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Ancona
—  Comune  —
Comune di Ancona
Aerial view of Ancona

Coat of arms
Ancona is located in Italy
Ancona
Location of Ancona in Italy
Coordinates: 43°37′01″N 13°31′00″E / 43.61694°N 13.5166667°E / 43.61694; 13.5166667Coordinates: 43°37′01″N 13°31′00″E / 43.61694°N 13.5166667°E / 43.61694; 13.5166667
Country Italy
Region Marche
Province Ancona (AN)
Frazioni Angeli di Varano, Aspio, Baraccola, Gallignano, Montacuto, Massignano, Montesicuro, Madonna delle Grazie, Candia, Ghettarello, Paterno, Casine di Paterno, Poggio di Ancona, Pontelungo, Sappanico, Taglio di Barcaglione, Torrette, Varano
Government
 - Mayor Fiorello Gramillano (Democratic Party)
Area
 - Total 123.71 km2 (47.8 sq mi)
Elevation 16 m (52 ft)
Population (31 August 2007)
 - Total 101,210
 Density 818.1/km2 (2,118.9/sq mi)
 - Demonym Anconetani, Anconitani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 60100
Dialing code 071
Patron saint Judas Cyriacus
Saint day 4 May
Website Official website

Ancona About this sound listen (IPA: [anˈko(ː)na]; from Greek: Ἀγκών - Angon) is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). Ancona is situated on the Adriatic Sea and is the center of the province of Ancona and the capital of the region.

The city is located 280 km northeast of Rome and 200 km southeast of Bologna.

The town is finely situated on and between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno, occupied by the citadel, and Monte Guasco, on which the Duomo stands (150 m). The latter, dedicated to St Judas Cyriacus, is said to occupy the site of a temple of Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place.

Contents

History

Ancona was founded by settlers from Syracuse about 387 BC, who gave it its name: Ancona is a very slightly modified transliteration of the Greek Αγκων, meaning "elbow"; the harbor to the east of the town was originally protected only by the promontory on the north, shaped like an elbow. Greek merchants established a Tyrian purple factory here[1]. In Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language.

Historic map of Ancona by Piri Reis.

When it became a Roman colony is doubtful. It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian War of 178 BC[2]. Julius Caesar took possession of it immediately after crossing the Rubicon. Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay with his Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus. At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single archway, and without bas-reliefs, erected in his honour in 115 by the senate and people.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths, Lombards and Saracens, but recovered its strength and importance. It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of Ravenna, an administrative unit of the Byzantine Empire.[3] With the Carolingian conquest of northern Italy, it became the capital of the Marca di Ancona, whence the name of the modern region. After 1000 Ancona became increasingly independent, eventually turning into an important maritime republic (together with Gaeta, Trani and Ragusa, it is one of those not appearing on the Italian naval flag), often clashing against the nearby power of Venice. An oligarchic republic, Ancona was ruled by six Elders, elected by the three terzieri into which the city was divided: S. Pietro, Porto and Capodimonte. It had a coin of its own, the agontano, and a series of laws known as Statuti del mare e del Terzenale and Statuti della Dogana. Ancona was usually allied with Ragusa and the Byzantine Empire. In 1137, 1167 and 1174 it was strong enough to push back imperial forces. Anconitan ships took part in the Crusades, and their navigators included Cyriac of Ancona. In the struggle between the Popes and the Emperors that troubled Italy from the 12th century onwards, Ancona sided with the Guelphs.

The Cathedral of San Ciriaco

Differently from other cities of northern Italy, Ancona never became a seignory. The sole exception was the rule of the Malatesta, who took the city in 1348 taking advantage of the black death and of a fire that had destroyed many of its important buildings. The Malatesta were ousted in 1383. In 1532 it definitively lost its freedom and became part of the Papal States, under Pope Clement VII. Symbol of the papal authority was the massive Citadel. Together with Rome and Avignon, Ancona was the sole city in the Papal States in which the Jews were allowed to stay after 1569, living in the ghetto built after 1555.

Pope Clement XII extended the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a Lazaretto at the south end of the harbor, Luigi Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief. The southern quay was built in 1880, and the harbour was protected by forts on the heights.

The Vanvitelli's Lazzaretto

From 1797 onwards, when the French took it, it frequently appears in history as an important fortress, until Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière surrendered here on 29 September 1860, eleven days after his defeat at Castelfidardo.

The portal of the church of San Francesco

During World War II, in July 1944, the city was taken by the Polish II Corps as part of an Allied operation to gain access to a seaport closer to the Gothic Line in order to shorten their lines of communication for the advance into northern Italy.

Demographics

In 2007, there were 101,480 people residing in Ancona (the greater area has a population more than four times its size), located in the province of Ancona, Marche, of whom 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 15.54 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 24.06 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Ancona resident is 48 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Ancona grew by 1.48 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[1][2] The current birth rate of Ancona is 8.14 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 92.77% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations (particularly those from Albania, Romania and Ukraine): 3.14%, followed by the Americas: 0.93%, East Asia: 0.83%, and North Africa: 0.80%. Currently, 1 in 6 babies born in Ancona has at least one foreign parent, among whom an Eastern European background is most prevalent.

Main sights

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Cathedral church of S. Ciriaco

The beautiful Cathedral, dedicated to St. Ciriaco, was consecrated in 1128 and completed in 1189. Some writers suppose that the original church was in the form of a Latin cross and belonged to the 8th century. An early restoration was completed in 1234. It is a fine Romanesque building in grey stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, with a dodecagonal dome over the center slightly altered by Margaritone d'Arezzo in 1270. The façade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.

A view of St. Ciriaco Cathedral from the port

The interior, which has a crypt under each transept, in the main preserves its original character. It has ten columns which are attributed to the temple of Venus, and there are good screens of the 12th century, and other sculptures. The church was carefully restored in the 1980s.

Other monuments

  • The marble Arch of Trajan, 18 m high, was erected in 114/115 as an entrance to the causeway atop the harbor wall in honor of the emperor who had made the harbor, is one of the finest Roman monuments in the Marche. Most of its original bronze enrichments have disappeared. It stands on a high podium approached by a wide flight of steps. The archway, only 3 m wide, is flanked by pairs of fluted Corinthian columns on pedestals. An attic bears inscriptions. The format is that of the Arch of Titus in Rome, but made taller, so that the bronze figures surmounting it, of Trajan, his wife Plotina and sister Marciana, would figure as a landmark for ships approaching Rome's greatest Adriatic port.
  • The Lazzaretto (Laemocomium or "Mole Vanvitelliana"), planned by architect Luigi Vanvitelli in 1732 is a pentagonal building covering more than 20,000 m², built to protect the military defensive authorities from the risk of contagious diseases eventually reaching the town with the ships. Later it was used also as a military hospital or as barracks; it is currently used for cultural exhibits.
  • The Episcopal Palace was the place where Pope Pius II died in 1464.
  • The church of Santa Maria della Piazza has an elaborate arcaded façade (1210).
  • The Palazzo del Comune, with its lofty arched substructures at the back, was the work of Margaritone d'Arezzo, but has been restored twice.

There are also several fine late Gothic buildings, including the churches of S. Francesco and S. Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, the Palazzo del Senato and the Loggia dei Mercanti[3], all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da Sebenico, and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions.

The portal of S. Maria della Misericordia is an ornate example of early Renaissance work.

The archaeological museum contains interesting pre-Roman (Piceni) objects from tombs in the district, and two Roman beds with fine decorations in ivory.

The port of Ancona
The port of Ancona is a major departure point for trans-Adriatic ferries.

The Pinacoteca Civica Francesco Podesti is housed in the Palazzo Bosdari, reconstructed in 1558 - 1561 by Pellegrino Tibaldi. Works in the gallery include:

Other artists present include Carlo da Camerino (late 15th- early 16th century) and Arcangelo di Cola (fl. 1416-1429). Modern artists featured are Bartolini, Bucci, Campigli, Cassinari, Cucchi, Levi, Sassu, Tamburi, Trubbiani, Podesti and others.

Transportation

Shipping

The Port has regular ferry links to the following cities with the following operators:

  • Adria Ferries (Durrës)
  • Blue Line International (Split, Stari Grad, Vis)
  • Jadrolinija (Split, Zadar)
  • SNAV (Split) (seasonal)
  • Superfast Ferries (Igoumenitsa, Patras)
  • ANEK Lines (Igoumenitsa, Patras)
  • Minoan Lines (Igoumenitsa, Patras)
  • Marmara Lines (Cesme)

Airport

Ancona is served by Ancona Airport (IATA: AOI, ICAO: LIPY), an airport located in Falconara Marittima and named after Raffaello Sanzio.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Ancona is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Silius Italicus, VIII. 438
  2. ^ Livy xli. i
  3. ^ The other four were Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini

References

Notes

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Ancona is the capital of the Italian region called Marche. It is an important port city on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Most of its medieval center was bombed during World War II. Its cathedral, however, is set on the mountain overlooking Ancona and still worth a look. There is also a monument built by Mussolini on the waterfront. Nearby Monte Conero is of particular interest. It offers glorious vistas, on a coastline that extends from Venice to Pescara with mainly flat sandy beaches. The popular resorts of Portonovo, Sirolo, and Santa Maria di Badia are at the Mount's base.

Many ferries link Ancona, and therefore Italy, to Croatia, Greece and Turkey.

Get in

By boat

Ferries are cheap and go regularly between various places by the coast. The following international lines are serviced by car ferries:

To/From Greece

Check out Blue Line International, SNAV, or Jadrolinija for more info on some of these lines.

An up-to-date site with all ferry schedules from Ancona to Greece, Croatia and Turkey is here.

Get around

Internet access

Internetcafe is on the port, a bit east of the train station. It is also an international calling service. Two computers. Via Guglielmo Marconi

  • Ancona Cathedral. Attractive Ancona Cathedral stands on the Guasco hill overlooking the city's port and offers amazing views of Ancona and the Adriatic coast. The wooden roof of the 11th century Cathedral is actually in the shape of an upside-down boat and its most obvious feature is the 12-sided cupola. The Cathedral is actually built on the site of an ancient temple dedicated to Venus and you can still see some of the ruins underneath the church.  edit
  • Serenellini's Accordion Factory. Since 1978 "Serenellini" manufactures a wide range of excellent handicrafted accordions, able to satisfy the needs of the student as well as the most demanding professional accordionist. The artisan style of Serenellini's accordion suits to the quality of the product; using only the best Italian raw materials,employing highly experienced craftsmen and adhering to a severe policy of accurate on-line testing up to the final product give rise to the top reliability guarantee of the instrument.  edit
  • Pinacoteca Comunale, [1]. Ancona's Pinacoteca Comunale (art gallery) is located in Palazzo Bosdari and houses over 100 works by 14th-19th century artists from the Marche and Veneto regions, including Titian and Andrea del Sarto. The top floor of the museum is occupied by the Gallery of Modern Art which contains a large number of works by the late Francesco Podesti and various other contemporary Italian artists. (44.137778,12.247778) edit

Eat

Ulderico on the waterfront, close to the Mole Vanvitelliana is an excellent as well as budget place to eat fish

  • Twilightblue hotels in Ancona [2]
  • NH Jolly Ancona, Rupi di Via XXIX Settembre, 14, +39 071 201171 [3]. The NH Jolly Ancona can be found in the heart of the shopping area, just 200 meters from the Corso Garibaldi and the Cathedral, in front of the Calamo Fountian and the Mole Vanvitelliana, where many prestigious events are held.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANCONA, a seaport and episcopal see of the Marches, Italy, capital of the province of Ancona, situated on the N.E. coast of Italy, 185 m. N.E. of Rome by rail and 132 m. direct, and 127 m. S.E. of Bologna. Pop. (1901) 56,835. The town is finely situated on and between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno to the S., occupied by the citadel, and Monte Guasco to the N., on which the cathedral stands (300 ft.). The latter, dedicated to S. Ciriaco, is said to occupy the site of a temple of Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place. It was consecrated in 1128 and completed in 1189. Some writers suppose that the original church was in the form of a Latin cross and belonged to the 8th century. An early restoration was completed in 1234. It is a fine Romanesque building in grey stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, with a dodecagonal dome over the centre slightly altered by Margaritone d'Arezzo in 1270. The facade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side. The interior, which has a crypt in each transept, in the main preserves its original character. It has ten columns which are attributed to the temple of Venus, and there are good screens of the 12th century, and other sculptures. In the dilapidated episcopal palace Pope Pius II. died in 1464. An interesting church is S. Maria della Piazza, with an elaborate arcaded facade (1210). The Palazzo del Comune, with its lofty arched substructures at the back, was the work of Margaritone d'Arezzo, but has been since twice restored. There are also several fine late Gothic buildings, among them the churches of S. Francesco and S. Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da Sebenico (who worked much at Sebenico, though he was not a native of it), and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions. The portal of S. Maria della Misericordia is an ornate example of early Renaissance work. The archaeological museum contains interesting pre-Roman objects from tombs in the district, and two Roman beds with fine decorations in ivory (E. Brizio, in Notizie degli scavi, 1902, 437, 478).

To the east of the town is the harbour, now an oval basin of 99 0 by 880 yards, the finest harbour on the S. W. coast of the Adriatic, and one of the best in Italy. It was originally protected only by the promontory on the N., from the elbow-like shape of which (Gk. b yiabv) the ancient town, founded by Syracusan refugees about 390 B.C., took the name which it still holds. Greek merchants established a purple factory here (Sil. Ital. viii. 438). Even in Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language. When it became a Roman colony is doubtful.' It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian war of 178 B.C. (Liv. xli. 1). Caesar took possession of it immediately after crossing the Rubicon. Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, 2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being Apollodorus of Damascus. At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single opening, and without bas-reliefs, erected in his honour in A.D. 115 by the senate and people. Pope Clement II. prolonged the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a lazaretto at the south end of the harbour, now a sugar refinery, Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief. The southern quay was built in 1880, and the harbour is now protected by forts on the heights, while the place is the seat of the 7th army corps.

The port of Ancona was entered in 1904 by 869 steamships and 600 sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 961,612 tons. The main imports were coal, timber, metals, jute. The main exports were asphalt and calcium carbide. Sugar refining and shipbuilding are carried on.

Ancona is situated on the railway between Bologna and Brindisi, and is also connected by rail with Rome, via Foligno and Orte.

After the fall of the Roman empire Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths, Lombards and Saracens, but recovered its strength and importance. It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of Ravenna, the other four being Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini, and eventually became a semi-independent republic under the protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement Vii. In 1532. From 1797 Onwards, When The French Took It, It Frequently Appears In History As An Important Fortress, Until Lamoriciere Capitulated Here On The 29Th Of September 1860, Eleven Days After His Defeat At Castelfidardo. (T. As.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also ancona

Contents

English

Proper noun

Ancona

  1. Province of Marche, Italy.
  2. Town and capital of Ancona and also the capital of Marche.
  3. A breed of poultry.
    • ”In all but colouring, the Ancona is a very similar bird to the Leghorn. It was imported from Italy probably some years before the latter. See ref. p.43.

Translations

  • French: Ancône (1, 2)
  • Italian: Ancona (1) , Ancona (2) f.

References

1962: C.Arthur Pearson. Pictorial Poultry-Keeping. Cox & Wyman Ltd (2nd ed.)


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Ancona

Wikipedia it

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /aŋˈkona/
  • Rhymes: -na

Proper noun

Ancona f.

  1. Ancona (province and town)
  2. The letter A in the Italian phonetic alphabet

Derived terms


Simple English

Ancona (it:Ancona) is a city in the province of Ancona in Marche, Italy. It has about 102.000 inhabitants.


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