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Andhra Pradesh
ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్

Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Country  India
District(s) 23
Established November 1, 1956
Capital Hyderabad
Largest city Hyderabad
Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan
Chief Minister K Rosaiah
Legislature (seats) Bicameral (294)
76210007 (5th)
277 /km2 (717 /sq mi)
Official languages Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 275045 km2 (106195 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-AP

Andhra Pradesh (Teluguఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Āndhra Pradēś[ɑːn̪d̪ʱrə prəd̪eːɕ] [?]), abbreviated A.P., is a state situated on the south-eastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad. The State has the longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India.[1]

Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006.[2] Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna run across the state. The small enclave (12 sq mi (30 km²)) of the Yanam district of Puducherry (Pondicherry) state lies in the Godavari Delta in north-east of the state.

Andhra Pradesh was formed by merging Telugu speaking areas of Hyderabad State and the Telugu speaking part of the Madras Presidency on November 1, 1956.

Andhra Pradesh State Symbols
State language Telugu (తెలుగు)
State symbol Poorna Kumbham (పూర్ణకుంభం)
State song Maa Telugu Thalliki (మా తెలుగు తల్లికి మల్లె పూదండ) by Sankarambadi Sundarachari
State animal Black Buck (కృష్ణ జింక)
State bird Indian Roller (పాల పిట్ట)
State tree Neem (వేప)
State sport Kabaddi (చెడుగుడు)
State dance Kuchipudi (కూచిపూడి)
State flower Water lily (కలువ పువ్వు)



An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata.[3] The Natyasastra of Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentioned the Andhra peoples.[4] The roots of the Telugu language have been traced to inscriptions found near the Guntur district.[5]

Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer, who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322–297 BCE), mentioned that the region had 3 fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts/tents on the Godavari belt at that time. Ashoka referred in his 13th rock edict about Andhras.[6]

Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra ruled by Kuberaka,[7] with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as his capital. Around the same time Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".[8][9]

Kakatiya sculpture at Warangal.

The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in 4th century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire, the Satavahanas became independent in 3rd century BCE. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas and Cholas ruled the Telugu land. Inscriptional evidence of Telugu language was found during the rule of Renati Cholas (Vorugal region) in 5th century CE.[10] During this period Telugu emerged as a popular medium undermining the predominance of Prakrit and Sanskrit.[11] Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings who ruled from their capital warangal. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas from their capital in Vengi. As early as 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.

The battle of Palnadu resulted in the weakening of Eastern Chalukyan power and emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and the 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first feudatories of the Rashtrakutas ruling over a small territory near Warangal. All the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capture Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[12] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu as a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.[citation needed] In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam had ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. Meanwhile, the French had occupied Yanam (Yanaon), in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim Nizam wanted to retain his independence from India, but the people of the region launched the movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forced to become part of the Republic of India in 1948 after Operation Polo which lasted 5 days and had popular support from the people of the Hyderabad State.

In an effort to gain an independent state, and protect the interests of the Andhra people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death. After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.

On 1 November 1956, The Telugu speaking areas of the Hyderabad state was merged with the Telugu speaking areas of the Madras state to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state. There were several movements to separate Telangana and Andhra starting in the 1960s.

On December 9, 2009, it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would be introduced to the state assembly.[13] Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad, one of the ten districts.[14] This move was opposed by protesters from Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. On December 23, 2009, the government, in a move that agitated Telangana separatist supporters decided to put on hold the decision of bifurcating the state, until a consensus is achieved among the different political parties.[15] On January 05, 2010, the Central Government conducted a meeting by inviting all the recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue now. Recently, Government of India appointed a committee, headed by B.N.Srikrishna, on Telangana to guide the central government to settle the issue amicably.

Geography and climate

Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lake
The Rail-Road Bridge in between Rajahmundry and Kovvur

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. It is the 4th Largest state in India. The northern part of the plateau is generally considered as the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema.[16] These two regions are separated, roughly, by the River Krishna. The plains to the east of Eastern ghats form the coastal plain region. The Eastern ghats are discontinuous and have local names for individual sections. The kadapa basin[17] formed by two arching branches of the eastern ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastal plains are, for a major part, delta regions formed by the rivers Godavari, Krishna, and Penner. The Eastern ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern ghat region also is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the ghats give way to the deccan plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. West and South west parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. The major role in determining the climate of the state is played by monsoons. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20°C and 41°C.[18]

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the North-East Monsoons. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the north-east monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. Winters in Andhra Pradesh are pleasant. November, December, January and February are the winter months in AP. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold in those regions. The range of winter temperature is generally 12°C to 30°C.[18][19]

Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city of the state and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Vijayawada due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes is a major trading center and the third largest city. Other important cities and towns are: Kakinada, Warangal, Guntur, Rajahmundry, Tirupati, Srikakulam, Machilipatnam, Tenali, Ongole, Kurnool, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Nellore, Repalle, Bhimavaram, Narsapuram and Eluru.


| Total
Hindu 89%
Muslim 9.16%
Christian 2%
Other religions 0.04%
Total 100%


Population Trend
Census Pop.  %±
1961 35,983,000
1971 43,503,000 20.9%
1981 53,550,000 23.1%
1991 66,508,000 24.2%
2001 75,727,000 13.9%
Source:Census of India[20]

Telugu is the official language of the state, spoken by 80.5% of the population. Telugu is the second most spoken language in India.[21] The major linguistic minority groups in the state include the speakers of Urdu (8.63%) and Hindi (1.63%), Kannada (1.8%) and Tamil (1.91%).[22] The Indian government designated Telugu as a classical and ancient language on November 1, 2008.[23]

Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% each are Marathi (0.84%), Oriya (0.42%), Gondi (0.21%) and Malayalam (0.1%). Languages spoken by less than 0.1% are the states residents include Gujarati (0.09%), Savara (0.09%), Koya (0.08%), Jatapu (0.04%), Punjabi (0.04%), Kolami (0.03%), Konda (0.03%), Gadaba (0.02%), Sindhi (0.02%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.01%) and Khond/Kondh (0.01%).

The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people who primarily are Dravidians.

Andra Pradesh ranks tenth compared to all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[24] with a score of 0.416.

National Council of Applied Economic Research district-wise analysis in 2001 reveals that Khammam, Krishna, West Godavari, Chittoor and Medak are the five districts with highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order in rural AP. Mahbubnagar, East Godavari, Warangal, Visakhapatanam and Guntur are the districts with lowest Human Development Index. The data show that the poor make up 16.3 per cent of the total population in rural AP and expenditure on consumption is around 13.5 per cent of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66 compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are high and low for ratio of female/male literacy rate.[25]


Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, mirchi (chilli pepper), mango and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[26][27]

Cyber towers at Hyderabad, the state capital and largest city in the state.

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the fifth position in the list of top IT exporting states of India. The IT exports from the State were Rs.82,700 million in 2004–2005 ($1.8 billion).[28] The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached Rs.190,000 million ($4.5 billion) in 2006–2007, contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India.[29] The service sector of the state already accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force.[27] The state capital, Hyderabad is considered to be bulk drug capital of the country. 50% of the top 10 companies in Pharmaceutical field are from the state. The state also commands a very prominent place in the infrastructure space, with many companies from the state being up there at the fore-front.

Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas, and petroleum. The state is also is blessed with a large amount of coal reserves.[27] The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with a national market share of over 11%.

Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2005 was estimated at $62 billion in current prices. This is a chart of trend of GSDP of Andhra Pradesh at market prices estimated[30] by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Accordingly, the state ranks fourth in terms of overall GSDP,[31] and fourth in per capita GSDP among the major states of India. According to another metric, the state ranks third in terms of Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union.[32]

Year State GDP (Rs. MM)
1980 81,910
1985 152,660
1990 333,360
1995 798,540
2000 1,401,190
2007 2,294,610

Major cities Hyderabad, Visakhapatanam, Vijayawada, guntur, Warangal, Rajahmundry, Nellore, Kakinada, kurnool, Tirupathi, Nizamabad, Anantapur. .

Richest Districts Krishna District, Rangareddy District, Nellore District, Nizamabad District, East Godavari District, West Godavari District, Guntur District

Government and politics

Andhra Pradesh has a Legislative Assembly of 294 seats, and Second House Vidhana Parisat or Council (M.L.C.) of 90 members. 31 members are elected from Local bodies, 31 members are elected from assembly 8 members elected from teachers, 8 members elected from graduates and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. Members in Parliament of India; 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House, and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.[33][34]

Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy held the record for the longest serving chief minister. P. V. Narasimha Rao also served as the chief minister of the state, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. Among the notable chief ministers of the state are Tanguturi Prakasam, Chief Minister (CM) of Andhra State (the first CM of the present Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy) others include Damodaram Sanjivayya, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Pamulaparthi Narasimha Rao, Jalagam Vengala Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy, Tanguturi Anjayya, Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N. T. Rama Rao, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, N. Chandrababu Naidu, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy and Konijeti Rosaiah.

High Court at Hyderabad, the main judicial body for the State.

In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time introducing a formidable second political party to Andhra Pradesh's politics and breaking the single party monopoly on Andhra Pradesh's politics. After a few months, Nadendla Bhaskar Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. Indira Gandhi had to yield. The then governor Thakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma as Governor. NTR was reinstated as Chief Minister. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections. In the meantime Indira Gandhi was assassinated on Oct 31 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi was made the Prime Minister by the President Giani Jail Singh. In the ensuing elections for Loksabha and AP Assembly, Telugu Desam won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.

In 1989 elections ended rule of NTR with INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm of affairs. He was replaced by N. Janardhan Reddy who was in turn replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhasker Reddy.

In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to TDP again and saw NTR becoming the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu who was the Son-in-law of NTR usurped power with majority of MLAs standing behind him. TDP won both the assembly and loksabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Chandrababu Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi and he survived the attack. However, in the ensuing elections TDP lost power to a resurgent Congress Party and its allies. Congress on its own won 185 seats in 294 assembly,along with allies Congress won 226 seats and Y.S Rajashekar Reddy became the Chief Minister.

YS Rajasekhara Reddy became the CM again by fending off Praja Rajyam Party and a mega alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. YSR Reddy not only became the first Congress CM in AP history to complete 5 full years as CM in one term but also became the first person to lead a party with back to back election win after full 5 year rule in A.P. He tragically died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash due to inclement weather. His death lead to widespread mourning throughout the state, with businesses and government closed for a week.

Konijeti Rosaiah, a senior statesman and former State Finance Minister, became the caretaker Chief Minister of AP on Sept 3rd, 2009. After directives from Sonia Gandhi and the center, he will continue in the position until the next election.



Cultural institutions

Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum[35] at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts and the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow.[36] Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions.[37]


Hyderabad biryani served with other Indian dishes.

The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisine. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine (all involving rice) depending on geographical regions, caste, traditions etc. Pickles and chutneys, called pachchadi in Telugu are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (Gongura). Gongura is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles.

Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu – made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas.

Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala) into a variety of strongly flavored dishes. Nellore fish curry and mango brinzal currry ,Gunturu Gongura pachadi. Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. The biryani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi cuisine.


Kuchipudi, the traditional dance of Andhra Pradesh.

Jayapa Senani (Jayapa Nayudu) is the first person who wrote about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.[38] Both Desi and Margi forms of dances have been included in his Sanskrit treatise 'Nrutya Ratnavali'. It contains eight chapters. Folk dance forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam, Chindu, Gondali and Kolatam are described. In the first chapter the author deals with discussion of the differences between Marga and Desi, Tandava and lasya, Natya and Nritta. In the 2nd and 3rd chapters he deals with Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas and Mandalas. In the 4th Chapter Karnas, angaharas and recakas are described. In following chapters he described the local dance forms i.e. desi nrutya. In the last chapter he deals with art and practice of dance.

Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; however women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, Kolattam and chindu .Jaanapadam is also one popular kind of folk dances available in Andhra Pradesh.



Gujjana Goollu, Yedu penkulata, Kothi Kommachi, Nalugu Stambhalata, Nalugu Rallu Aata, Tokkudu Billa, Gooti Billa, Kabaddi, Kho Kho, Goleelu etc., are outdoor games, Puli Joodam, Ashta Chamma, Vamagunatalu, Vaikuntapali etc., are board games, Achenagandlu, Ramudu Sita etc., are indoor fun games played by children and elders.


Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Bommera Pothana is another poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya is called Adikavi and was patronized by the king Rajarajanarendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry). The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is also notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Other modern writers include the only person nominated from India for Nobel prize in literature after Rabindranath Tagore Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, Jnanpith Award winners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.

Yuga Kavi Gunturu Seshendra Sarma is from Nellore, and is the second person to have been nominated for Nobel prize for his contribution to literary field from India, the first being Rabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal Government conferred him the title "Rashtrendu"(Moon of the Nation). Telugu University conferred Honorary D.Litt on him in 1994. He received "Kalidas Samman" award from Madhya Pradhesh government. He won Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999.The other important awards Seshendra received are ‘Subrahmanya Bharati Ekta Award’ from the Hindi Academy, Rashtriya Sanskriti Puraskar’, ‘Ugadi Puraskar’, ‘Tilak Award’ and ‘Sahitya Ratna 2001’ from Sri Ram Sahitya Mandal, Himachal Pradesh. He has been nominated as a member to the ‘Kendriya Hindi Samithi’ by Prime Minister of India. He was selected for Hamsa Award, in 2004-05, by the Govt. of AP.

Seshendra's first work in print appeared in 1952.[1] It is the translation of Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum, which is based upon the Persian Epic Shahnama. Initially he focused on poetry and occasionally worked on literary criticism. Seshendra's first collection of prose-poems Sesha Jyotsna. He composed it strictly conforming to Telugu prosody which was published in 1972 in Telugu and English. Its translations into Hindi and Urdu appeared separately.

His magnum opus Naa Desham, Naa Prajalu (My Country, My People, Meri Dharti, Mere Log) brought Seshendra prominence as one of the outstanding poets of India. It led to his nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004.

Shodasi (tantric commentaries on the Ramayana) and Swarna Hamsa (the study of Harsha Naishadhiya Charita) are works of literary criticism. Kaala Rekha, Seshendras' 1994 book, is a collection of twenty-five essays on various subjects like ancient Sanskrit drama and ancient Greek drama, comparative literature, classical poetry and Aurobindo's Savitri.

The collection of poems Neerai Paaripoyindi (literally, "Melted and floated away") was brought out in 1976 in bilingual editions.

Shri Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is also one of the scholar poets of Telugu literature. He was a contemporary of Shri Vishwanatha Satyanarayana. Shri Puttaparthy Narayanacharyulu wrote the famous books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam as dwipadakavyam.

Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana and Vaddera Chandidas.


Andhra Pradesh is the state with the most cinema halls in India, at around 3300.[citation needed] The state also produces about 200[citation needed] movies a year. It has around 40% (330 out of 930) of the Dolby digital theatres in India.[39] Now it also houses an IMAX theatre which is the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world[40] ( Prasads IMAX ). Tollywood produces the largest number of movies in India per year.[41]


The state has a rich musical heritage. Many legends of the Carnatic music including Trinity of Carnatic musicTyagaraja, Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadasu were of Telugu descent. Great Mandolin player, U. Srinivas is also from Andhra Pradesh. Folk songs are also popular in the rural areas of the state. A great Carnatic singer, who invented some more Ragas in Carnatic Music, the great Sri M. Balamuralikrishna is of Telugu descent.


Andhra Pradesh is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important backward-caste figure is, Sant Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami was born in Vishwabrahmin (Gold Smith) caste who had Brahmin, Harijan disciples.[42] Fisherman Raghu was also a Sudra.[43] Sant Kakkayya was a chura (cobbler) Harijan saint.

Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Nimbarka who founded Dvaitadvaita, Mother Meera who advocated Indian independence, Sri Sathya Sai Baba who advocates religious unity in worship, Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji, Aurobindo Mission and Brahmarshi Subash Patri founder of pyramid spiritual societies movement.

Christians and Muslims together form over 14% of the population.

Pilgrimages and Religious Sites

Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, a very important pilgrimage site located in Tirupati.
Shown here is a famous Hindu Temple – Birla Mandir.
Statue of Buddha on the Hussain Sagar Lake.

Tirupati or Tirumala is a very important pilgrimage for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city (of any religious faith) in the world. Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. Tirpuathi is located in Chittoor district. Satyanarayana swamy temple famous in Annavaram in East Godavari district. Simhachalam is another very popular pilgrimage of national importance. Simhachalam is said in mythology to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from abusive father Hiranyakashipu. Kanaka Durga Temple is one of the famous in Andhra Pradesh which is situated in Vijayawada city. Srikalahasti is one of the important ancient siva temples and is located on the banks of river Swarnamukhi in Chittoor district.others being Srisailam temple in Kurnool district is a very famous Shiva temple. It is one of the twelve Jyothirlinga kshetras.

Simhachalam is a hill shrine 16 km away from Visakhapatnam on the other side of the Hill on the north of the city. One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, it is located among thickly wooded hills. The beautifully-carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and the 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa bear testimony to the architectural brilliance of the temple. The image of the presiding deity, Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy, is covered by a thick layer of sandalwood paste. This is one of the oldest temple in India dedicated to Lord Narasimha, one of the incarnations of Vishnu, built in 11th century by Kullotunga, a Chola king. One Vijaya stamba is erected by Sri Krishna Deva Raya emerged victorious over the Gajapati kings of Orissa. One will find ancient Telugu inscriptions in this temple. This temple is one of the most famous temples in India. Its architecture is Dravida (South Indian). There is a popular belief that this lord is protecting Vizag from natural disasters like floods, cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis. Not even a single death occurred due to natural calamities to this date. Couples just before marriage go to this temple as a ritual. This temple is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.

Srisailam is another major temple in Andhra Pradesh of national importance. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyotirlingams. The Skanda Purana has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to it, which points to the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is said that Adi Shankara visited this temple and at that time he composed his "Sivananda Lahiri". Shiva's sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakali temple till Shiva and Parvati appeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard. Srisailam is located in Kurnool district.

Bhadrachalam is known for the Sri Rama temple and the Godavari River. This is the place where the famous Bhakta Ramadasu (originally – Kancherla Gopanna) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed that lord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in Tretayug. Legend says that Bhadra (a mountain), after a severe penance asked Rama to have a permanent residence on him. Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana are said to have settled on Bhadragiri. Bhadrachalam is located in Khammam district. Gopanna constructed the temple for Rama by raising funds from the people during the reign of Tanisha in 17 th century. He started celebrating the marriage of lord Rama and Sita. From then Sri Rama Navami is celebrated every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event at Bhadrachalam every year.

Basar - Saraswathi temple is another famous place for Saraswathi — goddess of education. Basara is located in Adilabad district. Yaaganti Caves is also an important pilgrim center in Andhra Pradesh. Apart from that Mahanandi, Kurnool Dt is another piligrim center which is full of greenary. The famous Hindu Birla Mandir and Ramappa Temple, Muslim Mecca Masjid and Charminar as well as the statue of Buddha on the Hussain Sagar Lake are wonderful religious monuments in Andhra Pradesh.

Kanaka Durga temple is a famous temple in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the Indrakeeladri hill in the city of Vijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. According to a legend, the now verdant Vijayawada was once a rocky region strewn with hillocks that were obstructing the flow of River Krishna. The land was thus rendered unfit for habitation or cultivation. Invocation to Lord Siva led to His directing the hills to give way to river Krishna. And lo! the river started flowing unimpeded with all its might, through the tunnels or "Bejjam" bored into the hills by Lord Siva. That is how the place got its name Bezawada.

One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Siva on top of Indrakeela hill to win His blessings and the city derived its name "Vijayawada" after this victory. Yet another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanaka Durga over the demon king Mahishasura. It is said that once upon a time, the growing menace of demons became unendurable for the natives living in this region. Sage Indrakila performed severe penance and when the goddess appeared, the sage begged Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons. As per his wishes, after killing the demons, goddess Durga made Indrakila Her permanent abode. Later, She slayed the demon king Mahishasura, freeing the people of Vijayawada from the evil clutches of the demon. Special pujas are performed during Dasara also called Navratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam. The festival of Dasara for Goddess Durga is celebrated here every year. A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna River.

Other cultural elements

Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, Dudu basavanna (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. 'Kalankari' is an ancient art form dating back to the Harappan civilization. Andhra is also famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and light weight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors.eetikoppaka located in vizag is famous for toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra is an art form by itself. 'Yaksha ganam', 'Burra katha' (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), 'Jangama kathalu', 'Hari kathalu', 'Chekka bajana', 'Urumula natyam' (usually done in festivals, where a group of people dance in circles for loud music), 'Ghata natyam' (performances done with earthen pots over one's head) are all folk dances unique to Andhrapradesh palumamba festival in Visaka famous.


Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business and veterinary science are offered, leading to first degrees as well as postgraduate awards. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas.

Andhra Pradesh has 1330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1000 MBA and MCA colleges; 500 engineering colleges; and 53 medical colleges. The student to teacher ratio is 19:1 in higher education. According to the 2001 census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 60.5%. While the male literacy rate is at 70.3%, the female literacy rate is only at 50.4%, a cause for concern.

The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. Andhra Pradesh is home to the prestigious International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H),[44] National Institute of Technology NIT Warangal,[45], NALSAR University of Law, country's topmost law school, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, (BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus), University of Hyderabad (Hyderabad Central University) and the Indian School of Business (ISB) are gaining national attention for their standards. The National Institute of Fashion Technology and The Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition (NIFT) are also located in Hyderabad. The prestigious Osmania University is situated in Hyderabad.

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has the distinction of establishing the first University of Health Sciences fulfilling the recommendations of several committees.Thus the “Andhra Pradesh University of Health Sciences” was established by the Act.No. 6 of the Andhra Pradesh legislature and was inaugurated on 9-4-1986 by the late Sri N.T. Rama Rao, the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.The University of Health Sciences started functioning at Vijayawada from 01-11-1986. After the death of its founder Sri N.T. Rama Rao the University was named after him as NTR University of Health Sciences, Andhra Pradesh with effect from 2.2.98 vide Act No.4 of 1998. In additiona, A few new universities have been established like Rayalaseema University.

Newspapers and journals

Andhra Pradesh has several Telugu-language newspapers. Eenadu,Sakshi, Andhra Jyothy, Prajasakti, Vaartha, Andhra Bhoomi, Visalandra, Suryaa and Andhra Prabha are the main Telugu-language newspapers in the state.

Andhra Pradesh's Urdu-language newspapers include Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, Rehnuma-e-Deccan, Itimad Urdu Daily, Awam and The Milap Daily.

There are several English-language newspapers in Andhra Pradesh, including the The Times of India, The Hindu, The Deccan Chronicle, The New Indian Express, The Economic Times, The Business Line.

Andhra Pradesh is also home to several Hindi-language newspapers. Among these are Swatantra Vaartha, Vishakhapatanam Nizamabad, and Hindi Milap, one of the oldest Hindi newspapers published from Hyderabad. "islamic voice", Telugu Fortnightly, published from Hyderabad


Borra Caves (stalagmites and stalactites)
Rishikonda beach

Andhra Pradesh is promoted by tourism department as "Koh-i-Noor of India."

Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirupati, the abode of Hindu god Venkateswara, is most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world.[citation needed] Srisailam, nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abode of Mallikarjuna and is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India. Amaravati's Shiva temple is one of the Pancharamams, as is Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.

The Badami Chalukyas (Badami is in Karnataka) in 6th century built the 'Alampur Bhrama temples,[46] an excellent examples of Chalukya art and sculpture. The Vijayanagara Empire built number of monuments, the Srisailam temple and Lepakshi temples.

The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the natural attractions of the state. Kailashagiri is near the sea in Visakhapatnam. A park is on the hill top of Kailashagiri. Visakhapatnam is home to many tourist attactions like INS Karasura Submarine museum (The only one of its kind in India), the longest Beach Road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley, VUDA Park, and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens.

The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State in India. They are at a height of about 800 to 1300 metres above Mean Sea Level and are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by William King George, the British geologist in the year 1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as burra. Similarly, the Belum caves were formed due to erosion in limestone deposits in the area by Chitravati River, millions of years ago. These limestone caves was formed due to action of carbonic acid — or weakly acidic groundwater formed due to reaction between limestone and water.

The Belum Caves are the second largest cave system in the Indian sub-continent. The Belum Caves derive their name from Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu, the caves are known as Belum Guhalu. The Belum Caves have a length of 3229 meters, making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, freshwater galleries and siphons. The caves' deepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known as Patalganaga.

Horsley Hills Horsley Hills, elevation 1,265 m, is a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km from Bangalore and 144 km from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi valley school. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km.

Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state.

Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada in Krishna district, Venkateswara Temple in Dwarakatirumala, West Godavari District (it is also called Chinna Tirupathi), Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District are also places to see in Andhra Pradesh. Annavaram Satayannarayana Swami temple is in East Godavari



Major road links of Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam seaport

A total of 1,46,944 km of road are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42,511 km, National Highways 2,949 km and District Roads 1,01,484 km. The Growth rate of Vehicles in Andhra Pradesh is highest in the country with 16%.[47]

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh connecting all the cities and villages. APSRTC is also in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the largest fleet of vehicles (approximately 21000), and the longest area covered/commuted daily. Apart from these, thousands of private operators run buses connecting major cities and towns of the state. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.


Railways are also a major means of transport connecting all major cities and towns. The history of railways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under South Central Railway which came into existence in 1966 with its headquarters at Secunderabad. Srikakulam, Vizianagaram Districts and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City falls under East Coast Railway.

  • Electric Loco Sheds: Lallaguda, Kazipet, Vijayawada,Visakhapatnam
  • Diesel Loco Sheds: Gooty, Guntakal, Kazipet, Moulali, Visakhapatnam


Hyderabad International Airport also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is an international airport for the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide.

The other airports in the state are Visakhapatnam Airport, Vijayawada Airport, Rajahmundry Airport and Tirupati Airport. The government also have plans to start airports in six other cities: Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Ramagundam and Ongole.


Andhra Pradesh has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and three minor ports atKrishnapatnam (Nellore), Machilipatnam and Nizampatnam (Guntur). A further private port is being developed at Gangavaram, near Visakhapatnam. This deep sea port can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT, allowing big ocean liners to enter into Indian shores.

See also


  1. ^ "Citizen Help". APOnline. 1956-11-01. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  2. ^ "Rough rice production (000 t) in India, by state, 1961-2006". International Rice Research Institute. May 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  3. ^ "History and Culture-History". APonline. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  4. ^, Antiquity of Andhra tribe
  5. ^, Antiquity of Telugu.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Helmutt Hoffmann, "Buddha's Preaching of the Kalachakra Tantra at the Stupa of Dhanyakataka," in: German Scholars on India, Vol. I. PP. 136–140. (Varanasi, 1973)
  9. ^, Taranatha.
  10. ^ Indian Epigraphy, R. Saloman, Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-509984-2, p. 106
  11. ^ Epigraphica Indica, 27: 220–228
  12. ^ Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the history of India, Chapter 2
  13. ^ Financial Times
  14. ^ NDTV
  15. ^ No consensus, so no Telangana now: Centre
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  18. ^ a b
  19. ^ Move begins to form new India state
  20. ^ "Population Characteristics — Andra Pradesh". Census of India. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  21. ^ "Comparative Ranking of Scheduled Languages in Descending Order of Speakers' Strength - 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  22. ^ "Distribution of 10,000 Persons by Language — India, States and Union Territories - 2001". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  23. ^ "Telugu, Kannada get classical tag". The Times of India. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
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  26. ^ "Agriculture dept. of Andhra Pradesh". 
  27. ^ a b c "Key Sectors of Andhra Pradesh". 
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  32. ^ Comparison between Indian states and Countries by GPD
  33. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly". 
  34. ^ "Parliament of India". 
  35. ^
  36. ^ " — Visakha Museum". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  37. ^, Victoria Jubilee Museum.
  38. ^, Ntitya Ratnavali.
  39. ^ "DTS | Home". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
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  41. ^ K.V. Kurmanath (6 November 2007). "Telugu film industry enters new era". Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  42. ^ "Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  43. ^ "Stories of Bhaktas — Fisherman Raghu". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
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  46. ^ "The Templenet Encyclopedia — Temples of Andhra Pradesh". Retrieved 2009-02-26. 
  47. ^ "AP Fact File-Natural Advantages". APonline. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 

External links


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