, may be regarded as the last of that illustrious line of anatomical teachers by whom the science was so successfully studied and taught in the universities of Italy.

.Vesalius is known as the first author of a comprehensive and systematic view of human anatomy.^ Vesalius is known as the first author of a comprehensive and systematic view of human anatomy.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

^ From a utilitarian point of view the study of Man is the most important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points of view.

.The knowledge with which his dissections had furnished him proved how many errors were daily taught and learned under the broad mantle of Galenian authority; and he perceived the necessity of a new system of anatomical instruction, divested of the omissions of ignorance and the misrepresentations of prejudice and fancy.^ The knowledge with which his dissections had furnished him proved how many errors were daily taught and learned under the broad mantle of Galenian authority; and he perceived the necessity of a new system of anatomical instruction, divested of the omissions of ignorance and the misrepresentations of prejudice and fancy.

^ The small portion of knowledge which had been hitherto diffused in the country was so inadequate to eradicate the prejudices of ignorance, that it was either difficult or absolutely impossible to procure human bodies for the purposes of science; and we are assured, on the testimony of A. Vesalius and other competent authorities, that the practical part of anatomical instruction was obtained entirely from the bodies of the lower animals.

^ This, which is probably the most accurate as it is the most elaborate system of anatomical knowledge up to the date of its publication in 1844, was translated into the French language by Jourdan, and published in 1846 under the name of Encyclopedie anatomique.

.The early age at which he effected this object has been to his biographers the theme of boundless commendation; and we are told that he began at the age of twenty-five to arrange the materials he had collected, and accomplished his task ere he had completed his 28th year.^ The early age at which he effected this object has been to his biographers the theme of boundless commendation ; and we are told that he began at the age of twenty-five to arrange the materials he had collected, and accomplished his task ere he had completed his 28th year.

^ In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.

^ Commodus; but the habit of faithful observation in Galen seems to have been so powerful that in the description of material objects, his genius invariably rises above the circumstances of his age.

.Soon after this period we find him invited as imperial physician to the court of Charles V., where he was occupied in the duties of practice and answering the various charges which were unceasingly brought against him by the disciples of Galen.^ Soon after this period we find him invited as imperial physician to the court of Charles V ., where he was occupied in the duties of practice and answering the various charges which were unceasingly brought against him by the disciples of Galen.

.After the abdication of Charles he continued at court in great favour with his son Philip II.^ After the abdication of Charles he continued at court in great favour with his son Philip II .

.To this he seems to have been led principally by the troublesome controversies in which his anatomical writings had involved him.^ To this he seems to have been led principally by the troublesome controversies in which his anatomical writings had involved him.

^ It is unnecessary here to consider the arguments and facts by which Harvey defended his theory, or to notice the numerous assaults to which he was exposed, and the controversies in which his opponents wished to involve him.

.It is painful to think, however, that even imperial patronage bestowed on eminent talents does not ensure immunity from popular prejudice; and the fate of Vesalius will be a lasting example of the barbarism of the times, and of the precarious tenure of the safety even of a great physician.^ It is painful to think, however, that even imperial patronage bestowed on eminent talents does not ensure immunity from popular prejudice; and the fate of Vesalius will be a lasting example of the barbarism of the times, and of the precarious tenure of the safety even of a great physician.

^ This assertion, however, is contradicted by J. Riolan, and afterwards by K. P. J. Sprengel and T. Lauth, the last of whom decidedly censures Vesalius for this ungrateful treatment of his instructor.

^ The work, however, which demonstrates at once the great merit and the unhappy fate of Eustachius is his Anatomical Engravings, which, though completed in 1552, nine years after the impression of the work of Vesalius, the author was unable to publish.

.On the preliminary circumstances authors are not agreed; but the most general account states that when Vesalius was dissecting, with the consent of his kinsmen, the body of a Spanish grandee, it was observed that the heart still gave some feeble palpitations when divided by the knife.^ On the preliminary circumstances authors are not agreed; but the most general account states that when Vesalius was dissecting, with the consent of his kinsmen, the body of a Spanish grandee , it was observed that the heart still gave some feeble palpitations when divided by the knife .

^ His language is in general clear, his style as correct as in most of the authors of the same period, and his manner is.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.The immediate effects of this outrage to human feelings were the denunciation of the anatomist to the Inquisition; and Vesalius escaped the severe treatment of that tribunal only by the influence of the king, and by promising to perform a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.^ The immediate effects of this outrage to human feelings were the denunciation of the anatomist to the Inquisition ; and Vesalius escaped the severe treatment of that tribunal only by the influence of the king, and by promising to perform a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

^ The labours of Vesalius were not limited to the immediate effect produced by his own writings.

.He forthwith proceeded to Venice, from which he sailed with the Venetian fleet, under James Malatesta, for Cyprus.^ He forthwith proceeded to Venice, from which he sailed with the Venetian fleet, under James Malatesta, for Cyprus.

.When he reached Jerusalem, he received from the Venetian senate a message requesting him again to accept the Paduan professorship, which had become vacant by the death of his friend and pupil Fallopius.^ When he reached Jerusalem , he received from the Venetian senate a message requesting him again to accept the Paduan professorship, which had become vacant by the death of his friend and pupil Fallopius.

His destiny, however, which pursued him fast, suffered him not again to breathe the Italian air. .After struggling for many days with the adverse winds in the Ionian Sea, he was wrecked on the island of Zante, where he quickly breathed his last in such penury that unless a liberal goldsmith had defrayed the funeral charges, his remains must have been devoured by beasts of prey.^ After struggling for many days with the adverse winds in the Ionian Sea, he was wrecked on the island of Zante , where he quickly breathed his last in such penury that unless a liberal goldsmith had defrayed the funeral charges, his remains must have been devoured by beasts of prey .

^ This is Alex's last day in the hospital unless he passes his boards practical exam the next day, thus everyone helps him to review so that he succeeds.
  • Watch Greys Anatomy Online For Free - Watching Season 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC greysanatomy-online.com [Source type: General]

.At the time of his death he was scarcely fifty years of age.^ At the time of his death he was scarcely fifty years of age.

^ The death of Galen, which took place at Pergamum in the seventieth year of his age and the tooth of the Christian era, may be regarded as the downfall of anatomy in ancient times.

.To form a correct estimate of the character and merits of Vesalius, we must not compare him, in the spirit of modern perfection, with the anatomical authors either of later times or of the present day.^ To form a correct estimate of the character and merits of Vesalius, we must not compare him, in the spirit of modern perfection, with the anatomical authors either of later times or of the present day.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

^ De Medicine, with incidental remarks in the 7th, the modern reader may form very just ideas of his anatomical attainments.

.Whoever would frame a just idea of this anatomist must imagine, not a bold innovator without academical learning, not a genius coming from a foreign country, unused to the forms and habits of Catholic Europe, nor a wild reformer, blaming indiscriminately everything which accorded not with his opinion; but a young student scarcely emancipated from the authority of instructors, whose intellect was still influenced by the doctrines with which it had been originally imbued, - a scholar strictly trained in the opinions of the time, living amidst men who venerated Galen as the oracle of anatomy and the divinity of medicine, - exercising his reason to estimate the soundness of the instructions then in use, and proceeding, in the way least likely to offend authority and wound prejudice, to rectify errors, and to establish on the solid basis of observation the true elements of anatomical science.^ Whoever would frame a just idea of this anatomist must imagine, not a bold innovator without academical learning, not a genius coming from a foreign country, unused to the forms and habits of Catholic Europe, nor a wild reformer, blaming indiscriminately everything which accorded not with his opinion; but a young student scarcely emancipated from the authority of instructors, whose intellect was still influenced by the doctrines with which it had been originally imbued, - a scholar strictly trained in the opinions of the time, living amidst men who venerated Galen as the oracle of anatomy and the divinity of medicine, - exercising his reason to estimate the soundness of the instructions then in use, and proceeding, in the way least likely to offend authority and wound prejudice, to rectify errors, and to establish on the solid basis of observation the true elements of anatomical science.

^ The knowledge with which his dissections had furnished him proved how many errors were daily taught and learned under the broad mantle of Galenian authority; and he perceived the necessity of a new system of anatomical instruction, divested of the omissions of ignorance and the misrepresentations of prejudice and fancy.

^ Karl August von Bergen had already demonstrated (1732) the general distribution of cellular membrane, and showed that it not only incloses every part of the animal frame, but forms the basis of every organ - a doctrine which was adopted and still more fully expanded (1757) by his friend Haller, in opposition to what was asserted by Albinus, who maintains that each part has a proper tissue.

.Vesalius has been denominated the founder of human anatomy; and though we have seen that in this career he was preceded with honour by Mondino and Berenger, still the small proportion of correct observation which their reverence for Galen and Arabian doctrines allowed them to communicate, will not in a material degree impair the original merits of Vesalius.^ Vesalius has been denominated the founder of human anatomy; and though we have seen that in this career he was preceded with honour by Mondino and Berenger, still the small proportion of correct observation which their reverence for Galen and Arabian doctrines allowed them to communicate, will not in a material degree impair the original merits of Vesalius.

^ Though a follower of the Arabian school, the assiduity with which he cultivated anatomy has rescued his name from the inglorious obscurity in which the Arabian doctors have in general slumbered.

^ The Comparative Anatomy is almost all original, the result of personal research and dissection; and the pathological observations, though occasionally tinged with the spirit of the times, show the author to have been endowed with the powers of observation and judicious reflexion in no ordinary degree.

.The errors which he rectified and the additions which he made are so numerous, that it is impossible, in such a sketch as the present, to communicate a just idea of them.^ The errors which he rectified and the additions which he made are so numerous, that it is impossible, in such a sketch as the present, to communicate a just idea of them.

^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

.Besides the first good description of the sphenoid bone, he showed that the sternum consists of three portions and the sacrum of five or six; and described accurately the vestibule in the interior of the temporal bone.^ It consists of the saccule, the utricle, and three semicircular ducts.  (Click here for an anatomical picture .  These are parts of a system of tubes and cisterns, the membranous labyrinth , that is entombed in the petrous part of the temporal bone.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Anatomy of the Inner Ear Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9891PU Shows the temporal bone and the structures of the ...

^ First, anchors often provide more accurate descriptions of web pages than the pages themselves.
  • The Anatomy of a Search Engine 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC infolab.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He not only verified the observation of Etienne on the valves of the hepatic veins, but he described well the vena azygos, and discovered the canal which passes in the foetus between the umbilical vein and the vena cava, since named ductus venosus. He described the omentum, and its connexions with the stomach, the spleen and the colon; gave the first correct views of the structure of the pylorus; remarked the small size of the caecal appendix in man; gave the first good account of the mediastinum and pleura and the fullest description of the anatomy of the brain yet advanced.^ He not only verified the observation of Etienne on the valves of the hepatic veins, but he described well the vena azygos, and discovered the canal which passes in the foetus between the umbilical vein and the vena cava, since named ductus venosus.

^ He described the omentum, and its connexions with the stomach, the spleen and the colon; gave the first correct views of the structure of the pylorus; remarked the small size of the caecal appendix in man; gave the first good account of the mediastinum and pleura and the fullest description of the anatomy of the brain yet advanced.

^ He appears to have been the first to detect valves in the orifice of the hepatic veins.

.He appears, however, not to have understood well the inferior recesses; and his account of the nerves is confused by regarding the optic as the first pair, the third as the fifth and the fifth as the seventh.^ He appears, however, not to have understood well the inferior recesses; and his account of the nerves is confused by regarding the optic as the first pair, the third as the fifth and the fifth as the seventh.

^ In the base of the organ he remarks, first, two mammillary caruncles, the optic nerves, which he reckons the first pair; the oculomuscular, which he accounts the second; the third, which appears to be sixth of the moderns; the fourth; the fifth, evidently the seventh; a sixth, the nervus vagus; and a seventh, which is the ninth of the moderns.

^ General accounts of the nerves had been given with various degrees of accuracy by Willis, Vieussens, Winslow, and the first Monro; and the subject had been much rectified and improved by the indefatigable Haller.

.The labours of Vesalius were not limited to the immediate effect produced by his own writings.^ The labours of Vesalius were not limited to the immediate effect produced by his own writings.

.His instructions and examples produced a multitude of anatomical inquirers of different characters and varied celebrity, by whom the science was extended and rectified.^ His instructions and examples produced a multitude of anatomical inquirers of different characters and varied celebrity, by whom the science was extended and rectified.

^ The anatomical descriptions of Vesalius underwent the scrutiny of various inquirers.

^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

.Of these we cannot speak in detail; but historical justice requires us to notice shortly those to whose exertions the science of anatomy has been most indebted.^ Of these we cannot speak in detail; but historical justice requires us to notice shortly those to whose exertions the science of anatomy has been most indebted.

^ These notes for 530a are more extensive and more detailed than the ones that were provided for Anatomy 350a.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Some will be shown in 350a classes.  All are available in the Taylor Library .  Several of these tapes include more details than are needed for Anatomy 350a.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino, near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu. science of human anatomy.^ The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino , near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu.

^ In the annals of medicine his name will be remembered not only as the most zealous and eminent in cultivating the anatomy of the human body, but as the first physician who was fortunate enough to calm the alarms of Europe, suffering under the ravages of syphilis, then raging with uncontrollable virulence.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.He extended the knowledge of the internal ear by rediscovering and describing correctly the tube which bears his name; and if we admit that G. F. Ingrassias anticipated him in the knowledge of the third bone of the tympanal cavity, the stapes, he is still the first who described the internal and anterior muscles of the malleus, as also the stapedius, and the complicated figure of the cochlea. He is the first who studied accurately the anatomy of the teeth, and the phenomena of the first and second dentition.^ Muscles of face; stapedius muscle of middle ear .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ He is the first who studied accurately the anatomy of the teeth, and the phenomena of the first and second dentition.

^ He extended the knowledge of the internal ear by rediscovering and describing correctly the tube which bears his name; and if we admit that G. F. Ingrassias anticipated him in the knowledge of the third bone of the tympanal cavity, the stapes, he is still the first who described the internal and anterior muscles of the malleus, as also the stapedius, and the complicated figure of the cochlea.

.The work, however, which demonstrates at once the great merit and the unhappy fate of Eustachius is his Anatomical Engravings, which, though completed in 1552, nine years after the impression of the work of Vesalius, the author was unable to publish.^ The work, however, which demonstrates at once the great merit and the unhappy fate of Eustachius is his Anatomical Engravings, which, though completed in 1552, nine years after the impression of the work of Vesalius, the author was unable to publish.

^ It is painful to think, however, that even imperial patronage bestowed on eminent talents does not ensure immunity from popular prejudice; and the fate of Vesalius will be a lasting example of the barbarism of the times, and of the precarious tenure of the safety even of a great physician.

^ This work, however, magnificent as it was, was excelled by that of Albinus, who in 1747 published engravings, executed by Jan Wandelaar (1691-1759), of the bones and muscles, which had never been surpassed in accuracy of outline or beauty of execution.

.First communicated to the world in 1714 by G. M. Lancisi, afterwards in 1744 by Cajetan Petrioli, again in 1744 by B. S. Albinus, and subsequently at Bonn in 1790, the engravings show that Eustachius had dissected with the greatest care and diligence, and taken the utmost pains to give just views of the shape, size and relative position of the organs of the human body.^ First communicated to the world in 1714 by G. M. Lancisi, afterwards in 1744 by Cajetan Petrioli, again in 1744 by B. S. Albinus , and subsequently at Bonn in 1790, the engravings show that Eustachius had dissected with the greatest care and diligence, and taken the utmost pains to give just views of the shape, size and relative position of the organs of the human body.

^ This knife is easier to sheath than the radical curved full trailing point above, but care must still be taken to avoid piercing or damaging the sheath body or welts.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

.The first seven plates illustrate the history of the kidneys and some of the facts relating to the structure of the ear.^ The first seven plates illustrate the history of the kidneys and some of the facts relating to the structure of the ear.

^ He enumerates also the principal facts relating to the situation of the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and the stomach.

.The eighth represents the heart, the ramifications of the vena azygos, and the valve of the vena cava, named from the author.^ The eighth represents the heart, the ramifications of the vena azygos, and the valve of the vena cava, named from the author.

^ From these it appears that Erasistratus recognized the valves of the heart, Erasis- and distinguished them by the names of tricuspidd and tratus.

^ He not only verified the observation of Etienne on the valves of the hepatic veins, but he described well the vena azygos, and discovered the canal which passes in the foetus between the umbilical vein and the vena cava, since named ductus venosus.

.In the seven subsequent plates is given a succession of different views of the viscera of the chest and abdomen.^ In the seven subsequent plates is given a succession of different views of the viscera of the chest and abdomen.

.The seventeenth contains the brain and spinal cord; and the eighteenth more accurate views of the origin, course and distribution of the nerves than had been given before.^ The vertebral column elongates more than the spinal cord.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ The seventeenth contains the brain and spinal cord; and the eighteenth more accurate views of the origin, course and distribution of the nerves than had been given before.

^ An editing system is necessary, so that the cortex can select the sensory information worthy of conscious attention while leaving more humble duties to the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Fourteen plates are devoted to the muscles.^ Fourteen plates are devoted to the muscles.

Eustachius did not confine his researches to the study of relative anatomy. .He investigated the intimate structure of organs with assiduity and success.^ He investigated the intimate structure of organs with assiduity and success.

.What was too minute for unassisted vision he inspected by means of glasses.^ What was too minute for unassisted vision he inspected by means of glasses.

.Structure which could not be understood in the recent state, he unfolded by maceration in different fluids, or rendered more distinct by injection and exsiccation.^ Structure which could not be understood in the recent state, he unfolded by maceration in different fluids, or rendered more distinct by injection and exsiccation.

.The facts unfolded in these figures are so important that it is justly remarked by Lauth, that if the author himself had been fortunate enough to publish them, anatomy would have attained the perfection of the 18th century two centuries earlier at least.^ The facts unfolded in these figures are so important that it is justly remarked by Lauth, that if the author himself had been fortunate enough to publish them, anatomy would have attained the perfection of the 18th century two centuries earlier at least.

^ His anatomy of the heart is wonderfully accurate; and it is a remarkable fact, which seems to be omitted by all subsequent authors, that his description contains the rudiments of the circulation of the blood.

^ In the early years of the 19th century Sir Charles Bell's work on human anatomy is by far the most important in the British Isles.

.Their seclusion for that period in the papal library has given celebrity to many names which would have been known only in the verification of the discoveries of Eustachius.^ Their seclusion for that period in the papal library has given celebrity to many names which would have been known only in the verification of the discoveries of Eustachius.

^ While the art of healing was professed only by some few ecclesiastics or by itinerant practitioners, anatomy was utterly neglected; and no name of anatomical celebrity occurs to diversify the long and uninteresting period commonly distinguished as the dark ages.

^ After this period we recognize only two names of any celebrity in the history of the science - those of Soranus and Oribasius, with the more obscure ones of Meletius and Theophilus , the latter the chief of the imperial guard of Heraclius .

.M. R. Columbus and G. Fallopius were pupils of Vesalius.^ M. R. Columbus and G. Fallopius were pupils of Vesalius.

.Columbus, as his immediate successor in Padua, and afterwards as professor at Rome, distinguished himself by rectify ing and improving the anatomy of the bones; by giving correct accounts of the shape and cavities of the heart, of the pulmonary artery and aorta and their valves, and tracing the course of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart; by a good description of the brain and its vessels, and by correct understanding of the internal ear, and the first good account of the ventricles of the larynx.^ Columbus, as his immediate successor in Padua, and afterwards as professor at Rome, distinguished himself by rectify ing and improving the anatomy of the bones; by giving correct accounts of the shape and cavities of the heart, of the pulmonary artery and aorta and their valves, and tracing the course of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart; by a good description of the brain and its vessels, and by correct understanding of the internal ear, and the first good account of the ventricles of the larynx.

^ His account of the distribution of the aorta is wonderfully correct.

^ He also, after considering the anatomical relations of the cavities of the heart, the valves and the great vessels, corroborates the views of Columbus regarding the course which the blood follows in passing from the right to the left side of the heart.

.Fallopius, who, of ter being professor at Pisa in 1548, and at Padua in 1551, died at the age of forty, studied the general anatomy of the bones; described better than hereto fore the internal ear, especially the tympanum and its osseous ring, the two fenestrae and their communication with the vestibule and cochlea; and gave the first good account of the stylo-mastoid hole and canal, of the ethmoid bone and cells, and of the lacrymal passages.^ Fallopius, who, of ter being professor at Pisa in 1548, and at Padua in 1551, died at the age of forty, studied the general anatomy of the bones; described better than hereto fore the internal ear, especially the tympanum and its osseous ring, the two fenestrae and their communication with the vestibule and cochlea; and gave the first good account of the stylo-mastoid hole and canal, of the ethmoid bone and cells, and of the lacrymal passages.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino , near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu.

.In myology he rectified several mistakes of Vesalius.^ In myology he rectified several mistakes of Vesalius.

^ We are assured by Vesalius, who was some time his pupil, that his manner of teaching was calculated neither to advance the science nor to rectify the mistakes of his predecessors.

.He also devoted attention to the organs of generation in both sexes, and discovered the utero-peritoneal canal which still bears his name.^ He also devoted attention to the organs of generation in both sexes, and discovered the utero-peritoneal canal which still bears his name.

^ He is at considerable pains to explain the organs of generation in both sexes, and gives a long account of the anatomy of the foetus.

^ The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.

.Osteology nearly at the same time found an assiduous cultivator in Giovanni Filippo Ingrassias (1545-1580), a learned Sicilian physician, who, in a skilful commentary on the osteo logy of Galen, corrected numerous mistakes.^ Osteology nearly at the same time found an assiduous cultivator in Giovanni Filippo Ingrassias (1545-1580), a learned Sicilian physician, who, in a skilful commentary on the osteo logy of Galen, corrected numerous mistakes.

.He gave the first distinct account of the true configuration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones, and has the merit of first describing (1546) the third bone of the tympanum, called stapes, though this is also claimed by Eustachius and Fallopius.^ He gave the first distinct account of the true configuration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones, and has the merit of first describing (1546) the third bone of the tympanum, called stapes, though this is also claimed by Eustachius and Fallopius.

^ The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino , near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu.

^ Fallopius, who, of ter being professor at Pisa in 1548, and at Padua in 1551, died at the age of forty, studied the general anatomy of the bones; described better than hereto fore the internal ear, especially the tympanum and its osseous ring, the two fenestrae and their communication with the vestibule and cochlea; and gave the first good account of the stylo-mastoid hole and canal, of the ethmoid bone and cells, and of the lacrymal passages.

.The anatomical descriptions of Vesalius underwent the scrutiny of various inquirers.^ The anatomical descriptions of Vesalius underwent the scrutiny of various inquirers.

^ His instructions and examples produced a multitude of anatomical inquirers of different characters and varied celebrity, by whom the science was extended and rectified.

.Those most distinguished by the.^ Those most distinguished by the.

importance and accuracy of their researches, as well as the temperate tone of their observations, were .Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII.^ Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII .

^ After remaining here about seven years , Vesalius went by express invitation to Bologna, and shortly afterwards to Pisa ; and thus professor in three universities, he appears to have carried on his anatomical investigations and instructions alternately at Padua, Bologna and Pisa, in the course of the same winter.

^ Italy, though rich in anatomical talent, has probably few greater names than that of Constantio Varoli (b.

.To the former we are indebted for the first correct account of the anatomical peculiarities of the foetus, and he was the first to show that the muscles of the eye do not, as was falsely imagined, arise from the dura mater but from the margin of the optic hole.^ To the former we are indebted for the first correct account of the anatomical peculiarities of the foetus, and he was the first to show that the muscles of the eye do not, as was falsely imagined, arise from the dura mater but from the margin of the optic hole.

^ In his account of the cerebral membranes,though short, he notices the principal characters of the dura mater.

^ Head And Neck Anatomical Chart Styrene Plastic Center illustration shows muscles, veins, nerves a...

.He also, after considering the anatomical relations of the cavities of the heart, the valves and the great vessels, corroborates the views of Columbus regarding the course which the blood follows in passing from the right to the left side of the heart.^ He also, after considering the anatomical relations of the cavities of the heart, the valves and the great vessels, corroborates the views of Columbus regarding the course which the blood follows in passing from the right to the left side of the heart.

^ Columbus, as his immediate successor in Padua, and afterwards as professor at Rome, distinguished himself by rectify ing and improving the anatomy of the bones; by giving correct accounts of the shape and cavities of the heart, of the pulmonary artery and aorta and their valves, and tracing the course of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart; by a good description of the brain and its vessels, and by correct understanding of the internal ear, and the first good account of the ventricles of the larynx.

^ Anatomy Of The Brain Anatomical Chart Plastic Shows base and right side views of arteries of the...

.Aranzi is the first anatomist who describes distinctly the inferior cornua of the ventricles of the cerebrum, who recognizes the objects by which they are distinguished, and who gives them the name by which they are still known (hip pocampus); and his account is more minute and perspicuous than that of the authors of the subsequent century.^ Aranzi is the first anatomist who describes distinctly the inferior cornua of the ventricles of the cerebrum, who recognizes the objects by which they are distinguished, and who gives them the name by which they are still known (hip pocampus); and his account is more minute and perspicuous than that of the authors of the subsequent century.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ The first that claims attention on this account is Bartolomeo Eustachi of San Severino , near Salerno, who though greatly less fortunate in reputation than his contemporary Vesalius, divides with him the merit of creating the Bustas- g chiu.

.He speaks at large of the choroid plexus, and gives a particular description of the fourth ventricle, under the name of cistern of the cerebellum, as a discovery of his own.^ He speaks at large of the choroid plexus, and gives a particular description of the fourth ventricle, under the name of cistern of the cerebellum, as a discovery of his own.

^ He then speaks of the third or middle ventricle, and one posterior, which seems to correspond with the fourth; and describes the infundibulum under the names of lacuna and emboton.

^ He first applied the name of choroid or vascular membrane to that which is found in the cerebral ventricles; he knew the straight venous sinus which still bears his name; and to him the linear furrow at the bottom of the fourth ventricle is indebted for its name of calamus scriptorius.

.Italy, though rich in anatomical talent, has probably few greater names than that of Constantio Varoli (b.^ Italy, though rich in anatomical talent, has probably few greater names than that of Constantio Varoli (b.

^ Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII .

^ Though in myology Galen appears to less advantage than in osteology, he nevertheless had carried this part of anatomical knowledge to greater perfection than any of his predecessors.

1543) of Bologna. .Though he died at the early age of thirty-two, he acquired a reputation not inferior to that of the most eminent of his contemporaries.^ Though he died at the early age of thirty-two, he acquired a reputation not inferior to that of the most eminent of his contemporaries.

^ The science might have derived still greater advantages from the genius of Regnier de Graaf, who investigated with accuracy the structure of the pancreas and of the organs of generation in both sexes, had he not been cut off at the early age of thirty-two.

^ A seditious tumult appears to have caused him to form the resolution of quitting Pergamum and proceeding to Rome at the age of thirty-two.

.He is now known chiefly as the author of an epistle, inscribed to Hieronymo Mercuriali, on the optic nerves, in which he describes a new method of dissecting the brain, and communicates many interesting particulars relating to the anatomy of the organ.^ He is now known chiefly as the author of an epistle , inscribed to Hieronymo Mercuriali, on the optic nerves, in which he describes a new method of dissecting the brain, and communicates many interesting particulars relating to the anatomy of the organ.

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.He observes the threefold division of the inferior surface or base, defines the limits of the anterior, middle and posterior eminences, as marked by the compartments of the skull, and justly remarks that the cerebral cavities are capacious, communicate with each other, extending first backward and then forward, near the angle of the pyramidal portion of the temporal bone, and that they are folded on themselves, and finally lost above the middle and inferior eminence of the brain.^ Posterior cerebral : Occipital lobe, inferior surface of temporal lobe; also amygdala, hippocampal formation.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ He observes the threefold division of the inferior surface or base, defines the limits of the anterior, middle and posterior eminences, as marked by the compartments of the skull, and justly remarks that the cerebral cavities are capacious, communicate with each other, extending first backward and then forward, near the angle of the pyramidal portion of the temporal bone, and that they are folded on themselves, and finally lost above the middle and inferior eminence of the brain.

^ Thus, he notices the quadrilateral shape of the parietal bones; he distinguishes the squamous, the styloid, the mastoid and the petrous portions of the temporal bones; and he remarks the peculiar situation and shape of the sphenoid bone.

.He appears to have been aware that at this point they communicate with the exterior or convoluted surface.^ He appears to have been aware that at this point they communicate with the exterior or convoluted surface.

^ He seems to have recognized the communication of the convoluted surface of the brain and that between the lateral cavities beneath the fornix.

.He recognized the impropriety of the term corpus callosum, seems to have known the communication called afterwards foramen Monroianum, and describes the hip pocampus more minutely than had been previously done.^ He recognized the impropriety of the term corpus callosum, seems to have known the communication called afterwards foramen Monroianum, and describes the hip pocampus more minutely than had been previously done.

^ Aranzi is the first anatomist who describes distinctly the inferior cornua of the ventricles of the cerebrum, who recognizes the objects by which they are distinguished, and who gives them the name by which they are still known (hip pocampus); and his account is more minute and perspicuous than that of the authors of the subsequent century.

^ The vasculature of the CNS is adequately described in the "Manter & Gatz" textbook, with rather more details than are needed for Anatomy 530a.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.Among the anatomists of the Italian school, as a pupil of Fallopius, Eustachius and U. Aldrovandus, is generally enumerated Volcher Coiter (b.^ Among the anatomists of the Italian school, as a pupil of Fallopius, Eustachius and U. Aldrovandus, is generally enumerated Volcher Coiter (b.

1534) of Groningen. .He distinguished himself by accurate researches on the cartilages, the bones and the nerves, recognized the value of morbid anatomy, and made experiments on living animals to ascertain the action of the heart and the influence of the brain.^ He also collected several valuable observations on the morbid states of the heart and brain.

^ He distinguished himself by accurate researches on the cartilages, the bones and the nerves, recognized the value of morbid anatomy, and made experiments on living animals to ascertain the action of the heart and the influence of the brain.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.The Frutefull and Necessary Briefe Worke of John Halle' (1565) and The Englisheman's Treasure by Master Thomas Vicary (1586), 2 English works published at this time, are tolerable compilations from former authors, much tinged by Galenian and Arabian distinctions.^ The Frutefull and Necessary Briefe Worke of John Halle ' (1565) and The Englisheman's Treasure by Master Thomas Vicary (1586), 2 English works published at this time, are tolerable compilations from former authors, much tinged by Galenian and Arabian distinctions.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

^ The excellent work by Samuel Thomas Sdmmerring, originally published in the German language , between the years 1791 and 6; then in the Latin language , between the years so 1m- 79 ?

.A more valuable compendium than either is, however, that of John Banister (1578), entitled The Historie of Man, from the most approved Anathomistes in this Present Age. The celebrity of the anatomical school of Italy was worthily maintained by Hieronymo Fabricio of Acquapendente, who, in imitation of his master Fallopius, laboured to render anatomical knowledge more precise by repeated dissections, and to illustrate the obscure by researches on the structure of animals in general.^ A more valuable compendium than either is, however, that of John Banister (1578), entitled The Historie of Man, from the most approved Anathomistes in this Present Age.

^ The celebrity of the anatomical school of Italy was worthily maintained by Hieronymo Fabricio of Acquapendente, who, in imitation of his master Fallopius, laboured to render anatomical knowledge more precise by repeated dissections, and to illustrate the obscure by researches on the structure of animals in general.

^ The military expedition of his royal pupil into Asia , by laying open the animal stores of that vast and little-known continent, furnished Aristotle with the means of extending his knowledge, not only of the animal tribes, but of their structure, and of communicating more accurate and distinct notions than were yet accessible to the world.

.In this manner he investigated the formation of the foetus, the structure of the oesophagus, stomach and bowels, and the peculiarities of the eye, the ear and the larynx.^ In this manner he investigated the formation of the foetus, the structure of the oesophagus, stomach and bowels, and the peculiarities of the eye, the ear and the larynx.

^ L. Bellini studied the structure of the kidneys, and described the tongue and tonsils with some care; and Charles Drelincourt laboured to investigate the changes effected on the uterus by impregnation, and to elucidate the formation of the foetus.

^ Larynx, trachea, oesophagus, dura of posterior fossa; part of external ear and tympanic membrane .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.The discovery, however, on which his surest claims to eminence rest is that of the membranous folds, which he names valves, in the interior of veins.^ The discovery, however, on which his surest claims to eminence rest is that of the membranous folds, which he names valves, in the interior of veins.

.Several of these folds had been observed by Fernel, Sylvius and Vesalius; and in 1547 G. B. Canani observed those of the vena azygos; but no one appears to have offered any rational conjecture on their use, or to have traced them through the venous system at large, until Fabricius in 1574, upon this hypothesis, demonstrated the presence of these valvular folds in all the veins of the extremities.^ Several of these folds had been observed by Fernel, Sylvius and Vesalius; and in 1547 G. B. Canani observed those of the vena azygos; but no one appears to have offered any rational conjecture on their use, or to have traced them through the venous system at large, until Fabricius in 1574, upon this hypothesis , demonstrated the presence of these valvular folds in all the veins of the extremities.

^ TEM studies also demonstrate that these tight junctions are more like the tight junctions seen between epithelial cells as compared to those of endothelial cells elsewhere in the cardiovascular system.
  • Dr. Ross's Biol 217 Anatomy and Physiology I at CBU 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Illustrated Pocket Anatomy - Anatomy of the Muscles and Skeletal Systems 20 Pack These folding study guides take our most popular a...

.Fabricius, though succeeded by his pupil Julius Casserius of Placenza, may be regarded as the last of that illustrious line of anatomical teachers by whom the science was so successfully studied and taught in the universities of Italy.^ Fabricius, though succeeded by his pupil Julius Casserius of Placenza, may be regarded as the last of that illustrious line of anatomical teachers by whom the science was so successfully studied and taught in the universities of Italy.

^ It is on this account that Vesalius, though a Fleming by birth and trained originally in the French school, belongs, as an anatomist, to the Italian, and may be viewed as the first of an illustrious line of teachers by whom the anatomical reputation of that country was in the course of the 16th century raised to the greatest eminence .

^ Though the writings of Celsus show that he cultivated anatomical knowledge, it does not appear that the science was much studied by the Romans ; and there is reason to believe that, after the decay of the school of Alexandria, it languished in neglect and obscurity.

.The discoveries which each made, and the errors which their successive labours rectified, tended gradually to give anatomy the character of a useful as well as an accurate science, and to pave the way for a discovery which, though not anatomical but physiological, is so intimately connected with correct knowledge of the shape and situation of parts, that it exercised the most powerful influence on the future progress of anatomical inquiry.^ The discoveries which each made, and the errors which their successive labours rectified, tended gradually to give anatomy the character of a useful as well as an accurate science, and to pave the way for a discovery which, though not anatomical but physiological, is so intimately connected with correct knowledge of the shape and situation of parts, that it exercised the most powerful influence on the future progress of anatomical inquiry.

^ The system of A. Portal is a valuable and correct digest of anatomical and French pathological knowledge, which, in exact literary systematic information, is worthy of ' the author of the Histoire anatode l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, and, in accuracy of mists.

^ This short sketch may communicate some idea of the condition of anatomical knowledge in the days of Galen, who indeed is justly entitled to the character of rectifying and digesting, if not of creating, the science of anatomy among the ancients.

.This was the knowledge of the circular motion of the blood - a fact which though obscurely conjectured by Aristotle, Nemesius, Mondino and Berenger, and partially taught by Servetus, Columbus, Andreas Caesalpinus and Fabricius, it was nevertheless reserved to William Harvey fully and satisfactorily to demonstrate.^ This was the knowledge of the circular motion of the blood - a fact which though obscurely conjectured by Aristotle, Nemesius , Mondino and Berenger, and partially taught by Servetus, Columbus, Andreas Caesalpinus and Fabricius, it was nevertheless reserved to William Harvey fully and satisfactorily to demonstrate.

^ It is uncertain whether he learnt from the writings of Caesalpinus the fact observed by that author of the tumescence of a vein below the ligature, but he could not fail to be aware, and indeed he shows that he was aware, of the small circulation as taught by Servetus and Columbus.

^ The angiological knowledge of Galen, though vitiated by the erroneous physiology of the times and ignorance of the separate uses of arteries and veins, exhibits, nevertheless, some accurate facts which show the diligence of the author in dissection.

.Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

^ There is reason to believe, however, that, in some states, all the evils of body-snatching existed up to the end of the 19th century.

^ In man and in all other vertebrate animals, the nervous system has two divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) is contained in the axial skeleton, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is distributed through most of the other parts of the body ( Plan of the whole human nervous system ).
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.This doctrine was adopted with little modification by Berenger, who further demonstrated the existence and operation of the tricuspid valves in the right ventricle, and of the sigmoid valves at the beginning of the pulmonary artery and aorta, and that there were only two ventricles separated by a solid impervious septum.^ This doctrine was adopted with little modification by Berenger, who further demonstrated the existence and operation of the tricuspid valves in the right ventricle, and of the sigmoid valves at the beginning of the pulmonary artery and aorta, and that there were only two ventricles separated by a solid impervious septum.

^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

.These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.^ These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.

^ He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.

^ Sample questions These multiple choice and short-answer questions test the subject in greater detail than is currently required for Anatomy 530a.
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.It was the Spaniard Michael Servet or Servetus (born in 1509, burnt in 1553) who in his treatise De Trinitatis Erroribus, published at Haguenau in 1531, first maintained the imperviousness of the septum, and the 1 An interesting article on the character and work of the Maidstone surgeon, John Halle, by E. Barclay Smith, will be found in the J. Anat.^ It was the Spaniard Michael Servet or Servetus (born in 1509, burnt in 1553) who in his treatise De Trinitatis Erroribus, published at Haguenau in 1531, first maintained the imperviousness of the septum, and the 1 An interesting article on the character and work of the Maidstone surgeon, John Halle, by E. Barclay Smith, will be found in the J. Anat.

^ The Frutefull and Necessary Briefe Worke of John Halle ' (1565) and The Englisheman's Treasure by Master Thomas Vicary (1586), 2 English works published at this time, are tolerable compilations from former authors, much tinged by Galenian and Arabian distinctions.

^ Emphasizes the works of Pythagoras who weaves an interesting blend of religion and the sciences.
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and Phys.
vol. xxxiv. p. 275.
.It has been pointed out by Dr J. F. Payne that Vicary's work is merely an abridged copy of an unpublished English anatomical treatise of the 14th century.^ It has been pointed out by Dr J. F. Payne that Vicary's work is merely an abridged copy of an unpublished English anatomical treatise of the 14th century.

^ The oldest anatomical treatise extant is an Egyptian papyrus probably written sixteen centuries before our era.

^ An English translation of this work was prepared by Dr Robert Knox.

.The name of the author is unknown, but internal evidence shows that he was a London surgeon.^ The name of the author is unknown, but internal evidence shows that he was a London surgeon.

^ While these two authors, however, were usefully employed in showing what was wanted for the surgeon, others were occupied in the collection of new and more accurate facts.

The manuscript was written in English in 1392. See British Medical Journal, January 25, 1896.
transition of the blood by what he terms an unknown route, namely, from the right ventricle by the .vena arteriosa (pulmonary artery) to the lungs, and thence into the arteria venosa or pulmonary vein and left auricle and ventricle, from which, he adds afterwards, it is conveyed by the aorta to all parts of the body.'^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

^ The aorta he properly makes to arise from the left ventricle; but confuses himself with the arteria venalis, the pulmonary vein, and the vena arterialis, the pulmonary artery.

^ The third exhibits the pineal body ( QC:aa KwvoEt&s ) or conarium, concealed by a membrane with numerous veins, meaning that part of the plexus which is now known by the name of velum interpositum, and a complete view of the ventricles.

.Though the leading outlines, not only of the pulmonary or small but even of the great circulation, were sketched thus early by one who, though a philosopher, was attached to the church, it was only in his work De Re Anatomica, published at Venice in 1559, that Columbus formally and distinctly announced the circular course of the blood as a discovery of his own; and maintained, in addition to the imperviousness of the septum, the fact that the arteria venalis (pulmonary vein) contains, not air, but blood mixed with air brought from the lungs to the left ventricle of the heart, to be distributed through the body at large.^ Though the leading outlines, not only of the pulmonary or small but even of the great circulation, were sketched thus early by one who, though a philosopher, was attached to the church, it was only in his work De Re Anatomica, published at Venice in 1559, that Columbus formally and distinctly announced the circular course of the blood as a discovery of his own; and maintained, in addition to the imperviousness of the septum, the fact that the arteria venalis (pulmonary vein) contains, not air, but blood mixed with air brought from the lungs to the left ventricle of the heart, to be distributed through the body at large.

^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

^ Christopher Wirsung, this mistake was corrected by Thomas Bartholinus; and the discovery by Jean Pecquet in 1647 of the common trunk of the lacteals and lymphatics, and of the course which the chyle follows to reach the blood, may be regarded as the last of the series of isolated facts by the generalization of which the extent, distribution and uses of the most important organs of the animal body were at length developed.

.Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo, who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines. and the aorta, and that between the venous artery or pulmonary veins and veins in general, but was the first to remark the swelling of veins below ligatures, and to infer from it a refluent motion of blood in these vessels.^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

^ Circulatory System This general view of the network of blood vessels ...

^ Thomas Wharton 2 investigated the structure of the glands with particular care; and though rather prone to indulge in fanciful generalization, he developed some interesting views of these organs; while Walter Charleton (1619-1707), who appears to have been a person of great genius, though addicted to hypothesis, made some good remarks on the communication of the arteries with the veins, the foetal circulation and the course of the lymphatics.

.The discoveries of Aranzi and Eustachius in the vessels of the foetus tended at first to perplex and afterwards to elucidate some of these notions.^ The discoveries of Aranzi and Eustachius in the vessels of the foetus tended at first to perplex and afterwards to elucidate some of these notions.

^ From these it appears that Hippocrates had some accurate notions on osteology , but that of the structure of the human body in general his ideas were at once superficial and erroneous.

^ In the first half of the 18th century, and for some time afterwards, the few dissections which were undertaken were carried out in the private houses of medical men.

.At length it happened that, between the years 1598 and 1600, a young Englishman, William Harvey, pursuing his anatomical studies at Padua under Fabricius, learnt from that Harvey. anatomist the existence of the valves in the veins of the extremities, and undertook to ascertain the use of these valves by experimental inquiry.^ At length it happened that, between the years 1598 and 1600, a young Englishman, William Harvey , pursuing his anatomical studies at Padua under Fabricius, learnt from that Harvey.

^ The mistakes into which these anatomists fell belong to the imperfect method of inquiry.

^ Students may also use these materials in AH107 during Study Lab times.
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.It is uncertain whether he learnt from the writings of Caesalpinus the fact observed by that author of the tumescence of a vein below the ligature, but he could not fail to be aware, and indeed he shows that he was aware, of the small circulation as taught by Servetus and Columbus.^ It is uncertain whether he learnt from the writings of Caesalpinus the fact observed by that author of the tumescence of a vein below the ligature, but he could not fail to be aware, and indeed he shows that he was aware, of the small circulation as taught by Servetus and Columbus.

^ It is uncertain whether he taught publicly.

^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

.Combining these facts already known, he, by a series of well-executed experiments, demonstrated clearly the existence, not only of the small, but of a general circulation from the left side of the heart by the aorta and its subdivisions, to the right side by the veins.^ Combining these facts already known, he, by a series of well-executed experiments, demonstrated clearly the existence, not only of the small, but of a general circulation from the left side of the heart by the aorta and its subdivisions, to the right side by the veins.

^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

^ These he represents to be two in number, placed before the spinal column, the larger on the right, the smaller on the left, which, he also remarks, is by some called aorta (aoprrt), the first time we observe that this.

This memorable truth was first announced in the year 1619.
.It is unnecessary here to consider the arguments and facts by which Harvey defended his theory, or to notice the numerous assaults to which he was exposed, and the controversies in which his opponents wished to involve him.^ It is unnecessary here to consider the arguments and facts by which Harvey defended his theory, or to notice the numerous assaults to which he was exposed, and the controversies in which his opponents wished to involve him.

^ To this he seems to have been led principally by the troublesome controversies in which his anatomical writings had involved him.

.It is sufficient to say that, after the temporary ebullitions of spleen and envy had I The passage of Servetus is so interesting that our readers may feel some curiosity in perusing it in the language of the author; and it is not unimportant to remark that Servetus appears to have been led to think of the course of the blood by the desire of explaining the manner in which the animal spirits were supposed to be generated :- " Vitalis spiritus in sinistro cordis ventriculo suam originem habet, juvantibus maxime pulmonibus ad ipsius perfectionem.^ It is sufficient to say that, after the temporary ebullitions of spleen and envy had I The passage of Servetus is so interesting that our readers may feel some curiosity in perusing it in the language of the author; and it is not unimportant to remark that Servetus appears to have been led to think of the course of the blood by the desire of explaining the manner in which the animal spirits were supposed to be generated :- " Vitalis spiritus in sinistro cordis ventriculo suam originem habet, juvantibus maxime pulmonibus ad ipsius perfectionem.

^ Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.

^ To some it may appear absurd to speak of anything like good anatomical description in an author who writes in the Greek language , or anything like an interesting and correct manner in a writer who flourished at a period when taste was depraved or extinct and literature corrupted - when the philosophy of Antoninus and the mild virtues of Aurelius could do little to soften the iron sway of Lucius Verus.

.Est spiritus tenuis, caloris vi elaboratus, flavo colore, ignea potentia, ut sit quasi ex puriore sanguine lucens, vapor substantiam continens aquae, aeris, et ignis.^ Est spiritus tenuis, caloris vi elaboratus, flavo colore, ignea potentia, ut sit quasi ex puriore sanguine lucens, vapor substantiam continens aquae , aeris, et ignis.

^ Generatur ex facta in pulmone commixtione inspirati aeris cum elaborato subtili sanguine, quem dexter ventriculus sinistro communicat.

.Generatur ex facta in pulmone commixtione inspirati aeris cum elaborato subtili sanguine, quem dexter ventriculus sinistro communicat.^ Generatur ex facta in pulmone commixtione inspirati aeris cum elaborato subtili sanguine, quem dexter ventriculus sinistro communicat.

.Fit autem communicatio haec, non per parietem cordis medium, ut vulgo creditur, sed magno artificio a dextro cordis ventriculo, Longo per pulmones ductu agitatur sanguis subtilis; a pulmonibus praeparatur, flavus efficitur, et a vena arteriosa in arteriam venosam transfunditur.^ Fit autem communicatio haec, non per parietem cordis medium, ut vulgo creditur, sed magno artificio a dextro cordis ventriculo, Longo per pulmones ductu agitatur sanguis subtilis; a pulmonibus praeparatur, flavus efficitur, et a vena arteriosa in arteriam venosam transfunditur.

^ Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.

^ Quod ita per pulmones fiat communicatio et praeparatio, docet conjunctio varia , et communicatio venae arteriosae cum arteria venosa in pulmonibus.

.Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.^ Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.

^ Est spiritus tenuis, caloris vi elaboratus, flavo colore, ignea potentia, ut sit quasi ex puriore sanguine lucens, vapor substantiam continens aquae , aeris, et ignis.

^ Itaque ille spiritus a sinistro cordis ventriculo arterias totius corporis deinde transfunditur, ita ut qui tenuior est, superiora petit, ubi magis elaboratur, praecipue in plexu retiformi, sub basi cerebri sito, ubi ex vitali fieri incipit animalis, ad propriam rationalis animae rationem accedens."- De Trinitate, lib.

.Quod ita per pulmones fiat communicatio et praeparatio, docet conjunctio varia, et communicatio venae arteriosae cum arteria venosa in pulmonibus.^ Quod ita per pulmones fiat communicatio et praeparatio, docet conjunctio varia , et communicatio venae arteriosae cum arteria venosa in pulmonibus.

^ Fit autem communicatio haec, non per parietem cordis medium, ut vulgo creditur, sed magno artificio a dextro cordis ventriculo, Longo per pulmones ductu agitatur sanguis subtilis; a pulmonibus praeparatur, flavus efficitur, et a vena arteriosa in arteriam venosam transfunditur.

^ Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.

.Confirmat hoc magnitudo insignis venae arteriosae, quae nec talis nec tanta esset facia, nec tantam a corde ipso vim purissimi sanguinis in pulmones emitteret, ob solum eorum nutrimentum; nec cor pulmonibus hac ratione serviret, cum praesertim antea in embryone solerent pulmones ipsi aliunde nutriri, ob membranulas illas seu valvulas cordis, usque ad horum nativitatem; ut docet Galenus, &c.^ Confirmat hoc magnitudo insignis venae arteriosae, quae nec talis nec tanta esset facia, nec tantam a corde ipso vim purissimi sanguinis in pulmones emitteret, ob solum eorum nutrimentum; nec cor pulmonibus hac ratione serviret, cum praesertim antea in embryone solerent pulmones ipsi aliunde nutriri, ob membranulas illas seu valvulas cordis, usque ad horum nativitatem; ut docet Galenus, &c.

^ Fit autem communicatio haec, non per parietem cordis medium, ut vulgo creditur, sed magno artificio a dextro cordis ventriculo, Longo per pulmones ductu agitatur sanguis subtilis; a pulmonibus praeparatur, flavus efficitur, et a vena arteriosa in arteriam venosam transfunditur.

^ Postea vero versus pulmonem est aliud orificium venae arterialis, quae portat sanguinem ad pulmonem a corde; quia cum pulmo deserviat cordi secundum modum dictum, ut ei recompenset, cor ei transmittit sanguinem per hanc venam, quae vocatur vena arterialis; est vena, quia portat sanguinem, et arterialis, quia habet duas tunicas; et habet duas tunicas, primo quia vadit ad membrum quod existit in continuo motu, et secundo quia portat sanguinem valde subtilem et cholericum."

.Itaque ille spiritus a sinistro cordis ventriculo arterias totius corporis deinde transfunditur, ita ut qui tenuior est, superiora petit, ubi magis elaboratur, praecipue in plexu retiformi, sub basi cerebri sito, ubi ex vitali fieri incipit animalis, ad propriam rationalis animae rationem accedens."- De Trinitate, lib.^ Itaque ille spiritus a sinistro cordis ventriculo arterias totius corporis deinde transfunditur, ita ut qui tenuior est, superiora petit, ubi magis elaboratur, praecipue in plexu retiformi, sub basi cerebri sito, ubi ex vitali fieri incipit animalis, ad propriam rationalis animae rationem accedens."- De Trinitate, lib.

^ Est spiritus tenuis, caloris vi elaboratus, flavo colore, ignea potentia, ut sit quasi ex puriore sanguine lucens, vapor substantiam continens aquae , aeris, et ignis.

^ Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; atque ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis.

v.
subsided, the doctrine of the circular motion of the blood was admitted by all enlightened and unprejudiced persons, and finally was universally adopted as affording the most satisfactory explanation of many facts in anatomical structure which were either misunderstood or entirely overlooked. .The inquiries to which the investigation of the doctrine gave rise produced numerous researches on the shape and structure of the heart and its divisions, of the lungs, and of the blood-vessels and their distribution.^ The inquiries to which the investigation of the doctrine gave rise produced numerous researches on the shape and structure of the heart and its divisions, of the lungs, and of the blood-vessels and their distribution.

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.

^ He gave the first distinct ideas on the organization of the lung, and the mode in which the bronchial tubes and vessels terminate in that organ.

.Of this description were the researches of Nicolas Steno on the structure of the heart, the classical work of Richard Lower, the dissertation of J. N. Pechlin, the treatise of Raymond Vieussens, the work of Marcello Malpighi on the structure of the lungs, several sketches in the writings of John Mayow, and other treatises of less moment.^ Of this description were the researches of Nicolas Steno on the structure of the heart, the classical work of Richard Lower, the dissertation of J. N. Pechlin, the treatise of Raymond Vieussens, the work of Marcello Malpighi on the structure of the lungs, several sketches in the writings of John Mayow , and other treatises of less moment.

^ Zinn, who was professor of medicine at Göttingen, published a classical treatise on the eye (1755), which demonstrated at once the defects of previous inquiries, and how much it was possible to elucidate, by accurate research and precise description, the structure of one of the most important organs of the human frame.

^ With the aid of Tyson and his own researches, which were both extensive and accurate, he composed a system of anatomical knowledge in which he not only gives ample and accurate descriptions of the structure of the human body, and the various morbid changes to which the organs are liable, but illustrates the whole by accurate and interesting sketches of the peculiarities of the lower animals.

.Systematic treatises of anatomy began to assume a more instructive form, and to breathe a more philosophical spirit.^ Systematic treatises of anatomy began to assume a more instructive form, and to breathe a more philosophical spirit.

^ The study of the minute anatomy of the tissues, which had originally been commenced by Leeuwenhoek, Malpighi and Ruysch, began at this period to attract more general attention.

^ A few years after, the department of general anatomy first assumed a substantial form in the systematic view of the membranes and their mutual connexions traced by Andrew Bonn of Amsterdam.

.The great work of Adrian Spigelius, which appeared in 1627, two years after the death of the author, contains indeed no proof that he was aware of the valuable generalization of Harvey; but in the institutions of Caspar Bartholinus, as republished and improved by his son Thomas in 1651, the anatomical descriptions and explanations are given with reference to the new doctrine.^ The great work of Adrian Spigelius, which appeared in 1627, two years after the death of the author, contains indeed no proof that he was aware of the valuable generalization of Harvey; but in the institutions of Caspar Bartholinus, as republished and improved by his son Thomas in 1651, the anatomical descriptions and explanations are given with reference to the new doctrine.

^ Julius Caesar Aranzi (1530-1589), anatomical professor for thirty-two years in the university of Bologna, and Constantio Varoli, physician to Pope Gregory XIII .

^ He is the author of a compendium, of several treatises which he names Introductions ( Isagogae ), and of commentaries on the treatise of Mondino, in which he not only rectifies the mistakes of that anatomist, but gives minute and in general accurate anatomical descriptions.

.A still more unequivocal proof of the"progress of correct anatomical knowledge was given in the lectures delivered by Peter Dionis, at the Jardin Royal of Paris, in 1673 and the seven following years, in which that intelligent surgeon gave most accurate demonstrations of all the parts composing the human frame, and especially of the heart, its auricles, ventricles and valves, and the large vessels connected with it and the lungs.^ A still more unequivocal proof of the"progress of correct anatomical knowledge was given in the lectures delivered by Peter Dionis, at the Jardin Royal of Paris, in 1673 and the seven following years, in which that intelligent surgeon gave most accurate demonstrations of all the parts composing the human frame, and especially of the heart, its auricles, ventricles and valves, and the large vessels connected with it and the lungs.

^ His account of the valves of the lymphatics, of the vessels of the lungs, and their minute structure; his researches on the vascular structure of the skin, of the bones, and their epiphyses, and their mode of growth and union; his observations on the spleen, the glans penis, the clitoris, and the womb impregnated and unimpregnated, were but a limited part of his anatomical labours.

^ On the preliminary circumstances authors are not agreed; but the most general account states that when Vesalius was dissecting, with the consent of his kinsmen, the body of a Spanish grandee , it was observed that the heart still gave some feeble palpitations when divided by the knife .

.These demonstrations, first published in 1690, were so much esteemed that they passed through seven editions in the space of thirty years, and were translated into English.^ The eighth volume was translated into English in the year 1847.

^ These demonstrations, first published in 1690, were so much esteemed that they passed through seven editions in the space of thirty years , and were translated into English.

^ In 1629 they were publicly demonstrated at Copenhagen by Simon Pauli, and the same year the thoracic duct was observed by Jacques Mentel (1599-1670) for the first time since it was described by Eustachius.

.The progress of anatomical discovery continued in the meantime to advance.^ The progress of anatomical discovery continued in the meantime to advance.

^ That France might not be without participation in the glory of advancing the progress of anatomical knowledge, the names.

.In the course of the 16th century Eustachius, in studying minutely the structure of the vena azygos, had recognized in the horse a white vessel full of watery fluid, connected with the internal jugular vein, on the left side of the vertebral column, corresponding accurately with the vessel since named thoracic duct. Fallopius also described vessels belonging to the liver distinct from arteries and veins; and similar vessels appear to have been noticed by Nicolaus Massa (1499-1569).^ Fallopius also described vessels belonging to the liver distinct from arteries and veins; and similar vessels appear to have been noticed by Nicolaus Massa (1499-1569).

^ In the course of the 16th century Eustachius, in studying minutely the structure of the vena azygos, had recognized in the horse a white vessel full of watery fluid, connected with the internal jugular vein, on the left side of the vertebral column, corresponding accurately with the vessel since named thoracic duct.

^ He gives a luminous account of the arteries and veins of the intestines, represents with singular fidelity and beauty the bones of the foetus, inquires into the structure of the skin and the cause of its colour in different races; represents the changes incident to the womb in different periods of pregnancy, and describes the relations of the thoracic duct and the vena azygos with the contiguous parts.

.The nature and properties of these vessels were, however, entirely unknown.^ The nature and properties of these vessels were, however, entirely unknown.

.On the 23rd of July 1622 Gaspar Aselli, pro fessor:of anatomy at Pavia,while engaged in demonstrat Aselli. ing the recurrent nerves in a living dog, first observed numerous white delicate filaments crossing the mesentery in all directions; and though he took them at first for nerves, the opaque white fluid which they shed quickly convinced him that they were a new order of vessels.^ On the 23rd of July 1622 Gaspar Aselli , pro fessor:of anatomy at Pavia,while engaged in demonstrat Aselli.

^ Though, in opposition to the opinions of Praxagoras and Erasistratus, he proved that the arteries in the living animal contain not air but blood, it does not appear to have occurred to him to determine in what direction the blood flows, or whether it was movable or stationary.

^ Willis was the first who numbered the cranial nerves in the order in which they are now usually enumerated by anatomists.

.The repetition of the experiment the following day showed that these vessels were best seen in animals recently fed; and as he traced them from the villous membrane of the intestines, and observed the valves with which they were liberally supplied, he inferred that they were genuine chyliferous vessels.^ The repetition of the experiment the following day showed that these vessels were best seen in animals recently fed; and as he traced them from the villous membrane of the intestines, and observed the valves with which they were liberally supplied, he inferred that they were genuine chyliferous vessels.

^ From these we find that Aristotle was the first who corrected the erroneous statements of Polybus, Syennesis and Diogenes regarding the blood-vessels, which they made, as we have seen, to arise from the head and brain.

^ These cross the midline, ascend in the contralateral medial longitudinal fasciculus , and end in the oculomotor nucleus, where they drive the motor neurons that supply the medial rectus.
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.By confounding them with the lymphatics, he made them proceed to the pancreas and liver - a mistake which appears to have been first rectified by Francis de le Boe.^ By confounding them with the lymphatics, he made them proceed to the pancreas and liver - a mistake which appears to have been first rectified by Francis de le Boe.

^ To repel the audacious and calumnious aspersions with which Louis de Bils attacked de le Boe and van Horne, Ruysch published his tract on the valves of the lymphatics, which completely established his character as an anatomist of originality and research.

^ He must not be confounded with Franciscus Sylvius (de le Boe), who is mentioned by F. Ruysch and M. V. G. Malacarne as the author of a particular method of demonstrating the brain.

.The discovery of Aselli was announced in 1627; and the following year, by means of the zealous efforts of Nicolas Peiresc, a liberal senator of Aix, the vessels were seen in the person of a felon who had eaten copiously before execution, and whose body was inspected an hour and a half after.^ The discovery of Aselli was announced in 1627; and the following year, by means of the zealous efforts of Nicolas Peiresc, a liberal senator of Aix , the vessels were seen in the person of a felon who had eaten copiously before execution, and whose body was inspected an hour and a half after.

^ The English law , since the time of Henry VIII ., allowed only the bodies of persons executed for murder to be dissected, and the supply seems to have been sufficient for the humble needs of the time.

^ The repetition of the experiment the following day showed that these vessels were best seen in animals recently fed; and as he traced them from the villous membrane of the intestines, and observed the valves with which they were liberally supplied, he inferred that they were genuine chyliferous vessels.

.In 1629 they were publicly demonstrated at Copenhagen by Simon Pauli, and the same year the thoracic duct was observed by Jacques Mentel (1599-1670) for the first time since it was described by Eustachius.^ In 1629 they were publicly demonstrated at Copenhagen by Simon Pauli, and the same year the thoracic duct was observed by Jacques Mentel (1599-1670) for the first time since it was described by Eustachius.

^ In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.

^ The following year he demonstrated them in presence of Queen Christina, and traced them to the thoracic duct, and the latter to the subclavian vein.

.Five years after (1634), John Wesling, professor of anatomy and surgery at Venice, gave the first delineation of the lacteals from the human subject, and evinced more accurate knowledge than his predecessors of the thoracic duct and the lymphatics.^ Five years after (1634), John Wesling, professor of anatomy and surgery at Venice, gave the first delineation of the lacteals from the human subject, and evinced more accurate knowledge than his predecessors of the thoracic duct and the lymphatics.

^ In 1629 they were publicly demonstrated at Copenhagen by Simon Pauli, and the same year the thoracic duct was observed by Jacques Mentel (1599-1670) for the first time since it was described by Eustachius.

^ Here he taught anatomy to a numerous audience in the college of Trinquet; and on the departure of Vidus Vidius for Italy was appointed to succeed that physician as professor of surgery to the Royal College.

.Nathaniel Highmore 1 in 1637 demonstrated unequivocally the difference between the lacteals and the mesenteric veins; and though some perplexity 1 Highmore was a physician practising at Sherborne all his life (1613-1685).^ Nathaniel Highmore 1 in 1637 demonstrated unequivocally the difference between the lacteals and the mesenteric veins; and though some perplexity 1 Highmore was a physician practising at Sherborne all his life (1613-1685).

^ Representing the left ventricle of the heart as the common origin of all the arteries, though he is misled by the pulmonary artery, he nevertheless traces the distribution of the branches of the aorta with some accuracy.

^ Paul Broca (1824-1880), a French physician, was one of the first people to detect functional differences between the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

was occasioned by the discovery of the pancreatic duct by .Christopher Wirsung, this mistake was corrected by Thomas Bartholinus; and the discovery by Jean Pecquet in 1647 of the common trunk of the lacteals and lymphatics, and of the course which the chyle follows to reach the blood, may be regarded as the last of the series of isolated facts by the generalization of which the extent, distribution and uses of the most important organs of the animal body were at length developed.^ Christopher Wirsung, this mistake was corrected by Thomas Bartholinus; and the discovery by Jean Pecquet in 1647 of the common trunk of the lacteals and lymphatics, and of the course which the chyle follows to reach the blood, may be regarded as the last of the series of isolated facts by the generalization of which the extent, distribution and uses of the most important organs of the animal body were at length developed.

^ The efferent axons from the preaortic ganglia accompany blood vessels to abdominal organs, where most end by synapsing with neurons of the enteric nervous system (see below).
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Galen was a practical anatomist, and not only describes the organs of the animal body from actual dissection, but gives ample instructions for the proper mode of exposition.

.To complete the history of this part of anatomical science one step yet remained - the distinction between the lacteals and.^ To complete the history of this part of anatomical science one step yet remained - the distinction between the lacteals and.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

^ Of the anatomical writings of this author there remains only a list or catalogue of names of different regions and parts of the animal body.

lymphatics, and the discovery of the termination of the .Joyliffe latter order of vessels.^ Joyliffe latter order of vessels.

.The honour of this discovery is divided between George Joyliffe (1621-1658), an English anatomist, and Olaus Rudbeck (1630-1702), a young Swede.^ The honour of this discovery is divided between George Joyliffe (1621-1658), an English anatomist, and Olaus Rudbeck (1630-1702), a young Swede.

.The former, according to the testimony of Francis Glisson and Thomas Wharton, was aware of the distinct existence of the lymphatics in 1650, and demonstrated them as such in 1652. It is nevertheless doubtful whether he knew them much before the latter period; and it is certain that Rudbeck observed the lymphatics of the large intestines, and traced them to glands, on the 2 7th of January 1651, after he had, in the course of 1650, made various erroneous conjectures regarding them, and, like others, attempted to trace them to the liver.^ The former, according to the testimony of Francis Glisson and Thomas Wharton , was aware of the distinct existence of the lymphatics in 1650, and demonstrated them as such in 1652.

^ It is nevertheless doubtful whether he knew them much before the latter period; and it is certain that Rudbeck observed the lymphatics of the large intestines, and traced them to glands, on the 2 7th of January 1651, after he had, in the course of 1650, made various erroneous conjectures regarding them, and, like others, attempted to trace them to the liver.

^ The art of injecting, which had been originally attempted by Eustachi and Varoli, and was afterwards rudely practised by Glisson, Bellini and Willis, was at length carried to greater perfection by de Graaf and Swammerdam, the former of whom injected the spermatic vessels with mercury and variously coloured liquors; while the latter, by employing melted wax with other ingredients, made the first approach to the refinements of modern anatomy.

.The following year he demonstrated them in presence of Queen Christina, and traced them to the thoracic duct, and the latter to the subclavian vein.^ The following year he demonstrated them in presence of Queen Christina, and traced them to the thoracic duct, and the latter to the subclavian vein.

^ In 1629 they were publicly demonstrated at Copenhagen by Simon Pauli, and the same year the thoracic duct was observed by Jacques Mentel (1599-1670) for the first time since it was described by Eustachius.

^ In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.

.Their course and distribution were still more fully investigated by Thomas Bartholinus, Wharton, J. Swammerdam and G. Blaes, the last two of whom recognized the existence of valves; while Antony Nuck of Leiden, by rectifying various errors of his predecessors, and adding several new and valuable observations, rendered this part of anatomy much more precise than formerly.^ Their course and distribution were still more fully investigated by Thomas Bartholinus, Wharton, J. Swammerdam and G. Blaes, the last two of whom recognized the existence of valves; while Antony Nuck of Leiden , by rectifying various errors of his predecessors, and adding several new and valuable observations, rendered this part of anatomy much more precise than formerly.

^ About the same time W. Cheselden in London, the first Alexander Monro in Edinburgh, and B. S. Albinus in Leiden, contributed by their several treatises to render anatomy still more precise as a descriptive science.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.After this period anatomists began to study more minutely the organs and textures.^ After this period anatomists began to study more minutely the organs and textures.

^ By the application of this happy contrivance he was enabled to demonstrate the arrangement of minute vessels in the interior of organs which had escaped the scrutiny of previous anatomists.

^ The description of the abdominal organs, and of the kidneys and urinary apparatus, is still more minute, and in general accurate.

.Francis Glisson l distinguished himself by a minute description of the liver (1654), and a clearer account of the stomach and intestines, than had yet been given.^ Francis Glisson l distinguished himself by a minute description of the liver (1654), and a clearer account of the stomach and intestines, than had yet been given.

^ Cowper further distinguished himself by a minute account of the urethral glands, already known to Columbus and Mery; by a good description of the intestinal glands, discovered by Brunner and Peyer; and by demonstrating the communication of the arteries and veins of the mesentery.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

.Thomas Wharton 2 investigated the structure of the glands with particular care; and though rather prone to indulge in fanciful generalization, he developed some interesting views of these organs; while Walter Charleton (1619-1707), who appears to have been a person of great genius, though addicted to hypothesis, made some good remarks on the communication of the arteries with the veins, the foetal circulation and the course of the lymphatics.^ Thomas Wharton 2 investigated the structure of the glands with particular care; and though rather prone to indulge in fanciful generalization, he developed some interesting views of these organs; while Walter Charleton (1619-1707), who appears to have been a person of great genius, though addicted to hypothesis, made some good remarks on the communication of the arteries with the veins, the foetal circulation and the course of the lymphatics.

^ Soon after, views still more complete of the small or pulmonary circulation were given by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603) of Arezzo , who not only maintained the analogy between caesat- the structure of the arterious vein or pulmonary artery pines.

^ Christopher Wirsung, this mistake was corrected by Thomas Bartholinus; and the discovery by Jean Pecquet in 1647 of the common trunk of the lacteals and lymphatics, and of the course which the chyle follows to reach the blood, may be regarded as the last of the series of isolated facts by the generalization of which the extent, distribution and uses of the most important organs of the animal body were at length developed.

.But the circumstance which chiefly distinguished the history of anatomy at the beginning of the 17th century was the appear- Willis. ance of Thomas Willis 3 (1621-1675), who rendered himself eminent not only by good researches on the brain and nerves, but by many judicious observations on the structure of the lungs, the intestines, the blood-vessels and the glands.^ But the circumstance which chiefly distinguished the history of anatomy at the beginning of the 17th century was the appear- Willis.

^ Thomas Willis 3 (1621-1675), who rendered himself eminent not only by good researches on the brain and nerves, but by many judicious observations on the structure of the lungs, the intestines, the blood-vessels and the glands.

^ His account of the valves of the lymphatics, of the vessels of the lungs, and their minute structure; his researches on the vascular structure of the skin, of the bones, and their epiphyses, and their mode of growth and union; his observations on the spleen, the glans penis, the clitoris, and the womb impregnated and unimpregnated, were but a limited part of his anatomical labours.

.His anatomy of the brain and nerves is so minute and elaborate, and abounds so much in new information, that the reader is struck by the immense chasm between the vague and meagre notices of his predecessors and the ample and correct descriptions of Willis.^ His anatomy of the brain and nerves is so minute and elaborate, and abounds so much in new information, that the reader is struck by the immense chasm between the vague and meagre notices of his predecessors and the ample and correct descriptions of Willis.

^ Anatomy of the Brain Anatomatical Chart Unmounted Shows cranial nerves and vessles in the base of br...

^ He is now known chiefly as the author of an epistle , inscribed to Hieronymo Mercuriali, on the optic nerves, in which he describes a new method of dissecting the brain, and communicates many interesting particulars relating to the anatomy of the organ.

.This excellent work, however, is not the result of his own personal and unaided exertions; and the character of Willis derives additional lustre from the candid avowal of his obligations to Sir Christopher Wren and Thomas Millington, and, above all, to the diligent researches of his fellow-anatomist Richard Lower.^ This excellent work, however, is not the result of his own personal and unaided exertions; and the character of Willis derives additional lustre from the candid avowal of his obligations to Sir Christopher Wren and Thomas Millington, and, above all, to the diligent researches of his fellow-anatomist Richard Lower.

^ The excellent work by Samuel Thomas Sdmmerring, originally published in the German language , between the years 1791 and 6; then in the Latin language , between the years so 1m- 79 ?

^ The Comparative Anatomy is almost all original, the result of personal research and dissection; and the pathological observations, though occasionally tinged with the spirit of the times, show the author to have been endowed with the powers of observation and judicious reflexion in no ordinary degree.

.Willis was the first who numbered the cranial nerves in the order in which they are now usually enumerated by anatomists.^ Willis was the first who numbered the cranial nerves in the order in which they are now usually enumerated by anatomists.

^ Because of the vast number of people coming on line, there are always those who do not know what a crawler is, because this is the first one they have seen.
  • The Anatomy of a Search Engine 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC infolab.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

.His observation of the connexion of the eighth pair with the slender nerve which issues from the beginning of the spinal cord is known to all.^ His observation of the connexion of the eighth pair with the slender nerve which issues from the beginning of the spinal cord is known to all.

^ Skeletal muscles are supplied by motor neurons whose cell bodies are in the spinal cord (anterior horn) or brain stem (motor nuclei of cranial nerves).
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Relation of spinal cord and nerve roots to the vertebral column .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.He remarked the parallel lines of the mesolobe, afterwards minutely described by Felix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794).^ He remarked the parallel lines of the mesolobe, afterwards minutely described by Felix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794).

.He seems to have recognized the communication of the convoluted surface of the brain and that between the lateral cavities beneath the fornix.^ He seems to have recognized the communication of the convoluted surface of the brain and that between the lateral cavities beneath the fornix.

^ The fourth unfolds the third ventricle ( 7-1s CtXX0 7p1777 KotXia ), the communication between the two lateral ones, the arch-like body ( o-Co k ta tliaXtboEt&s) fornix, and the passage from the third to the fourth ventricle.

^ He appears to have been aware that at this point they communicate with the exterior or convoluted surface.

.He described the corpora striata and optic thalami; 1 Glisson was for forty years professor of physic at Cambridge.^ He described the corpora striata and optic thalami; 1 Glisson was for forty years professor of physic at Cambridge.

.Wharton was a graduate both of Oxford and Cambridge, and physician to St Thomas's Hospital.^ Wharton was a graduate both of Oxford and Cambridge, and physician to St Thomas's Hospital .

^ Ridley is the first Tyson was a graduate both of Oxford and Cambridge.

.Willis was Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in Oxford in 1660. Later he practised in London.^ Willis was Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in Oxford in 1660.

^ Later he practised in London.

the four orbicular eminences, with the bridge, which he first named annular protuberance; and the white mammillary eminences, behind the infundibulum. .In the cerebellum he remarks the arborescent arrangement of the white and grey matter, and gives a good account of the internal carotids, and the communications which they make with the branches of the basilar artery.^ The vertebral and basilar arteries send branches to the brain stem and cerebellum.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Grey matter, synapses and white matter.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Internal carotid artery.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.About the middle of the 17th century R. Hooke and Nehemiah Grew employed the simple microscope in the minute examination of plants and animals; and the Dutch philosopher A. Leeuwenhoek with great acuteness examined microscopically the solids and fluids of the body, recognized the presence of scales in the cuticle, and discovered the corpuscles in the blood and milk, and the spermatozoa in the seminal fluid.^ About the middle of the 17th century R. Hooke and Nehemiah Grew employed the simple microscope in the minute examination of plants and animals; and the Dutch philosopher A. Leeuwenhoek with great acuteness examined microscopically the solids and fluids of the body, recognized the presence of scales in the cuticle, and discovered the corpuscles in the blood and milk , and the spermatozoa in the seminal fluid.

^ This practice of exhumation or " body-snatching " on a large scale seems to have been peculiar to Great Britain and America , and not to have been needed on the continent of Europe.

^ He recognized the figure of the four eminences in the human subject; he remarked the mammillary bodies; and he discovered the sinus which passes under his name.

.The researches of Malpighi also tended greatly to improve the knowledge of minute Malpighi structure.^ The researches of Malpighi also tended greatly to improve the knowledge of minute Malpighi structure.

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.

.He gave the first distinct ideas on the organization of the lung, and the mode in which the bronchial tubes and vessels terminate in that organ.^ He gave the first distinct ideas on the organization of the lung, and the mode in which the bronchial tubes and vessels terminate in that organ.

.By the microscope he traced the transition of the arteries into the veins, and saw the movements of the blood corpuscles in the capillaries.^ By the microscope he traced the transition of the arteries into the veins, and saw the movements of the blood corpuscles in the capillaries.

^ Mondino believed that the blood proceeds from the heart to the lungs through the vena arterialis or pulmonary artery, and that the aorta conveys the spirit into the blood through all parts of the body.

^ In imitation of Aristotle, he talks of the blood being conveyed by the veins (venue), that is, blood-vessels, through the body at large; and, like Praxagoras, of the air inhaled by the lungs being conveyed through the arteries.

.He endeavoured to unfold,by dissection and microscopic observation, the minute structure of the brain.^ He endeavoured to unfold,by dissection and microscopic observation, the minute structure of the brain.

.He studied the structure of bone, he traced the formation and explained the structure of the teeth; and his name is to this day associated with the discovery of the deeper layer of the cuticle and the Malpighian bodies in the spleen and kidney.^ He studied the structure of bone, he traced the formation and explained the structure of the teeth; and his name is to this day associated with the discovery of the deeper layer of the cuticle and the Malpighian bodies in the spleen and kidney.

^ L. Bellini studied the structure of the kidneys, and described the tongue and tonsils with some care; and Charles Drelincourt laboured to investigate the changes effected on the uterus by impregnation, and to elucidate the formation of the foetus.

^ Human anatomical model - 3B Scientific's anatomical medical models provide the perfect vehicle to study and explain the internal and external structures of the human body.
  • Human anatomical model and anatomical charts 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.catalogs.com [Source type: General]

In these difficult inquiries the observations of Malpighi are in general faithful, and he may be regarded as the founder of histological anatomy.
.Nicolas Steno, or Stensen, described with accuracy (1660) the lacrymal gland and passages, and rediscovered the parotid duct.^ Nicolas Steno, or Stensen, described with accuracy (1660) the lacrymal gland and passages, and rediscovered the parotid duct.

^ He is the first who represents the ovaries of the female in the correct light in which they were subsequently regarded by Nicolas Steno or Stensen (1638-1687).

.L. Bellini studied the structure of the kidneys, and described the tongue and tonsils with some care; and Charles Drelincourt laboured to investigate the changes effected on the uterus by impregnation, and to elucidate the formation of the foetus.^ L. Bellini studied the structure of the kidneys, and described the tongue and tonsils with some care; and Charles Drelincourt laboured to investigate the changes effected on the uterus by impregnation, and to elucidate the formation of the foetus.

^ Meanwhile, H. Meibomius rediscovered (1670) the palpebral glands, which were known to Casserius; Swammerdam studied the action of the lungs, described the structure of the human uterus, and made numerous valuable observations on the coeca and pancreatoid organs of fishes; and Th.

^ In this manner he investigated the formation of the foetus, the structure of the oesophagus, stomach and bowels, and the peculiarities of the eye, the ear and the larynx.

.The science might have derived still greater advantages from the genius of Regnier de Graaf, who investigated with accuracy the structure of the pancreas and of the organs of generation in both sexes, had he not been cut off at the early age of thirty-two.^ The science might have derived still greater advantages from the genius of Regnier de Graaf, who investigated with accuracy the structure of the pancreas and of the organs of generation in both sexes, had he not been cut off at the early age of thirty-two.

^ These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.

^ He is at considerable pains to explain the organs of generation in both sexes, and gives a long account of the anatomy of the foetus.

.Lastly, Wepfer, though more devoted to morbid anatomy, made, nevertheless, some just observations on the anatomical disposition of the cerebral vessels, the glandular structure of the liver, and the termination of the common duct in the duodenum.^ Lastly, Wepfer, though more devoted to morbid anatomy, made, nevertheless, some just observations on the anatomical disposition of the cerebral vessels, the glandular structure of the liver, and the termination of the common duct in the duodenum.

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

^ Leonard Tassin, distinguished for original observation, rendered the anatomical history of the brain more accurate than heretofore, and gave particular accounts of the intestinal tube, the pancreatic duct and the hepatic ligaments (1678).

.The appearance of Frederic Ruysch, who was born in 1638, became professor of anatomy at Amsterdam in 1665 and died in that city in 1731, gave a new impulse to anatomi- Ruysch. cal research, and tended not only to give the science greater precision, but to extend its limits in every direction.^ The appearance of Frederic Ruysch, who was born in 1638, became professor of anatomy at Amsterdam in 1665 and died in that city in 1731, gave a new impulse to anatomi- Ruysch.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

^ In the old days, swages (or false edges ) were left thick at the edge, so, naturally, it was assumed they were merely decorative, to give the appearance of another cutting edge only.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The talents of Ruysch are said to have been developed by accident.^ The talents of Ruysch are said to have been developed by accident .

.To repel the audacious and calumnious aspersions with which Louis de Bils attacked de le Boe and van Horne, Ruysch published his tract on the valves of the lymphatics, which completely established his character as an anatomist of originality and research.^ To repel the audacious and calumnious aspersions with which Louis de Bils attacked de le Boe and van Horne, Ruysch published his tract on the valves of the lymphatics, which completely established his character as an anatomist of originality and research.

^ It originates in the raphe nuclei, in the midline of the medulla, and the unmyelinated serotonergic axons of the tract are lateral to the tip of the dorsal horn.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ By confounding them with the lymphatics, he made them proceed to the pancreas and liver - a mistake which appears to have been first rectified by Francis de le Boe.

.This, however, is the smallest of his services to the science.^ This, however, is the smallest of his services to the science.

.The art of injecting, which had been originally attempted by Eustachi and Varoli, and was afterwards rudely practised by Glisson, Bellini and Willis, was at length carried to greater perfection by de Graaf and Swammerdam, the former of whom injected the spermatic vessels with mercury and variously coloured liquors; while the latter, by employing melted wax with other ingredients, made the first approach to the refinements of modern anatomy.^ The art of injecting, which had been originally attempted by Eustachi and Varoli, and was afterwards rudely practised by Glisson, Bellini and Willis, was at length carried to greater perfection by de Graaf and Swammerdam, the former of whom injected the spermatic vessels with mercury and variously coloured liquors; while the latter, by employing melted wax with other ingredients, made the first approach to the refinements of modern anatomy.

^ Some writers claim for it the highest antiquity, and pretend to find its first rudiments alternately in the animal sacrifices of the shepherd kings, the Jews and other ancient nations, and in the art of embalming as practised by the Egyptian priests.'

^ By improving this idea of using substances which, though solid, may be rendered fluid at the period of injecting, Ruysch carried this art to the highest perfection.

.By improving this idea of using substances which, though solid, may be rendered fluid at the period of injecting, Ruysch carried this art to the highest perfection.^ By improving this idea of using substances which, though solid, may be rendered fluid at the period of injecting, Ruysch carried this art to the highest perfection.

^ Though in myology Galen appears to less advantage than in osteology, he nevertheless had carried this part of anatomical knowledge to greater perfection than any of his predecessors.

.By the application of this happy contrivance he was enabled to demonstrate the arrangement of minute vessels in the interior of organs which had escaped the scrutiny of previous anatomists.^ By the application of this happy contrivance he was enabled to demonstrate the arrangement of minute vessels in the interior of organs which had escaped the scrutiny of previous anatomists.

^ After this period anatomists began to study more minutely the organs and textures.

.Scarcely a part of the human body eluded the penetration of his syringe; and his discoveries were proportionally great.^ Scarcely a part of the human body eluded the penetration of his syringe ; and his discoveries were proportionally great.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

^ In 1315 he dissected and demonstrated the parts of the human body in two female subjects; and in the course of the following year he accomplished the same task on the person of a single female.

.His account of the valves of the lymphatics, of the vessels of the lungs, and their minute structure; his researches on the vascular structure of the skin, of the bones, and their epiphyses, and their mode of growth and union; his observations on the spleen, the glans penis, the clitoris, and the womb impregnated and unimpregnated, were but a limited part of his anatomical labours.^ Anatomy of the Inner Ear Anatomical Chart Unmounted-9891PU Shows the temporal bone and the structures of the ...

^ Anatomy of the Inner Ear Anatomical Chart Laminated Shows the temporal bone and the structures of the ...

.He studied the minute structure of the brain; he demonstrated the organization of the choroid plexus; he described the state of the hair when affected with Polish plait; he proved the vascular structure of the teeth; he injected the dura mater, the pleura, the pericardium and peritoneum; he unfolded the minute structure of the conglomerate glands; he investigated that of the synovial apparatus placed in the interior of the joints; and he discovered several curious particulars relating to the lacteals, the lymphatics and the lymphatic glands.^ He studied the minute structure of the brain; he demonstrated the organization of the choroid plexus; he described the state of the hair when affected with Polish plait ; he proved the vascular structure of the teeth; he injected the dura mater, the pleura, the pericardium and peritoneum; he unfolded the minute structure of the conglomerate glands; he investigated that of the synovial apparatus placed in the interior of the joints; and he discovered several curious particulars relating to the lacteals, the lymphatics and the lymphatic glands.

^ He endeavoured to unfold,by dissection and microscopic observation, the minute structure of the brain.

^ He distinguishes the pleura by the name of inclosing membrane ( i)i,* U7TE- Wkws , membrana succingens ), and remarks its similitude in structure to that of the peritoneum, and the covering which it affords to all the organs.

.Meanwhile, H. Meibomius rediscovered (1670) the palpebral glands, which were known to Casserius; Swammerdam studied the action of the lungs, described the structure of the human uterus, and made numerous valuable observations on the coeca and pancreatoid organs of fishes; and Th.^ Meanwhile, H. Meibomius rediscovered (1670) the palpebral glands, which were known to Casserius; Swammerdam studied the action of the lungs, described the structure of the human uterus, and made numerous valuable observations on the coeca and pancreatoid organs of fishes; and Th.

^ To this happy circumstance Herophilus and Erasistratus are indebted for the distinction of being known to posterity as the first anatomists who dissected and described the parts of the human body.

^ Nicolas Steno, or Stensen, described with accuracy (1660) the lacrymal gland and passages, and rediscovered the parotid duct.

Kerckring laid the foundation of a knowledge of the process of ossification. .John Conrad Brunner, in the course of experiments on the pancreas, discovered (1687) the glands of the duodenum named after him, and J. Conrad Peyer (1677-1681) described the solitary and agminated glands of the intestinal canal.^ John Conrad Brunner, in the course of experiments on the pancreas, discovered (1687) the glands of the duodenum named after him, and J. Conrad Peyer (1677-1681) described the solitary and agminated glands of the intestinal canal.

^ John Hunter, who undertook to demonstrate 'the truth of this hypothesis by experiment, discovered, in 1758, lymphatics in the neck in birds.

^ Cowper further distinguished himself by a minute account of the urethral glands, already known to Columbus and Mery; by a good description of the intestinal glands, discovered by Brunner and Peyer; and by demonstrating the communication of the arteries and veins of the mesentery.

.Leonard Tassin, distinguished for original observation, rendered the anatomical history of the brain more accurate than heretofore, and gave particular accounts of the intestinal tube, the pancreatic duct and the hepatic ligaments (1678).^ Leonard Tassin, distinguished for original observation, rendered the anatomical history of the brain more accurate than heretofore, and gave particular accounts of the intestinal tube, the pancreatic duct and the hepatic ligaments (1678).

^ In various points, nevertheless, he has rendered the Galenian anatomy more accurate; and he has distinguished himself by a good account of the salivary glands, which were overlooked by Galen.

^ Lastly, Wepfer, though more devoted to morbid anatomy, made, nevertheless, some just observations on the anatomical disposition of the cerebral vessels, the glandular structure of the liver, and the termination of the common duct in the duodenum.

.That France might not be without participation in the glory of advancing the progress of anatomical knowledge, the names.^ That France might not be without participation in the glory of advancing the progress of anatomical knowledge, the names.

^ You might wonder why it's important to have a comfortable knowledge of knife parts, components, sides, views, features, and how they are named.
  • Knife Anatomy, Parts, Names by Jay Fisher 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.jayfisher.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The progress of anatomical discovery continued in the meantime to advance.

of .Joseph Guichard Duverney and Vieussens are Daverney commemorated with distinction.^ Joseph Guichard Duverney and Vieussens are Daverney commemorated with distinction.

.Duverney, born in 1648, and first introduced into public life in 1676 in the Royal Academy of Sciences, decorated with the honorary title of professor of anatomy to the dauphin, and appointed in 1679 professor at the Jardin Royal, distinguished himself by the first accurate account of the organ of hearing, and by his dissections of several animals at the academy supplied valuable materials for the anatomical details of the natural history of animals published by that learned body.^ Duverney, born in 1648, and first introduced into public life in 1676 in the Royal Academy of Sciences, decorated with the honorary title of professor of anatomy to the dauphin , and appointed in 1679 professor at the Jardin Royal, distinguished himself by the first accurate account of the organ of hearing , and by his dissections of several animals at the academy supplied valuable materials for the anatomical details of the natural history of animals published by that learned body.

^ When at Florence in 1782 he made several preparations, at the request of Peter Leopold , grand duke of Tuscany ; and when the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris announced the anatomy of this system for their prize essay appointed for March 1784, Mascagni resolved on communicating to the public the results of his researches - the first part of his commentary, with four engravings.

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

.He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.^ He appears to have been the first who demonstrated the fact that the cerebral sinuses open into the jugular veins, and to have been aware that the former receives the veins of the brain and are the venous receptacles of the organ.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ These were afterwards described in greater detail by Vesalius, who nevertheless appears not to have been aware of the important use which might be made of this knowledge.

.He understood the cerebral cavities and their mode of communication; distinguishes the posterior pillars of the vault from the pedes hippocampi; recognizes the two plates of the septum lucidum; and, what is still more remarkable, he first indicates distinctly the discussation of the anterior pyramids of the medulla oblongata - a fact afterwards verified by the researches of Mistichelli, F. P. du Petit and G.D. Santorini.^ He understood the cerebral cavities and their mode of communication; distinguishes the posterior pillars of the vault from the pedes hippocampi; recognizes the two plates of the septum lucidum; and, what is still more remarkable, he first indicates distinctly the discussation of the anterior pyramids of the medulla oblongata - a fact afterwards verified by the researches of Mistichelli, F. P. du Petit and G.D. Santorini.

^ In his account of the intestines he is the first who mentions the vermiform process of the caecum; he remarks the yellow tint communicated to the duodenum by the gall -bladder; and he recognizes the opening of the common biliary duct into the duodenum ( quidam porus portans choleram).

^ He observes the threefold division of the inferior surface or base, defines the limits of the anterior, middle and posterior eminences, as marked by the compartments of the skull, and justly remarks that the cerebral cavities are capacious, communicate with each other, extending first backward and then forward, near the angle of the pyramidal portion of the temporal bone, and that they are folded on themselves, and finally lost above the middle and inferior eminence of the brain.

.He studied the ganglions attentively, and gives the first distinct account of the formation, connexions and distribution of the intercostal nerves.^ He studied the ganglions attentively, and gives the first distinct account of the formation, connexions and distribution of the intercostal nerves.

^ The phrenic nerves and the oesophageal branches of the vagus were studied by Haase; the phrenic, the abdominal and the pharyngeal nerves, by Wrisberg; those of the heart most minutely by Andersch; and the origins, formation and distribution of the intercostal nerves, by Iwanov, C. G. Ludwig, and Girardi.

^ Of the formation and connexions of the sympathetic nerve especially he gave views which have been generally adopted by subsequent anatomists.

.It is interesting to remark that his statement that the veins or sinuses of the spinal cord terminate in the vena azygos was verified by the subsequent researches of G. Dupuytren (1777-1835) and G. Breschet (1784-1845), which showed that the vertebral veins communicate by means of the intercostal and superior lumbar veins with the azygos and hemi-azygos.^ It is interesting to remark that his statement that the veins or sinuses of the spinal cord terminate in the vena azygos was verified by the subsequent researches of G. Dupuytren (1777-1835) and G. Breschet (1784-1845), which showed that the vertebral veins communicate by means of the intercostal and superior lumbar veins with the azygos and hemi-azygos.

^ Section of a thoracic segment of the spinal cord showing major groups of neurons in the grey matter, and positions of tracts in white matter.
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Relation of spinal cord and nerve roots to the vertebral column .
  • Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC instruct.uwo.ca [Source type: Reference]

.His account of the structure of bones and of the progress of ossification is valuable.^ His account of the structure of bones and of the progress of ossification is valuable.

.He recognized the vascular structure of the spleen, and described the excretory ducts of the prostate gland, the verumontanum, and the anteprostates.^ He recognized the vascular structure of the spleen, and described the excretory ducts of the prostate gland, the verumontanum, and the anteprostates.

^ Nicolas Steno, or Stensen, described with accuracy (1660) the lacrymal gland and passages, and rediscovered the parotid duct.

.One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

^ The most valuable depository of the anatomical knowledge of these times is the work of Celsus , one of the most judicious medical authors of antiquity.

^ To complete the history of this part of anatomical science one step yet remained - the distinction between the lacteals and.

.In ancient times, and at the revival of letters, the dissection of the lower animals was substituted for that of the human body; and the descriptions of the organs of the latter were too often derived from the former.^ In ancient times, and at the revival of letters, the dissection of the lower animals was substituted for that of the human body; and the descriptions of the organs of the latter were too often derived from the former.

^ He appears to have dissected the human subject; and this perhaps is one reason why his descriptions of these parts are more copious and more accurate than those of Galen, who derived his knowledge from the bodies of the lower animals.

^ Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body.

.The obloquy and contempt in which this abuse involved the study of animal anatomy caused it to be neglected, or pursued with indifference, for more than two centuries, during which anatomists confined their descriptions, at least very much, to the parts of the human body.^ The obloquy and contempt in which this abuse involved the study of animal anatomy caused it to be neglected, or pursued with indifference, for more than two centuries, during which anatomists confined their descriptions, at least very much, to the parts of the human body.

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

^ In accounting for the great aversion which there has always been from dissection in England, it should be remembered that, although capital punishment was the penalty for very many offences at the beginning of the 19th century, only the bodies of murderers were handed over to the anatomists.

.At this period, however, the prejudice against Comparative Anatomy began to subside; and animal dissection, though not substituted for that of the human body, was employed, as it ought always to have been, to illustrate obscurities, to determine doubts and to explain difficulties, and, in short, to enlarge and rectify the knowledge of the structure of animal bodies generally.^ At this period, however, the prejudice against Comparative Anatomy began to subside; and animal dissection, though not substituted for that of the human body, was employed, as it ought always to have been, to illustrate obscurities, to determine doubts and to explain difficulties, and, in short, to enlarge and rectify the knowledge of the structure of animal bodies generally.

^ From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of Man, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or ontogeny, phylogeny and histology .

^ Though later in establishment, the latter institution was distinguished by making the first great efforts in favour of Comparative Anatomy; and Claude Perrault, Pecquet, Duverney and Jean Mery, by the dissections of rare animals obtained from the royal menagerie , speedily supplied valuable materials for the anatomical naturalist.

.For this revolution in its favour, Comparative Anatomy was in a great measure indebted to the learned societies which were established about this time in the different countries of Europe.^ For this revolution in its favour, Comparative Anatomy was in a great measure indebted to the learned societies which were established about this time in the different countries of Europe.

^ Though later in establishment, the latter institution was distinguished by making the first great efforts in favour of Comparative Anatomy; and Claude Perrault, Pecquet, Duverney and Jean Mery, by the dissections of rare animals obtained from the royal menagerie , speedily supplied valuable materials for the anatomical naturalist.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.Among these, the Royal Society of London, embodied by charter by Charles II.^ Among these, the Royal Society of London, embodied by charter by Charles II .

in .1662, and the Academy of Sciences of Paris, founded in 1666 by J. B. Colbert, are undoubtedly entitled to the first rank.^ Academy of Sciences of Paris, founded in 1666 by J. B. Colbert, are undoubtedly entitled to the first rank.

.Though later in establishment, the latter institution was distinguished by making the first great efforts in favour of Comparative Anatomy; and Claude Perrault, Pecquet, Duverney and Jean Mery, by the dissections of rare animals obtained from the royal menagerie, speedily supplied valuable materials for the anatomical naturalist.^ Though later in establishment, the latter institution was distinguished by making the first great efforts in favour of Comparative Anatomy; and Claude Perrault, Pecquet, Duverney and Jean Mery, by the dissections of rare animals obtained from the royal menagerie , speedily supplied valuable materials for the anatomical naturalist.

^ Duverney, born in 1648, and first introduced into public life in 1676 in the Royal Academy of Sciences, decorated with the honorary title of professor of anatomy to the dauphin , and appointed in 1679 professor at the Jardin Royal, distinguished himself by the first accurate account of the organ of hearing , and by his dissections of several animals at the academy supplied valuable materials for the anatomical details of the natural history of animals published by that learned body.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.In England, Nehemiah Grew, Edward Tyson'. and Samuel Collins 2 cultivated the same department with diligence and success.^ Samuel Collins 2 cultivated the same department with diligence and success.

^ In England , Nehemiah Grew, Edward Tyson'.

.Grew has left an interesting account of the anatomical peculiarities of the intestinal canal in various animals; Tyson, in the dissection of a porpoise, an opossum and an orang outang, adduces some valuable illustrations of the comparative differences between the structure of the human body and that of the lower animals; Collins has the merit of conceiving, and executing on an enlarged plan, a comprehensive system, embodying all the information then extant (1685).^ Grew has left an interesting account of the anatomical peculiarities of the intestinal canal in various animals; Tyson, in the dissection of a porpoise , an opossum and an orang outang, adduces some valuable illustrations of the comparative differences between the structure of the human body and that of the lower animals; Collins has the merit of conceiving, and executing on an enlarged plan, a comprehensive system, embodying all the information then extant (1685).

^ Of the first it may be said that the rude information obtained by the slaughter of animals for sacrifice does not imply profound anatomical knowledge; and those who adduce the second as evidence are deceived by the language of the poet of the Trojan War, which, distinguishing certain parts by their ordinary Greek epithets, as afterwards used by Hippocrates , Galen and all anatomists, has been rather too easily supposed to prove that the poet had studied systematically the structure of the human frame.

^ Though later in establishment, the latter institution was distinguished by making the first great efforts in favour of Comparative Anatomy; and Claude Perrault, Pecquet, Duverney and Jean Mery, by the dissections of rare animals obtained from the royal menagerie , speedily supplied valuable materials for the anatomical naturalist.

.With the aid of Tyson and his own researches, which were both extensive and accurate, he composed a system of anatomical knowledge in which he not only gives ample and accurate descriptions of the structure of the human body, and the various morbid changes to which the organs are liable, but illustrates the whole by accurate and interesting sketches of the peculiarities of the lower animals.^ With the aid of Tyson and his own researches, which were both extensive and accurate, he composed a system of anatomical knowledge in which he not only gives ample and accurate descriptions of the structure of the human body, and the various morbid changes to which the organs are liable, but illustrates the whole by accurate and interesting sketches of the peculiarities of the lower animals.

^ Of Herophilus it is said that he had extensive anatomical knowledge, acquired by dissecting not only brutes but human bodies.

^ Matthew de Gradibus, a native of Gradi, a town in Friuli , near Milan, distinguished himself by composing a series of treatises on the anatomy of various parts of the human body (1480).

.The matter of this work is so excellent that it can only be ascribed to ignorance that it has received so little attention.^ The matter of this work is so excellent that it can only be ascribed to ignorance that it has received so little attention.

^ Of the works ascribed to Hippocrates, five only are genuine.

.Though regarded as a compilation, and though indeed much of the human anatomy is derived from Vesalius, it has the advantage of the works published on the continent at that time, that it embodies most of the valuable facts derived from Malpighi, Willis and Vieussens.^ Though regarded as a compilation, and though indeed much of the human anatomy is derived from Vesalius, it has the advantage of the works published on the continent at that time, that it embodies most of the valuable facts derived from Malpighi, Willis and Vieussens.

^ The Frutefull and Necessary Briefe Worke of John Halle ' (1565) and The Englisheman's Treasure by Master Thomas Vicary (1586), 2 English works published at this time, are tolerable compilations from former authors, much tinged by Galenian and Arabian distinctions.

^ In 1889 Professor A. Macalister published a book on anatomy, which combined the advantages of a text-book with those of a dissecting guide.

.The Comparative Anatomy is almost all original, the result of personal research and dissection; and the pathological observations, though occasionally tinged with the spirit of the times, show the author to have been endowed with the powers of observation and judicious reflexion in no ordinary degree.^ The Comparative Anatomy is almost all original, the result of personal research and dissection; and the pathological observations, though occasionally tinged with the spirit of the times, show the author to have been endowed with the powers of observation and judicious reflexion in no ordinary degree.

^ The results of previous and coeval inquiry, obtained by extensive reading , he sedulously verified by personal observation; and though he never rejected facts stated on credible authorities, he in all cases laboured to ascertain their real value by experiment.

^ One of the circumstances which at this time tended considerably to the improvement of anatomical science was the attention with which Comparative Anatomy was beginning to be cultivated.

.About this time also we recognize the first attempts to study the minute constitution of the tissues, by the combination of the microscope and the effects of chemical agents.^ About this time also we recognize the first attempts to study the minute constitution of the tissues, by the combination of the microscope and the effects of chemical agents.

^ About the same time, Scarpa, so distinguished in every branch of anatomical research, investigated the minute structure of the ganglions and plexuses.
  • Anatomy - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC