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Andes Mountain range (Quechua: Anti(s/kuna))
Range
Aerial photo of a portion of the Andes between Argentina and Chile
Cities Bogotá, La Paz, Santiago, Quito, Cusco, Mérida
Highest point Aconcagua
 - location Argentina
 - elevation 6,962 m (22,841 ft)
 - coordinates 32°39′10″S 70°0′40″W / 32.65278°S 70.01111°W / -32.65278; -70.01111
Length 7,000 km (4,350 mi)
Width 500 km (311 mi)
Composite satellite image of the southern Andes
Aereal view of Aconcagua
The Andes are the world's longest continental mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The range is over 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, 200 km (120 mi) to 700 km (430 mi) wide (widest between 18° to 20°S latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft).
Over its length the Andean range is at several locations split into several ranges, often two great ranges, named Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental, often separated by a intermediate depression. .The Andes mountains extend over seven countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, some of which are known as Andean States.^ Andes mountains chile .
  • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Andes mountain range, Peru .
  • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Argentina, Andes Mountains, Lupine flowers growing in mountains .
  • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

The Andes mountain range is the highest mountain range outside Asia. The highest peak, Aconcagua, rises to 6,962 m (22,841 ft) above sea level. The summit of Mount Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is the point on the Earth's surface most distant from its center, because of the equatorial bulge.

Contents

Geography

The Andes can be divided into three sections: the Southern Andes in Argentina and Chile; the Central Andes, including the Chilean and Peruvian cordilleras and parts of Bolivia; and the northern section in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador consisting of two parallel ranges, the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental. In Colombia, north to the border with Ecuador, the Andes split in three parallel ranges, western, central and eastern. (cordillera occidental, central y oriental). In the northern part the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often considered part of the Andes. The eastern range is the only one that extends to Venezuela.[1] The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word meaning 'rope'. The Andes range is approximately 200 km (124 mi) wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is 640 km (398 mi) wide. The islands of the Dutch Caribbean Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range.

Geology

Geology of the Andes
The Andes
Orogenies
Pampean orogeny
Famatinian orogeny
Gondwanide orogeny
Andean orogeny
Fold-thrust belts
Central Andean | Patagonian
Batholiths
Peruvian Coastal | North Patagonian | South Patagonian
Subducted structures
Faults
Andean Volcanic Belt
Paleogeographic terminology
Arequipa-Antofalla Terrane | Chilenia | Chiloé Block | Cuyania | Iapetus Ocean | Madre de Dios Terrane | Mejillonia | Pampia
The Andes is a Mesozoic-Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity and orogeny that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate. To the east the Andes is bounded by several sedimentary basins such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco which separates the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south the Andes shares a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west the Andes ends at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considerated its ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach the Andes is considered to have its western boundaries marked by the apparition of coastal low lands and a less abrupt topography.

Orogeny

Map of the volcanic arcs, flat-slab segments and subducted ridges in Andes
The western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the Pampean orogeny of late Proterozoic. These early orogenic events led to amalgamation of several terranes and microcontinents onto the South American part of Gondwana.
The formation of the modern Andes began in the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting, faulting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east. Tectonic forces along the subduction zone along the entire west coast of South America where the Nazca Plate and a part of the Antarctic Plate are sliding beneath the South American Plate continue to produce an ongoing orogenic event resulting in minor to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to this day. In the extreme south a major transform fault separates Tierra del Fuego from the small Scotia Plate. Across the 1,000 km (620 mi) wide Drake Passage lie the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula south of the Scotia Plate which appear to be a continuation of the Andes chain.[citation needed]

Volcanism

The Andes range has many active volcanoes, which are distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inactivity:
  • Bucaramanga flat-slab segment
  • The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) compromising the volcanoes of southern Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile and Argentina

Ore deposits and evaporites

Climate

Central Andes
The climate in the Andes varies greatly depending on location, altitude, and proximity to the sea. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central Andes are dry. The northern Andes are typically rainy and warm, with an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances. Rainforests exist just miles away from the snow covered peak Cotopaxi. The mountains have a large effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The snow line depends on the location. It is at between 4,500–4,800 m (14,800–15,800 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 m (15,800–17,060 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S, then descending to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level.[2]
The Andes of Chile and Argentina can be divided in two climatic and glaciological zones; the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Since the Dry Andes extends from the latitudes of Atacama Desert to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadical and there are strong temperature oscillations. The line of equilibrium may shift drastically over short periods of time, leaving a whole glacier in the ablation area or in the accumulation area.

Flora

Rainforests used to encircle much of the northern Andes but are now greatly diminished, especially in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. As a direct opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the relatively dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile and Argentina. Along with several Interandean Valles, they are typically dominated by deciduous woodland, shrub and xeric vegetation, reaching the extreme in the slopes near the virtually lifeless Atacama Desert.
About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes with roughly half being endemic to the region, surpassing the diversity of any other hotspot.[3] The small tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found widely in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. Other important crops that originated from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. The high-altitude Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. These trees, by locals referred to as Queñua, Yagual and other names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level. It remains unclear if the patchy distribution of these forests and woodlands is natural, or the result of clearing which began during the Incan period. Regardless, in modern times the clearance has accelerated, and the trees are now considered to be highly endangered, with some believing that as little as 10% of the original woodland remains.[4]

Fauna

A male Andean Cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests
The Andes is rich in fauna: With almost 1,000 species, of which roughly 2/3 are endemic to the region, the Andes is the most important region in the world for amphibians.[3] Animal diversity in the Andes is high, with almost 600 species of mammals (13% endemic), more than 1,700 species of birds (c. 1/3 endemic), more than 600 species of reptiles (c. 45% endemic), and almost 400 species of fish (c. 1/3 endemic).[3]
The Vicuña and Guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated Llama and Alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The nocturnal chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, inhabits the Andes' alpine regions. The Andean Condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Andes but generally in very low densities. Other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Andes include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex, and, for birds, certain species of tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Andean Goose, Giant Coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), Lesser Rhea, Andean Flicker, Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches.
Lake Titicaca hosts several endemics, among them the highly endangered Titicaca Flightless Grebe and Titicaca Water Frog. A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 m (13,100 ft), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, especially in the humid Andean forests ("cloud forests") growing on slopes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and far northwestern Argentina. These forest-types, which includes the Yungas and parts of the Chocó, are very rich in flora and fauna, although few large mammals exists, exceptions being the threatened Mountain Tapir, Spectacled Bear and Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey.
Herds of llamas (alpacas) on the mountain Ausangate hillside.
Birds of humid Andean forests include mountain-toucans, quetzals and the Andean Cock-of-the-rock, while mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and Furnariids commonly are seen - in contrast to several vocal but typically cryptic species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas.
A number of species such as the Royal Cinclodes and White-browed Tit-spinetail are associated with Polylepis, and consequently also threatened.

Human activity

Map showing cultural influence in the Andes.
The Andes mountains form a north-south axis of cultural influences. The Inca Empire developed in the central Andes during the 15th century. The Incas formed this civilization through imperialistic militarism as well as careful and meticulous governmental management.[citation needed] The government sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads, some of which, like those created by the Romans a thousand years before them, are still in existence today.
Devastated by European diseases to which they had no immunity, and civil war, in 1532 the Incas were defeated by an alliance composed of tens of thousands allies from nations they had subjugated (Huancas, Chachapoyas, Cañaris, etc) and a small army of 180 Spaniards led by Pizarro. One of the few Inca cities the Spanish never found in their conquest was Machu Picchu, which lay hidden on a peak on the edge of the Andes where they descend to the Amazon. The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara language families. Woodbine Parish and Joseph Barclay Pentland surveyed a large part of the Bolivian Andes from 1826 to 1827.
Nowadays, the largest Andean cities are Bogotá in Colombia with a population of 8 million and Santiago in Chile. The largest city of the Andean zone is the Peruvian capital, Lima, which is located a few meters above sea level.

Transportation

Troncal 7 (Trans-Andes Highway) in the Venezuelan Andes
Several major cities exist in the Andes, among them Bogotá and Cali in Colombia, Quito in Ecuador, Mérida in Venezuela , La Paz in Bolivia, and Arequipa and Cusco in Peru. These and most other cities are now connected with asphalted roads, while smaller towns are often connected by dirt roads, which may require a 4x4 vehicle.[1] Because of the arduous terrain, localities where vehicles are of little use remain. Locally, Llamas continue to play an important role as pack animals, but this use has generally diminished in modern times.

Agriculture

Photograph of young Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans.
The ancient peoples of the Andes such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. Because of the mountain slopes, terracing has been a common practice. Terracing, however, was only extensively employed after Incan imperial expansions to fuel their expanding realm. The potato holds a very important role as an internally consumed staple crop. Maize was also an important crop for these people. However, they were mainly used for the production of the culturally important chicha. Currently, tobacco, cotton and coffee are the main export crops. Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an important crop for legal local use in a mildly stimulating herbal tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine.

Mining

The Andes rose to fame for its mineral wealth during the Spanish conquest of South America. Although Andean Amerindian peoples crafted ceremonial jewelry of gold and other metals the mineralizations of the Andes were first mined in large scale after the Spanish arrival. Potosí in present-day Bolivia was one of the principal mines of the Spanish Empire in the New World. Río de la Plata and Argentina derive their names from the silver of Potosí.
Currently, mining in the Andes of Chile and Peru place these countries as the 1st and 3rd major producers of copper in the world. The Bolivian Andes produce principally tin although historically silver mining had a huge impact on the economy of 17th century Europe.
There is a long history of mining in the Andes, from the Spanish silver mines in Potosí in the 16th century to the vast current porphyry copper deposits of Chuquicamata and Escondida in Chile and Toquepala in Peru. Other metals including iron, gold and tin in addition to non-metallic resources are also important.

Peaks

This list contains some of the major peaks in the Andes mountain range. The highest peak is Aconcagua of Argentina (see below).

Argentina

Border between Argentina and Chile

Bolivia

Border between Bolivia and Chile

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Peru

  • Alpamayo, 5,947 m (19,511 ft)
  • Artesonraju, 6,025 m (19,767 ft)
  • Carnicero, 5,960 m (19,554 ft)
  • El Misti, 5,822 m (19,101 ft)
  • El Toro, 5,830 m (19,127 ft)
  • Huascarán, 6,768 m (22,205 ft)
  • Jirishanca, 6,094 m (19,993 ft)
  • Nevado de Huaytapallana, 5,557 m (18,232 ft)
  • Pumasillo, 5,991 m (19,656 ft)
  • Rasac, 6,040 m (19,816 ft)
  • Rondoy, 5,870 m (19,259 ft)
  • Sarapo, 6,127 m (20,102 ft)
  • Seria Norte, 5,860 m (19,226 ft)
  • Siula Grande, 6,344 m (20,814 ft)
  • Yerupaja, 6,635 m (21,768 ft)
  • Yerupaja Chico, 6,089 m (19,977 ft)

Venezuela

Notes

See also

References

  • John Biggar, The Andes: A Guide For Climbers, 3rd. edition, 2005, ISBN 0-9536087-2-7
  • Tui de Roy, The Andes: As the Condor Flies. 2005, ISBN 1-55407-070-8
  • Fjeldså, J., & N. Krabbe (1990). The Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen. ISBN 87-88757-16-1
  • Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler. 1996. Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highlands on Peru and Bolivia, a contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO, Copenhagen.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
The Andes are a vast mountain chain in South America. It extends from Chile to Venezuela through Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.
.
  • Aconcagua, its highest peak, rises to 6,982m above sea level, making the Andes the highest mountain range outside Asia.^ Andes mountain range, Peru .
    • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Aerial view of a road running through the Andes mountain range .
    • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sunset on snow-capped mountain peaks that are a part of the Andes ...
    • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    Climbing expeditions for Aconcagua usually set out from the Argentinian city of Mendoza

Do

Many ski centers operate in the Andes during the winter months.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

- Andes, a vast mountain system forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. It is roughly 4400 m. long, loo m. wide in some parts, and of an average height of 13,000 ft.' .The connexion of this system with that of the Rocky Mountains, which has been pointed out by many writers, has received much support from the discovery of the extensive eruptions of granite during Tertiary times, extending from the southern extremity of South America to Alaska.^ A connection of this technique therewith of the Rocky Mountains, which has been pointed out by numerous writers, has received lot trend lines from either either a discovery of a extensive eruptions of granite when you took Third days, extending from the southern extremity of South America to Alaska .

^ The connection of this system with that of the Rocky Mountains , which has been pointed out by many writers, has received much support from the discovery of the extensive eruptions of granite during Tertiary times, extending from the southern extremity of South America to Alaska .
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The connexion of this system with that of the Rocky Mountains, which has been pointed out by many writers, has received much support from the discovery of the extensive eruptions of granite during Tertiary times, extending from the southern extremity of South America to Alaska .

.The Andean range is composed of two great principal chains with a deep intermediate depression, in which, and at the sides of the great chains, arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is that called the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.^ A Andean range is composed of two groovy chief chains by using the deep medium depression, in which, & at a sides of a wonderful chains, arise more chains of minor importance, a chief of which is that known as the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile .

^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

^ The Andean range is composed principally of two great ranges, the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental , often separated by a deep intermediate depression , in which arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is Chile 's Cordillera de la Costa .
  • Andes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This starts from the southern extremity of the continent, and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands, and afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of Chile.^ The Cordillera de la Costa starts from the southern extremity of the continent and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands and afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of Chile.
  • Andes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This starts from the southern extremity of the continent and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands and afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of Chile.
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This starts from either a southern extremity of the continent & runs inside a northwards counsel, parallel by having the coast, existence broken higher at its beginning into a total of islands and after forming the american boundary of the low central valley of Chile.

.To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific as far as Colombia, always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.^ To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific Ocean as far as Colombia , always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific as far as Colombia , always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.

^ To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific Ocean as far as Venezuela , always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the Western Great Chain.
  • Andes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the two principal chains the eastern is generally called Los Andes, and the western La Cordillera, in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, where the eastern is likewise known as Cordillera Real de los Andes, while to the south of parallel 23° S. lat.^ Of the two principal chains the eastern is generally called Los Andes , and the western La Cordillera, in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia , where the eastern is likewise known as Cordillera Real de los Andes, while to the south of parallel 23° S. lat.

^ The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S. lat.

^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

in .Chile and Argentina, the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

^ (The Cordillera of Argentina and Chile is clearly the continuation of the western chain alone.
  • Andes - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vino de los Andes .
  • Wineries and Vineyards of Chile and Argentina - Maps of Valleys and Regions of The Wine. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC andeswine.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eastern disappears in the centre of Argentina, and it is therefore only the Cordillera de los Andes that is prolonged as far as the south-eastern extremity of the continent.^ A eastern disappears in a centre of Argentina, & these are so merely a Cordillera diamond state los Andes that is prolonged when far when the south-eastern extremity of the continent.

^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

^ The eastern disappears in the centre of Argentina, and it is therefore only the Cordillera de los Andes that is prolonged as far as the south-eastern extremity of the continent.
  • Andes - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Cordillera de la Costa begins near Cape Horn, which is composed principally of crystalline rocks, and its heights are inconsiderable when compared with those of the trueCordillera of the Andes.^ In Venezuela, the Andes terminate with the Cordillera de la Costa, Cordillera de Caripe and Península de Paria in Venezuela.

^ The Cordillera de la Costa begins near Cape Horn , which is composed principally of crystalline rocks, and its heights are inconsiderable when compared with those of the true Cordillera of the Andes.
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.

.The latter, as regards its main chain, is on the northern coast of the Beagle Channel, in Tierra del Fuego, bounded on the north by the deep depression of Lake Fagnano and of Admiralty Sound.^ The latter, as regards its main chain, is on the northern coast of the Beagle Channel, in Tierra del Fuego , bounded on the north by the deep depression of Lake Fagnano and of Admiralty Sound .

^ A latter, when regards its main chain, is on the northern coast of the Beagle Channel in Tierra del Fuego, bounded on the north per deep depression of Lake Fagnano and of Admiralty Sound.

^ Tierra del Fuego.

.Staten Island appears to be the termination to the east.^ Staten Island appears to be the termination to the east.
  • Andes - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staten Island appears to be a termination to the east.

.The Cordillera of the Andes in Tierra del Fuego is formed of crystalline schists, and culminates in the snowcapped peaks of Mount Darwin and Mount Sarmiento (7200 ft.^ A Cordillera of the Andes within Tierra del Fuego is formed of crystalline schists, and culminates in the snow-capped peaks of Mount Darwin and Mount Sarmiento 2200 m(720Foot), which contains glaciers of greater extent than those of Mont Blanc.

^ Tierra del Fuego .
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tierra del Fuego.

), which contains glaciers of greater extent than those of Mont Blanc. .The extent of the glaciers is considerable in this region, which, geographically, is more complex than was formerly supposed.^ A extent of the glaciers is considerable therein area, which, geographically, is further complex than was erstwhile supposed.

^ The extent of the glaciers is considerable in this region, which, geographically, is more complex than was formerly supposed.
  • Andes - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Andes is the most important region in the world for amphibians , with around 980 species and more than 670 endemics.
  • Biological diversity in the Tropical Andes - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although, in the explored portion of the Fuegian chain, the volcanoes which have been mentioned from time to time have not been met with, there seem to have existed to the south, on the islands, many neo-volcanic rocks, some of which appear to be contemporaneous with the basaltic sheet that covers a part of eastern Patagonia.^ Although in the explored portion of the Fuegian chain the volcanoes which have been mentioned from time to time have not been met with, there seem to have existed to the south, on the islands, many neo-volcanic rocks, some of which appear to be contemporaneous with the basaltic sheet that covers a part of eastern Patagonia .
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although, in the explored portion of the Fuegian chain, the volcanoes which have been mentioned from time to time have not been met with, there seem to have existed to the south, on the islands, many neo-volcanic rocks, some of which appear to be contemporaneous with the basaltic sheet that covers a part of eastern Patagonia .

^ Although in the explored part of the Fuegian chain a volcano es which have been mentioned from either period to period develop non been met sustaining, a islands south hang on to numerous neo-volcanic rocks, a few of which pop up to exist as contemporaneous sustaining a basalt ic sheet that covers the a portion of eastern Patagonia .

.The insular region between Mount Sarmiento and the Cordillera de los Andes, properly so called, i.e. that which extends from Magellan Strait northwards, is not fully explored, and all that is known of it is that it is principally composed of the same rocks as the Fuegian section, and that the greater part of its upper valleys is occupied by glaciers that reach down to the sea amid dense forest.^ The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41° S. lat.

^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

^ The insular region between Mount Sarmiento and the Cordillera de los Andes, properly so called, i.e.
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.As Admiralty Sound and Lake Fagnano bound the Cordillera to the north in Tierra del Fuego, so at the eastern side of the Cordillera in the southernmost part of the continent there is a longitudinal depression which separates the Andes from some independent ridges pertaining to a secondary parallel broken chain called the pre-Cordillera.^ Tierra del Fuego .
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^ Chile-Argentina, 52°-38°S When Admiralty Healthy & Flow of any stream Fagnano attached a Cordillera to a n around Tierra del Fuego, and then at a eastern side of the Cordillera in the southmost section of the continent there is a longitudinal depression which separates the Andes from either some independent ridges on to the secondary parallel broken chain known as a pre-Cordillera.

^ As Admiralty Sound and Lake Fagnano bound the Cordillera to the north in Tierra del Fuego, so at the eastern side of the Cordillera in the southernmost part of the continent there is a longitudinal depression which separates the Andes from some independent ridges pertaining to a secondary parallel broken chain called the pre-Cordillera.
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.This depression is occupied in great part by a series of lakes, some of these filling transversal breaches in the range, whilst others are remains of glacial reservoirs, bordered by morainic dams, extending as far as the eastern tableland and corresponding in these cases with transversal depressions which reach the Atlantic Ocean.^ This depression is occupied in great part by a series of lakes, some of these filling transversal breaches in the range, whilst others are remains of glacial reservoirs, bordered by morainic dams, extending as far as the eastern tableland and corresponding in these cases with transversal depressions which reach the Atlantic Ocean .
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^ This depression is occupied around smashing the share by a series of streams, lakes, and wells throughout, a bit of one filling thwartwise breaches in the range, when others come remains of glacial reservoirs, bordered by morainic dams, extending when far when a eastern plateau & corresponding inside these suits sustaining transverse depressions which email a Atlantic Ocean.

^ These two rivers have emptied a large system of lakes, which in pre-Glacial times occupied the eastern zone, thus forming a region suitable for colonization in the broad valleys and hollows, where the rivers, as in the case with those in the north, cut through the Andes by narrow gaps, forming cataracts and rapids between the snowy peaks.
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.Between the larger lakes, fed by the Andine glaciers of the eastern Chile- slope of the Southern Andes, are Lakes Maravilla, > > 52°-38° S. zoo sq.^ Between the larger lakes, fed by the Andine glaciers of the eastern Chile- slope of the Southern Andes, are Lakes Maravilla, > > 52°-38° S. zoo sq.

^ While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm .

^ While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm.
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m., and .Sarmiento, 26 sq.^ Sarmiento, 26 sq.

m., .51° S. lat., which overflow into Last Hope Inlet; Argentino, 570 sq.^ S. lat., which overflow into Last Hope Inlet; Argentino, 570 sq.

^ S. lat., which empty into the river Santa Cruz ; the fjordian Lake San Martin , 49 S. lat., and Lakes Nansen, 18 sq.

m., .50° S. lat.; and Viedma, 450 sq.^ S. lat.; and Viedma, 450 sq.

m., .49° 30' S. lat., which empty into the river Santa Cruz; the fjordian Lake San Martin, 49 S. lat., and Lakes Nansen, 18 sq.^ S. lat., which empty into the river Santa Cruz ; the fjordian Lake San Martin , 49 S. lat., and Lakes Nansen, 18 sq.

^ The waters of Lake Puelo (18 sq.

^ This starts from the southern extremity of the continent and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning empty into the river Santa Cruz ; the fjordian Lake San Martin , 49°S, and Lakes Nansen , 18 square miles; Azara , eight square miles; and Belgrano , 18 square miles, which are dependents of Lake San Martin (380 square miles), and Lakes Pueyrredon (98 square miles) and Buenos Aires (700 square miles), which now overflow into the Pacific, through one of the remarkable inlets that are found throughout the Cordillera, the Calen Inlet , which is the largest western fjord of Patagonia.
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m.; Azara, 8 sq. m.; and .Belgrano, 18 sq.^ Belgrano, 18 sq.

m., which are dependents of .Lake San Martin As to the specific elevations of many of the peaks mentioned in this article, various authorities differ, and it is impossible in many cases to rate one estimate as of greater value than another.^ Lake San Martin As to the specific elevations of many of the peaks mentioned in this article, various authorities differ, and it is impossible in many cases to rate one estimate as of greater value than another.

^ The level of the lakes begins at40 m (130 feet) at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 200 m (700 feet) at Lake San Martin/O'Higgins .
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^ The level of the lakes begins at 130 feet at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 feet at Lake San Martin .
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(380 sq. m.), and .Lakes Pueyrredon (98 sq.^ Lakes Pueyrredon (98 sq.

m.) and .Buenos Aires (700 sq.^ Buenos Aires (700 sq.

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean , and Lakes Fontana (30 sq.

m.), which now overflow into the .Pacific, through one of the remarkable inlets that are found throughout the Cordillera, the Calen Inlet, which is the largest western fjord of Patagonia.^ Pacific, through one of the remarkable inlets that are found throughout the Cordillera, the Calen Inlet, which is the largest western fjord of Patagonia.

^ This starts from the southern extremity of the continent and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning empty into the river Santa Cruz ; the fjordian Lake San Martin , 49°S, and Lakes Nansen , 18 square miles; Azara , eight square miles; and Belgrano , 18 square miles, which are dependents of Lake San Martin (380 square miles), and Lakes Pueyrredon (98 square miles) and Buenos Aires (700 square miles), which now overflow into the Pacific, through one of the remarkable inlets that are found throughout the Cordillera, the Calen Inlet , which is the largest western fjord of Patagonia.
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^ Between the larger lakes, fed by the Andine glaciers of the eastern slope of the Southern Andes, are Lakes Maravilla , 260 km² (100 mile²), and Sarmiento , 67 km² (26 mile²), 51S, which overflow into Last Hope Inlet ; Argentino ,1,476 km² (570 mile), 50S; and Viedma , (450 mile²) 1,165 km², 4930'S, which empty into the river Santa Cruz ; the fjordian Lake San Martin/O'Higgins , 49S, and Lakes Nansen , 47 km² (18 mile²) ; Azara ,21 km² (8 mile²); and Belgrano , 47 km² (18 mile²) (), which are dependents of Lake San Martn/O'Higgins 984 km²(380 mile²)), and Lakes Pueyrredon/Cochrane 254 km² (98 mile²)) and Buenos Aires/General Carrera 1,813 km² (700 mile²)), which now overflow into the Pacific, through one of the remarkable inlets that are found throughout the Cordillera, the Calen Inlet , which is the largest western fjord of Patagonia.
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.To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean, and Lakes Fontana (30 sq.^ Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires, immediately to the north, is 710 ft.

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean , and Lakes Fontana (30 sq.

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde , which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean, and Lakes Fontana (30 square miles) and La Plata (34 square miles), 45°S, which feed the river Senguerr , which flows to the Atlantic.
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m.) .80 and La Plata (34 sq.^ La Plata (34 sq.

m.), .45° S. lat., which feed the river Senguerr, which flows to the Atlantic.^ Northwards of Flow of any stream Buenos Aires there exists Flow of any stream Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean, & Streams, lakes, and wells throughout Fontana 78 km² (Xxx mi²) & La Plata 88 km² (34 mi²), 45°S, which feed a flow of any stream Senguerr, which flows to the Atlantic.

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde , which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean, and Lakes Fontana (30 square miles) and La Plata (34 square miles), 45°S, which feed the river Senguerr , which flows to the Atlantic.
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^ S. lat., which feed the river Senguerr, which flows to the Atlantic .

.Lake General P a z (66 sq.^ Lake General P a z (66 sq.

m.) on the eastern slope of the .Andes, at 44° S. lat., is the principal source of the Palena river, which cuts all the Cordillera, while Lakes Fetalauquen (20 sq.m.^ Andes, at 44° S. lat., is the principal source of the Palena river, which cuts all the Cordillera, while Lakes Fetalauquen (20 sq.m.

^ The rivers Palena , with its two branches, Pico and Carrenleufu , Fetaleufu , Puelo and Manso cut the two chains, while the rivers Renihue , Bodadahue and Cochamo have their sources in the main eastern ridge.
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^ Lake General Paz 171 km² (66 mile²)) on the eastern slope of the Andes, at 44S, is the principal source of the Palena River , which cuts all the Cordillera, while Lakes Futalaufquen 52 km² (20 mile²)) Menendez 73 km² (28 mile²)), Rivadavia 26 km²(10 mile²)), and other smaller lakes, also situated between 4330', and 4230'S on the eastern slope send their waters to the Pacific by the river Futaleufu which cuts through the Andes by a narrow gorge.
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) .Menendez (28 sq.^ Menendez (28 sq.

m.), .Rivadavia (io sq.^ Rivadavia (io sq.

m.), and other smaller lakes, also situated between 43° 30', and 42° 30' S. lat. on the eastern slope send their waters to the .Pacific by the river Fetaleufu which cuts through 20 the Andes by a narrow gorge.^ Pacific by the river Fetaleufu which cuts through 20 the Andes by a narrow gorge .

^ The rivers Palena , with its two branches, Pico and Carrenleufu , Fetaleufu , Puelo and Manso cut the two chains, while the rivers Renihue , Bodadahue and Cochamo have their sources in the main eastern ridge.
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^ Lake General Paz 171 km² (66 mile²)) on the eastern slope of the Andes, at 44S, is the principal source of the Palena River , which cuts all the Cordillera, while Lakes Futalaufquen 52 km² (20 mile²)) Menendez 73 km² (28 mile²)), Rivadavia 26 km²(10 mile²)), and other smaller lakes, also situated between 4330', and 4230'S on the eastern slope send their waters to the Pacific by the river Futaleufu which cuts through the Andes by a narrow gorge.
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.The waters of Lake Puelo (18 sq.^ The waters of Lake Puelo (18 sq.

^ Atlantic lakes, empties itself by the only water gap that occurs in this zone of the Cordillera into the river Valdivia , a tributary of the Pacific, Lake Lolog (15 sq.

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean , and Lakes Fontana (30 sq.

m.) likewise flow into the same ocean through the river of that name, which also cuts the .Cordillera, and of 30 which the principal affluent likewise drains the waters of a system of small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Mascardi, measures 17 sq.^ The waters of Lake Puelo (18 sq.

^ Cordillera, and of 30 which the principal affluent likewise drains the waters of a system of small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Mascardi, measures 17 sq.

^ The waters of Lake Puelo 47 km² (18 mile)) likewise flow into the same ocean through the river of that name, which also cuts the Cordillera, and of which the principal affluent (the Manso River) likewise drains the waters of a system of small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Mascardi , measures 44 km² (17 mile²), which in comparatively recent times formed part of the basin of Lake Nahuel Huapi 536 km²(207 mile²)), 41S. An extensive area of glacial deposits shows that a sheet of ice formerly covered the whole eastern slope to a great distance from the mountains.
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m., which in .40 comparatively re - cent times formed part of the basin of Lake NahuelHuapi (207 sq.^ Lake NahuelHuapi (207 sq.

m.), 41° S. lat. .An extensive area of glacial deposits 50 shows that a sheet of ice formerly covered the whole eastern slope to a great distance from the mountains.^ An extensive area of glacial deposits 50 shows that a sheet of ice formerly covered the whole eastern slope to a great distance from the mountains.

^ The waters of Lake Puelo (18 square miles) likewise flow into the same ocean through the river of that name, which also cuts the Cordillera, and of which the principal affluent likewise drains the waters of a system of small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Mascardi , measures 17 square miles, which in comparatively recent times formed part of the basin of Lake Nahuel Huapi (207 square miles), 41°S. An extensive area of glacial deposits shows that a sheet of ice formerly covered the whole eastern slope to a great distance from the mountains.
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^ The waters of Lake Puelo 47 km² (18 mile)) likewise flow into the same ocean through the river of that name, which also cuts the Cordillera, and of which the principal affluent (the Manso River) likewise drains the waters of a system of small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Mascardi , measures 44 km² (17 mile²), which in comparatively recent times formed part of the basin of Lake Nahuel Huapi 536 km²(207 mile²)), 41S. An extensive area of glacial deposits shows that a sheet of ice formerly covered the whole eastern slope to a great distance from the mountains.
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.To the west another sheet reached at the same time the Pacific Ocean.^ To a west a second sheet reached at a equivalent period the Pacific Ocean.

^ To the west another sheet reached at the same time the Pacific Ocean.
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^ To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific Ocean as far as Colombia , always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.
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.From the Strait of Magellan up to 52° S. lat., the western slope of the Cordillera does not, properly speaking, exist.^ The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41° S. lat.

^ From either a Strait of Magellan up to 52°S, the western slope of the Cordillera doesn't, properly speaking, survive.

^ From the Strait of Magellan up to 52°S, the western slope of the Cordillera does not, properly speaking, exist.
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.Abrupt walls overlook the Pacific, and great longitudinal and transversal channels and fjords run right through the heart of the range, cutting it generally in a direction more or less oblique to its axis, the result of movements of the earth's crust.^ Abrupt walls overlook the Pacific, and great longitudinal and transversal channels and fjords run right through the heart of the range, cutting it generally in a direction more or less oblique to its axis, the result of movements of Earth's crust.
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^ Abrupt bulwarks overlook a Pacific, & peachy longitudinal and cross trend lines & fiord do perfect through the heart of the range, cutting it usually around the counsel about oblique to its axis, a symptom of movements of Globe's crust.

^ Abrupt walls overlook the Pacific, and great longitudinal and transversal channels and fjords run right through the heart of the range, cutting it generally in a direction more or less oblique to its axis, the result of movements of the earth's crust.

.10 10 Over IOOOft.f English Miles topoxi 'e?' ?'m60raxo S,/  ? ?^ Over IOOOft.f English Miles topoxi 'e?'

11111 1 � ?? � ..,.
%,�r a.. �����11r ,111.1�1 W ?�?_ mom 11�16. ?, ??? ???-�.
VII���?����.? _ ?-. --.�?.1.
o ?
?C?-  ??
o?.'y ram .'. mo .,,;, 70 The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41° S. lat.^ A mountains forming a Cordillera between Magellan Strait & 41°S come higher than people antecedently mentioned within Tierra del Fuego.

^ The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41°S are higher than those previously mentioned in Tierra del Fuego.
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^ The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41° S. lat.

are higher than those previously mentioned in .Tierra del Fuego.^ Tierra del Fuego .
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^ Tierra del Fuego.

^ A mountains forming a Cordillera between Magellan Strait & 41°S come higher than people antecedently mentioned within Tierra del Fuego.

.Generally composed of granite, gneiss and Palaeozoic rocks, covered in many parts by rugged masses of volcanic origin, their general height is not less than 6500 ft., while Mount Geikie is 7500 ft.^ Generally composed of granite, gneiss and Palaeozoic rocks, covered in many parts by rugged masses of volcanic origin, their general height is not less than 6500 ft., while Mount Geikie is 7500 ft.

^ Generally composed of granite , gneiss and Palaeozoic rocks, covered in many parts by rugged masses of volcanic origin, their general height is not less than 2000 m (6500 feet), while Mount Geikie is 2300 m (7500 feet) and Mount Stokes 2200 m (7100 feet).
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^ Usually composed of granite , gneiss & Palaeozoic rocks, covered in several area by rugged masses of volcanic origin, their general height is non less than 2000 m (6500 foot), patch Mount Geikie is 2300 m (750Foot) & Mount Stokes 2200 m (7100 foot).

and .Mount Stokes 7100 ft.^ Mount Stokes 7100 ft.

.To the north are Mounts Mayo (7600 ft.^ To the north are Mounts Mayo (7600 ft.

^ To the north are Mounts Mayo 2300 m(7600 feet), Agassiz 3200 m (10,600 feet), and Fitzroy (also called Chalten ), in 49S (11,120 feet).
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^ To the north are Mounts Mayo (7600 feet), Agassiz (10,600 feet), and Fitzroy , in 49°S (11,120 feet).
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), .Agassiz (10,600 ft.^ Agassiz (10,600 ft.

^ To the north are Mounts Mayo 2300 m(7600 feet), Agassiz 3200 m (10,600 feet), and Fitzroy (also called Chalten ), in 49S (11,120 feet).
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^ To the north are Mounts Mayo (7600 feet), Agassiz (10,600 feet), and Fitzroy , in 49°S (11,120 feet).
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), and .Fitzroy, in 49° S. lat.^ Fitzroy , in 49° S. lat.

(11,120 ft.). .The section from 52° to 48° S. lat.^ The section from 52° to 48° S. lat.

is a continuous ice-capped mountain range, and some of the glaciers extend from the eastern lakes to the western channels, where they reach the sea-level. .The level of the lakes begins at 130 ft.^ The level of the lakes begins at 130 ft.

^ The level of the lakes begins at40 m (130 feet) at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 200 m (700 feet) at Lake San Martin/O'Higgins .
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^ The level of the lakes begins at 130 feet at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 feet at Lake San Martin .
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at .Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 ft.^ Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 ft.

^ The level of the lakes begins at 130 feet at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 feet at Lake San Martin .
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^ The level of the lakes begins at40 m (130 feet) at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 200 m (700 feet) at Lake San Martin/O'Higgins .
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at .Lake San Martin.^ The level of the lakes begins at40 m (130 feet) at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 200 m (700 feet) at Lake San Martin/O'Higgins .
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^ Lake San Martin.

^ The level of the lakes begins at 130 feet at Lake Maravilla and gradually ascends to nearly 700 feet at Lake San Martin .
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.Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet, in 48° S. lat., is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon, which is only 410 ft.^ Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet, in 48° S. lat., is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon, which is only 410 ft.

^ Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet , in 48S, is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon/Cochrane, which is only 125 m (410 feet) above the sea-level to the east of the Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires/General Carrera , immediately to the north, is 220 m (710 feet).
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^ Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet , in 48°S, is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon, which is only 410 feet above the sea-level to the east of the Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires , immediately to the north, is 710 feet.
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above the sea-level to the east of the .Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires, immediately to the north, is 710 ft.^ Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires, immediately to the north, is 710 ft.

^ Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet , in 48S, is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon/Cochrane, which is only 125 m (410 feet) above the sea-level to the east of the Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires/General Carrera , immediately to the north, is 220 m (710 feet).
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Passing the breach through which Lake San Martin empties itself into Calen Inlet , in 48°S, is found a wide oblique opening in the range, through which flows the river Las Heras, fed by Lake Pueyrredon, which is only 410 feet above the sea-level to the east of the Andes, while Lake Buenos Aires , immediately to the north, is 710 feet.
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.The Andes continue to be to the west an enormous rugged mass of ice and snow of an average height of 9000 ft., sending glaciers to all the eastern fjords.^ A Andes prove my point to be to the west an tremendous rugged mass of ice & snow of an average height of 2700 m (9000 foot), sending glaciers to all the eastern fiord.

^ The Andes continue to be to the west an enormous rugged mass of ice and snow of an average height of 2700 m (9000 feet), sending glaciers to all the eastern fjords.
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^ The Andes continue to be to the west an enormous rugged mass of ice and snow of an average height of 9000 ft., sending glaciers to all the eastern fjords.

.Mount San Lorenzo, detached from the main chain in the pre-Cordillera, is ii,800 ft.^ Mount San Lorenzo, detached from the main chain in the pre-Cordillera, is ii,800 ft.

^ Mount San Lorenzo , detached from the main chain in the Pre-Cordillera, is 11,800 feet high.
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^ Mount San Lorenzo , detached from the main chain in the Pre-Cordillera, is 3600 m (11,800 feet) high.
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high. .Mount San Valentin (12,700 ft.^ Mount San Valentin (12,700 ft.

^ Mount San Valentin (12,700 feet) is the culminating point of the Andes in the region extending from 49° to 46°S, a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.
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^ Mount San Lorenzo, detached from the main chain in the pre-Cordillera, is ii,800 ft.

) is the culminating point of the .Andes in the region extending from 49° to 46° S. lat., a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.^ Andes in the region extending from 49° to 46° S. lat., a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.

^ Mount San Valentin (12,700 feet) is the culminating point of the Andes in the region extending from 49° to 46°S, a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.
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^ Mount San Valentin 3900 m (12,700 feet) is the culminating point of the Andes in the region extending from 49 to 46S, a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.
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.These two rivers have emptied a large system of lakes, which in pre-Glacial times occupied the eastern zone, thus forming a region suitable for colonization in the broad valleys and hollows, where the rivers, as in the case with those in the north, cut through the Andes by narrow gaps, forming cataracts and rapids between the snowy peaks.^ Pacific by the river Fetaleufu which cuts through 20 the Andes by a narrow gorge .

^ In Bolivia the Andes again form two distinct regions; between them lies the Altiplano .
  • Andes Mountains (mountain system, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S. lat.

.Volcanic action is still going on in these latitudes, as the glaciers are at times covered by ashes, but the predominant rocks to the east are the Tertiary granite, while to the west gneiss, older granite and Palaeozoic rocks prevail.^ Volcanic actiwithin is however running on in these latitudes, when a glaciers come at days covered by ashes, however the predominant rocks to a east come the Third granite, when to the west gneiss, older granite & Palaeozoic rocks prevail.

^ Volcanic action is still going on in these latitudes, as the glaciers are at times covered by ashes, but the predominant rocks to the east are the Tertiary granite, while to the west gneiss, older granite and Palaeozoic rocks prevail.
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^ The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific.
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.The highest peaks, however, seem to be of volcanic origin.^ A greatest peaks, all the same, seem to become of volcanic origin.

^ The highest peaks, however, seem to be of volcanic origin.
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^ Many little peaks, non of volcanic origin, come obtained to a east of this range towards the Amazon basin (eastern range).

.Farther north, up to 41° S. lat., the water gaps are situated at a lesser distance one from the other, owing mainly to more continuous erosion, this section of the continent being the region of the maximum rainfall on the western coast to the south of the equator.^ Farther north, up to 41°S, the water gaps are situated at a lesser distance one from the other, owing mainly to more continuous erosion, this section of the continent being the region of the maximum rainfall on the western coast to the south of the equator.
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^ Farther north, up to 41° S. lat., the water gaps are situated at a lesser distance one from the other, owing mainly to more continuous erosion, this section of the continent being the region of the maximum rainfall on the western coast to the south of the equator .

^ Farther n, as much as 41°S, a water supply gaps are set at a lesser few feet away of these from either the more, owing mainly to additional continuous erosion, this part of the continent existence a area of the maximal rain on the western coast in the south of the equator.

.Between the gaps of the river Aisen and river Cisnes or Frias, which also pierces the chain, is found a huge mountain mass, in which is situated Mount la Torre (7150 ft.^ Between the gaps of the river Aisen and river Cisnes or Frias, which also pierces the chain, is found a huge mountain mass, in which is situated Mount la Torre (7150 ft.

^ Between a gaps of the flow of any stream Aisen and river Cisnes or Frias, which also pierces the chain, is witnessed the vast mountain mass, where is situated Mount la Torre 2200 m (715Foot).

^ Between the gaps of the river Aisen and river Cisnes or Frias, which also pierces the chain, is found a huge mountain mass, in which is situated Mount la Torre (7150 feet).
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). .These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 ft.^ These form the continental watershed , but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 ft.

^ These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 900 m (3000 feet) and now tributaries of the Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 feet and now tributaries of the Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.
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and now tributaries of the .Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.^ Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.

^ These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 900 m (3000 feet) and now tributaries of the Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 feet and now tributaries of the Atlantic, may become tributaries of the Pacific.
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.Already filtrations from the former go to feed western affluents through the granitic masses.^ Already filtrations from either a previous attend feed american affluents through the granitic people.

^ Already filtrations from the former go to feed western affluents through the granitic masses.
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.To the north of Mount la Torre flows in the river Cisnes, 44° 48' S. lat., across another water gap, continuing the range to the north with high peaks, as Alto Nevado (7350 ft.^ To the north of Mount la Torre flows in the flow of any stream Cisnes, 44°48'S, through an additional water system gap, continuing a range to the north by having high peaks, when Mount Alto Nevado 2240 m (735Foot) & Mount Cacique 2100 m (7000 foot).

^ To the north of Mount la Torre flows in the river Cisnes, 4448'S, across another water gap, continuing the range to the north with high peaks, as Mount Alto Nevado 2240 m (7350 feet) and Mount Cacique 2100 m (7000 feet).
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To the north of Mount la Torre flows in the river Cisnes, 44° 48' S. lat., across another water gap , continuing the range to the north with high peaks, as Alto Nevado (7350 ft.

) and .Cacique (7000 ft.^ Cacique (7000 ft.

^ Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado, Cacique, Dentista, Maldonado, Serrano, each over 7000 ft.

). .The glaciers reach almost the western channels, as is the case at the river Quelal.^ The glaciers reach almost the western channels, as is the case at the river Quelal.

^ The glaciers reach almost the western channels, as is the case at the river Quelal .
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The section from 52to 48S is a continuous ice-capped mountain range, and some of the glaciers extend from the eastern lakes to the western channels, where they reach the sea-level.
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.The northern glaciers, descending nearly to sealevel, are situated at 43° 40' S. lat.^ The northern glaciers, descending nearly to sealevel, are situated at 43° 40' S. lat.

.To the north 45° S. lat.^ To the north 45° S. lat.

a well-defined western longitudinal valley, at some recent time occupied by lakes and rivers, divides the .Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado, Cacique, Dentista, Maldonado, Serrano, each over 7000 ft.^ Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado, Cacique, Dentista, Maldonado, Serrano, each over 7000 ft.

^ Cacique (7000 ft.

^ The northern glaciers, descending nearly to sea-level, are situated at 4340'S. To the north, a well-defined western longitudinal valley, at some recent time occupied by lakes and rivers, divides the Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado , Cacique , Dentista , Maldonado , Serrano , each over 2100 m 7000 feet high; and Torrecillas 2250 m (7400 feet), Ventisquero2300 m (7500 feet), and Tronador 3400 m (11,180 feet); while the western chain, broken into imposing blocks, contains several high volcanic peaks such as Mounts Tanteles , Corcovado , Minchimahuida , Hornopiren and Yates .
  • andes - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

high; and Torrecillas (7400 ft.), .Ventisquero (7500 ft.^ Ventisquero (7500 ft.

), and .Tronador (11,180 ft.^ Tronador (11,180 ft.

); while the western chain, broken into imposing blocks, contains several high volcanic peaks such as .Mounts Tanteles, Corcovado, Minchimahuida, Hornopiren and Yates.^ Mounts Tanteles, Corcovado, Minchimahuida, Hornopiren and Yates.

.The rivers Palena, with its two branches, Pico and Carrenleufu, Fetaleufu, Puelo and Manso cut the two chains, while the rivers Renihue, Bodadahue and Cochamo have their sources in the main eastern ridge.^ The rivers Palena , with its two branches, Pico and Carrenleufu , Fetaleufu , Puelo and Manso cut the two chains, while the rivers Renihue , Bodadahue and Cochamo have their sources in the main eastern ridge.
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^ The rivers Palena, with its two branches, Pico and Carrenleufu, Fetaleufu, Puelo and Manso cut the two chains, while the rivers Renihue, Bodadahue and Cochamo have their sources in the main eastern ridge.

^ Lake General Paz (66 square miles) on the eastern slope of the Andes, at 44°S, is the principal source of the Palena River , which cuts all the Cordillera, while Lakes Fetalauquen (20 square miles) Menendez (28 square miles), Rivadavia (10 square miles), and other smaller lakes, also situated between 43°30', and 42°30'S on the eastern slope send their waters to the Pacific by the river Fetaleufu which cuts through the Andes by a narrow gorge.
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.Mention has been made of active volcanoes in 51°, 49° and 47° S. lat., but these have not been properly located.^ Mention has been made of active volcanoes in 51°, 49° and 47° S. lat., but these have not been properly located.

^ The active volcanoes south of 41°, concerning which no doubt exists, are the Huequen, in 43° lat., and the Calbuco, both of which have been in eruption in modern times.

.The active volcanoes south of 41°, concerning which no doubt exists, are the Huequen, in 43° lat., and the Calbuco, both of which have been in eruption in modern times.^ The active volcanoes south of 41, concerning which no doubt exists, are the Huequen , in 43, and the Calbuco , both of which have been in eruption in modern times.
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^ The active volcanoes south of 41°, concerning which no doubt exists, are the Huequen, in 43° lat., and the Calbuco, both of which have been in eruption in modern times.

^ Mention has been made of active volcanoes in 51°, 49° and 47° S. lat., but these have not been properly located.

.The surroundings of Mount Tronador, consisting of Tertiary granite and basalt, form one of the most interesting regions in the Patagonian Andes for the mountaineers of the future.^ The surroundings of Mount Tronador, consisting of Tertiary granite and basalt , form one of the most interesting regions in the Patagonian Andes for the mountaineers of the future.

^ To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.

^ In Bolivia the Andes again form two distinct regions; between them lies the Altiplano .
  • Andes Mountains (mountain system, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.To the east extends the large and picturesque lake of Nahuel-Huapi, to the west is Lake Todos Los Santos (50 sq.^ To the east extends the large and picturesque lake of Nahuel-Huapi, to the west is Lake Todos Los Santos (50 sq.

m.), to which the access is easy and of which the scenery is of surpassing beauty. .Between 41° and 38° S. lat., among other smaller lakes, are Lakes Traful (45 sq.^ Between 41° and 38° S. lat., among other smaller lakes, are Lakes Traful (45 sq.

^ From 40° S. southward the Chile- Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38° and 33° S. lat.

^ The mountains forming the Cordillera between Magellan Strait and 41° S. lat.

m.), .Lacar (32 sq.^ Lacar (32 sq.

m.), which, properly belonging to the system of .Atlantic lakes, empties itself by the only water gap that occurs in this zone of the Cordillera into the river Valdivia, a tributary of the Pacific, Lake Lolog (15 sq.^ Atlantic lakes, empties itself by the only water gap that occurs in this zone of the Cordillera into the river Valdivia , a tributary of the Pacific, Lake Lolog (15 sq.

^ Between 41and 38S, among other smaller lakes, are Lakes Traful 117 km²(45 mile²)), Lacar 83 km²(32 mile)), which, properly belonging to the system of Atlantic lakes, empties itself by the only water gap that occurs in this zone of the Cordillera into the river Valdivia, a tributary of the Pacific, Lake Lolog 40 km²(15 mile²)), Huechulafquen 117 km² (45 mile²)), and Lake Alumine 54 km² (21 mile²)).
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^ The waters of Lake Puelo (18 sq.

m.), .Huechu-lafquen (45 sq.^ Huechu-lafquen (45 sq.

m.), and .Lake Alumine (21 sq.^ Lake Alumine (21 sq.

m.). .The volcanoes of Lanin (12,140 ft.^ The volcanoes of Lanin (12,140 ft.

^ The volcanoes Campainero (12, 470 ft.

^ Pan de Azucar (12,140 ft.

), .Quetropillan (9180 ft.^ Quetropillan (9180 ft.

), .Villarica (10,400 ft.^ Villarica (10,400 ft.

), .Yaimas and Tolhuaca are all more or less active; the first is in the main chain, while the others are on the western slope.^ Yaimas and Tolhuaca are all more or less active; the first is in the main chain, while the others are on the western slope.

^ To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific as far as Colombia , always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.

.The scenery in the neighbourhood is magnificent, the snowy cones rising from amidst woods of araucaria, and being surrounded by blue lakes.^ The scenery in the neighbourhood is magnificent, the snowy cones rising from amidst woods of araucaria , and being surrounded by blue lakes.

.While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm.^ While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm .

^ The climate of the eastern slope, however, is milder, the landscapes are magnificent, with wooded valleys and beautiful lakes.

^ The Andes continue to be to the west an enormous rugged mass of ice and snow of an average height of 9000 ft., sending glaciers to all the eastern fjords.

.The climate of the eastern slope, however, is milder, the landscapes are magnificent, with wooded valleys and beautiful lakes.^ The climate of the eastern slope, however, is milder, the landscapes are magnificent, with wooded valleys and beautiful lakes.

^ While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm .

^ To the north of Lake Buenos Aires there is Lake Elizalde, which, while situated on the eastern slope, sends its waters to the Pacific Ocean , and Lakes Fontana (30 sq.

.The valleys are already partly settled by colonists.^ The valleys are already partly settled by colonists.

.Between 52° and 40 S. lat.^ Between 52° and 40 S. lat.

^ From 40° S. southward the Chile- Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38° and 33° S. lat.

erosion has carried the watershed of the continent from the summit of the .Cordillera to the eastern plains of Patagonia.^ Cordillera to the eastern plains of Patagonia.

.From 40° S. southward the Chile-Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38° and 33° S. lat.^ From 40° S. southward the Chile- Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38° and 33° S. lat.

^ Between 52° and 40 S. lat.

^ Maps of Cordillera de los Andes, Surveys of Argentine Boundary Commission; L. R. Patron, Cordillera de los Andes (Republica de Chile, Oficina des Limites ) Santiago (Chile), 1903 et seq.

the .Andes were somewhat extensively explored about the close of the 19th century by Argentine and Chilean Commissions.^ Andes were somewhat extensively explored about the close of the 19th century by Argentine and Chilean Commissions.

^ Maps of Cordillera de los Andes, Surveys of Argentine Boundary Commission; L. R. Patron, Cordillera de los Andes (Republica de Chile, Oficina des Limites ) Santiago (Chile), 1903 et seq.

^ Argentine-Chilean Andes.

.The highest peaks in the latter section are volcanic and their eruptions have sensibly modified the character of the primitive ridges.^ The highest peaks in the latter section are volcanic and their eruptions have sensibly modified the character of the primitive ridges.

^ Cordillera de los Andes has been principally formed by two well-defined ridges, but to the north, recent volcanic action has greatly modified its orography .

^ The highest peaks, however, seem to be of volcanic origin.

.Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys.^ Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys.

.The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.^ The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry , the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.

^ From south to north these are the Southern Andes , consisting of the Chilean, Fuegian, and Patagonian cordilleras; the Central Andes, including the Peruvian cordilleras; and the Northern Andes , encompassing the Ecuadorian, Colombian, and Venezuelan (or Caribbean) cordilleras.
  • Andes Mountains (mountain system, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is probably separated on the east from the recent deposits of the pampas by a great fault , which, however, is always concealed by an enormous mass of scree material.

.Gneiss is seldom met with, but there are crystalline rocks, belonging chiefly to the pre-Cordillera of the eastern and to the Cordillera de la Costa on the western side.^ Gneiss is seldom met with, but there are crystalline rocks, belonging chiefly to the pre-Cordillera of the eastern and to the Cordillera de la Costa on the western side.

^ The inner or eastern ridge farther north of Argentina consists of crystalline rocks with infolded Ordovician and Cambrian beds, often overlaid unconformably by a sandstone with plant-remains (chiefly Rhaetic ).

^ Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado, Cacique, Dentista, Maldonado, Serrano, each over 7000 ft.

.About 38° S. the Andes take a great transversal extension; there are no wide intermediate valleys between the different ridges but the main ridge is perfectly defined.^ About 38° S. the Andes take a great transversal extension; there are no wide intermediate valleys between the different ridges but the main ridge is perfectly defined.

^ One of the great natural features of the globe, the Andes extend north-south about 5,500 mi (8,900 km).
  • Andes Mountains (mountain system, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cordillera de los Andes has been principally formed by two well-defined ridges, but to the north, recent volcanic action has greatly modified its orography .

.Volcanic cones continue to predominate, the old crystalline rocks almost disappear, while the Mesozoic rocks are most 38° S. common.^ Volcanic cones continue to predominate, the old crystalline rocks almost disappear, while the Mesozoic rocks are most 38° S. common.

^ Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.

^ West of the great valley the range is composed of Mesozoic beds, together with Tertiary volcanic rocks.

.The higher peaks are in the main chain, while north" the Domuyo (15,317 ft.^ The higher peaks are in the main chain, while north" the Domuyo (15,317 ft.

^ Chimborazo, which is not in the main chain, reaches 20,517 ft.; Cotopaxi (19,580), Antisana (19,260), Coyambo (19,200) are in the eastern range, with many other peaks over 16,000 ft.

^ To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.

) belongs to a lateral eastern war d . ridge. .The principal peaks between this and Mount Tupungato at 33° S. lat.^ The principal peaks between this and Mount Tupungato at 33° S. lat.

^ From 40° S. southward the Chile- Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38° and 33° S. lat.

^ North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Giissfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato.

are: .Mount Cochico (8255 ft.^ Mount Cochico (8255 ft.

), .Campanario, (13,140 ft.^ Campanario, (13,140 ft.

), .Peteroa (13,297 ft.^ Peteroa (13,297 ft.

), .Tinguiririca, Castillo (16,J35 ft.^ Tinguiririca, Castillo (16,J35 ft.

), .Volcano Maipu (17,576 ft.^ Volcano Maipu (17,576 ft.

), .Alvarado (14,600 ft.^ Alvarado (14,600 ft.

), .Amarillo (15,321 ft.^ Amarillo (15,321 ft.

), Volcano San Jose (19,849 ft.), .Piuquenes (17,815 ft.^ Piuquenes (17,815 ft.

), and .Volcano Bravard (19,619 ft.^ Volcano Bravard (19,619 ft.

^ Volcano San Jose (19,849 ft.

).
.North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Giissfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato.^ North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Giissfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato.

^ Cordillera into two chains, the eastern being the main chain, to which belong Mounts Alto Nevado, Cacique, Dentista, Maldonado, Serrano, each over 7000 ft.

^ The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S. lat.

.The valley between them is 9000 ft.^ The valley between them is 9000 ft.

high; and in that part of the .Cordillera are situated the highest passes south of 33° S. lat., one of which, the Piuquenes Pass, reaches 13,333 ft., whilst the easiest of transit and almost the lowest is that of Pichachen (6505 ft.^ Cordillera are situated the highest passes south of 33° S. lat., one of which, the Piuquenes Pass, reaches 13,333 ft., whilst the easiest of transit and almost the lowest is that of Pichachen (6505 ft.

^ The valley between them is 9000 feet high; and in that part of the Cordillera are situated the highest passes south of 33°S, one of which, the Piuquenes Pass, reaches 13,333 feet, whilst the easiest of transit and almost the lowest is that of Pichachen (6505 feet), which is the most frequented during winter.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Colombia the three principal chains are continuations of those under the equator, and show very slight traces of volcanic action, In the western chain, which is remarkable for its regularity, the highest peak is 11,150 ft., and the lowest pass 6725 ft.

), which is the most frequented during winter. .Mount Tupungato reaches 22,329 ft., according to Argentine measurement.^ Mount Tupungato reaches 22,329 ft., according to Argentine measurement.

^ Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft.

^ Mounts Tupungato, Aconcagua (23,393 ft.

.To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.^ To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.

^ In that region the Cordillera of the Andes is of comparatively recent origin, being principally constituted by a line of high volcanoes, the chief summits being those of Juncal, Panteon de Aliste, Azufre or Listarria(18,636 ft.

^ These form the continental watershed , but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 ft.

) and Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.). .The Pircas Pass is situated at a height of 16,962 ft.^ The Pircas Pass is situated at a height of 16,962 ft.

.The gaps of Bermejo and Iglesia, in the Uspallata road, the best known of all the passes between Argentina and Chile, are at 13,025 ft.^ The gaps of Bermejo and Iglesia, in the Uspallata road, the best known of all the passes between Argentina and Chile, are at 13,025 ft.

^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.

^ North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft.

and 13,412 ft. .altitude respectively, while the nearest peaks, those of Juncal and Tolorsa, are 19,358 and 20,140 ft.^ Juncal and Tolorsa, are 19,358 and 20,140 ft.

^ Chimborazo, which is not in the main chain, reaches 20,517 ft.; Cotopaxi (19,580), Antisana (19,260), Coyambo (19,200) are in the eastern range, with many other peaks over 16,000 ft.

^ Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft.

high.
.Mounts Tupungato, Aconcagua (23,393 ft.^ Mounts Tupungato, Aconcagua (23,393 ft.

^ Mount Tupungato reaches 22,329 ft., according to Argentine measurement.

) and .Mercedario A St.Elena Di '?^ Mercedario A St.Elena Di ' ?

ir .' 'W. ' Car'sale
M DI YV nv.'l ?.^ 'W. ' Car'sale M DI YV nv.'l ?.

after C. Burckhardt
C. Cretaceous (including upper & lower)
M. Upper Jurassic (Maim)
D. Middle Jurassic (Dogger) mostly porphyrite and L. Liassic porphyritic conglomerate
G. Upper Jurassic Gypsum
YV. Younger Volcanic Rocks
OV. Older Volcanic Rocks
Di. Dioritic Rocks
X. Change of bearing in the Sections
Casfada "QJ�op 'o a ' Sea Leue! 1 A' Rio Grande  :X M D YV YV A V M Di M D M Di E. Canada Colorado YV YV ITV Pircala' ' R_Malargue - Sea --- ----- - - ------ -- M OV YV C (21,982 ft.) are the highest peaks of the central .Argentine-Chilean Andes.^ Andes were somewhat extensively explored about the close of the 19th century by Argentine and Chilean Commissions.

^ Argentine-Chilean Andes.

.These three peaks are formed of eruptive rocks, surrounded by Jurassic beds which have undergone a thorough metamorphosis.^ These three peaks are formed of eruptive rocks, surrounded by Jurassic beds which have undergone a thorough metamorphosis .

^ Of the three main chains into which the mountains are now divided, the western branch is formed mostly of Cretaceous beds; but the inner chains no longer consist exclusively of the older rocks, and Cretaceous beds take a considerable share in their formation.

.While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.^ Chile and Argentina , the western is called Cordillera de los Andes.

^ While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.

^ In Venezuela , the Andes terminate with the Cordillera de la Costa, Cordillera de Caripe and Península de Paria in Venezuela.
  • Biological diversity in the Tropical Andes - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.

^ The gaps of Bermejo and Iglesia, in the Uspallata road, the best known of all the passes between Argentina and Chile, are at 13,025 ft.

^ North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft.

) and .Los Patos or Valle Hermoso (11,736 ft.^ Los Patos or Valle Hermoso (11,736 ft.

^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 feet) and Los Patos or Valle Hermoso (11,736 feet), chosen by the Argentine General San Martin, when he made his memorable passage across the chain during the War of Independence.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), chosen by the .Argentine General San Martin, when he made his memorable passage across the chain during the War of Independence.^ Argentine General San Martin, when he made his memorable passage across the chain during the War of Independence.

^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 feet) and Los Patos or Valle Hermoso (11,736 feet), chosen by the Argentine General San Martin, when he made his memorable passage across the chain during the War of Independence.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft.^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.

^ Pasto (14,000 ft.

^ North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft.

.The pass of Quebrada Grande is 12,468 ft.^ The pass of Quebrada Grande is 12,468 ft.

in altitude; .Cencerro, 12,944 ft.; Mercedario, 13,206 ft.; Ojota, 14,304 ft.; Pachon, 14,485 ft.; while Gordito is 10,318 ft.^ Cencerro, 12,944 ft.; Mercedario, 13,206 ft.; Ojota, 14,304 ft.; Pachon, 14,485 ft.; while Gordito is 10,318 ft.

^ Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.

^ North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft.

.Farther north the passes are higher.^ Farther north the passes are higher.

.Barahona Pass is 15,092 ft.; Ternera, 15,912 ft.; San Lorenzo, 16,420 ft., while the peak of the volcano reaches 18,143 ft.; Mount Olivares, 20,472 ft.; Porongos, 19,488 ft.; Tortolas, 20,121 ft.; and Potro, 19,357 ft.^ Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.

^ Barahona Pass is 15,092 ft.; Ternera, 15,912 ft.; San Lorenzo, 16,420 ft., while the peak of the volcano reaches 18,143 ft.; Mount Olivares, 20,472 ft.; Porongos, 19,488 ft.; Tortolas, 20,121 ft.; and Potro, 19,357 ft.

^ Volcano San Jose (19,849 ft.

.As far as 28° S. lat.^ As far as 28° S. lat.

the .Cordillera de los Andes has been principally formed by two well-defined ridges, but to the north, recent volcanic action has greatly modified its orography.^ Out of Print--Limited Availability Despues del dia 10/ After the 10th Day: La Cordillera De Los Andes Me Enseno a Vivir (Spanish Edition) by Carlitos Paez 8 used & new from $19.02 .
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^ Two to Travel , Islas Flotantes de los Uros .
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^ In Stock Survive (Supervivientes de los Andes) DVD ~ Hugo Stiglitz ( 6 ) Price: $9.95 .
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.Only a single line of passes characterizes the main ridge, and amongst them are the passes of 0111ta (15,026 ft.^ Only a single line of passes characterizes the main ridge, and amongst them are the passes of 0111ta (15,026 ft.

^ The higher peaks are in the main chain, while north" the Domuyo (15,317 ft.

), Penas Negras (14435 ft.), .Pircas Negras (13,615 ft.^ Pircas Negras (13,615 ft.

), La Gallina (16,240 ft.), .Tres Quebradas (15535 ft.^ Tres Quebradas (15535 ft.

), and Aguita (15,485 ft.). .To the north of Mount Potro the peaks in the Cordillera are not very prominent as far as the great mass of Tres Quebradas, but here are to be met with some that may be considered as amongst the highest of.^ To the north of Mount Potro the peaks in the Cordillera are not very prominent as far as the great mass of Tres Quebradas, but here are to be met with some that may be considered as amongst the highest of.

^ North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Giissfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato.

^ Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft.

the whole range. Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft. .To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27° S. lat., begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero (20,998 ft.^ Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.

^ To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27° S. lat., begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero (20,998 ft.

^ To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.

), .Mount Bonete (21,980), Mount Reclus (20,670), Mount Pissis (22,146), Mount Ojo del Salado (21,653), and Incahuasi (21,719).^ To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27°S, begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero ( 20,998 feet), Mount Bonete (21,980), Mount Reclus (20,670), Mount Pissis (22,146), Mount Ojo del Salado (21,653), and Incahuasi (21,719).
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the north of Tres Cruces is a transversal depression in the Cordillera, which is considered to be the southern termination of the high plateau of the Puna de Atacama.^ To the north of Tres Cruces is a transversal depression in the Cordillera, which is considered to be the southern termination of the high plateau of the Puna de Atacama.
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^ To the north of Tres Cruces is a transversal depression in the Cordillera, which is considered to be the southern termination of the high plateau of the Puna de Atacama .

^ North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Giissfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato.

.The Cordillera of the Andes borders the Puna to the west, while the Bolivian Cordillera Real bounds it to the east.^ The Cordillera of the Andes borders the Puna to the west, while the Bolivian Cordillera Real bounds it to the east.

^ To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27° S. lat., begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero (20,998 ft.

.In that region the Cordillera of the Andes is of comparatively recent origin, being principally constituted by a line of high volcanoes, the chief summits being those of Juncal, Panteon de Aliste, Azufre or Listarria(18,636 ft.^ An amazing place, from the archaeological wonder of Machu Piccu, to the mysterious Nazca lines, to the ancient Chavin de Huantar, to the sand dunes of Ica, to the beautiful Cordillera Blanca and Huayhuash region up in Ancash.
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^ See local real estate trends, and compare your home to recently sold homes in Lake Andes and to similar homes for sale in Lake Andes, South Dakota.
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), .Liullaillaco (21,720), Miniques (19,357), Socompa (19,948), Licancaur (19,685), Viscachuelas (20,605), Tapaquilcha (19,520), Oyahua (19,242), Ancaquilcha (20,275), Olca (19,159), Mino (20,112), Sillilica (21,100), Perinacota (20,918), Sagama (22,339), Tacona (19,740), Misti (19,029); to the east closes in the intermediary high plateau which begins at 28° S. lat.^ In that region the Cordillera of the Andes is of comparatively recent origin, being principally constituted by a line of high volcanoes, the chief summits being those of Juncal, Panteon de Aliste, Azufre or Listarria (18,636 feet), Llullaillaco (21,720), Miniques (19,357), Socompa (19,948), Licancaur (19,685), Viscachuelas (20,605), Tapaquilcha (19,520), Oyahua (19,242), Ancaquilcha (20,275), Olca (19,150), Mino (20,112), Sillilica (21,100), Perinacota (20,918), Sagama (22,339), Tacona (19,740), Misti (19,029); to the east closes in the intermediary high plateau which begins at 28°S in Argentina.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27°S, begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero ( 20,998 feet), Mount Bonete (21,980), Mount Reclus (20,670), Mount Pissis (22,146), Mount Ojo del Salado (21,653), and Incahuasi (21,719).
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in Argentina. .The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 ft.^ The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 ft.

^ To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.

^ Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft.

), .Languna Blanca (18,307), Diamante (18,045), Cachi (20,000), Granadas, Lipez (19,680), Guadalupe (18,910), Chorolque (18,480), Cuzco (17,930), Enriaca (18,716), Junari (16,200), Michiga (17,410), Quimza-Cruz (18,280), Illimani (21,190) and Sorata (21,490).^ The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 feet), Languna Blanca (18,307), Diamante (18,045), (Cachi (20,000), Granadas, Lipez (19,680), Guadalupe (18,910), Chorolque (18,480), Cuzco (17,930), Enriaca (18,716), Junari (16,200), Michiga (17,410), Quimza-Cruz (18,280), Illimani (21,190) and Sorata (21,490).
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farther north is the volcano Purace, which presents a height of 16,000 feet; then come Huila (18,000), Santa Catalina (16,170), and Tolima (18,400), Santa Isabel (16,760), Ruiz (17,390) and Hervas (18,340).
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotopaxi (19,580), Antisana (19,260), Coyambo (19,200) are in the eastern range, with many other peaks over 16,000 feet which still contain glaciers.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 ft.^ While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 feet) Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.^ Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.

^ While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 feet) Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gneiss is seldom met with, but there are crystalline rocks, belonging chiefly to the pre-Cordillera of the eastern and to the Cordillera de la Costa on the western side.
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  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27° are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 ft.^ Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27° are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 ft.

^ Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27° are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 feet), San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17,553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lncustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28°, and in the north Lake Titicaca.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that region the Cordillera of the Andes is of comparatively recent origin, being principally constituted by a line of high volcanoes, the chief summits being those of Juncal, Panteon de Aliste, Azufre or Listarria(18,636 ft.

), .San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lacustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28°, and in the north Lake Titicaca.^ San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lacustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28°, and in the north Lake Titicaca.

^ Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27° are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 feet), San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17,553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lncustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28°, and in the north Lake Titicaca.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barahona Pass is 15,092 ft.; Ternera, 15,912 ft.; San Lorenzo, 16,420 ft., while the peak of the volcano reaches 18,143 ft.; Mount Olivares, 20,472 ft.; Porongos, 19,488 ft.; Tortolas, 20,121 ft.; and Potro, 19,357 ft.

.The discovery of great Pampean mammals in the Pleistocene beds of that region shows that this upheaval of the latter is very recent, for in the heart of the Cordillera, as well as on the west coast of Bolivia and Peru, there have been discovered, in very recent deposits, the remains of some mammals which cannot have crossed the high range as it now exists.^ The discovery of great Pampean mammals in the Pleistocene beds of that region shows that this upheaval of the latter is very recent, for in the heart of the Cordillera, as well as on the west coast of Bolivia and Peru, there have been discovered, in very recent deposits, the remains of some mammals which cannot have crossed the high range as it now exists.
  • Andes - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probably separated on the east from the recent deposits of the pampas by a great fault, which, however, is always concealed by an enormous mass of scree material.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probably separated on the east from the recent deposits of the pampas by a great fault , which, however, is always concealed by an enormous mass of scree material.

.The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S. lat.^ The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S. lat.

^ The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28°S are continued in Peru.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andes in the region extending from 49° to 46° S. lat., a little north of which is the river Huemules which is followed by the breach of the river Aisen.

are continued in Peru. The western, which reaches an altitude of about io,000 ft., then ceases to exist as a continuous chain, there remaining only a short, high ridge, called by Edward Whymper the " Pacific range of the equator," and between this ridge and the crystalline Andean axis, the " avenue of volcanoes," to use his words, arises amidst majestic scenery. Chimborazo, which is not in the main chain, reaches 20,517 ft.; Cotopaxi (19,580), Antisana (19,260), Coyambo (19,200) are in the eastern range, with many other peaks over 16,000 ft. which still contain glaciers. .Sangay (17,380 ft.^ Sangay (17,380 feet), under the equator, according to Wolff, appears to be the most active volcano in the world.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), under the equator, according to .Wolff, appears to be the most active volcano in the world.^ Sangay (17,380 feet), under the equator, according to Wolff, appears to be the most active volcano in the world.
  • Andes - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Andes? What is Andes? Where is Andes? Definition of Andes. Meaning of Andes. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pichincha (15,804 ft.) and Cotocachi (16,297 ft.) are the loftiest volcanoes of the western range. In Colombia the three principal chains are continuations of those under the equator, and show very slight traces of volcanic action, In the western chain, which is remarkable for its regularity, the highest peak is 11,150 ft., and the lowest pass 6725 ft. The Colombia. central chain, separated from the western chain by the valley of the .Cauca and from the eastern by the valley of the Magdalena, is unbroken; it is the more important owing to its greater altitudes and is of volcanic character.^ In this valley, which is called the Marañon Gap or Huancabamba Depression, altitudes drop to about 500 meters , creating an important barrier to faunal and floral dispersal in the region .
  • Biological diversity in the Tropical Andes - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To the south, near the equator, are Mounts Arapul (13,360 ft.) and Chumbul (1 5,7 20 ft.). The volcanoes Campainero (12, 470 ft.) and Pasto (14,000 ft.) are also in that zone. Farther north is the volcano Purace, which presents a height of 16,000 ft.; then come Huila (18,000), Santa Catalina (16,170), and Tolima (18,400), Santa Isabel (16,760), Ruiz (17,390) and Hervas (18,340). The eastern chain begins north of the equator at 6000 ft., gradually rises to the height of Nevado (14,146 ft.), Pan de Azucar (12,140 ft.), and in the Sierra Nevada de Cochi attains to peaks of 16,70o ft.
The snow-line of the Andes is highest in parts of Peru where it lies at about 16,500 ft. .Its general range from the extreme north to Patagonia is 14,000 to 15,500 ft., but along the Patagonian frontier it sinks rapidly, until in Tierra del Fuego it lies at about 4900 ft.^ Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego National Park and Andes Mountains, Argentina .
  • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Structure

The structure of the Andes is least complex in the southern portion of the range. Between 33° and 36° S. the chain consists broadly of a series of simple folds of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds. It is probably separated on the east from the recent deposits of the pampas by a great fault, which, however, is always concealed by an enormous mass of scree material. The Cretaceous beds lie in a broad synclinal upon the eastern flank, but the greater part of the chain is formed of Jurassic beds, through which, on the western margin, rise the numerous andesitic volcanic centres. There is no continuous band of ancient gneiss, nor indeed of any beds older than the Jurassic. There is very little over-folding or faulting, and the structure is that of the Jura mountains rather than of the Alps. The inner or eastern ridge farther north of Argentina consists of crystalline rocks with infolded Ordovician and Cambrian beds, often overlaid unconformably by a sandstone with plant-remains (chiefly Rhaetic). In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks. All the geological systems,from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous, are represented and they are all strongly folded, the folds leaning over towards the west. West of the great valley the range is composed of Mesozoic beds, together with Tertiary volcanic rocks. (The Cordillera of Argentina and Chile is clearly the continuation of the western chain alone.) In Ecuador there is still an inner chain of ancient gneisses and schists and an outer chain composed of Mesozoic beds. The longitudinal valley which separates them is occupied mainly by volcanic deposits. North of Ecuador the structure becomes more complex. Of the three main chains into which the mountains are now divided, the western branch is formed mostly of Cretaceous beds; but the inner chains no longer consist exclusively of the older rocks, and Cretaceous beds take a considerable share in their formation.
The great volcanoes, active and extinct, are not confined to any one zone. Sometimes they rise from the Mesozoic zone of the western Cordillera, sometimes from the ancient rocks of the eastern zone. But they all lie within the range itself and do not, as in the Carpathians and the Apennines, form a fringe, upon the inner border of the chain.
The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific. In the south Wehrli and Burckhardt maintain that the thrust came from the west, and they look upon the ancient rocks of Argentina as the Vorland. In this part of the chain, however, there is but little evidence of overthrusting of any kind.

Authorities

- .John B. Minchin, " Journey in the Andean Tableland of Bolivia," Proceedings of Geographical Society (1882); Paul Giissfeldt, Reise in den centralen chileno-argentinischen Andes (Berlin, 1884); John Ball, Notes of a Naturalist in South America (London, 1887); Alfred Hettner, Reisen in den colombianischen Andeen (Leipzig, 1888); " Die Kordillere von Bogota," Peterm.^ South America - Peru and Bolivia , travel photos .
  • Andean Links 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.andes.org [Source type: General]

^ In Stock El Alto, Rebel City: Self and Citizenship in Andean Bolivia (Latin America Otherwise) by Sian Lazar Price: $23.95 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with andes 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Adventures in South America , Tours of Andes in Bolivia & Peru * .
  • Andean Links 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.andes.org [Source type: General]

Mitteilungen,
civ. (1892); Edward Whymper, Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator (London, 1892); Teodoro Wolff, Geografia y Geologia del Ecuador (Leipzig, 1892); E. A. Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes (London, 1899); Sir Martin Conway, " Explorations in the Bolivian Andes," Geogr. Journ. xiv. .(London, 1899); The Bolivian Andes (London and New York, 1901); Carl Burckhardt, Expedition geologique dans la region Andine, 38° - 39° S. lat.; Leo Wehrli, Cordillere argentino-chilienne, 40° et 41° S. lat.," Revista del Museo de La Plata (1899); F. P. Moreno, " Explorations in Patagonia," Geogr.^ Out of Print--Limited Availability Despues del dia 10/ After the 10th Day: La Cordillera De Los Andes Me Enseno a Vivir (Spanish Edition) by Carlitos Paez 8 used & new from $19.02 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with andes 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In Stock The Andes: As the Condor Flies by Tui De Roy ( 1 ) 14 used & new from $17.00 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with andes 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Journ.
xvi. (1900); Hans Steffen, " The Patagonian Cordillera and its Main Rivers, between 41° and 48°S. lat.," Geogr. .Journ. (London, 1900); Paul Kruger, Die chilenische Renihue Expedition (Berlin, 1900); Carl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillera argentino-chilienne," Anaies del Museo de La Plata (1900); Argentine-Chilian Boundaries in the Cordillera de los Andes, Argentine Evidence (London, 1900); " South America; Outline of its Physical Geography," Geogr.^ Tent camping in clouds, Andes Mountains, South America .
  • Andes mountains Stock Photos and Images. 768 Andes mountains pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Out of Print--Limited Availability Despues del dia 10/ After the 10th Day: La Cordillera De Los Andes Me Enseno a Vivir (Spanish Edition) by Carlitos Paez 8 used & new from $19.02 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with andes 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

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Journ.
xvii. .(1901); Maps of Cordillera de los Andes, Surveys of Argentine Boundary Commission; L. R. Patron, Cordillera de los Andes (Republica de Chile, Oficina des Limites) Santiago (Chile), 1903 et seq.^ Out of Print--Limited Availability Despues del dia 10/ After the 10th Day: La Cordillera De Los Andes Me Enseno a Vivir (Spanish Edition) by Carlitos Paez 8 used & new from $19.02 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with andes 10 February 2010 11:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

); Sir T. H. Holdich, " The Patagonian Andes," Geogr. Journ. xxiii. (1904).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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See also andes

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
the Andes
Plural
-
the Andes
  1. A mountain range in western South America.

Derived terms

Translations

Anagrams


Dutch

Noun

de Andes pl.
  1. the Andes

French

Noun

les Andes f. pl.
  1. the Andes

Anagrams


Spanish

Proper noun

los Andes m. pl.
  1. the Andes

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Fulgoromorpha
Superfamilia: Fulgoroidea
Familia: Cixiidae
Subfamilia: Cixiinae
Tribus: Andini
Genus: Andes
Species: A. dossenus - A. ikelus - A. lamondensis - A. migratorius - A. moaensis - A. turrondi ...

Name

Andes Stål, 1866

Synonyms

  • Leirioessa Kirkaldy, 1907 [syn. Muir (1925: 201)]

Type species

  • Andes Stål: Andes undulata Stål, 1870, by subsequent designation by Muir (1925)
  • Leirioessa Kirkaldy: Leirioessa tortricomorpha Kirkaldy, 1907 [=Brixia migratoria Distant, 1907], by original designation

References

  • Löcker, B.; Fletcher, M.J.; Holzinger, W.E.; Gurr, G.M. 2007: Revision of the Australian Andini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae) with a description of five new species. Zootaxa, 1475: 43-59. Abstract & excerpt

Simple English

File:Andes - punta
Puntas Arenas, Chile.
File:Andes 70.30345W 42.
Composite satellite image of the southern Andes

The Andes are a mountain range along the western coast of South America.

They stretch over 7,000 km / 4,400 miles from the south of Argentina and Chile to the north of Colombia. They are also found in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.

The Amazon river system has its sources in the eastern flanks of the Andes.

The Andes are the longest exposed mountain range of the world, and the second highest after the Himalayas. The Andes mountain range is the highest mountain range outside Asia.

Aconcagua, the highest peak, rises to 6,962 m (22,841 ft) above sea level. The top of Mount Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is the point on the Earth's surface most distant from its center. Mount Chimborazo is an inactive volcano in Ecuador, which last erupted over a thousand years ago.

Contents

Geography

view of Aconcagua.]]

The Andes has three sections:

  1. the southern Andes in Argentina and Chile;
  2. the central Andes, having the Chilean and Peruvian mountain system and parts of Bolivia;
  3. the northern part in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador.

The northern part has two parallel ranges. They are the Cordillera Occidental (western) and the Cordillera Oriental (eastern). The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word meaning 'rope'.

In Colombia, north to the border with Ecuador, the Andes split in three parallel ranges, western, central and eastern.

In the north the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Snowy Mountain Range of Saint Martha) is an isolated mountain range apart from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia. Reaching an altitude of 5,700 metres above sea level just 42 km from the Caribbean coast, the Sierra Nevada is the world's highest coastal range.

The eastern range of the northern Cordillera Oriental is the only one which reaches Venezuela.[1]

The Andes range is about 200 km (124 mi) wide throughout its length, except in Bolivia where it is 640 km (398 mi) wide. The islands of the Dutch Caribbean Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, represent the submerged tops of the northern edge of the Andes range.

Geology

facing the much lower Atacama Desert (1000–2000 m elevation). 


Several salt-crusted dry lakes occupy the basins between major thrust faults in the Puna. Salar de Arizaro (foreground) is the largest of the dry lakes in this view.


Near image centre, the transition between two distinct geological zones, the Puna and the Sierras Pampeanas, creates a striking landscape contrast. The Sierras Pampeanas mountains are lower and have fewer young volcanoes.


The general colour change from reds and browns in the foreground to blues and greens in the upper part of the image reflects the major climatic regions: the deserts of the Atacama and Puna versus the grassy plains of central Argentina, where rainfall is sufficient for lush prairie grass, known locally as the pampas.]]

The Andes are a MesozoicTertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American continental plate. South America, like North America, has been moving west since the Cretaceous period.

The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic and Jurassic when Pangea begun to break up and several rifts developed. It was during the Cretaceous period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting, faulting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rock of the ancient cratons to the east. The rise of the Andes has not been constant and different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress, uplift, and weathering.

Climate

The climate in the Andes differs depending on which area, the altitude, and how close it is to the sea. The southern section is rainy and cool. The central Andes are dry. The northern Andes are normally rainy and warm, with an average temperature of

  1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°C in Colombia. The climate is known to change very much in rather short distances. Rainforests exist just miles away from the snow covered peak Cotopaxi. The mountains have a large effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The snow line depends on the location. It is at between 4,500–4,800 m (14,800–15,800 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, going up to 4,800–5,200 m (15,800–17,060 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S, then going down to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, many of the bigger glaciers go down to sea level.[2]

The Andes of Chile and Argentina can be put in two climatic and glaciological zones; the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes.

Plants

Rainforests used to hold much of the northern Andes but are now mostly diminished, especially in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. As a direct opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the mostly dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile and Argentina. Along with many Interandean Valles, they are normally ruled by deciduous woodland, shrub and xeric vegetation, reaching in the slopes near the mostly lifeless Atacama Desert.

About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes. About half of those are endemic to the region, going past the difference of any other hotspot. The small tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found widely in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. Other important crops that came from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. The high-altitude Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean places of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. These trees, by locals are called Queñua, Yagual and other names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level. It is still unclear if the patchy distribution of these forests and woodlands is natural, or the result of clearing which began during the Incan time. Regardless, in modern times the clearance has had a faster pace, and the trees are now thought to be highly endangered, with some thinking that as little as 10% of the original woodland is still here.[3]

Wildlife

Andean Cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests.]]

s (alpacas) on the mountain Ausangate hillside.]] The Andes has a lot of wildlife. With almost 1,000 species, of which about 2/3 are endemic to the region, the Andes is the most important region in the world for amphibians.[4] Animal diversity in the Andes is high, with almost 600 species of mammals (13% endemic), more than 1,700 species of birds (1/3 endemic), more than 600 species of reptiles (45% endemic), and almost 400 species of fish (1/3 endemic).[4]

The Vicuña and Guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated Llama and Alpaca are commonly kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The nocturnal chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, live in the Andes' alpine regions. The Andean Condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, lives throughout much of the Andes but mostly in very low numbers. Other animals found in the mostly open habitats of the high Andes are the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex. And for birds, some species of tinamous (they are members of the genus Nothoprocta), are the Andean Goose, Giant Coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), Lesser Rhea, Andean Flicker, Diademed Sandpiper-plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches.

References

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Andes, which are similar to those in the above article.








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