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Up to date as of January 23, 2010

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Contents

Objectives

After completing this section, you should know:

  • that cells can be different shapes and sizes
  • the role and function of the plasma membrane; cytoplasm, ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum; smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi bodies, lysosomes, centrioles and the nucleus
  • the structure of the plasma membrane
  • that substances move across the plasma membrane by passive and active processes
  • that passive processes include diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion and active processes include active transport, pinocytosis, phagocytosis and exocytosis
  • what the terms hypotonic, hypertonic isotonic and haemolysis mean
  • that the nucleus contains the chromosomes formed from DNA
  • that mitosis is the means by which ordinary cells divide
  • the main stages of mitosis
  • that meiosis is the process by which the chromosome number is halved when ova and sperm are formed

The Cell

Diagram 3.1: A variety of animal cells

The cell is the basic building block of living organisms. Bacteria and the parasite that causes malaria consist of single cells, while plants and animals are made up of trillions of cells. Most cells are spherical or cube shaped but some are a range of different shapes (see diagram 3.1).

Most cells are so small that a microscope is needed to see them, although a few cells, eg the ostrich’s egg, are so large that they could make a meal for several people.

A normal cell is about 0.02 of a millimetre (0.02mm) in diameter. (Small distances like this are normally expressed in micrometres or microns (μm). Note there are 1000 μms in every mm).

Diagram 3.2: An animal cell

When you look at a typical animal cell with a light microscope it seems quite simple with only a few structures visible (see diagram 3.2).

Three main parts can be seen:

  • an outer cell wall or plasma membrane,
  • an inner region called the cytoplasm and
  • the nucleus
Diagram 3.3: An animal cell as seen with an electron microscope

However, when you use an electron microscope to increase the magnification many thousands of times you see that these seemingly simple structures are incredibly complex, each with its own specialized function. For example the plasma membrane is seen to be a double layer and the cytoplasm contains many special structures called organelles (meaning little organs) which are described below. A drawing of the cell as seen with an electron microscope is shown in diagram 3.3.

The Plasma Membrane

Diagram 3.4: The structure of the plasma membrane

The thin plasma membrane surrounds the cell, separating its contents from the surroundings and controlling what enters and leaves the cell. The plasma membrane is composed of two main molecules, fats (in fact phospholipids) and proteins. The fats are arranged in a double layer with the large protein molecules dotted about in the membrane (see diagram 3.4). Some of the protein molecules form tiny channels in the membrane while others help transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other.

How substances move across the Plasma Membrane

Substances need to pass through the membrane to enter or leave the cell and they do so in a number of ways. Some of these processes require no energy i.e. they are passive, while others require energy i.e. they are active.

Passive processes include: a) diffusion and b) osmosis, while active processes include: c) active transport, d) phagocytosis, e) pinocytosis and f) exocytosis. These will be described below.

Diagram 3.5: Diffusion in a liquid

a) Diffusion

Although you may not know it, you are already familiar with the process of diffusion. It is diffusion that causes a smell (expensive perfume or smelly socks) in one part of the room to gradually move through the room so it can be smelt on the other side. Diffusion occurs in the air and in liquids.

Diagram 3.5 shows what happens when a few crystals of a dark purple dye called potassium permanganate are dropped into a beaker of water. The dye molecules diffuse into the water moving from high to low concentrations so they become evenly distributed throughout the beaker.

In the body, diffusion causes molecules that are in a high concentration on one side of the cell membrane to move across the membrane until they are present in equal concentrations on both sides. It takes place because all molecules have an in-built vibration that causes them to move and collide until they are evenly distributed. It is an absolutely natural process that requires no added energy.

Small molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and ammonia as well as fats, diffuse directly through the double fat layer of the membrane. The small molecules named above as well as a variety of charged particles (ions) also diffuse through the protein-lined channels. Larger molecules like glucose attach to a carrier molecule that aids their diffusion through the membrane. This is called facilitated diffusion.

In the animal’s body diffusion is important for moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood, for moving digested food molecules from the gut into the blood and for the removal of waste products from the cell.

Diagram 3.6: Osmosis

b) Osmosis

Although the word may be unfamiliar, you are almost certainly acquainted with the effects of osmosis. It is osmosis that plumps out dried fruit when you soak it before making a fruit cake or makes that wizened old carrot look almost like new when you soak it in water. Osmosis is in fact the diffusion of water across a membrane that allows water across but not larger molecules. This kind of membrane is called a semi-permeable membrane.

Take a look at side A of diagram 3.6. It shows a container divided into two parts by an artificial semi-permeable membrane. Water is poured into one part while a solution containing salt is poured into the other part. Water can cross the membrane but the salt cannot. The water crosses the semi-permeable membrane by diffusion until there is an equal amount of water on both sides of the membrane. The effect of this would be to make the salt solution more diluted and cause the level of the liquid in the right-hand side of the container to rise so it looked like side B of diagram 3.6. This movement of water across the semi-permeable membrane is called osmosis. It is a completely natural process that requires no outside energy.

Although it would be difficult to do in practice, imagine that you could now take a plunger and push down on the fluid in the right-hand side of container B so that it flowed back across the semi-permeable membrane until the level of fluid on both sides was equal again. If you could measure the pressure required to do this, this would be equal to the osmotic pressure of the salt solution. (This is a rather advanced concept at this stage but you will meet this term again when you study fluid balance later in the course).

Diagram 3.7: Osmosis in red cells placed in a hypotonic solution

The plasma membrane of cells acts as a semi-permeable membrane. If red blood cells, for example, are placed in water, the water crosses the membrane to make the amount of water on both sides of it equal (see diagram 3.7). This means that the water moves into the cell causing it to swell. This can occur to such an extent that the cell actually bursts to release its contents. This bursting of red blood cells is called haemolysis. In a situation such as this when the solution on one side of a semi-permeable membrane has a lower concentration than that on the other side, the first solution is said to be hypotonic to the second.

Diagram 3.8: Osmosis in red cells placed in a hypertonic solution

Now think what would happen if red blood cells were placed in a salt solution that has a higher salt concentration than the solution within the cells (see diagram 3.8). Such a bathing solution is called a hypertonic solution. In this situation the “concentration” of water within the cells would be higher than that outside the cells. Osmosis (diffusion of water) would then occur from the inside of the cells to the outside solution, causing the cells to shrink.

Diagram 3.9: Red cells placed in an isotonic solution

A solution that contains 0.9% salt has the same concentration as body fluids and the solution within red cells. Cells placed in such a solution would neither swell nor shrink (see diagram 3.9). This solution is called an isotonic solution. This strength of salt solution is often called normal saline and is used when replacing an animal’s body fluids or when cells like red blood cells have to be suspended in fluid.

Remember - osmosis is a special kind of diffusion. It is the diffusion of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane. It is a completely passive process and requires no energy.

Sometimes it is difficult to remember which way the water molecules move. Although it is not strictly true in a biological sense, many students use the phrase “SALT SUCKS” to help them remember which way water moves across the membrane when there are two solutions of different salt concentrations on either side.

As we have seen water moves in and out of the cell by osmosis. All water movement from the intestine into the blood system and between the blood capillaries and the fluid around the cells (tissue or extra cellular fluid) takes place by osmosis. Osmosis is also important in the production of concentrated urine by the kidney.

c) Active transport

When a substance is transported from a low concentration to a high concentration i.e. uphill against the concentration gradient, energy has to be used. This is called active transport.

Active transport is important in maintaining different concentrations of the ions sodium and potassium on either side of the nerve cell membrane. It is also important for removing valuable molecules such as glucose, amino acids and sodium ions from the urine.

Diagram 3.10: Phagocytosis

d) Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is sometimes called “cell eating”. It is a process that requires energy and is used by cells to move solid particles like bacteria across the plasma membrane. Finger-like projections from the plasma membrane surround the bacteria and engulf them as shown in diagram 3.10. Once within the cell, enzymes produced by the lysosomes of the cell (described later) destroy the bacteria.

The destruction of bacteria and other foreign substance by white blood cells by the process of phagocytosis is a vital part of the defense mechanisms of the body.

e) Pinocytosis

Pinocytosis or “cell drinking” is a very similar process to phagocytosis but is used by cells to move fluids across the plasma membrane. Most cells carry out pinocytosis (note the pinocytotic vesicle in diagram 3.3).

f) Exocytosis

Exocytosis is the process by means of which substances formed in the cell are moved through the plasma membrane into the fluid outside the cell (or extra-cellular fluid). It occurs in all cells but is most important in secretory cells (e.g. cells that produce digestive enzymes) and nerve cells.

The Cytoplasm

Within the plasma membrane is the cytoplasm. It consists of a clear jelly-like fluid called the a) cytosol or intracellular fluid in which b) cell inclusions, c) organelles and d) microfilaments and microtubules are found.

a) Cytosol

The cytosol consists mainly of water in which various molecules are dissolved or suspended. These molecules include proteins, fats and carbohydrates as well as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Many of the reactions that take place in the cell occur in the cytosol.

b) Cell inclusions

These are large particles of fat, glycogen and melanin that have been produced by the cell. They are often large enough to be seen with the light microscope. For example the cells of adipose tissue (as in the insulating fat layer under the skin) contain fat that takes up most of the cell.

c) Organelles

Organelles are the “little organs” of the cell - like the heart, kidney and liver are the organs of the body. They are structures with characteristic appearances and specific “jobs” in the cell. Most can not be seen with the light microscope and so it was only when the electron microscope was developed that they were discovered. The main organelles in the cell are the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, Golgi complex and lysosomes. A cell containing these organelles as seen with the electron microscope is shown in diagram 3.3.

Ribosomes

File:Rough endoplasmic reticulum.JPG
Diagram 3.11: Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosomes are tiny spherical organelles that make proteins by joining amino acids together. Many ribosomes are found free in the cytosol, while others are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes that form channels throughout the cytoplasm from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. Various molecules are made in the ER and transported around the cell in its channels. There are two types of ER: smooth ER and rough ER.

Smooth ER is where the fats in the cell are made and in some cells, where chemicals like alcohol, pesticides and carcinogenic molecules are inactivated.
The Rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surface. The function of the Rough ER is therefore to make proteins that are modified stored and transported by the ER (Diagram 3.11).

Mitochondria

Diagram 3.12: A mitochondrion

Mitochondria (singular mitochondrion) are oval or rod shaped organelles scattered throughout the cytoplasm. They consist of two membranes, the inner one of which is folded to increase its surface area. (Diagram 3.12)

Mitochondria are the “power stations” of the cell. They make energy by “burning” food molecules like glucose. This process is called cellular respiration. The reaction requires oxygen and produces carbon dioxide which is a waste product. The process is very complex and takes place in a large number of steps but the overall word equation for cellular respiration is-

Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

Note that cellular respiration is different from respiration or breathing. Breathing is the means by which air is drawn into and expelled from the lungs. Breathing is necessary to supply the cells with the oxygen required by the mitochondria and to remove the carbon dioxide produced as a waste product of cellular respiration.

Active cells like muscle, liver, kidney and sperm cells have large numbers of mitochondria.

Golgi Apparatus

Diagram 3.13: A Golgi body

The Golgi bodies in a cell together make up the Golgi apparatus. Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and consist of flattened membranes stacked on top of each other rather like a pile of plates (see diagram 3.13). The Golgi apparatus modifies and sorts the proteins and fats made by the ER, then surrounds them in a membrane as vesicles so they can be moved to other parts of the cell.

Lysosomes

Lysosomes are large vesicles that contain digestive enzymes. These break down bacteria and other substances that are brought into the cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis. They also digest worn-out or damaged organelles, the components of which can then be recycled by the cell to make new structures.

d) Microfilaments And Microtubules

Some cells can move and change shape and organelles and chemicals are moved around the cell. Threadlike structures called microfilaments and microtubules that can contract are responsible for this movement.

These structures also form the projections from the plasma membrane known as flagella (singular flagellum) as in the sperm tail, and cilia found lining the respiratory tract and used to remove mucus that has trapped dust particles (see chapter 4).

Microtubules also form the pair of cylindrical structures called centrioles found near the nucleus. These help organise the spindle used in cell division.

The Nucleus

Diagram 3.14: A cell with an enlarged chromosome
Diagram 3.15: A full set of human chromosomes

The nucleus is the largest structure in a cell and can be seen with the light microscope. It is a spherical or oval body that contains the chromosomes. The nucleus controls the development and activity of the cell. Most cells contain a nucleus although mature red blood cells have lost their's during development and some muscle cells have several nuclei.

A double membrane similar in structure to the plasma membrane surrounds the nucleus. Pores in this nuclear membrane allow communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Within the nucleus one or more spherical bodies of darker material can be seen, even with the light microscope. These are called nucleoli and are made of RNA. Their role is to make new ribosomes.

Chromosomes

Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes which:

  • contain DNA;
  • control the activity of the cell;
  • are transmitted from cell to cell when cells divide;
  • are passed to a new individual when sex cells fuse together in sexual reproduction.

In cells that are not dividing the chromosomes are very long and thin and appear as dark grainy material. They become visible just before a cell divides when they shorten and thicken and can then be counted (see diagram 3.14).

The number of chromosomes in the cells of different species varies but is constant in the cells of any one species (e.g. horses have 64 chromosomes, cats have 38 and humans 46). Chromosomes occur in pairs (i.e. 32 pairs in the horse nucleus and 19 in that of the cat). Members of each pair are identical in length and shape and if you look carefully at diagram 3.15, you may be able to see some of the pairs in the human set of chromosomes.

Cell Division

Diagram 3.16: Division by mitosis results in 2 new cells identical to each other and to parent cell
Diagram 3.17: Division by meiosis results in 4 new cells that are genetically different to each other

Cells divide when an animal grows, when its body repairs an injury and when it produces sperm and eggs (or ova). There are two types of cell division: Mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis. This is the cell division that occurs when an animal grows and when tissues are repaired or replaced. It produces two new cells (daughter cells) each with a full set of chromosomes that are identical to each other and to the parent cell. All the cells of an animal’s body therefore contain identical DNA.

Meiosis. This is the cell division that produces the ova and sperm necessary for sexual reproduction. It only occurs in the ovary and testis.

The most important function of meiosis it to halve the number of chromosomes so that when the sperm fertilises the ovum the normal number is regained. Body cells with the full set of chromosomes are called diploid cells, while gametes (sperm and ova) with half the chromosomes are called haploid cells.

Meiosis is a more complex process than mitosis as it involves two divisions one after the other and the four cells produced are all genetically different from each other and from the parent cell.

This fact that the cells formed by meiosis are all genetically different from each other and from the parent cell can be seen in litters of kittens where all the members of the litter are different from each other as well as being different from the parents although they display characteristics of both.

The Cell As A Factory

To make the function of the parts of the cell easier to understand and remember you can compare them to a factory. For example:

  • The nucleus (1) is the managing director of the factory consulting the blueprint (the chromosomes) (2);
  • The mitochondria (3) supply the power
  • The ribosomes (4) make the products;
  • The chloroplasts of plant cells (5) supply the fuel (food)
  • The Golgi apparatus (6) packages the products ready for dispatch;
  • The ER (7) modifies, stores and transports the products around the factory;
  • The plasma membrane is the factory wall and the gates (8);
  • The lysosomes dispose of the waste and worn-out machinery.

The cell compared to a factory

Summary

  • Cells consist of three parts: the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.
  • Substances pass through the plasma membrane by diffusion (gases, lipids), osmosis (water), active transport (glucose, ions), phagocytosis (particles), pinocytosis (fluids) and exocytosis (particles and fluids).
  • Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. Water diffuses from high water "concentration" to low water "concentration".
  • The cytoplasm consists of cytosol in which are suspended cell inclusions and organelles.
  • organelles include ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and lysosomes.
  • The nucleus controls the activity of the cell. It contains the chromosomes that are composed of DNA.
  • The cell divides by mitosis and meiosis

Worksheets

There are several worksheets you can use to help you understand and learn about the cell.

Plasma Membrane Worksheet

Diffusion and Osmosis Worksheet 1

Diffusion and Osmosis Worksheet 2

Cell Division Worksheet

Test Yourself

You can then test yourself to see how much you remember.

1. Complete the table below:

Requires energy Requires a semi permeable membrane? Is the movement of water molecules only? Molecules move from high to low concentration? Molecules move from low to high concentration?
Diffusion  ?  ?  ? Yes  ?
Osmosis ? ? ? ? ?
Active Transport ? Yes ? ? Yes

2. Red blood cells placed in a 5% salt solution would:

swell/stay the same/ shrink?

3. Red blood cells placed in a 0.9% solution of salt would be in a:

hypotonic/isotonic/hypertonic solution?

4. White blood cells remove foreign bodies like bacteria from the body by engulfing them. This process is known as …………………………

5. Match the organelle in the left hand column of the table below with its function in the right hand column.

Organelle Function
a. Nucleus 1. Modifies proteins and fats
b. Mitochondrion 2. Makes, modifies and stores proteins
c. Golgi body 3. Digests worn out organelles
d. Rough endoplasmic reticulum 4. Makes fats
e. Lysosome 5. Controls the activity of the cell
f. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 6. Produces energy

6. The cell division that causes an organism to grow and repairs tissues is called:


7. The cell division that produces sperm and ova is called:


8. TWO important differences between the two types of cell division named by you above are:

a.
b.


Test Yourself Answers

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