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Andrew Jackson


In office
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun (1829–1832)
None (1832–1833)
Martin Van Buren (1833–1837)
Preceded by John Quincy Adams
Succeeded by Martin Van Buren

1st Territorial Governor of Florida
Military Governor
In office
March 10, 1821 – November 12, 1821
President James Monroe
Preceded by None (Spanish territory)
Succeeded by William P. Duval

In office
September 26, 1797 – April, 1798
Preceded by William Cocke
Succeeded by Daniel Smith
In office
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825
Preceded by John Williams
Succeeded by Hugh Lawson White

In office
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797
Preceded by None – first TN Congressman (statehood)
Succeeded by William C. C. Claiborne

In office
1823–1825
Preceded by John Williams
Succeeded by William Henry Harrison

Born March 15, 1767(1767-03-15)
Waxhaws area
Died June 8, 1845 (aged 78)
Nashville, Tennessee
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican and Democratic
Spouse(s) Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (1791–1828)
Children (all adopted:)
Andrew Jackson, Jr.
Lyncoya Jackson
John Samuel Donelson
Daniel Smith Donelson
Andrew Jackson Donelson
Andrew Jackson Hutchings
Carolina Butler
Eliza Butler
Edward Butler
Anthony Butler
Occupation Prosecutor, Judge, Farmer (Planter), Soldier (General)
Religion Presbyterian
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s) Old Hickory
Service/branch Tennessee Militia
United States Army
Rank Colonel
Major General
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
*Battle of Hobkirk's Hill
Creek War
*Battle of Talladega
*Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek
*Battle of Horseshoe Bend
War of 1812
*Battle of Pensacola (1814)
*Battle of New Orleans (1815)
First Seminole War
Conquest of Florida
*Battle of Fort Negro
*Siege of Fort Barrancas
Awards Thanks of Congress
.Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837).^ Andrew Jackson, 1767-1845, chronology, documents, bibliographical aids.

^ A young soldier Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in Waxhaw...
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Picture Andrew Jackson Jackson, Andrew (1767-1845), was the first president born in a log cabin.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.^ Jacksonian democracy on the Florida frontier.

^ Struggle for the gulf borderlands : the Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812-1815 / Frank Lawrence Owsley, Jr. .

^ Print "Glory at New Orleans" subsection Florida expedition.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.A polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s, his political ambition combined with widening political participation, shaping the modern Democratic Party.^ There arose new political parties, or rather a great movement, extending to every town and hamlet, to give a new impetus to the Democratic sway.

^ First to carry out a political scheme--the Rum seller is a political man, a party man, and a Whig or a Democrat, for Liberty men are men that are guided by a pure principle.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson's enthusiasm for expansion strained his political relationship with Van Buren, Thomas Hart Benton, and other Democrats who balked at immediate annexation.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.His legacy is now seen as mixed, as a protector of popular democracy and individual liberty for white men, checkered by his support for slavery and Indian removal.^ Legacy of Andrew Jackson : essays on democracy, Indian removal, and slavery / Robert V. Remini.

^ Thus, if Indians assumed white ways, as had many Cherokee, Jackson disregarded it; if Indians desired to retain their traditional values, Jackson treated them as potential men on the make.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When LIBERTY men tell how they deprecate slavery, they are prepared to prove it by corresponding action.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2][3] .Renowned for his toughness, he was nicknamed “Old Hickory."^ He was nicknamed "Old Hickory" because of his toughness.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Jackson returned to Tennessee with his famous nickname, "Old Hickory."
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Years before, Jackson's soldiers had given him the nickname Old Hickory to signify both his toughness and their affection for him.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.As he based his career in developing Tennessee, Jackson was the first president primarily associated with the American frontier.^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among Jackson's first responsibilities as president was the administration of government, including his selection of cabinet and other personnel.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Partly owing to these diplomatic initiatives, American exports increased more than 75 percent and imports grew 250 percent during Jackson's presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Early life and career

.Andrew Jackson was born to Presbyterian Scotch-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, on March 15, 1767, approximately two years after they had emigrated from Ireland.^ Jackson's parents, Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, were a poor farm couple from Northern Ireland.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ A young soldier Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in Waxhaw...
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He died in 1767, shortly before Andrew, their third child, was born.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

[4][5] .Jackson's father, Andrew Jackson, Sr., was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in Ireland around 1738.[6] He married Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson (1740–1781), sold his land and emigrated to America in 1765. The Jacksons probably landed in Pennsylvania and made their way overland to the Scotch-Irish community in the Waxhaws region, straddling the border between North Carolina and South Carolina.^ Jackson's parents, Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, were a poor farm couple from Northern Ireland.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson was born on 15 March 1767, in the Waxhaw settlement, a frontier border area between North and South Carolina, where his early life was marked by misfortune and misadventure.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, of Scotch-Irish descent, lived in a miserable hamlet in North Carolina, near the South Carolina line, without owning a single acre of land,--one of the poorest of the poor whites.

.Jackson had two brothers: Hugh (born 1763) and Robert (born 1764).^ They had sailed to America in 1765 with their first two sons, Hugh and Robert.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.Andrew Jackson, Sr., injured himself while lifting a log and died February 1767,[7] aged only 29. The house that Jackson's parents lived in is now preserved as the Andrew Jackson Centre and is open to the public.^ Andrew Jackson, symbol for an age.

^ MARTHA S. 5 ANDERSON (ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born May 05, 1874 in Texas, and died March 31, 1936.
  • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

^ Andrew Jackson and the course of American empire, 1767-1821 / Robert V. Remini.

.Three weeks after his father's death, Andrew was born in the Waxhaws area.^ They will not deal out death at the bar, though it may be the ruin of his own father, or a brother, or a neighbor, or any person that can bring three cents to degrade himself.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She died at the end of three weeks, leaving two children, a boy and girl, who, with my father, I now hope to buy.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A young soldier Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in Waxhaw...
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

He was the youngest of the Jacksons' three sons. His exact birth site was the subject of conflicting lore in the area. .Jackson claimed to have been born in a cabin just inside South Carolina.^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson therefore developed a strategy designed to avoid provoking war while isolating and intimidating South Carolina.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson was born on 15 March 1767, in the Waxhaw settlement, a frontier border area between North and South Carolina, where his early life was marked by misfortune and misadventure.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Jackson received a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school.^ Despite these inauspicious beginnings, Jackson received some formal education at local academies and schools, and following the Revolution, he left the Waxhaw community to study law with two prominent members of the North Carolina bar.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson, at age thirteen, joined a local regiment as a courier.^ After the Revolutionary War, the United Kingdom had prohibited American ships from trading in the West Indies.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ French ships had attacked American shipping during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800's.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Partly owing to these diplomatic initiatives, American exports increased more than 75 percent and imports grew 250 percent during Jackson's presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .His eldest brother, Hugh, died from heat exhaustion during the Battle of Stono Ferry, on June 20, 1779. Andrew and his brother Robert Jackson were captured by the British and held as prisoners of war; they nearly starved to death in captivity.^ In April 1781, a British raiding party captured Andrew and Robert.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew's brother Hugh had died after an earlier battle.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Jackson's campaign against the British, or The Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the military operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815, by Mrs. Dunbar Rowland (Eron Rowland) .

.When Andrew refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the irate redcoat slashed at him with a sword, giving him scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British.^ The British commander wanted his boots cleaned, and ordered Andrew to scrub them.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ The blade slashed Andrew's hand to the bone and cut him badly on the head.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ A schoolmate later recalled that Andrew would "never give up," even when another boy had him on the ground.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

[10] While imprisoned, the brothers contracted smallpox. .Robert died a few days after their mother secured their release, on April 27, 1781. After Jackson's mother was assured Andrew would recover, she left to nurse soldiers and later died from disease.^ In April 1781, a British raiding party captured Andrew and Robert.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ A schoolmate later recalled that Andrew would "never give up," even when another boy had him on the ground.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ He was born April 22, 1919 in Saginaw, Michigan, and died January 02, 2001 in Lake Jackson, TX. .
  • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

.Jackson was orphaned by age 14. Jackson's entire immediate family had died from hardships during the war for which Jackson blamed the British.^ Jackson died a short time later, and Andrew became an orphan at the age of 14.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ It is probable that had Jackson been sent to the North by the Secretary of War, he would have driven the British troops out of Canada.

^ As a young man during the Revolutionary War, Jackson also lost both his brothers and his mother.
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.Jackson was the last U.S. President to have been a veteran of the American Revolution, and the second president to have been a prisoner of war (Washington was captured by the French in the French and Indian War).^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
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^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
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^ The president, Jackson claimed, was "the direct representative of the American people."
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In 1781, Jackson worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop.[11] .Later, he taught school and studied law in Salisbury, North Carolina.^ Poor and obscure as he was, and imperfectly educated, he aspired to be a lawyer; and at eighteen years of age he became a law-student in the office of Mr. Spruce McCay in Salisbury, North Carolina.

^ Despite these inauspicious beginnings, Jackson received some formal education at local academies and schools, and following the Revolution, he left the Waxhaw community to study law with two prominent members of the North Carolina bar.
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^ Jackson met Spruce Macay, a wealthy lawyer, in Salisbury, North Carolina, in 1784.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.In 1787, he was admitted to the bar, and moved to Jonesborough, in what was then the Western District of North Carolina and later became Tennessee.^ Two years later, in 1787, he was admitted to the bar.

^ Then he moved to Tennessee, where he became a successful lawyer and landowner.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Professional standards for lawyers were not high in those days, and Jackson was admitted to the bar in 1787.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.Though his legal education was scanty, Jackson knew enough to be a country lawyer on the frontier.^ It seems that Jackson, who was appointed district-attorney, had a considerable practice in his profession of a rough sort, in that frontier region where the slightest legal knowledge was sufficient for success.

.Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law.^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assaults and battery. In 1788, he was appointed Solicitor of the Western District and held the same position in the territorial government of Tennessee after 1791.
.In 1796, Jackson was a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention.^ He became a public prosecutor, attorney general for the Mero District, delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention, a member of Congress, a United States senator, and a judge of the Superior Court of Tennessee.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When in 1796 a convention was called for framing a State constitution, Jackson was one of their influential delegates; and in December of that year he was sent to Congress as their most popular representative.

.When Tennessee achieved statehood that year, Jackson was elected its U.S. Representative.^ Six months later, the Tennessee legislature elected Jackson as a justice of the state supreme court.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ When in 1796 a convention was called for framing a State constitution, Jackson was one of their influential delegates; and in December of that year he was sent to Congress as their most popular representative.

.In 1797, he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican.^ On his return in 1797, a vacancy occurring in the United States Senate, he was elected senator, on the strength of his popularity as representative.

He resigned within a year. In 1798, he was appointed a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court, serving until 1804.[12]
Jackson refusing to clean a British officer's boots (1876 lithograph).
.Besides his legal and political career, Jackson prospered as a slave owner, planter, and merchant.^ Jackson himself was a substantial planter, owning many slaves, and while he insisted that they be treated "humanely," he showed no disposition to disturb the legal and constitutional arrangements that maintained the slave system.
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^ Jackson, to be sure, had no formal political philosophy, but he adhered to certain underlying values and ideas with a degree of consistency throughout his long political career.
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In 1803 he owned a lot, and built a home and the first general store in Gallatin. .In 1804, he acquired the Hermitage, a 640-acre (2.6 km2) plantation in Davidson County, near Nashville.^ At the same time, he accumulated significant amounts of property, establishing himself as a member of the Tennessee elite by purchasing a plantation, first at Hunter's Hill and then, in 1804, at the Hermitage, near Nashville.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Jackson later added 360 acres (1.5 km2) to the farm. The plantation would eventually grow to 1,050 acres (425 ha). .The slaves that Jackson owned did the hardest work on the plantation.^ A slave named Jack, was taken sick while working on the plantation, and he laid himself down in the fence corner.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ James Law then returned, convinced in his own mind that the Squire was an honest man, and did not trade with slaves.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His father bought him a plantation five miles from his own, and gave him another slave girl as a nurse for his boy.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The primary crop was cotton, grown by enslaved workers. Jackson started with nine slaves, by 1820 he held as many as 44, and later held up to 150 slaves. .Throughout his lifetime Jackson would own as many as 300 slaves.^ During the campaign of 1828, there was an expectation among many Jackson supporters that his victory would be followed by the wholesale removal of Adams officeholders.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson himself was a substantial planter, owning many slaves, and while he insisted that they be treated "humanely," he showed no disposition to disturb the legal and constitutional arrangements that maintained the slave system.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14]
.Jackson was a major land speculator in West Tennessee after he had negotiated the sale of the land from the Chickasaw Nation in 1818 (termed the Jackson Purchase) and was one of the three original investors who founded Memphis, Tennessee in 1819 (see History of Memphis, Tennessee).^ Civil and military history of Andrew Jackson, late major-general in the Army of the United States, and commander-in-chief of the Southern division.

^ On one occasion there was a sale of slaves near, and a man came to the auction to purchase a slave girl.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Into this fort Jackson at once threw a garrison of one hundred and sixty regular infantry under Major Lawrence, a most gallant officer.

[15]

Military career

War of 1812

Jackson was appointed commander of the Tennessee militia in 1801, with the rank of colonel.
.During the War of 1812, Tecumseh incited the "Red Stick" Creek Indians of northern Alabama and Georgia to attack white settlements.^ In 1811, before the war with England was declared, a general confederation of Indians had been made under the influence of the celebrated Tecumseh, a chief of the Shawanoc tribe.

^ The Indians, chiefly Creeks, were led by Red Eagle, who utterly annihilated the defenders of the fort under Major Beasley, and scalped the women and children.

^ The bank had been chartered in 1816 to restore the country to a sound fiscal condition after near financial catastrophe during the War of 1812.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Four hundred settlers were killed in the Fort Mims Massacre. .In the resulting Creek War, Jackson commanded the American forces, which included Tennessee militia, U.S. regulars, and Cherokee, Choctaw, and Southern Creek Indians.^ Andrew Jackson's campaign against the British, or The Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the military operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815, by Mrs. Dunbar Rowland (Eron Rowland) .

^ Fathers and children : Andrew Jackson and the subjugation of the American Indian / Michael Paul Rogin.

^ Proposals for publishing by subscription The life of Major General Andrew Jackson, [electronic resource] : comprising a full history of the late war in the South, from the commencement of hostilities with the Creek Indians, to the defeat of the British be .

Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Eight hundred "Red Sticks" were killed, but Jackson spared chief William Weatherford. Sam Houston and David Crockett served under Jackson in this campaign. .After the victory, Jackson imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both the Northern Creek enemies and the Southern Creek allies, wresting twenty-million acres (81,000 km²) from all Creeks for white settlement.^ Perhaps no issue more clearly distinguished the two presidential candidates in 1828, for Jackson's imposing record of conquest over the Indians, both by arms and treaty, contrasted dramatically with Adams' protective posture.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chronicles of Andrew [electronic resource] : containing an accurate and brief account of General Jackson's victories in the South over the Creeks : also, his victories over the British at Orleans : with a biographical sketch of his life, &c.

^ Jackson happily announced the settlement the following December and submitted the treaty for ratification; it was approved unanimously.
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.Jackson was appointed Major General after this action.^ Memoirs of Andrew Jackson, major-general in the army of the United States, and commander in chief of the Division of the South [electronic resource] / by S. Putnam Waldo.

^ With Jackson vacationing in Virginia, the administration's initial response to the mails controversy fell to the recently appointed postmaster general, Amos Kendall.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Biography of Andrew Jackson, president of the United States, formerly major general in the Army of the United States.

.
The Battle of New Orleans.
^ Struggle for the gulf borderlands : the Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812-1815 / Frank Lawrence Owsley, Jr. .

^ Patriotic fire : Andrew Jackson and Jean Laffite at the Battle of New Orleans / Winston Groom.

^ Generals : Andrew Jackson, Sir Edward Pakenham, and the road to the Battle of New Orleans / Benton Rain Patterson.

General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, as imagined by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson's service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for bravery and success. .When British forces threatened New Orleans, Jackson took command of the defenses, including militia from several western states and territories.^ But to Jackson the situation remained critical, and on 16 January he sent Congress a message, informing it of South Carolina's actions and requesting explicit confirmation of his right to employ state militias and federal forces against the dissidents.
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^ When Jackson took office, negotiations with France had reached a "hopeless" condition, according to Secretary of State Van Buren.
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^ When Jackson took office, relations between the southern tribes, the state governments, and the United States had reached a critical juncture.
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He was a strict officer but was popular with his troops. .It was said he was "tough as old hickory" wood on the battlefield, which gave him his nickname.^ Then, Burl Quiney tied his hands and tied him to a tree, and gave him one hundred lashes; he then ordered him to do his duty, but the poor old nigger-driver was unable.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Years before, Jackson's soldiers had given him the nickname Old Hickory to signify both his toughness and their affection for him.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, Jackson's 5,000 soldiers won a victory over 7,500 British.^ Jackson won a smashing reelection victory.
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At the end of the day, the British had 2,037 casualties: 291 dead (including three senior generals), 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing.[16]
.The war, and especially this victory, made Jackson a national hero.^ Jackson's enormous military success during the War of 1812, culminating in the Battle of New Orleans, made him a national hero, and during the winter of 1821 – 1822, political friends placed his name before the country as a presidential candidate in the election of 1824.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the end, the rejection made Van Buren a political martyr and the inevitable choice for Jackson's vice president at the upcoming Democratic National Convention.
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He received the Thanks of Congress and a gold medal by resolution of February 27, 1815. Alexis de Tocqueville would later comment in Democracy in America that Jackson "was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans."

First Seminole War

.Jackson served in the military again during the First Seminole War.^ As a young man during the Revolutionary War, Jackson also lost both his brothers and his mother.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians.^ In the fall of 1829, Jackson learned that, as a member of Monroe's cabinet, Calhoun had recommended that Jackson be punished for defying the president's orders and pursuing the Seminole Indians into Spanish Florida.
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^ Georgia had clashed with the federal government when President John Quincy Adams refused to implement a controversial treaty removing the Creek Indians.
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Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to "terminate the conflict."[17] .Jackson believed the best way to do this would be to seize Florida.^ Daniel Webster put it best when he predicted that Jackson would bring a "breeze with him.
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^ I began my remarks by simple comparison, thinking this would be the best way to convince my hearers that the text was appropriate to the occasion.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Before going, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through any channel...^ Years before, Jackson's soldiers had given him the nickname Old Hickory to signify both his toughness and their affection for him.
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that the possession of the .Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished."^ Before we then heartily condemn the United States, let us remember that when they would not have slavery, it was forced upon them by the English Government.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[18] Monroe gave Jackson orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials.
Military governor Jackson was sworn in at Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola, Florida.
The Seminoles attacked Jackson's Tennessee volunteers. The Seminoles' attack, however, left their villages vulnerable, and Jackson burned them and the crops. He found letters that indicated that the Spanish and British were secretly assisting the Indians. .Jackson believed that the United States would not be secure as long as Spain and the United Kingdom encouraged Indians to fight and argued that his actions were undertaken in self-defense.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
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^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
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^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida, with little more than some warning shots, and deposed the Spanish governor.^ Whatever his reasons, Jackson's third annual message, delivered in December 1831, was more modest than his earlier ones.
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^ Partly owing to these diplomatic initiatives, American exports increased more than 75 percent and imports grew 250 percent during Jackson's presidency.
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^ More than the Indian removal bill, Jackson's internal-improvements policy began the process of identifying Jackson's followers with a party platform.
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He captured and then tried and executed two British subjects, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been supplying and advising the Indians. .Jackson's action also struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word spread of his ruthlessness in battle (Jackson was known as "Sharp Knife").^ No matter that some Indians had adopted many of the trappings of white society, Jackson considered the tribes as obstacles to the progressive spread of a superior civilization over the continent.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The words struck home with great force, and one nullifier rushed to ask Jackson to insert the word federal be-fore Union .
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The executions, and Jackson's invasion of territory belonging to Spain, a country with which the U.S. was not at war, created an international incident. Many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured. .Jackson's actions were defended by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, an early believer in Manifest Destiny.^ One evening, he was brought the page proofs as revised by Secretary of State John Forsyth.
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^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When the Spanish minister demanded a "suitable punishment" for Jackson, Adams wrote back, "Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory ...^ In the fall of 1829, Jackson learned that, as a member of Monroe's cabinet, Calhoun had recommended that Jackson be punished for defying the president's orders and pursuing the Seminole Indians into Spanish Florida.
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^ Jackson men, in addition to harping on the corrupt-bargain charge, accused Adams of pimping for the czar while he was minister to Russia.
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^ Calhoun began a correspondence in which he attempted to blame Van Buren's friends for reviving the issue, but he was still forced to concede his opposition to Jackson's Florida invasion.
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or cede to the .United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact ...^ All was silent; I appealed to facts as evidence to expose the wickedness of our United States from the time of our old revolutionary war to the present time.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

a post of annoyance to them."[19] .Adams used Jackson's conquest, and Spain's own weakness, to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States by the Adams-Onís Treaty.^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
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^ Andrew Jackson Encyclopedia entry from: Encyclopedia of World Biography Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), seventh president of the United States, symbolized the democratic advances of his time.
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^ Perhaps no issue more clearly distinguished the two presidential candidates in 1828, for Jackson's imposing record of conquest over the Indians, both by arms and treaty, contrasted dramatically with Adams' protective posture.
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Jackson was subsequently named military governor and served from March 10, 1821, to December 31, 1821.

Election of 1824

.The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again.^ Jackson also appointed Van Buren minister to Great Britain, but on 25 January 1832, the Senate rejected his nomination.
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Jackson in 1824, painting by Thomas Sully.
.By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning national party.^ Annexation would further strain national loyalties, divide the Democratic party, and jeopardize Van Buren's election chances.
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^ The National Republican party had nominated Clay as its presidential candidate in December 1831, and he was eager to test Jackson's strength on this very question.
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^ The Democratic party was a national organization, and northern attitudes about slavery and civil liberties had to be given weight.
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.Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular.^ Finding that the likely presidential contenders in 1832, Jackson and Clay, were both high-ranking Masons, Anti-Masonic leaders decided to nominate their own candidate.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Republican party had nominated Clay as its presidential candidate in December 1831, and he was eager to test Jackson's strength on this very question.
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In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. .Those who attended backed Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President.^ Johnson's earlier open relationship with a mulatto woman and his two daughters by her stirred resistance among many southern Jacksonians who preferred Virginia's William C. Rives for the vice presidency.
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^ In September 1831, delegates from thirteen states nominated William Wirt of Maryland for president and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania for vice president.
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^ He asked William B. Lewis, who held a job in the Treasury Department, to live in the White House, and he retained his nephew Andrew Jackson Donelson as his private secretary, while Donelson's wife, Emily, served as White House hostess.
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A Pennsylvanian convention nominated Jackson for President a month later, stating that the irregular caucus ignored the "voice of the people" and was a "vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate."[20] Gallatin criticized Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office."[21]
Statue of Jackson as General in front of Jackson County Courthouse in Kansas City, Missouri.
.Besides Jackson and Crawford, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates.^ One evening, he was brought the page proofs as revised by Secretary of State John Forsyth.
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^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot).^ Indeed, it was the portions of Jackson's veto messages dealing with nonconstitutional matters that generally contained the most authentic examples of Jacksonian rhetoric and had the greatest popular appeal.
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^ Jackson intended no states' rights crusade, and he dissatisfied some idealists, particularly in the South, by endorsing some tariff protection and the distribution of any surplus revenue back to the states.
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^ In the election of 1828, he received about 56 percent of the popular vote and carried virtually every electoral vote south of the Potomac River and west of New Jersey.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson having a plurality.^ His first presidential bid fell short, for in a four-way contest, Jackson won a plurality of the popular vote but failed to receive an electoral majority.
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^ Having failed to alter Jackson's policy, the bank's directors voted in July to end the contraction.
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.Since no candidate received a majority, the election was decided by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams.^ The decision rested with the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams emerged victorious after receiving the support of Henry Clay.
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.Jackson supporters denounced this result as a "corrupt bargain" because Clay gave his state's support to Adams, and subsequently Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State.^ When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state and heir apparent, Jacksonians alleged a "corrupt bargain."
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^ When Jackson took office, negotiations with France had reached a "hopeless" condition, according to Secretary of State Van Buren.
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^ The New Yorker, by showing the Eatons the same social consideration he gave to others and by lending his support to Jackson's political goals, earned Jackson's trust and affection.
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.As none of Kentucky's electors had initially voted for Adams, and Jackson had won the popular vote, it appeared that Henry Clay had violated the will of the people and substituted his own judgment in return for personal political favors.^ While Adams viewed an active and positive government as promoting liberty, Jackson preferred to limit governmental power and return to the path of Jeffersonian purity.
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^ His first presidential bid fell short, for in a four-way contest, Jackson won a plurality of the popular vote but failed to receive an electoral majority.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost unnoticed in the din of protest by dissatisfied office seekers was that Jackson had drawn the line against the followers of Adams and Clay.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials, however; many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East."^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The bank's transparent political design further convinced Jackson that it was indeed a "monster" that threatened to corrupt the nation.
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^ Jackson himself always believed that the will of the people had been corruptly overturned, and he denounced Clay as "the Judas of the West."
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Election of 1828

.Jackson resigned from the Senate in October 1825, but continued his quest for the Presidency.^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
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The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. .Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous supporters of Crawford).^ While Calhoun had been losing Jackson's confidence, Van Buren had been gaining it.
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^ In addition to the original Jackson men from the campaign of 1824, there were the followers of New York's Martin Van Buren and Jackson's vice president, South Carolina's John C. Calhoun; former Federalists; and groups of "relief men," who during the Panic of 1819 had bucked the established political interests by advocating reforms to help indebted farmers and artisans.
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^ Along with Van Buren, the two Kentuckians constituted Jackson's inner circle of advisers, though others would from time to time join them.
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.Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name as the Democratic Party, "restored party rivalries," and forged a national organization of durability.^ In order to unite the party behind Van Buren, Jackson urged that a national convention meet early.
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^ To some extent, this reflected the wider participation by citizens in government and the practice of party politics in some states like Pennsylvania and New York, which had well-developed party organizations.
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^ This party originated in upstate New York in 1826 when an itinerant stonemason named William Morgan disappeared after threatening to publish the secrets of Freemasonry.
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[22] The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.
During the election, Jackson's opponents referred to him as a "jackass." Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.[23]
The campaign was very much a personal one. .Although neither candidate personally campaigned, their political followers organized many campaign events.^ During the campaign of 1828, there was an expectation among many Jackson supporters that his victory would be followed by the wholesale removal of Adams officeholders.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both candidates were rhetorically attacked in the press, which reached a low point when the press accused Jackson's wife Rachel of bigamy.^ Finding that the likely presidential contenders in 1832, Jackson and Clay, were both high-ranking Masons, Anti-Masonic leaders decided to nominate their own candidate.
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^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rachel, for example, was accused of bigamy in marrying Jackson while she was legally attached to another man.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though the accusation was true, as were most personal attacks leveled against him during the campaign, it was based on events that occurred many years prior (1791 to 1794).^ Doubtless recalling the slanderous attacks against his own wife during the recent campaign, Jackson decried the baseness of those who, in the name of morality, dragged the intimate and private relations of marriage into the public arena.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet ye say we hate it; it ought to be done away; we have looked at it for years, and our minister has prayed against it; and he is a very good man; we all like him.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During the campaign of 1828, there was an expectation among many Jackson supporters that his victory would be followed by the wholesale removal of Adams officeholders.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife.^ Place then rose and remarked that he would not detain the meeting but two minutes; that the subject to him had been deeply interesting, and no doubt had been to every one.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ More than that, he told me I would be in great danger of apprehension, by remaining with him, as he had much company and all would be curious to know who was in his employ.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Rachel died suddenly on December 22, 1828, before his inauguration, and was buried on Christmas Eve.

Inauguration

.Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the White House ball honoring his first inauguration.^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
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^ Among Jackson's first responsibilities as president was the administration of government, including his selection of cabinet and other personnel.
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^ According to one observer, the White House was inundated "by the rabble mob," which, in its enthusiasm for the new president and the refreshments, almost crushed Jackson to death while making a shambles of the house.
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Many poor people came to the inaugural ball in their homemade clothes. .The crowd became so large that Jackson's guards could not hold them out of the White House.^ An all-out assault would doubtless have precipitated another cabinet crisis, something Jackson could ill afford.
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^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to one observer, the White House was inundated "by the rabble mob," which, in its enthusiasm for the new president and the refreshments, almost crushed Jackson to death while making a shambles of the house.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The White House became so crowded with people that dishes and decorative pieces in the White House began to break.^ With great difficulty, he made his way through the crowd, mounted his horse, and headed for the White House and what had been intended as a reception for "ladies and gentlemen."
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Some people stood on good chairs in muddied boots just to get a look at the President. .The crowd had become so wild that the attendants poured punch in tubs and put it on the White House lawn to lure people out of the White House.^ Wormer's, to a full house; the people where I put up fixed off a fugitive's table.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With great difficulty, he made his way through the crowd, mounted his horse, and headed for the White House and what had been intended as a reception for "ladies and gentlemen."
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson's raucous populism earned him the nickname King Mob.^ Years before, Jackson's soldiers had given him the nickname Old Hickory to signify both his toughness and their affection for him.
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Election of 1832

.In the 1832 presidential election, Jackson easily won reelection as the candidate of the Democratic Party against Henry Clay, of the National Republican Party, and William Wirt, of the Anti-Masonic Party.^ Jackson won a smashing reelection victory.
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^ The National Republican party had nominated Clay as its presidential candidate in December 1831, and he was eager to test Jackson's strength on this very question.
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^ Finding that the likely presidential contenders in 1832, Jackson and Clay, were both high-ranking Masons, Anti-Masonic leaders decided to nominate their own candidate.
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.Jackson jettisoned Vice President John C. Calhoun because of his support for nullification and involvement in the Petticoat affair, replacing him with longtime confidant Martin Van Buren of New York.^ While Calhoun had been losing Jackson's confidence, Van Buren had been gaining it.
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^ In addition to the original Jackson men from the campaign of 1824, there were the followers of New York's Martin Van Buren and Jackson's vice president, South Carolina's John C. Calhoun; former Federalists; and groups of "relief men," who during the Panic of 1819 had bucked the established political interests by advocating reforms to help indebted farmers and artisans.
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^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
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Presidency 1829–1837

The Jackson Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Andrew Jackson 1829–1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun 1829–1832
None 1832–1833
Martin Van Buren 1833–1837
Secretary of State Martin Van Buren 1829–1831
Edward Livingston 1831–1833
Louis McLane 1833–1834
John Forsyth 1834–1837
Secretary of Treasury Samuel D. Ingham 1829–1831
Louis McLane 1831–1833
William J. Duane 1833
Roger B. Taney 1833–1834
Levi Woodbury 1834–1837
Secretary of War John H. Eaton 1829–1831
Lewis Cass 1831–1836
Attorney General John M. Berrien 1829–1831
Roger B. Taney 1831–1833
Benjamin F. Butler 1833–1837
Postmaster General William T. Barry 1829–1835
Amos Kendall 1835–1837
Secretary of the Navy John Branch 1829–1831
Levi Woodbury 1831–1834
Mahlon Dickerson 1834–1837

Federal debt

See also: Panic of 1837
.In 1835, Jackson managed to reduce the federal debt to only $33,733.05, the lowest it had been since the first fiscal year of 1791.[24] President Jackson is the only president in United States history to have paid off the national debt.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
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^ Over the eight years of his presidency, Jackson elaborated and refined his objections to internal-improvements projects.
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^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
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However, this accomplishment was short lived. A severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a tenfold increase in national debt within its first year.[25]

Electoral College

.Jackson repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as President.^ Jackson informed Congress in his first annual message that he intended to break the logjam.
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^ During the so-called Panic Session of Congress, Senate Whigs managed to pass two resolutions in February and March 1834, rejecting Taney's reasons for removing the deposits and censuring Jackson's actions as "not conferred by the Constitution and laws."
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^ Whatever his reasons, Jackson's third annual message, delivered in December 1831, was more modest than his earlier ones.
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[26][27] .In his third annual message to Congress, he expressed the view "I have heretofore recommended amendments of the Federal Constitution giving the election of President and Vice-President to the people and limiting the service of the former to a single term.^ Jackson informed Congress in his first annual message that he intended to break the logjam.
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^ Whatever his reasons, Jackson's third annual message, delivered in December 1831, was more modest than his earlier ones.
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^ In his first annual message in December 1829, Jackson brought the issue to Congress' attention by announcing that many people considered previous policy unconstitutional or inexpedient.
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.So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law that I can not, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress."^ Armstrong, deliberately pressing upon the congregation the awful responsibility that must follow them, if God holds us accountable, as it has been so beautifully shown by our friend.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28] The institution remains to the present day.

Spoils system

When Jackson became President, he implemented the theory of rotation in office, declaring it "a leading principle in the republican creed."[26] He believed that rotation in office would prevent the development of a corrupt bureaucracy. .To strengthen party loyalty, Jackson's supporters wanted to give the posts to party members.^ The final vote showed a considerable degree of party loyalty, making it the first important measure of Jackson's presidency that distinguished the emerging Democratic party from the opposition.
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^ Jackson was furious and miserable, but he continued to support the Eatons and insisted that loyalty to them was essential to his own success.
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^ Annual debates over the gag rule strained the Democratic party, whose members were torn between sectional allegiance and party loyalty.
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In practice, this meant replacing federal employees with friends or party loyalists.[29] However, the effect was not as drastic as expected or portrayed. .By the end of his term, Jackson dismissed less than twenty percent of the Federal employees at the start of it.^ Partly owing to these diplomatic initiatives, American exports increased more than 75 percent and imports grew 250 percent during Jackson's presidency.
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[30] .While Jackson did not start the "spoils system," he did indirectly encourage its growth for many years to come.^ There were many persons in the place where I was laboring, who were friendly to the cause of slaves and did much to encourage the fugatives in their attempt to escape.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While Jackson did not intend to introduce a spoils system, his policy opened the way for his successors to institute a more systematic policy of party patronage.
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Opposition to the National Bank

.
Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the monster Bank.
^ The final vote showed a considerable degree of party loyalty, making it the first important measure of Jackson's presidency that distinguished the emerging Democratic party from the opposition.
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^ Whigs and conservative Democrats blamed Jackson's banking and hard-money policy, and urged Van Buren to repudiate the Specie Circular.
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^ The bank's transparent political design further convinced Jackson that it was indeed a "monster" that threatened to corrupt the nation.
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"The Bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"
.The Second Bank of the United States was authorized for a twenty year period during James Madison's tenure in 1816. As President, Jackson worked to rescind the bank's federal charter.^ Jackson deplored the increased sectional bitterness that marked national politics during his presidency.
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^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Roger Taney, Jackson's new attorney general, explained, the bank's application meant that "the Bank says to the President, your next election is at hand — if you charter us, well — if not, beware of your power."
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In Jackson's veto message (written by George Bancroft), the bank needed to be abolished because:
  • It concentrated the nation's financial strength in a single institution.
  • It exposed the government to control by foreign interests.
  • It served mainly to make the rich richer.
  • It exercised too much control over members of Congress.
  • It favored northeastern states over southern and western states.
.Following Jefferson, Jackson supported an "agricultural republic" and felt the Bank improved the fortunes of an "elite circle" of commercial and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of farmers and laborers.^ The incident strengthened Jackson's conviction that a republic should be based on the democratic principle of majority, not elite, rule.
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^ Following removal, therefore, Jackson began his campaign to reform banking abuses.
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^ During the campaign of 1828, there was an expectation among many Jackson supporters that his victory would be followed by the wholesale removal of Adams officeholders.
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After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the Bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the devil's Bank.
The bank's money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that sprang up. This fed an expansion of credit and speculation. .At first, as Jackson withdrew money from the Bank to invest it in other banks, land sales, canal construction, cotton production, and manufacturing boomed.^ Among Jackson's first responsibilities as president was the administration of government, including his selection of cabinet and other personnel.
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^ Jackson assumed these obligations, selling land and borrowing money, using the valuable Hermitage as collateral.
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^ Having once been brought to the brink of insolvency by speculative adventures, Jackson became suspicious of all banks and their paper-money issues.
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[31] .However, due to the practice of banks issuing paper banknotes that were not backed by gold or silver reserves, there was soon rapid inflation and mounting state debts.^ Its capital was $35 million, partly subscribed by the United States government, and it was permitted to establish branches and issue bank notes.
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^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
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^ Attacks against excessive paper issues reflected concern for actual banking abuses as well as anxiety and, for some, resistance to the onrushing Market Revolution.
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[32] .Then, in 1836, Jackson issued the Specie Circular, which required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" (gold or silver coins).^ In July 1836, he issued the Specie Circular, which directed government agents to receive only gold and silver in payment for public lands after December 1836, a measure designed to diminish land speculation and to "preserve the deposit banks" by increasing the specie backing of bank notes.
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^ In 1835 fighting broke out between the American settlers and the Mexican government, and by the spring of 1836, the Texans had routed the Mexican army and were appealing to Jackson for recognition and annexation.
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^ His administration's fondness for hard money — gold and silver — is probably the most difficult of all Jackson measures for twentieth-century Americans to understand.
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The result was a great demand for specie, which many banks did not have enough of to exchange for their notes. These banks collapsed.[31] .This was a direct cause of the Panic of 1837, which threw the national economy into a deep depression.^ By the end of his second term, the country had two national political parties, each extending its structure deep into the electorate.
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It took years for the economy to recover from the damage.
.The U.S. Senate censured Jackson on March 28, 1834, for his action in removing U.S. funds from the Bank of the United States.^ During the so-called Panic Session of Congress, Senate Whigs managed to pass two resolutions in February and March 1834, rejecting Taney's reasons for removing the deposits and censuring Jackson's actions as "not conferred by the Constitution and laws."
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^ Its capital was $35 million, partly subscribed by the United States government, and it was permitted to establish branches and issue bank notes.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
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When the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate, the censure was expunged.

Nullification crisis

.Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the "Nullification Crisis," or "secession crisis," of 1828 – 1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs.^ An all-out assault would doubtless have precipitated another cabinet crisis, something Jackson could ill afford.
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^ Jackson had barely taken office when he confronted his first political crisis.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
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.Critics alleged that high tariffs (the "Tariff of Abominations") on imports of common manufactured goods made in Europe made those goods more expensive than ones from the northern U.S., raising the prices paid by planters in the South.^ High tariffs also provoked sectional strife and undermined "liberty and the general good."
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^ Whatever his reasons, Jackson's third annual message, delivered in December 1831, was more modest than his earlier ones.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Partly owing to these diplomatic initiatives, American exports increased more than 75 percent and imports grew 250 percent during Jackson's presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Southern politicians argued that tariffs benefited northern industrialists at the expense of southern farmers.
.The issue came to a head when Vice President Calhoun, in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, supported the claim of his home state, South Carolina, that it had the right to "nullify"—declare void—the tariff legislation of 1828, and more generally the right of a state to nullify any Federal laws which went against its interests.^ In addition to the original Jackson men from the campaign of 1824, there were the followers of New York's Martin Van Buren and Jackson's vice president, South Carolina's John C. Calhoun; former Federalists; and groups of "relief men," who during the Panic of 1819 had bucked the established political interests by advocating reforms to help indebted farmers and artisans.
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^ As devised by Calhoun, nullification's chief theoretician, in his Exposition (1828) and Fort Hill Address (1831), each state retained the final authority to declare federal laws unconstitutional.
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^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
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.Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he was also a strong supporter of a strong union, with effective powers for the central government.^ While Adams viewed an active and positive government as promoting liberty, Jackson preferred to limit governmental power and return to the path of Jeffersonian purity.
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^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
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^ He urged South Carolinians to retrace their steps and called upon all Americans to give their undivided support to the Union and "to inspire new confidence in republican institutions."
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.Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men.^ One close Jackson associate put the issue squarely when he judged Calhoun a "madman" if he promoted the maneuvers against Eaton, and not a wise man if he does not put an end to it."
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^ Calhoun began a correspondence in which he attempted to blame Van Buren's friends for reviving the issue, but he was still forced to concede his opposition to Jackson's Florida invasion.
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^ Jackson denounced Calhoun as a "hypocrite" who had "attempted to stab me in the dark."
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.Particularly notable was an incident at the April 13, 1830, Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts.^ Their deteriorating relationship came to a head at the Jefferson Day Dinner in April 1830, which some Calhounites intended to use as an occasion to identify nullification with Jeffersonian principles.
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Robert Hayne began by toasting to "The Union of the States, and the Sovereignty of the States." Jackson then rose, and in a booming voice added "Our federal Union: It must be preserved!" – a clear challenge to Calhoun. .Calhoun clarified his position by responding "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear!"^ Tradition has it that he stared sternly at Calhoun and announced, "Our Union — it must be preserved ."
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^ Even so, Jackson's declaration contrasted starkly with the sentiment offered by Calhoun: "The Union: Next to our liberty, the most dear; may we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States and distributing equally, the benefit and burden of the Union."
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[33]
.The next year, Calhoun and Jackson broke apart politically from one another.^ Jackson also grew increasingly irritated by Calhoun's political independence, particularly his prominent position among the radical antitariff nullifiers.
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^ One close Jackson associate put the issue squarely when he judged Calhoun a "madman" if he promoted the maneuvers against Eaton, and not a wise man if he does not put an end to it."
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Around this time, the Petticoat affair caused further resignations from Jackson's cabinet, leading to its reorganization as the "Kitchen Cabinet." Martin Van Buren, despite resigning as Secretary of State, played a leading role in the new unofficial cabinet.[34] .At the first Democratic National Convention, privately engineered by members of the Kitchen Cabinet,[35] Van Buren replaced Calhoun as Jackson's running mate.^ While Calhoun had been losing Jackson's confidence, Van Buren had been gaining it.
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^ Illustrating the rapid development of party organization during this period, the Democratic party's first national convention met in Baltimore in May 1832 and nominated Jackson and Van Buren.
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^ Much opposition to the Eatons also emanated more from political hostility to Eaton and Van Buren than from devotion to Calhoun.
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.In December 1832, Calhoun resigned as Vice President to become a U.S. Senator for South Carolina.^ After considerable discussion and revision, the bill barely survived a test vote in the Senate on 2 June when a tie was broken by Vice President Van Buren.
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.In response to South Carolina's nullification claim, Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina to enforce the laws.^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
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^ William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816 – 1836 (New York, 1966), is a model historical study of this crisis.
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^ Jackson therefore developed a strategy designed to avoid provoking war while isolating and intimidating South Carolina.
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In December 1832, he issued a resounding proclamation against the "nullifiers," stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed." South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason," and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. .Jackson also denied the right of secession: "The Constitution...^ Johnson was right, for Jackson handed down his veto, rejecting the bill on grounds that were both constitutional and pragmatic.
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forms a government not a league... .To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation."^ The treaty with Great Britain reopened American trade with the British West Indies, while the agreement with Siam was the first between the United States and an Asiatic nation.
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^ The United States shall guaranty to every State in this Union, a republican form of government and shall protect each of them against invasion.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson had vindicated the Union, demonstrated that states' rights principles were compatible with nationalism, and displayed remarkable skill in wielding presidential power.
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[36]
.Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce the tariff, but its passage was delayed until protectionists led by Clay agreed to a reduced Compromise Tariff.^ Significantly, Jackson signed the Force Bill first, declaring that it gave "the death blow" to nullification.
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^ A few weeks later, Clay and Calhoun made public their agreement to underwrite a compromise tariff that would provide a face-saving retreat for the nullifiers.
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^ Jackson exercised the veto on more occasions, a total of twelve times; frequently employed the pocket veto, by which a president withholds a bill, unsigned, until Congress adjourns; and expanded the grounds for vetoing a measure.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Force Bill and Compromise Tariff passed on March 1, 1833, and Jackson signed both.^ But most legislators considered the Compromise Tariff of 1833 as essential as the Force Bill, and by the beginning of March, both proposals had passed Congress.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Significantly, Jackson signed the Force Bill first, declaring that it gave "the death blow" to nullification.
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^ Only by skillfully mobilizing their forces did Jackson's followers narrowly succeed in passing the measure on 26 May 1830.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The South Carolina Convention then met and rescinded its nullification ordinance.^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816 – 1836 (New York, 1966), is a model historical study of this crisis.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was no time to savor the triumph, for even as the results were recorded, Jackson's attention was primarily focused on South Carolina and the issue of nullification.
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The Force Bill became moot because it was no longer needed.

Indian removal

Official White House portrait of Jackson.
Perhaps the most controversial aspect of Jackson's presidency was his policy regarding American Indians, which involved the ethnic cleansing of several Indian tribes.[37][38] .Jackson was a leading advocate of a policy known as Indian removal.^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than the Indian removal bill, Jackson's internal-improvements policy began the process of identifying Jackson's followers with a party platform.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson had been negotiating treaties and removal policies with Indian leaders for years before his election as president.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
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^ Over the eight years of his presidency, Jackson elaborated and refined his objections to internal-improvements projects.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many tribes and portions of tribes had been removed to Arkansas Territory and further west of the Mississippi River without the suffering and tragedies of what later became known as the Trail of Tears.^ In his first annual message of December 1829, Jackson proposed that an area west of the Mississippi River be set apart and guaranteed to the Indian tribes.
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Further, many white Americans advocated total extermination of the "savages," particularly those who had experienced frontier wars. .Jackson's support of removal policies can be best understood by examination of those prior cases he had personally negotiated, rather than those which took place in post-presidential years.^ While I am exposing vice, I will relate a circumstance which took place thirty years ago in Kentucky.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "We, the undersigned, bear testimony to the truth of Mr. Jackson's statements, being satisfied regarding these either by personal investigation of his case, or by the evidence of those who have done so, and on whose veracity we can depend.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his first year in office, Jackson removed more officials than all his predecessors combined, and the purges and partisan appointments doubtless contributed to a decline in ethical standards.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Nevertheless, Jackson is often held responsible for all which took place in the 1830s.
In his December 8, 1829, First Annual Message to Congress, Jackson stated:
This emigration should be voluntary, for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land. .But they should be distinctly informed that if they remain within the limits of the States they must be subject to their laws.^ Emigration to this new territory would be "voluntary," but those who remained in the East would be subject to the laws of the states in which they lived and would "ere long become merged in the mass of our population."
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^ Acting through a convention, a state could pronounce a federal law null and void within its limits while remaining in the Union.
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^ But southern state laws remained on the books, and federal law became, in the words of one historian, "largely a dead letter in the South."
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In return for their obedience as individuals they will without doubt be protected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they have improved by their industry.^ When in 1645 the ship of one Thomas Keyser and James Smith brought a cargo of negroes to Boston, they were heavily fined and compelled to return those negroes again to Africa.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although persuaded to disperse, a few Carolinians returned that night and took possession of the literature, which they burned the following evening on the Charleston parade grounds.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without a doubt it will be seen                          Some individuals acted mean;                          The eye of One is somewhat keen--                          He's ever watching for the fiend.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[39]
.Before his election as president, Jackson had been involved with the issue of Indian removal for over ten years.^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
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^ Indian removal showed that Jackson's goal of assuring a virtuous yet progressive society was circumscribed by race.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the outcry over removals, it is often forgotten that Jackson's presidency marked an era of creative administration.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The removal of the Native Americans to the west of the Mississippi River had been a major part of his political agenda in both the 1824 and 1828 presidential elections.^ In his first annual message of December 1829, Jackson proposed that an area west of the Mississippi River be set apart and guaranteed to the Indian tribes.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What next took place has become a part of American political folklore.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His warnings about concentrations of political and economic power and about the debilitating effects of corruption have become part of the American reform tradition.
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[40] .After his election he signed the Indian Removal Act into law in 1830. The Act authorized the President to negotiate treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
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^ The treaty with Great Britain reopened American trade with the British West Indies, while the agreement with Siam was the first between the United States and an Asiatic nation.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Determined to pursue removal with unprecedented vigor and directness, Jackson threatened that those Indians who remained behind would lose their tribal status and be considered individuals subject to state authority.
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.While frequently frowned upon in the North, and opposed by Jeremiah Evarts and Theodore Frelinghuysen, the Removal Act was popular in the South, where population growth and the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure on tribal lands.^ Meanwhile, economic growth, an increased and more widely dispersed population, and new government initiatives such as Indian removal strained old administrative arrangements.
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The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokees, culminating in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia) which ruled that Georgia could not impose its laws upon Cherokee tribal lands. Jackson is often quoted (regarding the decision) as having said, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" Whether he said it is disputed.[41]
.In any case, Jackson used the Georgia crisis to pressure Cherokee leaders to sign a removal treaty.^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
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^ Jackson's minister to France, William C. Rives, prodded and flattered the reluctant French government into signing a treaty in July 1831.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A small faction of Cherokees led by John Ridge negotiated the Treaty of New Echota with Jackson's representatives.^ But Jackson's statement represented a shift in emphasis of sufficient magnitude to mark a new era in Indian-white relations.
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Ridge was not a recognized leader of the Cherokee Nation, and this document was rejected by most Cherokees as illegitimate.[42] Over 15,000 Cherokees signed a petition in protest of the proposed removal; the list was ignored by the Supreme Court and the U.S. legislature, in part due to unfortunate and tragic delays and timing.[43] .The treaty was enforced by Jackson's successor, Van Buren, who ordered 7,000 armed troops to remove the Cherokees.^ By January 1830, Jackson had concluded that Van Buren should be his successor.
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^ Because Eaton, who was a Van Buren partisan, had refused to back Calhoun's presidential aspirations, Jackson alleged, Calhoun thought it necessary to destroy him, whatever the consequences to the administration.
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^ Along with Van Buren, the two Kentuckians constituted Jackson's inner circle of advisers, though others would from time to time join them.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the infighting between political factions, many Cherokees thought their appeals were still being considered until troops arrived.^ Until recently, Jackson was rarely considered a man with any coherent political views.
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[44] This abrupt and forced removal resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 Cherokees on the "Trail of Tears."
.By the 1830s, under constant pressure from settlers, each of the five southern tribes had ceded most of its lands, but sizable self-government groups lived in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida.^ Although Adams backed down and negotiated another treaty ceding the disputed land to the state, the incident highlighted the plight of the remaining southern tribes, particularly the Cherokee.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I regret such heathenism in a christian land, or under our form of government, which professes so much republicanism, and yet attempts to gag down a slave.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Jackson took office, relations between the southern tribes, the state governments, and the United States had reached a critical juncture.
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.All of these (except the Seminoles) had moved far in the coexistence with whites, and they resisted suggestions that they should voluntarily remove themselves.^ All who wish to secure a copy should avail themselves of this opportunity.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These things should be rebuked, yes they must be openly exposed to the world for the wicked are not fools, neither are they blind.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only about one-tenth of federal officeholders were removed during his presidency, and not all of these were for political reasons.
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Their nonviolent methods earned them the title the Five Civilized Tribes.[45]
A daguerreotype of Jackson, in the latter years of his presidency.
.In all, more than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the West during Jackson's administration.^ I can now read tolerably well, and write so well as to astonish all who know me, but none more than myself.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ More than that, he told me I would be in great danger of apprehension, by remaining with him, as he had much company and all would be curious to know who was in his employ.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a new era indeed in my existence, when I could carry home with me at night, and feel it all my own, more money than I had ever handled while a slave, during any single year of my life.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

A few Cherokees escaped forced relocation, or walked back afterwards, escaping to the high Smoky Mountains along the North Carolina and Tennessee border.[46]
.During the Jacksonian era, the administration bought about 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of Indian land for about $68 million and 32 million acres (130,000 km²) of western land.^ Indeed, he spent more money — about $10 million — than all previous administrations combined.
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^ It has been viewed as a euphemism for the spoils system and as a major culprit in the decline of administrative standards during the Jacksonian period.
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^ Ronald N. Satz, American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era (Lincoln, Nebr., 1974), is an excellent analysis of the many aspects of Indian removal.
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Jackson was criticized at the time for his role in these events, and the criticism has grown over the years. Remini characterizes the Indian Removal era as "one of the unhappiest chapters in American history."[47]

Attack and assassination attempt

Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching.
.The first attempt to do bodily harm to a President was against Jackson.^ Among Jackson's first responsibilities as president was the administration of government, including his selection of cabinet and other personnel.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to Jackson's presidency, the veto had been resorted to only nine times, generally on grounds of unconstitutionality or to protect the executive against legislative encroachment.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final vote showed a considerable degree of party loyalty, making it the first important measure of Jackson's presidency that distinguished the emerging Democratic party from the opposition.
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Jackson ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the Navy for embezzlement. On May 6, 1833, Jackson sailed on USS Cygnet to Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he was to lay the cornerstone on a monument near the grave of Mary Ball Washington, George Washington's mother. During a stopover near Alexandria, Virginia, Randolph appeared and struck the President. .He then fled the scene with several members of Jackson's party chasing him, including the well known writer Washington Irving.^ "I am very happy to say that Mr. Jackson is a member of my Church, and is well worthy of all confidence and regard.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Jackson decided not to press charges.[11]
.On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty with Great Britain reopened American trade with the British West Indies, while the agreement with Siam was the first between the United States and an Asiatic nation.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his message of December 1835 and in a special message the following January, he decried the right of any foreign power to dictate the language used by a president.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Jackson was leaving the Capitol out of the East Portico after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed and deranged housepainter from England, either burst from a crowd or stepped out from hiding behind a column and aimed a pistol at Jackson which misfired.^ Rumors circulated that Jackson might veto the Maysville bill, and a group of western Democrats appealed to Representative Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky to present their case for the road.
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^ The nullification crisis was precipitated by South Carolina's bitterness at Jackson's failure to urge a major downward revision of tariff rates.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the east portico of the Capitol, he delivered his inaugural address — inaudible except to those close by — in which he promised to be "animated by a proper respect" for the rights of the separate states.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol which also misfired. It has since been postulated that the moisture from the humid weather of the day contributed to the double misfiring.[48] .Lawrence was then restrained, with legend saying that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him.^ Jackson vigorously denied that others made policy for him, and his own closest aides agreed.
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^ Calhoun does not attack the President, he says; yet he makes him out a dupe!"
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Others present, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.
Richard Lawrence gave the doctors several reasons for the shooting. He had recently lost his job painting houses and somehow blamed Jackson. .He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty" (a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States) and that he "could not rise until the President fell."^ Jackson scored the bank for its "exclusive privileges," claiming that most of its stock was held by foreigners and Americans "chiefly of the richest class."
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^ Its capital was $35 million, partly subscribed by the United States government, and it was permitted to establish branches and issue bank notes.
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^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
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Finally, he informed his interrogators that he was a deposed English King—specifically, Richard III, dead since 1485—and that Jackson was merely his clerk. He was deemed insane, institutionalized, and never punished for his assassination attempt.
Afterward, due to curiosity concerning the double misfires, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. When these results were known, many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence which had protected the young nation. This national pride was a large part of the Jacksonian cultural myth fueling American expansion in the 1830s.

Supreme Court appointments

Major Supreme Court cases

States admitted to the Union

Family and personal life

Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson at age 77 or 78 (1844 or 1845).
Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he lived as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. .Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards.^ I here became acquainted with Henry Clay.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

At the time, Rachel Robards was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards, a man subject to irrational fits of jealous rage. .Due to Lewis Robards' temperament, the two were separated in 1790. According to Jackson, he married Rachel after hearing that Robards had obtained a divorce.^ Rachel, for example, was accused of bigamy in marrying Jackson while she was legally attached to another man.
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However, the divorce had never been completed, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson technically bigamous and therefore invalid. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson remarried in 1794.[49] However, there is evidence that Donelson had been living with Jackson and referred to herself as Mrs. Jackson before the petition for divorce was ever made.[50] It was not uncommon on the frontier for relationships to be formed and dissolved unofficially, as long as they were recognized by the community.
The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. Jackson fought 13 duels, many nominally over his wife's honor..January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Charles Dickinson, the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson's political opponents.^ Magazine article from: Biography Brinkley, Douglas January 1, 2009 700+ words Jackson , Andrew American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson's style of reaching out for political issues was never better illustrated than his attack on the Second Bank of the United States.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To be sure, key elements of Jackson's program, such as Indian removal and the gag rule, revealed that his egalitarian rhetoric applied only to whites.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the duel, fought over a horse-racing debt and an insult to his wife on May 30, 1806, Dickinson shot Jackson in the ribs before Jackson returned the fatal shot; Jackson allowed Dickinson to shoot first, knowing him to be an excellent shot, and as his opponent reloaded, Jackson shot, even as the bullet lodged itself in his chest.^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In May, Jackson announced to Congress the termination of the controversy, along with the information that the first four installments of the debt had been paid.
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^ "No; I am sure it was Jackson, for I waited some time for him to return on this side of the branch.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson had been wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he "rattled like a bag of marbles."[51] At times he would cough up blood, and he experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life.
.Rachel died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband's victory in the election and two months before Jackson taking office as President.^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
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^ As his presidency progressed, Jackson found further justification in having loyal friends in office.
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^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel's death because the marital scandal was brought up in the election of 1828. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams.^ The election of 1828 also hinted at Jackson's future program.
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^ The decision rested with the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams emerged victorious after receiving the support of Henry Clay.
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^ Georgia had clashed with the federal government when President John Quincy Adams refused to implement a controversial treaty removing the Creek Indians.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson had two adopted sons, Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Creek War.^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
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^ No matter that some Indians had adopted many of the trappings of white society, Jackson considered the tribes as obstacles to the progressive spread of a superior civilization over the continent.
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^ He found comfort in the presence of his family and relations, particularly the children of his adopted son, Andrew Jackson, Jr. The Hermitage again became a seat of hospitality for friends, as well as a shrine to the Democratic faithful who made pilgrimages to visit the General.
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Jackson had planned to have Lyncoya educated at West Point,[10] but he died of tuberculosis in 1828, at the age of sixteen.[52][53]
The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. .John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson and Andrew Jackson Donelson were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson, who died in 1804. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew.^ We further state that we believe said John Andrew Jackson was formerly a slave, and that his word may be relied upon, as we think him a man of integrity and truth.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ MARTHA S. 5 ANDERSON (ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born May 05, 1874 in Texas, and died March 31, 1936.
  • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

^ JOHN A. 6 MAY (SARAH JANE 5 ANDERSON, ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born March 31, 1883 in Texas, and died Unknown.
  • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. .They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father.^ They will not deal out death at the bar, though it may be the ruin of his own father, or a brother, or a neighbor, or any person that can bring three cents to degrade himself.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson's greatest influence on public affairs during his post-White House years came after Tyler assumed the presidency following Harrison's sudden death.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But they, where I came from, live like a pack of quarrelsome dogs,--who will and who shall,----!
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Donelson Jackson located at their home, The Hermitage.
.The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece Emily Donelson to serve as host at the White House.^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to one observer, the White House was inundated "by the rabble mob," which, in its enthusiasm for the new president and the refreshments, almost crushed Jackson to death while making a shambles of the house.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Magazine article from: Biography Brinkley, Douglas January 1, 2009 700+ words Jackson , Andrew American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 would run for Vice President on the American Party ticket.^ He asked William B. Lewis, who held a job in the Treasury Department, to live in the White House, and he retained his nephew Andrew Jackson Donelson as his private secretary, while Donelson's wife, Emily, served as White House hostess.
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^ The final vote showed a considerable degree of party loyalty, making it the first important measure of Jackson's presidency that distinguished the emerging Democratic party from the opposition.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But like other Jackson policies, removal clarified party lines and firmed the commitment of those who remained loyal.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat affair, and the two became estranged for over a year.^ Jackson's greatest influence on public affairs during his post-White House years came after Tyler assumed the presidency following Harrison's sudden death.
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^ The bank's charter continued in effect until 1836 and then permitted the institution two years more to wind up its affairs, during which time it could try to reverse its fate.
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They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House host. .Sarah Yorke Jackson, the wife of Andrew Jackson Jr., became cohost of the White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady.^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
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^ Along with Van Buren, the two Kentuckians constituted Jackson's inner circle of advisers, though others would from time to time join them.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
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Sarah took over all hosting duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in 1836. Jackson used Rip Raps as a retreat, visiting between August 19, 1829 through August 16, 1835.[54]
.Jackson remained influential in both national and state politics after retiring to The Hermitage in 1837. Though a slave-holder, Jackson was a firm advocate of the federal union of the states, and declined to give any support to talk of secession.^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
  • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even more objectionable to Jackson was a provision that distributed the surplus federal revenue to the states.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Jackson was a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch (1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61. He had penetrating deep blue eyes. .Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung which was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes even made his whole body shake.^ Whatever his reasons, Jackson's third annual message, delivered in December 1831, was more modest than his earlier ones.
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^ According to one observer, the White House was inundated "by the rabble mob," which, in its enthusiasm for the new president and the refreshments, almost crushed Jackson to death while making a shambles of the house.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only about one-tenth of federal officeholders were removed during his presidency, and not all of these were for political reasons.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After retiring to Nashville, he enjoyed eight years of retirement and died at The Hermitage on June 8, 1845, at the age of 78, of chronic tuberculosis, dropsy, and heart failure.^ Jackson was almost seventy years old when he retired to the Hermitage.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his will, Jackson left his entire estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr., except for specifically enumerated items that were left to various other friends and family members.^ He found comfort in the presence of his family and relations, particularly the children of his adopted son, Andrew Jackson, Jr. The Hermitage again became a seat of hospitality for friends, as well as a shrine to the Democratic faithful who made pilgrimages to visit the General.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The arrangement also left Jackson entirely free to make the final judgment and assume full responsibility for a decision.
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^ They were almost entirely the result of his adopted son's bad business judgment and immaturity.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.About a year after retiring the presidency,[55] Andrew Jackson became a member of the First Presbyterian Church in Nashville.^ Over the eight years of his presidency, Jackson elaborated and refined his objections to internal-improvements projects.
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^ For a different view of Jackson's presidency, see Donald B. Cole, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson (Lawrence, Kans., 1993).
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Jackson retired from the White House, he had significantly altered the office of the president and the course of American history.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Memorials

Jackson Statue near the White House in Washington, D.C..
.
Jackson statue in downtown Jacksonville.
  • Jackson's portrait appears on the United States twenty-dollar bill.^ Over the period of Jackson's presidency, the United States ratified some seventy treaties, affecting approximately forty-six thousand Indians.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    He has appeared on $5, $10, $50, and $10,000 bills in the past, as well as a Confederate $1,000 bill.
  • Jackson's image is on the Black Jack and many other postage stamp.
  • Memorials to Jackson include a set of four identical equestrian statues located in different parts of the country. .One is in Jackson Square in New Orleans.^ According to one observer, the White House was inundated "by the rabble mob," which, in its enthusiasm for the new president and the refreshments, almost crushed Jackson to death while making a shambles of the house.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One close Jackson associate put the issue squarely when he judged Calhoun a "madman" if he promoted the maneuvers against Eaton, and not a wise man if he does not put an end to it."
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    Another is in Nashville on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol. .A third is in Washington, D.C. near the White House.^ School-house near Mr. Manville's, to a dense congregation, twice, and a third time in the evening in the Martin district.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    The fourth is in Downtown Jacksonville, Florida. .Equestrian statues of Jackson have also been erected elsewhere, including one with Jackson on horseback together with seated figures of James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson on the State Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Numerous counties and cities are named after him, including Jacksonville, Florida; Jackson, Louisiana; Jackson, Michigan; Jackson, Mississippi; Jackson County, Mississippi; Jackson, Missouri; Jackson County, Oregon; Jacksonville, North Carolina; Jackson, Tennessee; Jackson County, Florida; Jackson Parish, Louisiana; Jackson County, Missouri; and Jackson County, Ohio.
  • Andrew Jackson State Park is located on the site of his birthplace in Lancaster County, South Carolina.^ He had then a son named West, and after ten years he returned to South Carolina.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DORTHENE 7 ANDERSON (WILLIAM JACKSON 6 , MARION FRANKLIN 5 , ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born January 03, 1926 in Lynn County, Texas, and died September 01, 2001 in Key Largo, Monroe County, Florida.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    ^ I, John Andrew Jackson, once a slave in the United States, have seen and heard all this, therefore I publish it.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The park features a museum about his childhood, and a bronze statue of Jackson on horseback by sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington.
  • Two cities located in the suburbs in the eastern part of Nashville, TN, near the Hermitage, are named for Jackson and his home: Old Hickory, Tennessee, and Hermitage, Tennessee.
  • In Nashville, Old Hickory Boulevard, named for Jackson, is a historic road that encircles the city.^ Hickory poles, symbolically connecting Jackson to the liberty poles of the revolutionary era, were erected "in every village, as well as upon the corners of many city streets."
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    ^ At the same time, he accumulated significant amounts of property, establishing himself as a member of the Tennessee elite by purchasing a plantation, first at Hunter's Hill and then, in 1804, at the Hermitage, near Nashville.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ COMMITTED to the Leon County Jail, on the 18th inst., a negro man named COOK, about 75 years old.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Originally the road, aided by ferries, formed an unbroken loop around the city. Today, it is interrupted by lakes and rerouted sections. .It is the longest road in the city.
  • One of the most popular lakes in middle Tennessee is Old Hickory Lake.
  • Andrew Jackson High School, in Lancaster County, SC, is named after him and uses the title of "Hickory Log" for its Annual photo book.
  • The section of U.S. Route 74 between Charlotte, North Carolina and Wilmington, North Carolina is named the Andrew Jackson Highway.
  • The U.S. Army installation Fort Jackson in Columbia, South Carolina, is named in his honor.
  • Fort Jackson, built before the Civil War on the Mississippi River for the defense of New Orleans, was named in his honor.
  • USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619), a Lafayette-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, which served from 1963 to 1989.
  • Jackson Park, the third-largest park in Chicago, is named for him.
  • Jackson Park, a public golf course in Seattle, Washington is named for him.
  • Andrew Jackson Centre, the Andrew Jackson Cottage and US Rangers Centre is a "traditional thatched Ulster–Scots farmhouse built in 1750s" and "includes the home of Jackson's parents.^ I used often to work at sawing wood during the night, and it did not seem such a hardship as when I did the same in South Carolina.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (New York, 1993), provides a brief and useful introduction to the process of Indian removal.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, it was the portions of Jackson's veto messages dealing with nonconstitutional matters that generally contained the most authentic examples of Jacksonian rhetoric and had the greatest popular appeal.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    It has been restored to its original state."[5]

Andrew Jackson on U.S. Postage Issues

Issue of 1870
Issue of 1883
Issue of 1903
Issue of 1938

See also

References

  1. ^ Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), p. 8, 35.
  2. ^ Finkelman, Paul (2006). "Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845)," in Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties, 3 vols., Routledge (CRC Press), ISBN 978-0-415-94342-0, vol. 2 (G-Q), p. 832–833.
  3. ^ See also: Remini 1988, The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal, and Slavery.
  4. ^ "Andrew Jackson". Information Services Branch, State Library of North Carolina. http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/bio/public/jackson.htm. 
  5. ^ a b "Andrew Jackson Cottage and US Rangers Centre". Northern Ireland Tourist Board. http://www.discovernorthernireland.com/product.aspx?ProductID=2801. 
  6. ^ Gullan, Harold I. (c2004). First fathers: the men who inspired our Presidents. Hoboken, N.J. : J: John Wiley & Sons. pp. xii, 308 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LCCN 2003-020625. ISBN 0471465976. OCLC 53090968. http://books.google.com/books?id=YSt1AAAAMAAJ&q=%22Andrew+Jackson,+Sr.%22+-inpublisher:icon&dq=%22Andrew+Jackson,+Sr.%22+-inpublisher:icon&as_brr=0&ei=UX5PS8StKp22NM2Q_JsN&cd=9. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  7. ^ Remini, Robert (2008-11-02). "Andrew Jackson". Palgrave Macmillan. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/andrewjackson.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  8. ^ "Museum of the Waxhaws and Andrew Jackson Memorial". http://www.perigee.net/~mwaxhaw/faq.html. Retrieved 2008-01-13.  Controversies about Jackson's birthplace went far beyond the dispute between North and South Carolina. Because his origins were humble and obscure compared to those of his predecessors, wild rumors abounded about Jackson's past. Joseph Nathan Kane, in his almanac-style book Facts About the Presidents, lists no fewer than eight localities, including two foreign countries, that were mentioned in the popular press as Jackson's "real" birthplace – including Ireland, where both of Jackson's parents were born.
  9. ^ "Andrew Jackson". Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/jackson. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  10. ^ a b Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. pp. 105. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  11. ^ a b Paletta, Lu Ann; Worth, Fred L (1988). The World Almanac of Presidential Facts. World Almanac Books. ISBN 0345348885. 
  12. ^ Jackson, Andrew, (1767 – 1845),. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 
  13. ^ Remini (2000), p.51 cites 1820 census; mentions later figures up to 150 without noting a source.
  14. ^ http://www.thehermitage.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=36&Itemid=49|The Hermitage
  15. ^ Jackson Purchase in the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
  16. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1999) The battle of New Orleans, New York: Penguin Books. p. 285
  17. ^ Remini, 118.
  18. ^ Ogg, 66.
  19. ^ Johnson, Allen (1920). "Jefferson and His Colleagues". http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/grizzard/johnson/johnson13.html. Retrieved 2006-10-11. 
  20. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1995). The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton. University of Missouri Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0826210341. 
  21. ^ Adams, Henry. The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), 599.
  22. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1995). The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton. University of Missouri Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0826210341. 
  23. ^ Nickels, Ilona; "How did Republicans pick the elephant, and Democrats the donkey, to represent their parties?"; "Capitol Questions" feature at c-span.com; September 5, 2000
  24. ^ "Historical Debt Outstanding - Annual 1791 - 1849". Public Debt Reports. Treasury Direct. http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/pd/histdebt/histdebt_histo1.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  25. ^ Watkins, Thayer. "The Depression of 1837-1844". San José State University Department of Economics. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/dep1837.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  26. ^ a b "Andrew Jackson's First Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29471. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  27. ^ "Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29472. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  28. ^ "Andrew Jackson's Third Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29473. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  29. ^ The Spoils System, as the rotation in office system was called, did not originate with Jackson. It originated with New York governors in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (most notably George Clinton and DeWitt Clinton). Thomas Jefferson brought it to the Executive Branch when he replaced Federalist office-holders after becoming President. The Spoils System versus the Merit System. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  30. ^ Jacksonian Democracy: The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  31. ^ a b Digital History
  32. ^ Sparknotes
  33. ^ Ogg, 164.
  34. ^ Martin Van Buren biography at Encyclopedia Americana
  35. ^ Parton, James (2006). Life of Andrew Jackson. 3. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 381–385. ISBN 1428639292. . First published in 1860.
  36. ^ Syrett, 36. See also: "President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December 10, 1832". http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/proclamations/jack01.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  37. ^ In particular, see Schama (2008) p. 325-326
  38. ^ For an attack on Jackson see Cave (2003). 65(6): 1330–1353. For a defense see Remini (2001).
  39. ^ "Andrew Jackson: First Annual Message". Presidency.ucsb.edu. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29471. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  40. ^ Remini,"Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822–1832" pp. 117, 200
  41. ^ Cave (2003); Remini (1988).
  42. ^ "Historical Documents - The Indian Removal Act of 1830". Historicaldocuments.com. http://www.historicaldocuments.com/IndianRemovalAct.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  43. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html PBS
  44. ^ http://www.synaptic.bc.ca/ejournal/jackson.htm Indian Removal
  45. ^ PBS: Judgement Day. “Indian removal.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html (accessed January 12, 2008).
  46. ^ Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians - History
  47. ^ Remini (2001).
  48. ^ Jon Grinspan. "Trying to Assassinate Andrew Jackson". http://www.americanheritage.com/people/articles/web/20070130-richard-lawrence-andrew-jackson-assassination-warren-r-davis.shtml. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  49. ^ Remini, 17–25
  50. ^ Meacham, Jon (2008). American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. New York: Random House. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-4000-6325-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=FYFsufPTrnEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=American+Lion:+Andrew+Jackson+in+the+White+House&ei=C2EUS_uLJJrAywTgndiJDQ&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  51. ^ Wallace, Chris (2005). Character : Profiles in Presidential Courage. New York, NY: Rugged Land. ISBN 1-59071-054-1. 
  52. ^ Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson. From: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
  53. ^ Rachel Jackson. From: nndb.com. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
  54. ^ Meacham, page 109; 315
  55. ^ Wilentz, Sean (2005). Andrew Jackson. Macmillan. pp. 160. 

Secondary sources

Biography

  • Brands, H. W. Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (2005), scholarly biography emphasizing military career excerpt and text search
  • Brustein, Andrew. The Passions of Andrew Jackson. (2003). online review by Donald B. Cole
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapter on Jackson. online in ACLS e-books
  • James, Marquis. The Life of Andrew Jackson Combines two books: The Border Captain and Andrew Jackson: Portrait of a President, 1933, 1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1938.
  • Meacham, Jon. .American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (2009), excerpt and text search
  • Parton, James.^ JAMES NORMAN 7 COATS (SARAH LINNIE 6 ANDERSON, MARION FRANKLIN 5 , ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born Private.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    .Life of Andrew Jackson (1860).^ SARAH JANE 5 ANDERSON (ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born January 1860 in Texas, and died Unknown in Chillicothe, Hardeman County, Texas.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    .Volume I, Volume III.
  • Remini, Robert V. The Life of Andrew Jackson.^ ROBERT ALVIN 7 CRUMP (JOSEPH LEE 6 , FRANCES MARIAH 5 ANDERSON, ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born Private.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    Abridgment of Remini's 3-volume monumental biography, (1988). .
    • Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767–1821 (1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822–1832 (1981); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833–1845 (1984).
  • Remini, Robert V. The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal, and Slavery (1988).
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars (2001).
  • Remini, Robert V. "Andrew Jackson," American National Biography (2000).
  • Wilentz, Sean.^ Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ROBERT ALVIN 7 CRUMP (JOSEPH LEE 6 , FRANCES MARIAH 5 ANDERSON, ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born Private.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    Andrew Jackson (2005) short biography, stressing Indian removal and slavery issues excerpt and text search

Specialized studies

  • Cave, Alfred A.. Abuse of Power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (2003).
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922).
  • Hammond, Bray. Andrew Jackson's Battle with the "Money Power" (1958) ch 8, of his Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (1954); Pulitzer prize.
  • Meacham, Jon (2008). American Lion. Random House, Inc.. ISBN 9781400063253. .http://books.google.com/books?id=FYFsufPTrnEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=American+Lion&ei=HYYVS9LlG5vwNKGN4eMK#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  • Latner Richard B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1820–1837 (1979), standard survey.
  • Ogg, Frederic Austin ; The Reign of Andrew Jackson: A Chronicle of the Frontier in Politics 1919. short popular survey online at Gutenberg.
  • Parsons, Lynn H. The Birth of Modern Politics: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the Election of 1828 (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Ratner, Lorman A. Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture (1997).
  • Rowland, Dunbar.^ JOHN A. 6 MAY (SARAH JANE 5 ANDERSON, ANDREW JACKSON 4 , BENJAMIN 3 , JOSHUA 2 , ABRAHAM 1 ) was born March 31, 1883 in Texas, and died Unknown.
    • Descendants of Andrew Jackson Anderson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: General]

    Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813–1815 (1926).
  • Schama, Simon. The American Future: A History (2008).
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. The Age of Jackson. (1945). Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for History. history of ideas of the era.
  • Syrett, Harold C. Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the American Tradition (1953). on Jacksonian Democracy

Historiography

  • Bugg Jr. James L. ed. Jacksonian Democracy: Myth or Reality? (1952), excerpts from scholars.
  • Mabry, Donald J., Short Book Bibliography on Andrew Jackson, Historical Text Archive.
  • Sellers, Charles Grier, Jr. "Andrew Jackson versus the Historians," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 4. (March, 1958), pp. 615–634. in JSTOR.
  • Taylor, George Rogers, ed. Jackson Versus Biddle: The Struggle over the Second Bank of the United States (1949), excerpts from primary and secondary sources.
  • Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age (1962) how writers saw him.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
John Quincy Adams
President of the United States
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Succeeded by
Martin Van Buren
Government offices
New title Military Governor of Florida
1821
Succeeded by
William P. Duval
as Territorial Governor
United States Senate
Preceded by
John Williams
United States Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee
1823–1825
Served alongside: John H. Eaton
Succeeded by
Hugh Lawson White
Preceded by
William Cocke
United States Senator (Class 1) from Tennessee
1797–1798
Served alongside: Joseph Anderson
Succeeded by
Daniel Smith
Preceded by
John Williams
Chairman of the Senate
Military Affairs Committee

1823 – 1825
Succeeded by
William Henry Harrison
United States House of Representatives
New district Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's At-large congressional district

1796–1797
Succeeded by
William C. C. Claiborne
Party political offices
New political party Democratic Party presidential candidate
1828, 1832
Succeeded by
Martin Van Buren
Preceded by
James Monroe
Democratic-Republican Party
presidential candidate
¹

1824
Party broke up
Honorary titles
Preceded by
James Madison
Oldest U.S. President still living
June 28, 1836 – June 8, 1845
Succeeded by
John Quincy Adams
Preceded by
Richard Stockton
Youngest Member of the United States Senate
1796 – 1797
Succeeded by
Ray Greene
Notes and references
1. The Democratic-Republican Party split in 1824, fielding four separate candidates: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and William Harris Crawford.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Take time to deliberate; but when the time for action arrives, stop thinking and go in.
.Andrew Jackson (15 March 17678 June 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.^ Andrew Jackson served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
  • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Andrew Jackson We hear Andrew Jackson's name mentioned almost as much for the Battle of New Orleans as for being President.
  • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackson died on June 8, 1845.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • The individual who refuses to defend his rights when called by his Government, deserves to be a slave, and must be punished as an enemy of his country and friend to her foe.^ The finger of slander may now at you point, That finger will soon lose the strength of its joint; And those who now plead for the rights of the slave, Will soon be acknowledged the good and the brave.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roosevelt's London and Wall Street enemies asserted that men have no right to progress, that government must not protect wages or otherwise interfere with colonial subjugation, looting, and backwardness.

    .
    • "Proclamation to the people of Louisiana" from Mobile (1814-09-21)
  • The brave man inattentive to his duty, is worth little more to his country, than the coward who deserts her in the hour of danger.^ And while he passionately opposed a federal bank in the belief that it was his duty to protect the masses from the rich and corrupt, he displayed precious little compassion for the masses who were black or American Indians.
    • Examining The Fiery Legacy Of Andrew Jackson : NPR 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]
    • Examining The Fiery Legacy Of Andrew Jackson : NPR 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

    ^ More than that, he was prepared to alter fundamentally the whole basis of presidential power by resting his authority directly upon the people.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And still they say that the slaves are better off than the working people in free countries, which is as big a lie as ever was told.
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Do they think that I am such a damned fool as to think myself fit for President of the United States?^ Presidents of the United States (1789-2007) .
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They remembered him as the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was also military governor of Florida, commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans , a founder of the modern Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    No, sir; I know what I am fit for. .I can command a body of men in a rough way, but I am not fit to be President.^ His punishment was greater than his crime, which had been not against morality, but against a powerful body of men who never did any harm, but rather much good in the way of charities.

    .
    • As told to H.M. Brackenridge, Jackson's secretary, in 1821; quoted by James Parton, The Life of Andrew Jackson (1860), vol.^ Life and times of Andrew Jackson.

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson [electronic resource] / by James Parton .

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson, complete in one volume / by Marquis James ...

      II, ch. .XXVI (Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1888), page 354. Parton cites his source as H.M. Brackenridge, Letters, page 8.
  • As long as our government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of persons and of property, liberty of conscience, and of the press, it will be worth defending.
  • The decision of the Supreme court has fell still born, and they find that it cannot coerce Georgia to yield to its mandate.^ His idea of making government decisions based in the opinions of the people instead of the wealthy and powerful became known as Jacksonian Democracy.
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We can regain control of our government the way it should have been in the first place before Bankers kept hold and gained more power.
    • President Andrew Jackson Vs Jewish Bankers! | Real Zionist News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the same time, to secure these rights they are satisfied that Government should be instituted.

    • Letter (7 April 1832) on the ruling in Worcester v. Georgia
  • The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.
    • Said to Martin Van Buren (1832-07-08) and quoted in The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren, published in Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1918, vol. II (1920), ed. John Clement Fitzpatrick, ch. XLIII (p. .625)
    • Referring to the Second Bank of the United States
  • It is maintained by some that the bank is a means of executing the constitutional power “to coin money and regulate the value thereof.” Congress have established a mint to coin money and passed laws to regulate the value thereof.^ Jackson opposed renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.

    ^ "The laws of the United States must be executed," he proclaimed.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ January 7 1817: Congress creates the Second Bank of the United States .
    • President Andrew Jackson Vs Jewish Bankers! | Real Zionist News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The money so coined, with its value so regulated, and such foreign coins as Congress may adopt are the only currency known to the Constitution.^ Our only safety is in pursuing a steady course of firm restriction - and I have no doubt that such a course will ultimately lead to restoration of the currency and the recharter of the Bank."
    • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The public money was deposited in this Bank; it could be removed by the Secretary of the Treasury, but by him only on giving his reasons to Congress.

    ^ It was immediately vetoed by the President, on the ground that the Bank was an odious monopoly, with nearly a third of its stock held by foreigners, and not only odious, but dangerous as a money-power to bribe Congress and influence elections.

    .But if they have other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be exercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation. If the bank be established for that purpose, with a charter unalterable without its consent, Congress have parted with their power for a term of years, during which the Constitution is a dead letter.^ In 1816, Congress had granted the bank a 20-year charter.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.
    • Andrew Jackson on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thus, a major activity of Jackson's presidency was his destruction of the Second Bank of the United States, a private bank which had been chartered by Congress and which exercised strong power over the American economy.
    • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .It is neither necessary nor proper to transfer its legislative power to such a bank, and therefore unconstitutional.^ Could he have fought for legislative mini-changes (Clintonesque) to curb certain powers, such as bidding out government banking needs.
    • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Veto Message Regarding the Bank of the United States [1] (1832-07-10)
    • Often paraphrased as: If Congress has the right under the constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.
  • It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes.^ On July 10, 1832, Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States.

    ^ The Second National Bank of the United States was the most powerful bank in the nation.
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It could stop state banks from issuing too much paper money.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    .Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government.
    Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions.^ As American institutions - media, education, government etc.

    ^ Under pressure of a rapidly expanding agricultural and commercial frontier, Jackson's respect for states' rights and reduced federal expenditures produced an arrangement that was neither just nor humane.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the sharp-shooters from the backwoods of Tennessee under Carroll, and from Kentucky under Coffee, who fought with every advantage, protected by their mud defences, were equally confident.

    .In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society — the farmers, mechanics, and laborers — who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government.^ It should not add "artificial distinctions" to the inevitable natural and just differences among men and "make the rich richer and the potent more powerful."
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the same time, to secure these rights they are satisfied that Government should be instituted.

    ^ Government, Jackson proclaimed, should confine itself "to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor."
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. .If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.
  • The wisdom of man never yet contrived a system of taxation that would operate with perfect equality.^ Government, Jackson proclaimed, should confine itself "to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor."
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.
    • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During his time in office (1829-37), Jackson took a stand on several contentious issues, among them the treatment of native Americans (he supported states' rights in relocating them to the west) and the Bank of the United States (he vetoed its charter).
    • Andrew Jackson, The American Presidents Series, Sean Wilentz, Book - Barnes & Noble 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • While I concur with the Synod in the efficacy of prayer, and in the hope that our country may be preserved from the attacks of pestilence "and that the judgments now abroad in the earth may be sanctified to the nations," I am constrained to decline the designation of any period or mode as proper for the public manifestation of this reliance.^ May 10, 2009 at 12:10 a.m.

    ^ Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the " nullification crisis ", or "secession crisis", of 1828–1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs.
    • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And in the way of conclusion I allude to some facts upon which you may rely, and I hope every person will read and understand what God demands.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I could not do otherwise without transcending the limits prescribed by the Constitution for the President and without feeling that I might in some degree disturb the security which religion nowadays enjoys in this country in its complete separation from the political concerns of the General Government.
    • Response to request from a church organization of New York, on refusing to proclaim a national day of fasting and prayer, in relation to an outbreak of cholera.^ William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776 – 1854 (New York, 1990), contains numerous insights about slavery and politics.
      • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The response in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and elsewhere was magnificent.
      • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The term "spoils system" was introduced in 1832 by Senator William L. Marcy of New York, who proclaimed, "To the victor belong the spoils."
      • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Correspondence 4:447 (1832); quoted in A Subaltern's Furlough : Descriptive of Scenes in Various Parts of the United States, Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia during the Summer and Autumn of 1832 (1833) by Edward Thomas Coke, Ch.^ While government should aid the private sector to make growing jobs less burdensome, it can also be the initiator, at least while in extreme economic times as we are in now, by setting up large scale job creation programs similar to what the United States did as part of the New Deal during the Great Depression.

      ^ On November 24, 1832, a special session of the South Carolina state legislature passed an ordinance of nullification, which declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null in the state as of February 1, 1833.

      ^ On July 10, 1832, Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States.

      .9, p.145
  • Hemans gallows ought to be the fate of all such ambitious men who would involve their country in civil wars, and all the evils in its train that they might reign & ride on its whirlwinds & direct the Storm-- The free people of these United States have spoken, and consigned these wicked demagogues to their proper doom.^ Brands argues that the populist Jackson changed the very nature of the presidency, vetoing more bills than all six of his predecessors combined; thwarting the bank of the United States; and in a dramatic test of wills, preparing for civil war when South Carolina threatened to secede over tariffs.
    • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (9780385507387): H.W. Brands: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Men should all spurn such base, wicked, abusive, oppressive wretches.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By whipping men, and by driving women, under all circumstances, destitute of the hemp linen it would take to make a rich woman what they call a negro towel.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Regarding the resolution of the Nullification Crisis.^ In the Nullification Crisis he made it crystal clear that he regarded nullification or secession as an impossibility and would use the military against South Carolina if it attempted to undertake either.
      • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (9780385507387): H.W. Brands: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      Letter to Andrew I. Crawford. .1 May 1833.
  • I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States.^ This bank was called the Second Bank of the United States.
    • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jackson had less control over the pet banks than he had had over the Bank of the United States.

    ^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country.^ We hope you’ll watch it, share it with your friends between now and Saturday, and learn more about a country that is realizing the potential of Africa.

    ^ The country was in the midst of an inflationary surge propelled by an influx of silver and by overbanking and speculation, and the pet banks were doing their share in dangerously expanding credit.
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the Bank. .You tell me that if I take the deposits from the Bank and annul its charter I shall ruin ten thousand families.^ You tell me the law takes it.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak; for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Couldn't do it, I tell you--I never saw such a nigger--the very devil could not take him alone."
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! .Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin!^ He said, "I don't care, I am going to give you fifty lashes."
    • John Andrew Jackson. The Experience of a Slave inSouth Carolina. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I'm glad the courses are challenging because I'm staking my future on the validity of a degree from AJU. If you want an easy degree I'd go look elsewhere.

    ^ It is a time when you should be with your family and give thanks.
    • Jackson Journal 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: General]

    .You are a den of vipers and thieves.^ "You are a den of vipers.
    • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are a den of thieves vipers, and I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout you out.” — .
    • President Andrew Jackson Vs Jewish Bankers! | Real Zionist News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.realzionistnews.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I have determined to rout you out and, by the Eternal,
    (bringing his fist down on the table) I will rout you out.
    • From the original minutes of the Philadelphia committee of citizens sent to meet with President Jackson, February 1834, according to Stan V. Henkels, Andrew Jackson and the Bank of the United States, 1928
  • It was settled by the Constitution, the laws, and the whole practice of the government that the entire executive power is vested in the President of the United States.^ Jackson had less control over the pet banks than he had had over the Bank of the United States.

    ^ Jackson vs. Biddle's bank; the struggle over the second Bank of the United States.

    ^ The Second National Bank of the United States was the most powerful bank in the nation.
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Message of Protest to the United States Senate (1834-04-15)
  • But you must remember, my fellow-citizens, that eternal vigilance by the people is the price of liberty, and that you must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing.^ I wish you to remember that I am in my right mind.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Protest of the President of the United States against the recent unconstitutional proceedings of the Senate of the United States [electronic resource] .

    ^ On his return in 1797, a vacancy occurring in the United States Senate, he was elected senator, on the strength of his popularity as representative.

Attributed

.
  • Our Federal Union!^ Jackson stood up to make a toast, raised his glass, looked at Calhoun, and solemnly declared: "Our Federal Union: It must be preserved."
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Federal Constitution must be obeyed, states rights preserved, our national debt must be paid, direct taxes and loans avoided, and the Federal Union preserved.

    ^ Looking directly at Calhoun, he proposed the toast Our Federal Union!

    it must be preserved!
    • Toast at a celebration of Thomas Jefferson's birthday (1830-04-13); as quoted in Public Men and Events from the Commencement of Mr. Monroe's Administration, in 1817, to the Close of Mr. Fillmore's Administration, in 1853 (1875) by Nathan Sargent
  • John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!
    • Attributed in Horace Greely (1865), The American Conflict, as a reaction to the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v. .Georgia (1832)
  • Heaven will be no heaven to me if I do not meet my wife there.
    • Statement shortly before his death, as quoted in Life of Andrew Jackson (1860) by James Parton, p.^ Life and times of Andrew Jackson.

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson [electronic resource] / by James Parton .

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson, complete in one volume / by Marquis James ...

      679
  • Oh, do not cry. .Be good children, and we shall all meet in Heaven...^ Be good children, and we shall all meet in Heaven."
    • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On his deathbed he said, My dear children, and friends, and servants, I hope and trust to meet you all in Heaven, both white and blackboth white and black.

    ^ And if the fact is established, I ask if it is not time we were all awake and acting against all these heaven daring and God dishonoring outrages which repuditaes all good.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I want to meet you all, white and black, in Heaven.
    • Last recorded words, to his grand-children and his servants, as quoted in The National Preacher (1845) by Austin Dickinson, p.^ Be good children, and we shall all meet in Heaven."
      • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ On his deathbed he said, My dear children, and friends, and servants, I hope and trust to meet you all in Heaven, both white and blackboth white and black.

      ^ I may be wrong in my liberal views, but I believe that I am right, though your slaves are all well near yellow or white as you may call them.
      • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      192
  • Corporations have neither bodies to kick nor souls to damn.
    • This is widely attributed to Jackson on the internet, but in research done for Wikiquote, no published source has been found. .Similar remarks, "Corporations have neither bodies to be punished, nor souls to be condemned, they therefore do as they like."^ What beautiful instruction we have, but Oh, how little it is regarded by those hard drinking oppressors; they are not honest neither are they sober, therefore you have not any moral principle.
      • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      and "It has no soul to damn and no body to kick." have been attributed to .Edward Thurlow, 1st Baron Thurlow (9 December 1731 – 12 September 1806).
  • Every good citizen makes his country's honor his own, and cherishes it not only as precious but as sacred.^ "It is not our own citizens only who are to receive the bounty of our Government.
    • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I will request one thing more in the defence of my own country--that is, let every one loose his own slaves in the fear of God!
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By 1836, most banks had only 1 gold dollar in reserve for every 10 or 12 paper dollars in circulation.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    He is willing to risk his life in its defense and its conscious that he gains protection while he gives it. .
    • Excellent Quotations for Home and School Selected for the use of Teachers and Pupils (1890) by Julia B. Hoitt, p.218
  • Peace, above all things, is to be desired, but blood must sometimes be spilled to obtain it on equable and lasting terms.^ The exams are very difficult and you must study to be able to pass or obtain your desired results.

    ^ If you have any desire to be happy in this life, and rejoice with Jesus Christ our Savior, and with all his saints, who have washed their robes and made them white in his blood you .
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Page 57 must repent of all these things and turn to God and live a new life.
    • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted in Many Thoughts of Many Minds: A Treasury of Quotations from the Literature of Every Land and Every Age (1896) edited by Louis Klopsch, p.^ You put into words so many of the thoughts in my mind.
      • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Andrew Sullivan on Michael Jackson « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

      209
  • It is a damn poor mind indeed which can't think of at least two ways to spell any word.
    • Sometimes reported as having been a retort to statements of his political rival, John Quincy Adams, who had boycotted Harvard Universitiy's awarding of a Doctorate of Laws degree to Jackson in 1833, declaring "I would not be present to witness her [Harvard's] disgrace in conferring her highest literary honors on a barbarian who could not write a sentence of grammar and could hardly spell his own name." Quoted in News Reporting and Writing 4th edition (1987) by M. Mencher.
      .Unsourced variant: Never trust a man who has only one way to spell a word.
  • Take time to deliberate; but when the time for action arrives, stop thinking and go in.
    • As quoted in No Ordinary Moments: A Peaceful Warrior's Guide to Daily Life (1992) by Dan Millman
  • According to Augustus C. Buell, Jackson met with William Allen, Thomas Benton, and Francis Blair at Blair's house, just days after leaving the presidency, and told them “he had lived his whole life in plain sight of the public and the people, hiding nothing, simulating nothing, confessing nothing, extenuating nothing and regretting nothing—except that he could never get a chance to shoot Clay or hang Calhoun.” Note, however, that Buell was a very unreliable historian, notorious for inventing quotes.^ Jackson was the only president who ever paid off the national debt.

    ^ But he killed a man in only one.
    • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In fact, Jackson was one of those people who was faithful to you no matter what.
    • American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (Hardcover) by Jon Meacham - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Augustus C. Buell, History of Andrew Jackson, pioneer, patriot, soldier, politician, president (1904), 2:363.
    • Variant: My only two regrets in life are that I did not hang Calhoun and shoot Clay.
  • You are uneasy; you never sailed with me before, I see.^ Life and times of Andrew Jackson.

    ^ "You never sailed with me before, I see."
    • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are viewing a preview of Andrew Jackson .
    • Andrew Jackson 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Remark to an elderly gentleman who was sailing with Jackson down Chesapeake Bay in an old steamboat, and who exhibited a little fear.^ The gentleman who made the above remarks was deacon Crofoot.
      • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ There was much outcry among officeholders and opposition spokesmen who feared a mass beheading of all who would not swear fealty to Old Hickory.
      • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ As the steamboat conveyed the party down the Chesapeake, an incident occurred that showed Jackson's unflagging self-assurance.
      • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      .Life of Jackson (Parton).^ Life of Andrew Jackson, by James Parton.

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson [electronic resource] / by James Parton .

      ^ Life of Andrew Jackson / By James Parton.

      Vol. iii. p. 493.

Misattributed

.
  • Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he believes right, but it takes a slightly better man to acknowledge instantly and without reservation that he is in error.
    • General Peyton C. March, as quoted in Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service (2004) by Randy Okray and Thomas Lubnau II, p.^ S. thought the public bound to support any man who will vindicate the claim of God, and if they were not robbers he believed it would be right to give 20 shillings.
      • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      25
  • Never take counsel of your fears. .
    • Quoted as "a favorite maxim" of Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson in Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson by His Widow, Mary Anna Jackson, Prentice Press/Courier Journal, 1895; digitized August 10, 2006), ch.^ Downloads: 0 Jackson Journal 10.29.09 Views: 0 .
      • Jackson Journal 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Quoted in Burke Davis, Old Hickory: A Life of Andrew Jackson (New York: The Dial Press, 1977), p.

      XIII (p. 264)
  • No one need think that the world can be ruled without blood. The civil sword shall and must be red and bloody.
    • Martin Luther, Von Kaufhandlung und Wucher, 1524, (Vol. XV, p. .302, of the Weimar edition of Luther's works)
  • One man with courage makes a majority.
    • Attributed to Jackson by Robert F. Kennedy in his "Foreword" to the "Young Readers Memorial Edition" of John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage, and by Ronald Reagan in nominating Robert Bork to the US Supreme Court, this has never been found in Jackson's writings, and there is no record of him having declared it.^ No one was there to care for us.
      • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In 1788, John McNairy, judge of the Cumberland superior court, appointed Jackson solicitor, or attorney general, for the region that now forms Tennessee.
      • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

      ^ There is no Jackson Memorial -- only an equestrian statue facing the White House, somewhat menacingly.
      • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (9780385507387): H.W. Brands: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      Somewhat similar statements are known to have been made by others:
A man with God is always in the majority. ~ John Knox
Any man more right than his neighbors constitutes a majority of one. ~ Henry David Thoreau
One on God's side is a majority ~ Wendell Phillips

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.JACKSON, ANDREW (1767-1845), 41 president of the United States, was born on the 15th of March 1767, at the Waxhaw or Warsaw settlement, in Union county, North Carolina, or in Lancaster county, South Carolina, whither his parents had immigrated from Carrickfergus, Ireland, in 1765. He played a slight part in the War of Independence, and was taken prisoner in 1781, her treatment resulting in a lifelong dislike of Great Britain.^ Andrew Jackson--the people's president, Andrew Jackson .
  • Andrew Jackson-the people's President, Andrew Jackson Harriet Beecher Stowe-Uncle Toms Cabin - Copyright Info 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Andrew Jackson was the first president to be born in a log cabin .
  • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andrew Jackson The seventh president of the united states was Andrew Jackson.
  • Free Andrew Jackson Essays 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]

.He studied law at Salisbury, North Carolina, was admitted to the bar there in 1787, and began to practise at McLeansville, Guilford county, North Carolina, where for a time he was a constable and deputy-sheriff.^ Jackson studied law at Salisbury, North Carolina and started work as a lawyer in McLeanville, in November, 1787.

^ In 1784, once again without funds he moved to Salisbury, North Carolina, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar in September 1787.

^ After the end of the American Revolution , he studied law in an office in Salisbury, North Carolina, and was admitted to the bar of that state in 1787.
  • Andrew Jackson (president of United States) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1788, having been appointed prosecuting attorney of the western district of North Carolina (now the state of Tennessee),he removed to Nashville, the seat of justice of the district.^ Jackson commenced his profession in North Carolina's Western District in Washington County (now in Tennessee).

^ In 1788 he went to the Cumberland region as prosecuting attorney of the western district of North Carolinathe region west of the Appalachians, soon to become the state of Tennessee.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson appointed solicitor or attorney general for what is now Tennessee .

.In 1791 he married Mrs Rachel Robards (née Donelson), having heard that her husband had obtained a divorce through the legislature of Virginia.^ In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel Robards (née Donelson), having heard that her husband had obtained a divorce through the legislature of Virginia.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis Robards' divorce from Rachel granted .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ In August 1791, he married Rachel Robard who thought she was divorced from her husband, Lewis Robard of Kentucky.
  • The Scottish Rite Journal 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.srmason-sj.org [Source type: Original source]

The ?----? - ?--- -- .'1111A: f 1l ?' ?l ii il!??,,?^ A: f 1l ?' ?l ii il!??,,?

.legislative act, however, had only authorized the courts to determine whether or not there were sufficient grounds for a divorce and to grant or withhold it accordingly.^ The legislative act, however, had only authorized the courts to determine whether or not there were sufficient grounds for a divorce and to grant or withhold it accordingly.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The authority of the Supreme Court must not, therefore, be permitted to control the Congress or the Executive when acting in their legislative capacities, but to have only such influence as the force of their reasoning may deserve."
  • Andrew Jackson and Judges [Eric] - The Daily Dish | By Andrew Sullivan 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

^ It was more than two years before the divorce was actually granted, and only on the basis of the fact that Jackson and Mrs Robards were then living together.

.It was more than two years before the divorce was actually granted, and only on the basis of the fact that Jackson and Mrs Robards were then living together.^ Lewis Robards' divorce from Rachel granted .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ It was more than two years before the divorce was actually granted, and only on the basis of the fact that Jackson and Mrs. Robards were then living together.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 10000 were held in jail for 4 years or more before released.
  • Judging Andrew Jackson | WBUR and NPR - On Point with Tom Ashbrook 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.onpointradio.org [Source type: General]

On receiving this information, Jackson had the marriage ceremony performed a second time.
.In 1796 Jackson assisted in framing the constitution of Tennessee.^ Jackson served in Tennessee Constitutional Convention .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1796 Jackson assisted in framing the constitution of Tennessee.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1796 Jackson assisted in framing the constitution of Tennessee .

.From December 1796 to March 17 9 7 he represented that state in the Federal House of Representatives, where he distinguished himself as an irreconcilable opponent of President Washington, and was one of the twelve representatives who voted against the address to him by the House.^ He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1796.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson was 1 of 12 representatives who voted against a resolution praising President George Washington's administration.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ From December 1796 to March 1797 he represented that state in the Federal House of Representatives, where he distinguished himself as an irreconcilable opponent of President George Washington , and was one of the twelve representatives who voted against the address to him by the House.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1797 he was elected a United States senator; but he resigned in the following year.^ He resigned from United States Senate in 1825.

^ He would elected to the Senate in 1797 and resigned less than a year later.
  • President Andrew Jackson: Noted Duelist, and Manly Man 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.arthurshall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1797, he became a United States Senator from Tennessee.
  • Andrew Jackson - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.ohiohistorycentral.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was judge of the supreme court of Tennessee from 1798 to 1804. In 1804-1805 he contracted a friendship with Aaron Burr; and at the latter's trial in 1807 Jackson was one of his conspicuous champions.^ In 1798, he was appointed Judge on the Supreme Court of Tennessee.
  • Leader-General Andrew Jackson of the American Army 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.mywarof1812.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson commissioned interim Tennessee Superior Court Judge .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1798 he was appointed a judge for the Tennessee Supreme Court.
  • The Devil and Andrew Jackson « The American Catholic 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC the-american-catholic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to the time of his nomination for the presidency, the biographer of Jackson finds nothing to record but military exploits in which he displayed perseverance, energy and skill of a very high order, and a succession of personal acts in which he showed himself ignorant, violent, perverse, quarrelsome and astonishingly indiscreet.^ Jackson up for president?
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Up to the time of his nomination for the presidency, the biographer of Jackson finds nothing to record but military exploits in which he displayed perseverance, energy and skill of a very high order, and a succession of personal acts in which he showed himself ignorant, violent, perverse, quarrelsome and astonishingly indiscreet.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson nominated for president .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

.His combative disposition led him into numerous personal difficulties.^ This led him into many fights.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ His combative disposition led him into numerous personal difficulties.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he was known as a frontiersman, Jackson was personally dignified, courteous, and gentlemanly—with a devotion to the "gentleman's code" that led him to fight several duels.
  • Andrew Jackson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Jackson Andrew: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Andrew Jackson - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1795 he fought a duel with Colonel Waitstill Avery (1745-1821), an opposing counsel, over some angry words uttered in a court room; but both, it appears, intentionally fired wild.^ In 1795 he fought a duel with Colonel Waitstill Avery (1745-1821), an opposing counsel, over some angry words uttered in a courtroom; but both, it appears, intentionally fired wild.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1795 he fought a duel with Colonel Waitstill Avery (1745-1821), an opposing counsel , over some angry words uttered in a court room; but both, it appears, intentionally fired wild.

^ He accused the opposing lawyer, Waightstill Avery, of taking illegal fees, and challenged him to a duel.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.In 1806 in another duel, after a long and bitter quarrel, he killed Charles Dickinson, and Jackson himself received a wound from which he never fully recovered.^ In 1806 in another duel, after a long and bitter quarrel, he killed Charles Dickinson, and Jackson himself received a wound from which he never fully recovered.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1806, Jackson killed Charles Dickinson in a duel with pistols but was not judged to have acted improperly.

^ In 1806, he was challenged to a duel with Charles Dickinson.

.In 1813 he exchanged shots with Thomas Hart Benton and his brother Jesse in a Nashville tavern, and received a second wound.^ In 1813 he exchanged shots with Thomas Hart Benton and his brother Jesse in a Nashville tavern , and received a second wound.

^ Jackson was also involved in a brawl with politician Thomas Hart Benton and his brother Jesse Benton.

^ In 1813 he exchanged shots with Thomas Hart Benton and his brother Jesse in a Nashville tavern, and received a second wound.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

Jackson and Thomas Hart Benton were later reconciled.
.In 1813-1814, as major-general of militia, he commanded in the campaign against the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, defeated them (at Talladega, on the 9th of November 1813, and at Tohopeka, on the 29th of March 1814), and thus first attracted public notice by his talents.^ In 1812 he became Commander of the Tennessee militia and a Major General of volunteers.
  • The Scottish Rite Journal 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.srmason-sj.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Describe the Alachua campaign against the Indians.
  • Floripedia: Jackson, Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC fcit.coedu.usf.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson commanded in the campaign against the Northern Creek Indians of Alabama and Georgia, also known as the " Red Sticks."

.In May 1814 he was commissioned as major-general in the regular army to serve against the British; in November he captured Pensacola, Florida, then owned by Spain, but used by the British as a base of operations; and on the 8th of January 1815 he inflicted a severe defeat on the enemy before New Orleans, the contestants being unaware that a treaty of peace had already been signed.^ On May 1 he was commissioned a major general in the regular army with command of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
  • Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ifreeman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He worked his way up in the military to become a major general and led the defeat against the British at the Battle of New Orleans.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ourwhitehouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Florida was owned by Spain.

.During his stay in New Orleans he proclaimed martial law, and carried out his measures with unrelenting sternness, banishing from the town a judge who attempted resistance.^ During his stay in New Orleans he proclaimed martial law , and carried out his measures with unrelenting sternness, banishing from the town a judge who attempted resistance.

^ During his stay in New Orleans he proclaimed martial law, and carried out his measures with unrelenting sternness, banishing from the town a judge who attempted resistance.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He later fought in the war of 1812-1814, and became famous as the general who administered the final crushing defeat to the British at New Orleans in 1815.
  • Andrew Jackson - US Presidents' Lives, News - The Independent 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

.When civil law was restored, Jackson was fined $loon for contempt of court; in 1844 Congress ordered the fine with interest ($2700) to be repaid.^ When civil law was restored, Jackson was fined $l000 for contempt of court; in 1844 Congress ordered the fine with interest ($2700) to be repaid.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When civil law was restored, Jackson was fined $loon for contempt of court ; in 1844 Congress ordered the fine with interest ($2700) to be repaid.

^ The hotel was the famous courthouse where Major General Andrew Jackson was indicted for contempt of court and charged with obstruction of justice.

.In 1818 Jackson received the command against the Seminoles.^ In 1818 Jackson received the command against the Seminoles.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1815 and again in 1818, Jackson marched against the Seminole Indians in Florida.
  • Andrew Jackson - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.ohiohistorycentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After some years as a country gentleman, living at the Hermitage near Nashville, Jackson in 1812 was given command of Tennessee troops sent against the Creeks.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0760592.html 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His conduct in following them up into the Spanish territory of Florida, in seizing Pensacola, and in arresting and executing two British subjects, Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister, gave rise to much hostile comment in the cabinet and in Congress; but the negotiations for the purchase of Florida put an end to the diplomatic difficulty.^ Among the prisoners were two British subjects: Arbuthnot, captured at St. Marks, and Ambrister at Suwanee.
  • Floripedia: Jackson, Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC fcit.coedu.usf.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, during the First Seminole War of 1818, Jackson captured two British citizens in Spanish Florida, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot.
  • Not the Same Old Hickory - Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He seized a military post at Saint Marks, and he executed two British subjects, Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Chrystie Ambrister, for inciting the Seminole against American settlers.

.In 1821 Jackson was military governor of the territory of Florida, and there again he came into collision with the civil authority.^ In 1821 Jackson was military governor of the territory of Florida, and there again he came into collision with the civil authority.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson appointed governor of Florida Territory .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ Jackson resigned his army commission and was appointed governor of the new Florida Territory in 1821.
  • American President: Andrew Jackson: Life Before the Presidency 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Original source]

From this, as from previous troubles, John Quincy Adams, then secretary of state, extricated him.
.In July 1822 the general assembly of Tennessee nominated Jackson for president; and in 1823 he was elected to the United States Senate, from which he resigned in 1825. The rival candidates for the office of president in the campaign of 1824 were Jackson, John Quincy Adams, W. H. Crawford and Henry Clay.^ Jackson elected president .
  • Rachel & Andrew Jackson: A Love Story 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wnpt.org [Source type: General]

^ It is believed that a deal was made giving the office to John Quincy Adams in exchange for Henry Clay becoming Secretary of State.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography -7th President of the United States 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC americanhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1822, the Tennessee legislature nominated him to run for president in 1824.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson obtained the largest number of votes (99) in the electoral college (Adams receiving 84, Crawford 41 and Clay 37); but no one had an absolute majority, and it thus became the duty of the House of Representatives to choose one of the three candidates - Adams, Jackson and Crawford - who had received the greatest numbers of electoral votes.^ He had 178 votes in the electoral college against 83 given for Adams.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Election of 1824 When no electoral college majority exists, matter decided in the House.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since no candidate received a majority, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives, which chose Adams instead.
  • Leader-General Andrew Jackson of the American Army 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.mywarof1812.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the election by the house (February 9, 1825) Adams was chosen, receiving the votes of 13 states, while Jackson received the votes of 7 and Crawford the votes of 4. Jackson, however, was recognized by the abler politicians as the coming man.^ Neither Jackson nor Adams won the majority vote, and the election was to be determined in the House of Representatives.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Andrew Jackson for Kids! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the election by the house (February 9, 1825) Adams was chosen, receiving the votes of 13 states, while Jackson received the votes of 7 and Crawford the votes of 4.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson, however, was recognized by the abler politicians as the coming man.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Martin Van Buren and others, going into opposition under his banner, waged from the first a relentless and factious war on the administration.^ Another was Martin Van Buren , Jackson's first secretary of state.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Martin Van Buren is the fox (right).

^ Martin Van Buren and others, going into opposition under his banner, waged from the first a relentless and factious war on the administration.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Van Buren was the most adroit politician of his time; and Jackson was in the hands of very astute men, who advised and controlled him.^ Jackson wanted Van Buren in the position and chose him to be his successor.
  • Andrew Jackson and the Bankwar « Friends of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Van Buren was the most adroit politician of his time; and Jackson was in the hands of very astute men, who advised and controlled him.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Jackson, outmaneuvered for the Presidency in 1824, combined with Martin Van Buren to form a coalition that defeated Adams in 1828.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was easy to lead when his mind was in solution; and he gave his confidence freely where he had once placed it.^ He was easy to lead when his mind was in solution; and he gave his confidence freely where he had once placed it.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was not suspicious, but if he withdrew his confidence he was implacable.^ He was not suspicious, but if he withdrew his confidence he was implacable.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.When his mind crystallized on a notion that had a personal significance to himself, that notion became a hard fact that filled his field of vision.^ When his mind crystallized on a notion that had a personal significance to himself, that notion became a hard fact that filled his field of vision.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When his mind crystallized on a notion that had a personal significance to himself, that notion became a hard fact that filled his field of vision .

^ Memoranda of Persons Places, and Events : embracing authentic facts, visions, impressions, discoveries, in magnetism, clairvoyance, spiritualism.
  • Andrew Jackson Davis Biography 1826-1910 - includes Bibliography, free ebooks 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.spiritwritings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When he was told that he had been cheated in the matter of the presidency,' he was sure of it, although those who told him were by no means so.
.There was great significance in the election of Jackson in 1828. A new generation was growing up under new economic and social conditions.^ Posted by Andrew Jackson under economic growth , social indicators .

^ There was great significance in the election of Jackson in 1828.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson Wins Election of 1828 .
  • ANDREW JACKSON Biography - Royalty, Rulers & leaders 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.findbiography.org [Source type: Original source]

.They felt great confidence in themselves and great independence.^ They felt great confidence in themselves and great independence.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They felt supremely confident, and looked forward to a quick victory, and then as a reward the BOOTY and BEAUTY of the city of New Orleans!!

.They despised tradition and Old World ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, not only as maxims, but as social forces - the causes of the material prosperity of the country.^ They despised tradition and Old World ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, not only as maxims, but as social forces - the causes of the material prosperity of the country.

^ They despised tradition and Old World ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, not only as maxims, but as social forces -- the causes of the material prosperity of the country.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The President was then forced to issue a "Specie Circular," whereby the government would now only accept hard cash, gold or silver, for public land payments.
  • Educate Yourself - Andrew Jackson: Part Four - Biddle vs. Old Hickory 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.buyandhold.com [Source type: Original source]

.By this generation, therefore, Jackson was recognized as a man after their own heart.^ General Washington was a great man, and so was Andrew Jackson in his own way.
  • Andrew Jackson - Seventh President of the United States 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC all-biographies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Jackson is their own President.

^ That Jackson was a typical man of his generation is certain.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.They liked him because he was vigorous, brusque, uncouth, relentless, straightforward and open.^ They liked him because he was vigorous, brusque, uncouth, relentless, straightforward and open.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please don't waste our time comparing my definition of justified treason to Ayers and people like him because there is a huge difference.
  • Newsvine - Should Andrew Jackson be Removed from the $20 Bill? 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cyberninja449.newsvine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Name: lyndon Date: Monday, Nov 30 2009 if your wondrinng why they wrote bad stuff about him is because he is racist .

.They made him president in 1828, and he fulfilled all their expectations.^ They made him president in 1828, and he fulfilled all their expectations.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The people LOVED their general and elected him to the Presidency in 1828.

^ Like all his predecessors after Washington, Monroe had been successively a diplomatist and Secretary of State, and the presidency seemed to fall to him as a matter of course.

.He had 178 votes in the electoral college against 83 given for Adams.^ He had 178 votes in the electoral college against 83 given for Adams.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson swamped Adams by an electoral-vote margin of 178 to 83.
  • Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ifreeman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1828 Jackson received 178 electoral votes to Adamss 83.

.Though the work of redistribution of offices began almost at his inauguration, it is yet an incorrect account of the matter to say that Jackson corrupted the civil service.^ Though the work of redistribution of offices began almost at his inauguration, it is yet an incorrect account of the matter to say that Jackson corrupted the civil service .

^ Though the work of redistribution of offices began almost at his inauguration, it is yet an incorrect account of the matter to say that Jackson corrupted the civil service.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Believing that Washington had become a sink or corruption, he felt called upon to work for the office.

.His administration is rather the date at which a system of democracy, organized by the use of patronage, was introduced into the federal arena by Van Buren.^ His administration is rather the date at which a system of democracy, organized by the use of patronage, was introduced into the federal arena by Van Buren.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His administration is rather the date at which a system of democracy , organized by the use of patronage, was introduced into the federal arena by Van Buren.

^ He introduced more metallic poison into his system by habitually using lead acetate as a cure-all, both externally and internally.

.It was at this time that the Democratic or Republican party divided, largely along personal lines, into Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans, the latter led by such men as Henry Clay and J. Q. Adams.^ Adams called himself a National Republican Jackson called himself a Democratic Republican Jacksons party became known as the Democratic Party.

^ It was at this time that the Democratic or Republican party divided, largely along personal lines, into Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans, the latter led by such men as Henry Clay and J. Q. Adams.

^ The old Republican Party separated into the Democrats and the National Republics, or Whigs.
  • Andrew Jackson, "Old Hickory"
    March 15
    31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.classbrain.com [Source type: General]

.The administration itself had two factions in it from the first, the faction of Van Buren, the secretary of state in 1829-1831, and that of Calhoun, vice-president in 1829-1832. The refusal of the wives of the cabinet and of Mrs Calhoun to accord social recognition to Mrs J. H. Eaton brought about a rupture, and in April 1831 the whole cabinet was reorganized.^ Another was Martin Van Buren , Jackson's first secretary of state.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secretary of State: Martin Van Buren; Edward Livingston (from May 24, 1831) .
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Presidents: Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1831, Eaton and Van Buren resigned in order to give Jackson a free hand in reorganizing his Cabinet.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.Van Buren, a widower, sided with the president in this affair and grew in his favour.^ Van Buren, a widower, sided with the president in this affair and grew in his favour.

^ [Van Buren was a widower.
  • Educate Yourself - Andrew Jackson: Part One - Peggy Eaton 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.buyandhold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Van Buren, a widower, sided with the president in this affair and grew in his favor.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson in the meantime had learned that Calhoun as secretary of war had wished to censure him for his actions during the Seminole war in Florida in 1818, and henceforth he regarded the South Carolina statesman as his enemy.^ Moreover, Jackson learned in 1830 that during the cabinet debates in 1818 Calhoun had urged that Jackson be censured for his invasion of Florida.
  • Andrew Jackson (president of United States) :: The first term -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Calhoun secretly recommended censuring Jackson.
  • Andrew Jackson to Colonel George Gibson « Questroyal 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.questroyalfineart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1818 Jackson pursued the Seminole into Florida.

.The result was that Jackson transferred to Van Buren his support for succession in the presidency.^ The result was that Jackson transferred to Van Buren his support for succession in the presidency.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The delegates nominated Jackson for president and Martin Van Buren for vice president.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Jackson, outmaneuvered for the Presidency in 1824, combined with Martin Van Buren to form a coalition that defeated Adams in 1828.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The relations between Jackson and his cabinet were unlike those existing under his predecessors.^ Presidential cabinet under Andrew Jackson .
  • Andrew Jackson - US President | Juggle.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relations between Jackson and his cabinet were unlike those existing under his predecessors.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson now accused Calhoun of treachery, initiating an angry correspondence that ended with the severing of social relations between the two.
  • American President: Andrew Jackson: Domestic Affairs 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Original source]

Having a military point of view, he was inclined to look upon the cabinet members as inferior officers, and when in need of advice he usually consulted a group of personal friends, who came to be called the "Kitchen Cabinet." The principal members of this clique were William B. Lewis (1784-1866), Amos Kendall and Duff Green, the last named being editor of the United States Telegraph, the organ of the administration.
.In 1832 Jackson was re-elected by a large majority (219 electoral votes to 49) over Henry Clay, his chief opponent.^ Jackson won handily in the Electoral College, defeating Clay 219 votes to 49.
  • SparkNotes: Andrew Jackson: The Bank 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: News]

^ Jackson's reelection in 1832 by a large majority indicated the popularity of his policies.
  • JACKSON, Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1832 Jackson was re-elected by a large majority (219 electoral votes to 49) over Henry Clay, his chief opponent.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The battle raged mainly around the re-charter of the Bank of the United States.^ Jackson opposed renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.

^ The battle raged mainly around the re-charter of the Bank of the United States.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The charter of the Bank of the United States was due to expire in 1836.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is probable that Jackson's advisers in 1828 had told him, though erroneously, that the bank had worked against him, and then were not able to control him.^ It is probable that Jackson's advisers in 1828 had told him, though erroneously, that the bank had worked against him, and then were not able to control him.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though the work of redistribution of offices began almost at his inauguration, it is yet an incorrect account of the matter to say that Jackson corrupted the civil service .

^ Jackson filed a protest with the Senate, saying the Bank's abuses of power made it an "imperative duty" for him as chief executive to rid the country of the Bank.
  • SparkNotes: Andrew Jackson: The Bank 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: News]

The first message of his first presidency had contained a severe reflection on the bank; and in the very height of this second campaign (July 1832) he vetoed the re-charter, which had been passed in 1 The charge was freely made then and afterwards (though, it is now believed, without justification) that Clay had supported Adams and by influencing his followers in the house had been instrumental in securing his election, as the result of a bargain by which Adams had agreed to pay him for his support by appointing him secretary of state.
.the session of 1831-1832. Jackson interpreted his re-election as an approval by the people of his war on the bank, and he pushed it with energy.^ Andrew Jackson: Election of 1832: .
  • Andrew Jackson Biography -7th President of the United States 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC americanhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson interpreted his re-election as an approval by the people of his war on the bank, and he pushed it with energy.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, Jackson had to stand for re-election.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1833 he ordered the public deposits in the bank to be transferred to selected local banks, and entered upon the "experiment" whether these could not act as fiscal agents for the government, and whether the desire to get the deposits would not induce the local banks to adopt sound rules of currency.^ In September 1833 he ordered the public deposits in the bank to be transferred to selected local banks, and entered upon the "experiment" whether these could not act as fiscal agents for the government, and whether the desire to get the deposits would not induce the local banks to adopt sound rules of currency.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Governments and politicians do not rule central banks, central banks rule governments and politicians.
  • Andrew Jackson in Save Our History in History Channel 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1833 he ordered the public deposits in the bank to be transferred to selected local banks , and entered upon the "experiment" whether these could not act as fiscal agents for the government, and whether the desire to get the deposits would not induce the local banks to adopt sound rules of currency.

.During the next session the Senate passed a resolution condemning his conduct.^ During the next session the Senate passed a resolution condemning his conduct.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the so-called Panic Session of Congress, Senate Whigs managed to pass two resolutions in February and March 1834, rejecting Taney's reasons for removing the deposits and censuring Jackson's actions as "not conferred by the Constitution and laws."
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Six months after he had withdrawn funds from the Bank, Jackson was officially censured by a resolution that passed the Senate by a vote of 26 to 20.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Jackson protested, and after a hard struggle, in which Jackson's friends were led by Senator Thomas Hart Benton, the resolution was ordered to be expunged from the record, on the 16th of January 1837.
.In 1832, when the state of South Carolina attempted to "nullify" the tariff laws, Jackson at once took steps to enforce the authority of the federal government, ordering two war vessels to Charleston and placing troops within convenient distance.^ When South Carolina undertook to nullify the tariff, Jackson ordered armed forces to Charleston and privately threatened to hang Calhoun.
  • Jackson, Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.classbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • President Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Calhoun complained that the law hurt his native state of South Carolina.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ In threatening to send federal troops into South Carolina if that state persisted in its attempts to nullify or ignore the tariff laws, Jackson appeared to be a strong supporter of national power.
  • JACKSON, Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-304&article_id=704&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Jackson,_Andrew 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also issued a proclamation warning the people of South Carolina against the consequences of their conduct.^ He also issued a proclamation warning the people of South Carolina against the consequences of their conduct.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson , always a strong Unionist, issued a presidential proclamation against South Carolina.

^ South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason," and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson Biography 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.focusdep.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the troubles between Georgia and the Cherokee Indians, however, he took a different stand.^ In the troubles between Georgia and the Cherokee Indians, however, he took a different stand.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1829 Georgia extended its jurisdiction to about 9,000,000 acres (4,000,000 hectares) of land that lay within its boundaries but was still occupied by the Cherokee Indians.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in the case of Worcester vs. Georgia (1832) the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee.
  • President Andrew Jackson: The Cherokees' Perspective 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after his first election Georgia passed an act extending over the Cherokee country the civil laws of the state.^ Shortly after his first election Georgia passed an act extending over the Cherokee country the civil laws of the state.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also allowed Georgia to extend state law to include the Cherokee Nation.
  • President Andrew Jackson: The Cherokees' Perspective 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, two missionaries imprisoned by the State of Georgia for living with Native Americans without a license had to be released as state law could not prevail on Native American lands.
  • When is Andrew Jackson Going to Get His Biopic? - Film School Rejects 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.filmschoolrejects.com [Source type: General]

.This was contrary to the rights of the Cherokees under a federal treaty, and the Supreme Court consequently declared the act void (1832).^ In his perfidy, Jackson ignored an order of the Supreme Court confirming the treaty rights of the Cherokees.

^ This was contrary to the rights of the Cherokees under a federal treaty, and the Supreme Court consequently declared the act void (1832).
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The act was challenged successfully by the Cherokee Nation in 1832 in the US Supreme Court as Worcester v.
  • ANDREW JACKSON Biography - Royalty, Rulers & leaders 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.findbiography.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson, however, having the frontiersman's contempt for the Indian, refused to enforce the decision of the court (see Nullification; Georgia: History). Jackson was very successful in collecting old claims against various European nations for spoliations inflicted under Napoleon's continental system, especially the French spoliation claims, with reference to which he acted with aggressiveness and firmness.^ Georgia (1832) decision, and on Jackson's failures to enforce parts of both decisions.
  • Andrew Jackson: Faithful Execution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wso.williams.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson, however, having the frontiersman's contempt for the Indian, refused to enforce the decision of the court.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia ignored the Court's decision and so did Andrew Jackson.

.Aiming at a currency to consist largely of specie, he caused the payment of these claims to be received and imported in specie as far as possible; and in 1836 he ordered land-agents to receive for land nothing but specie.^ Aiming at a currency to consist largely of specie, he caused the payment of these claims to be received and imported in specie as far as possible; and in 1836 he ordered land-agents to receive for land nothing but specie.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Partly to protect federal revenues against loss and partly to advance his concept of a sound currency, Jackson issued the Specie Circular in July 1836, requiring payment in gold or silver for all public lands.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson also issued an order known as the "specie circular," prohibiting settlers from purchasing public lands with anything but gold or silver.

.About the same time a law passed Congress for distributing among the states some $35,000,000 balance belonging to the United States, the public debt having all been paid.^ The congress of the United States did after all pass this treaty.
  • Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act » HistoryNet 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About the same time a law passed Congress for distributing among the states some $35,000,000 balance belonging to the United States, the public debt having all been paid.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Congress met in December 1865, most southern states were reconstructed, slavery was being abolished, but "black codes" to regulate the freedmen were beginning to appear.
  • Andrew Johnson | The White House 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eighty banks of deposit in which it was lying had regarded this sum almost as a permanent loan, and had inflated credit on the basis of it.^ The eighty banks of deposit in which it was lying had regarded this sum almost as a permanent loan , and had inflated credit on the basis of it.

^ The eighty banks of deposit in which it was lying had regarded this sum almost as a permanent loan, and had inflated credit on the basis of it.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the United States, three banks hold almost 34% of the nation’s deposits, four banks issue 50% of the country’s mortgages, and the five largest credit card lenders control 74% of the market.
  • Firedoglake » Mister, we could use somebody (somewhat) like Andrew Jackson again 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The necessary calling in of their loans in order to meet the drafts in favour of the states, combining with the breach of the overstrained credit between America and Europe and the decline in the price of cotton, brought about a crash which prostrated the whole financial, industrial and commercial system of the country for six or seven years.^ The necessary calling in of their loans in order to meet the drafts in favour of the states, combining with the breach of the overstrained credit between America and Europe and the decline in the price of cotton , brought about a crash which prostrated the whole financial, industrial and commercial system of the country for six or seven years .

^ The necessary calling in of their loans in order to meet the drafts in favour of the states, combining with the breach of the overstrained credit between America and Europe and the decline in the price of cotton, brought about a crash which prostrated the whole financial, industrial and commercial system of the country for six or seven years.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Biddle began to restrict credit and call in loans from state banks.

The crash came just as Jackson was leaving office; the whole burden fell on his successor, Van Buren.
.In the 18th century the influences at work in the American colonies developed democratic notions.^ In the 18th century the influences at work in the American colonies developed democratic notions.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The leaders of the American Revolution and their 19th-Century nationalist successors, sought to build a continent-spanning power, freed of any colonial relationship to Europe.

.In fact, the circumstances were those which create equality of wealth and condition, as far as civilized men ever can be equal.^ In fact, the circumstances were those which create equality of wealth and condition, as far as civilized men ever can be equal.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The War of Independence was attended by a grand outburst of political dogmatism of the democratic type.^ The War of Independence was attended by a grand outburst of political dogmatism of the democratic type.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bank war, especially the panic of 1833-1834 resulted in the formation of a new political party called the Whigs, its core consisted of Republicans and then some Democrats .

^ Although it was more fully attended than its rivals', the Democratic meeting was not the first national political convention.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A class of men were produced who believed in very broad dogmas of popular power and rights.^ A class of men were produced who believed in very broad dogmas of popular power and rights.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His punishment was greater than his crime, which had been not against morality, but against a powerful body of men who never did any harm, but rather much good in the way of charities.

^ Here we have men among us who denominate themselves Liberty men; and indeed these very men will not vote .
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There were a few rich men, but they were almost ashamed to differ from their neighbours and, in some known cases, they affected democracy in order to win popularity.^ There were a few rich men, but they were almost ashamed to differ from their neighbours and, in some known cases, they endorsed democracy in order to win popularity.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were a few rich men, but they were almost ashamed to differ from their neighbours and, in some known cases, they affected democracy in order to win popularity.

^ Powerful voices still questioned the wisdom and morality of democracy in 1829; there were few who would question it in 1837.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the 19th century began the class of rich men rapidly increased.^ After the 19th century began the class of rich men rapidly increased.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We who live with good men, and kind rich ladies: Yes, members of the Church, who take us with them, as christian class mates and bond servants.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the first years of the century a little clique at Philadelphia became alarmed at the increase of the "money power," and at the growing perils to democracy.^ In the first years of the century a little clique at Philadelphia became alarmed at the increase of the "money power," and at the growing perils to democracy.

^ In the first years of the century a little clique at Philadelphia became alarmed at the increase of the "money power", and at the growing perils to democracy.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The flood of paper money was growing out of control and land speculation in particular was a major concern as fraud was increasing in land sales[95].
  • Andrew Jackson and the Bankwar « Friends of the American Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.They attacked with some violence, but little skill, the first Bank of the United States, and they prevented its re-charter.^ The bank of the united states .

^ Jackson opposed renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.

^ The battle raged mainly around the re-charter of the Bank of the United States.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most permanent interest of the history of the United States is the picture it offers of a primitive democratic society transformed by prosperity and the acquisition of capital into a great republican commonwealth.^ The most permanent interest of the history of the United States is the picture it offers of a primitive democratic society transformed by prosperity and the acquisition of capital into a great republican commonwealth .

^ The most permanent interest of the history of the United States is the picture it offers of a primitive democratic society transformed by prosperity and the acquisition of capital into a great republican commonwealth.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He accomplished two things of great importance in the history: he crushed excessive state-rights and established the contrary doctrine in fact and in the political orthodoxy of the democrats; he destroyed the great bank.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The denunciations of the "money power" and the reiteration of democratic dogmas deserve earnest attention.^ The denunciations of the "money power" and the reiteration of democratic dogmas deserve earnest attention.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.They show the development of classes or parties in the old undifferentiated mass.^ They show the development of classes or parties in the old undifferentiated mass.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The law records show that they were the power in the old Bank of the United States.
  • PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.pacinst.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson came upon the political stage just when a wealthy class first existed.^ Jackson came upon the political stage just when a wealthy class first existed.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson said that the control of a central bank "would be exercised by a few over the political conduct of the many by first acquiring that control over the labor and earnings of the great body of people."
  • Andrew Jackson in Save Our History in History Channel 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His marriage to her while she was still technically married to her first husband caused Jackson numerous scandals through his political career.
  • SparkNotes: Andrew Jackson: Important Terms, People, and Events 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was an industrial and commercial class greatly interested in the tariff, and deeply interested also in the then current forms of issue banking.^ It was an industrial and commercial class greatly interested in the tariff, and deeply interested also in the then current forms of issue banking.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The issue of the tariff drifted unresolved, however, until 1832, when congressional leaders sought a compromise in the form of a moderate reduction of the tariff.
  • Andrew Jackson (president of United States) :: The first term -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The southern planters also were rich, but were agriculturists and remained philosophical Democrats.^ The southern planters also were rich, but were agriculturists and remained philosophical Democrats.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson was a man of low birth, uneducated, prejudiced, and marked by strong personal feeling in all his beliefs and disbeliefs.^ Jackson was a man of low birth, uneducated, prejudiced, and marked by strong personal feeling in all his beliefs and disbeliefs.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress it favored northeastern states over southern and western (now midwestern) states Jackson’s opposition to the Bank manifested as a strong personal dislike for its president, Nicholas Biddle.
  • ANDREW JACKSON Biography - Royalty, Rulers & leaders 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.findbiography.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a strong element of personalism in the rule of the hotheaded Jackson, and the Kitchen Cabinet —a small group of favorite advisers—was powerful.
  • Andrew Jackson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Jackson Andrew: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Andrew Jackson - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He showed, in his military work and in his early political doings, great lack of discipline.^ He showed, in his military work and in his early political doings, great lack of discipline.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BIBLIOGRAPHY. -Of the early biographies, that by J. H. Eaton (Philadelphia, 1824) is a history of Jackson's early military exploits, written for political purposes.

^ In both lifetimes, Jackson/Kerry showed an early and passionate willingness to serve his country though military service.
  • John Kerry-Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.johnadams.net [Source type: General]

.The proposal to make him president won his assent and awakened his ambition.^ The proposal to make him president won his assent and awakened his ambition.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He won a plurality of the votes but not a majority and John Quincy Adams convinced another candidate to support him which shifted enough House votes for Adams to be named President.
  • President Andrew Jackson: Noted Duelist, and Manly Man 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.arthurshall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Obama’s visit will not “make history” or is it a “historic moment,” for George W. Bush visited Ghana in February 2008 having a major freeway named after him.

.In anything which he undertook he always wanted to carry his point almost regardless of incidental effects on himself or others.^ In anything which he undertook he always wanted to carry his point almost regardless of incidental effects on himself or others.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the objects I have in view, and regardless of all consequences, will carry into effect.

^ At some point, it dawns on this baby boy that, once you get to be president, or some other kind of celebrity, everybody wants you to be their father.
  • Theater Review: Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson: The Concert Version - Theater and Musical Production Reviews 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.variety.com [Source type: General]

.He soon became completely engaged in the effort to be made president.^ He soon became completely engaged in the effort to be made president.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Andrew Jackson Biography 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.focusdep.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efforts to make removal treaties with the Indians began as soon as Jackson took office and continued throughout his presidency.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The men nearest to him understood his character and played on it.^ The men nearest to him understood his character and played on it.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was suggested to him that the money power was against him.^ It was suggested to him that the money power was against him.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He took the idea that the Bank of the United States was leading the money power against him, and that he was the champion of the masses of democracy and of the common people.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Jackson appeared hostile toward it, the Bank threw its power against him.
  • Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ifreeman.com [Source type: Original source]

.That meant that, to the educated or cultivated class of that day, he did not seem to be in the class from which a president should be chosen.^ That meant that, to the educated or cultivated class of that day, he did not seem to be in the class from which a president should be chosen.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He doubtless well understood the issues of great public questions; only, his view of them was contrary to the views of moneyed men and bankers and the educated classes of his day generally.

.He took the idea that the Bank of the United States was leading the money power against him, and that he was the champion of the masses of democracy and of the common people.^ It was suggested to him that the money power was against him.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution of the United States gives to Congress the power to coin money.
  • PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.pacinst.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He took the idea that the Bank of the United States was leading the money power against him, and that he was the champion of the masses of democracy and of the common people.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The opposite party, led by Clay, Adams, Biddle, &c., had schemes for banks and tariffs, enterprises which were open to severe criticism.^ The opposite party, led by Clay, Adams, Biddle , etc., had schemes for banks and tariffs, enterprises which were open to severe criticism.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The opposite party, led by Clay, Adams, Biddle, &c., had schemes for banks and tariffs, enterprises which were open to severe criticism.

^ It was at this time that the Democratic or Republican party divided, largely along personal lines, into Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans, the latter led by such men as Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The political struggle was very intense and there were two good sides to it.^ There are always two sides of his actions.
  • Was Andrew Jackson A Good Or Bad President? - Blurtit 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

^ The political struggle was very intense and there were two good sides to it.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The intensity of the political struggles from 1825 to 1837 led to the revival of the two-party system.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

.Men like Thomas H. Benton, Edward Livingston, Amos Kendall, and the southern statesmen, found material for strong attacks on the Whigs.^ Men like Thomas Hart Benton, Edward Livingston , Amos Kendall, and the southern statesmen, found material for strong attacks on the Whigs.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men like Thomas H. Benton, Edward Livingston , Amos Kendall, and the southern statesmen, found material for strong attacks on the Whigs.

^ Vigorous publicity and violent journalistic attacks on anti-Jacksonians were ably handled by such men as the elder Francis P. Blair , Duff Green , and Amos Kendall .
  • Andrew Jackson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Jackson Andrew: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Andrew Jackson - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great mass of voters felt the issue as Jackson's managers stated it.^ The great mass of voters felt the issue as Jackson's managers stated it.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator Henry Clay, a strong advocate of the necessity of the Second Bank of the United States, was incensed at Jackson’s actions, which he felt overstepped the limits of the office of the presidency.
  • Andrew Jackson: Faithful Execution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wso.williams.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even as the tour proceeded, Jackson was deeply immersed in politics, for the issue of the Bank of the United States again pressed upon his attention.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.That meant that the masses recognized Jackson as their champion.^ That meant that the masses recognized Jackson as their champion.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, Jackson's personality and name became a power on the side opposed to banks, corporations and other forms of the new growing power of capital.^ Andrew Jackson became a Commander of the America forces in the 1815 Battle of New Orleans.

^ In Jackson's farewell address on retiring from office, he elaborated the language of the Veto, condemning bank paper as an engine of oppression and warning of the insidious "money power" and of the growing control exerted by faceless corporations over ordinary citizens' lives.
  • Jackson's Bank Veto 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, a major activity of Jackson's presidency was his destruction of the Second Bank of the United States, a private bank which had been chartered by Congress and which exercised strong power over the American economy.
  • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.That Jackson was a typical man of his generation is certain.^ She afterward married a mulatto man, with whom she had several children, of which number General Jackson is one!!!"
  • Andrew Jackson, Harper Perennial, Robert V. Remini, Book - Barnes & Noble 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

^ General Washington was a great man, and so was Andrew Jackson in his own way.
  • Andrew Jackson - Seventh President of the United States 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC all-biographies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Southern Department was under the command of General James Wilkinson, with headquarters at New Orleans,--a disagreeable and contentious man, who did not like Jackson.

.He represents the spirit and temper of the free American of that day, and it was a part of his way of thinking and acting that he put his whole life and interest into the conflict.^ He represents the spirit and temper of the free American of that day, and it was a part of his way of thinking and acting that he put his whole life and interest into the conflict.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the battle "was one of the great turning points in American history" because it "produced a President and an enduring belief in the military ability of free people to protect and preserve their society and their way of life."
  • American Civil War : The Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson and America's First Military Victory at americancivilwar.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: General]

^ If the commandments of God should be obeyed, strictly adhered to, and carried into effect, the people in this nation would be a happy people, a loving people, a temperate and free class of citizens.
  • Andrew Jackson, b. 1814. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Containing an Account of His Birth, and Twenty-Six Years of His Life While a Slave; His Escape; Five Years of Freedom, Together with Anecdotes Relating to Slavery; Journal of One Year's Travels; Sketches, etc. Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He accomplished two things of great importance in the history: he crushed excessive state-rights and established the contrary doctrine in fact and in the political orthodoxy of the democrats; he destroyed the great bank.^ He accomplished two things of great importance in the history: he crushed excessive state-rights and established the contrary doctrine in fact and in the political orthodoxy of the democrats; he destroyed the great bank.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he destroyed the bank of the united states he caused the u.s.
  • Was Andrew Jackson A Good Or Bad President? - Blurtit 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

^ Andrew Jackson's Campaign to Destroy the Bank of the United States - When Andrew Jackson decided to make his veto message regarding the Bank of The United States on July 10, 1832 one thing was on his mind: killing the Bank of The United States forever!
  • Free Andrew Jackson Essays 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]

.The subsequent history of the bank left it without an apologist, and prejudiced the whole later judgment about it.^ The subsequent history of the bank left it without an apologist, and prejudiced the whole later judgment about it.
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This transcript comes from "The Money Masters", which is a 3-hour video that talks about the history of central banking.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This left the young nation without a central bank until [...

.The way in which Jackson accomplished these things was such that it cost the country ten years of the severest liquidation, and left conflicting traditions of public policy in the Democratic party.^ These ideas left their mark on Jackson.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The way in which Jackson accomplished these things was such that it cost the country ten years of the severest liquidation , and left conflicting traditions of public policy in the Democratic party .

^ Jackson was a founder of the Democratic Party.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

After he left Washington, Jackson fell into discord with his most intimate old friends, and turned his interest to the cause of slavery, which he thought to be attacked and in danger.
.Jackson is the only president of whom it may be said that he went out of office far more popular than he was when he entered.^ Jackson had left office more popular than when he entered it.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson made the office of the president more popular with the people of the United States.
  • Andrew Jackson@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson was out of office when the treaty was enforced.
  • Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act » HistoryNet 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some popular notions.^ When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some popular notions.

^ Charles Dickinson , the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson's political opponents.
  • Andrew Jackson at AllExperts 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson is the only president of whom it may be said that he went out of office far more popular than he was when he entered.

.He left his party strong, perfectly organized and enthusiastic on a platform of low expenditure, payment of the debt, no expenditure for public improvement or for glory or display in any form and low taxes.^ He left his party strong, perfectly organized and enthusiastic on a platform of low expenditure, payment of the debt, no expenditure for public improvement or for glory or display in any form and low taxes.
  • Andrew Jackson - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Andrew Jackson 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The inflation of money, overexpansion of business, and overinvestment in public improvements brought on a depression that struck shortly before Jackson left office.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ When he retired from the presidency he left a vigorous and well-organized Democratic Party as a legacy.
  • Andrew Jackson Biography - Biography.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

.His name still remained a spell to conjure with, and the politicians sought to obtain the assistance of his approval for their schemes; but in general his last years were quiet and uneventful.^ His name still remained a spell to conjure with, and the politicians sought to obtain the assistance of his approval for their schemes; but in general his last years were quiet and uneventful.

^ As I'm handing my license over, she asks me to spell out my last name, and I do.
  • The Hermitage - Home of President Andrew Jackson - Hermitage, TN 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

He died at his residence, "The Hermitage," near Nashville, Tennessee, on the 8th of June 1845.
.BIBLIOGRAPHY. -Of the early biographies, that by J. H. Eaton (Philadelphia, 1824) is a history of Jackson's early military exploits, written for political purposes.^ BIBLIOGRAPHY. -Of the early biographies, that by J. H. Eaton (Philadelphia, 1824) is a history of Jackson's early military exploits, written for political purposes.

^ Wilentz ( The Rise of American Democracy ) also astutely reads the Eaton affair—a scandal that erupted early in Jackson's presidency, over the wife of one of his cabinet members—as evidence that, then as now, parlor politics and partisan politics often intersected.
  • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ A military hero during the War of 1812 and winner of the popular presidential vote in 1824 (he lost the election in Congress), Jackson won the office handily in 1828.
  • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (9780385507387): H.W. Brands: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Amos Kendall's Life (New York, 1843) is incomplete, extending only to 1814. James Parton's elaborate work (3 vols., New York, 1860) is still useful.^ James Parton's elaborate work (3 vols., New York , 1860) is still useful.

^ Amos Kendall's Life ( New York , 1843) is incomplete, extending only to 1814.

^ Of more recent works the most elaborate are the History of Andrew Jackson, by A. C. Buell (New York, 1904), marred by numerous errors, and the Life and Times of Andrew Jackson, by A. S. Colyar (Nashville, 1904).

.Parton prepared a shorter biography for the "Great Commanders Series" (New York, 1893), which emphasizes Jackson's military career.^ Jackson's military career had ended.
  • Jackson, Andrew | Article | World Book Student 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ The Andrew Jackson Hotel – Historical hotel in the heart of New Orleans offers continental breakfast, period furnishings, friendly staff and great rates.
  • Stay Local! New Orleans › Business Listings › Andrew Jackson Hotel 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC staylocal.org [Source type: News]

^ He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.
  • Andrew Jackson at allvoices.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.allvoices.com [Source type: General]

.W. G. Sumner's Andrew Jackson in the "American Statesmen Series" (Boston, 1882; revised, 1899) combines the leading facts of Jackson's life with a history of his times.^ The most famous American of his time, Andrew Jackson is a seminal figure in American history.
  • Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times by H. W. Brands | LibraryThing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: General]

^ Populist Andrew Jackson leads the country.
  • Amazon.com: Andrew Jackson (9780805069259): Sean Wilentz, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The life of Andrew Jackson 1 of 10 .
  • Andrew Jackson - News, photos, topics, and quotes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.daylife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Andrew Jackson - News, photos, topics, and quotes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.daylife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

W. G. Brown wrote an appreciative sketch (Boston, 1900) for the "Riverside Biographical Series." Of more recent works the most elaborate are the History of Andrew Jackson, by A. C. Buell (New York, 1904), marred by numerous errors, and the Life and Times of Andrew Jackson, by A. S. Colyar (Nashville, 1904). .Charles H. Peck's The Jacksonian Epoch (New York, 1899) is an account of national politics from 1815 to 1840, in which the antagonism of Jackson and Clay is emphasized.^ Robert V. Remini won the National Book Award for the third volume of his definitive biography of Andrew Jackson and is the author of biographies of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster and others.
  • Andrew Jackson, Harper Perennial, Robert V. Remini, Book - Barnes & Noble 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

^ These words were written for a book published in 1817, after Jackson defeated the British at New Orleans and preparatory to his entering national politics, which may account for the unlikely image of Mrs. Jackson tutoring her sons in Enlightenment political thought on cold Carolina evenings.
  • Examining The Fiery Legacy Of Andrew Jackson : NPR 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]
  • Examining The Fiery Legacy Of Andrew Jackson : NPR 31 January 2010 12:11 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776 – 1854 (New York, 1990), contains numerous insights about slavery and politics.
  • Jackson, Andrew – FREE Jackson, Andrew information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Jackson, Andrew research 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

(W. G. S.)


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Andrew Jackson (1767) article)

From Familypedia

Andrew Jackson 
Birth March 15, 1767 in "Lancaster County, South Carolina"
Death: June 8, 1845 in "Nashville, Tennessee;"
Skill(s): Prosecutor,Judge,Farmer (Plantation),Soldier (General)
Companion: Rachel Donelson Robards
Sex:
Signature:
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Andrew Jackson was born 15 March 1767 and died 8 June 1845 at the age of 78 years of unspecified causes.

For a detailed biography, see the Biography tab.

Citations and remarks

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This article uses material from the "Andrew Jackson (1767)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Andrew Jackson
File:Andrew jackson head.gif


7th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1829 – March 3, 1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun (1829-1832) Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)
Preceded by John Quincy Adams
Succeeded by Martin Van Buren

Born March 15, 1767
Waxhaws area of South Carolina, USA
Died June 8, 1845
The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse Widowed. Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (niece Emily Donelson Jackson and daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson were first ladies)

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767June 8, 1845) was a general in the War of 1812 and was considered to be a war hero. He became the seventh President of the United States of America. He was the first Democrat and is on the Twenty Dollar Bill. His nickname was "Old Hickory".

Andrew Jackson created the Democratic Party and was its leader.

In 1828, he defeated John Quincy Adams in the presidential election of 1828, he became president on March 4th, 1829, and four years later he was re-elected to a second term as president.

Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. president who was not born into a wealthy family. He was not a wealthy man and did not have a college education. For these reasons, Jackson stood for the common man (people who worked hard and did not make a lot of money, like farmers).

Jackson supported a popular democracy where the people directly elect the president instead of what we have now, the Electoral College where the people elect people who elect the president.

Andrew Jackson was against a national bank of the United States because he felt that it was ran by wealthy powerful people and that it did not serve the interests of the common man. The national bank expired during Jackson's presidency. Jackson chose not to continue the bank.

During his presidency, he signed the Indian Removal Act which allowed the U.S. government to violently force the Native Americans to move out of their land and go west. Many Native Americans were killed and the path they walked to get to the west was called the Trail of Tears.

On March 4th, 1837, Andrew Jackson finished his second term. After that, vice-president Martin Van Buren became president (because he was elected) and continued many of the things Jackson did. Jackson was a big influence on other Democrats during the 1800's.

Jackson's legacy among historians is mixed.

One one hand, Jackson was a slave owner who had many Native Americans killed and most people now believe that a national bank is necessary for a society to be well.

On the other hand, Jackson was successful general who lead an entire political movement, stood for the common man, and had a big impact on American history.

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