Andijan (Andijon in Uzbek; also Andizhan) is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. It is located in the east of the country, at , in the Fergana Valley, near the border with Kyrgyzstan on the Andijan-Say River. It has a population of 323,900 (1999 census estimate).
Andijan was an important stop on the Silk Road, lying roughly mid-way between Kashgar and Khodjend. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, it was rebuilt by his grandson Kaidu Khan in the late 13th century, and became the capital of Ferghana for the next three centuries. It is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (Babur), who founded the Mughal dynasty that ruled much of today's India, Pakistan, and South Asia, born in 1483. 
The city was the center and flashpoint of the Andijan Uprising of 1898, in which the followers of Sufi leader Madali Ishan attacked the Russian barracks in the city, killing 22 and injuring 16-20 more. In retaliation, 18 of the participants were hanged and 360 exiled.
On December 12, 1902, much of the city was leveled by a severe earthquake, which destroyed up to 30,000 homes in the region, and killed as many as 4500 residents.
During the Soviet Union, Andijan was separated from its historical hinterland when the present borders were created, dividing Ferghana Valley between three separate Soviet republics. Andijan itself became part of the Uzbek SSR. The borders did not make a great deal of difference during the Soviet period, as the entire region was developed to grow cash crops such as cotton and silk.
During World War II many Soviet citizens were evacuated to Andijan and the surrounding republics.
In the 1990s, though, the Andijan and the surrounding region became much more unstable. Poverty and an upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism produced tensions in the region which resulted in riots in Andijan in April 1990 in which the homes of Jews and Armenians were attacked. The town, and the region as a whole, suffered a severe economic decline following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Repeated border closures badly damaged the local economy, worsening the already widespread poverty of Andijan's inhabitants. Islamic fundamentalists established a presence in the city. In May 2003, a local man named Azizbek Karimov was arrested and accused of carrying out terrorist bombings on behalf of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan. He was convicted and executed in April 2004.
On May 13, 2005, Uzbekistan's military opened fire on a mass of people who were protesting against poor living conditions and corrupt government. Estimated casualties range from 187 to 5,000. The government of Uzbekistan first blamed the murders on terrorists, but after the requests for independent investigations by Western countries, the government acknowledged its fault. The number of killed people is disputed, as no independent investigations were allowed.
Andijan in Andijan (region) was the site of what many have termed a massacre in May of 2005. The story is complicated, but in brief, an armed raid on a local prison, followed by the occupation of a government building where local government officials were held hostage, led to a gathering of several thousand people in the town square. At some point, firing began and the end result was the death of what most believe to be hundreds of innocents, shot down by government troops. The official government version of these events was that the entire event was triggered by Islamic extremists and that only 187 people died - virtually all "extremists", government officials and troops. Eyewitnesses to the tragedy, however, (and there are many who fled the country and have been granted asylum in various countries) say that hundreds of innocent citizens, including women and children, were gunned down in the streets as they tried to flee.
Much of what took place at that time in Andijan may never be fully known. The government of Uzbekistan has refused demands from the west for an impartial investigation and, in fact, has intimated that the "extremists" who triggered the event were financed by the West.
Andijan is accessible for tourists as any other place in Fergana Valley. The only special precautions would be not discussing the events of 2005 and respect the religion, as Fergana Valley. especially Andijan, is the islamic region. Dressing should be modest.
Uzbekistan Airways operates flights form Tashkent to Andijan and back on Mondays and Sundays (by YAK-40, flying time: 1:25 hrs) and on Wednesdays or Thursdays (by TU-154, flying time: 1:05 hrs.
You can get to Andijan from any other city of Fergana Valley by taxies or minibuses.
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