### From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

**André Lichnerowicz** (January 21, 1915 – December
11, 1998) was a noted French
differential geometer and mathematical physicist of Polish descent.

## Biography

His grandfather fought in Polish resistance against the
Prussians. Forced to flee Poland in 1860, he finally settled in
France, where he married a woman from Auvergne. Lichnerowicz's father
held aggregation
in classics, while his mother, a descendant of paper makers, was
one of the first women to earn the aggregation in mathematics.
André attended the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, gaining aggregation in 1936.
After two years, he entered the Centre national de la recherche
scientifique (CNRS) as one of the first researchers recruited
by this institution.

Lichnerowicz studied differential geometry under Élie Cartan. His
doctoral dissertation, completed in 1939 under the supervision of
Georges Darmois, concerned what are now called the Lichnerowicz
matching conditions in general relativity.

His academic career began under the cloud of German occupation,
during World War
II. He taught at the University of Strasbourg,
which was moved to Clermont Ferrand
and only returned to Strasbourg in 1945, where he taught until
1949. From 1949-1952 he taught at the University
of Paris. In 1952 he was appointed to the Collège de
France, where he taught until his retirement in 1986. He was
made a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1963.

His Ph.D.
students included Thierry Aubin, Marcel Berger, Yvonne
Choquet-Bruhat, and Thibault Damour.

While pursuing an active research career, Lichnerowicz made time
for pedagogy. In 1967 the
French government created the *Lichnerowicz Commission* made
up of 18 teachers of mathematics. The commission recommended a
curriculum based on set
theory and logic with an early introduction to mathematical structures. It
recommended introduction to complex numbers for seniors in high
school, less computation-based instruction, and more development
from premises. These reforms have been called a new math and have been
repeated internationally. (see Mashaal (2006)).

## Works in English
translation

*Elements of Tensor Calculus* , John Wiley and Sons,
1962.
*Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics*,
W. A. Benjamin, 1967.
*Linear Algebra and Analysis' Holden Day, 1967.*
*Geometry of Groups of Transformations*, Leyden:
Noordhoff, [1958] 1976.
*Global Theory of Connection and Holonomy Groups*
Leyden: Noordhoff, [1955] 1976.
*Magnetohydrodynamics: Waves and Shock Waves in Curved
Space-Time* Kluwer, Springer 1994. ISBN 0792328051
- with Alexandre Favre, Henri Guitton, and Jean Guitton,
*Chaos and Determinism*, Johns Hopkins, 1995.
- with Alain Connes, and Marco Schutzenberger,
*Triangle of
Thoughts*, American Mathematical
Society, 2000.

## Tribute

- Cahen, M.; Lichnerowicz, André; Flato, M., eds.,
*Differential Geometry and Relativity: A Volume in Honour of
André Lichnerowicz on His 60th Birthday*, Reidel, 1976. ISBN
9027707456

## References

- Berger, Marcel; &
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; & Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; &
Marle, Charles-Michel; & Revuz, André (December 1999). "André
Lichnerowicz (1915-1998)".
*Notices of the American Mathematical
Society* **46**: 1387–1396.
.
- Alain Connes,
"Biographical Note: André Lichnerowicz," in
*Triangle of
Thoughts* (see above), 173-5.
- Maurice Mashaal (2006),
*Bourbaki: A Secret Society of
Mathematicians*, American Mathematical
Society, ISBN 0-8218-3967-5, see pages 140-1 for Lichnerowicz
Commission.

## External
links