Androgen receptor: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Androgen receptor

Structure of the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor (rainbow cartoon) complexed with testosterone (white sticks) based on PDB 2AM9.
Available structures
1e3g, 1gs4, 1i37, 1i38, 1r4i, 1t5z, 1t63, 1t65, 1t73, 1t74, 1t76, 1t79, 1t7f, 1t7m, 1t7r, 1t7t, 1xj7, 1xnn, 1xow, 1xq3, 1z95, 2am9, 2ama, 2amb, 2ao6, 2ax6, 2ax7, 2ax8, 2ax9, 2axa, 2ihq, 2nw4, 2oz7
External IDs OMIM313700 MGI88064 HomoloGene28 GeneCards: AR Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE AR 211110 s at tn.png
PBB GE AR 211621 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 367 11835
Ensembl ENSG00000169083 ENSMUSG00000046532
UniProt P10275 P19091
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000044 NM_013476
RefSeq (protein) NP_000035 NP_038504
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
66.68 - 66.87 Mb
Chr X:
94.35 - 94.52 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor[1] which is activated by binding of either of the androgenic hormones testosterone or dihydrotestosterone.[2] The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor, and progestins in higher dosages can block the androgen receptor.[3][4]

The main function of the androgen receptor is as a DNA binding transcription factor which regulates gene expression;[5] however, the androgen receptor has other functions as well.[6] Androgen regulated genes are critical for the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype.




Effect on development

In some cell types testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors while in others testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation.[7] Testosterone appears to be the primary androgen receptor activating hormone in the Wolffian duct while dihydrotestosterone is the main androgenic hormone in the urogenital sinus, urogenital tubercle, and hair follicles.[8] Hence testosterone is primarily responsible for the development of male primary sexual characteristics while dihydrotestosterone is responsible for secondary male characteristics.

Androgens cause slow epiphysis, or maturation of the bones, but more of the potent epiphysis effect comes from the estrogen produced by aromatization of androgens. Steroid users of teen age may find that their growth had been stunted by androgen and/or estrogen excess. People with too little sex hormones can be short during puberty but end up taller as adults as in androgen insensitivity syndrome or estrogen insensitivity syndrome.[9]

Mechanism of action


The primary mechanism of action for androgen receptors is direct regulation of gene transcription. The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor which in turn causes dissociation of heat shock proteins, transport from the cytosol into the cell nucleus, and dimerization. The androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element. Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus resulting in up or down regulation of specific gene transcription.[10] Up-regulation or activation of transcription results in increased synthesis of messenger RNA which in turn is transcribed by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1).[11] Thus, changes in levels of specific proteins in cells is one way that androgen receptors control cell behavior.


More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors, androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA.[6][12] Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport. Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.

One function of androgen receptor that is independent of direct binding to its target DNA sequence, is facilitated by recruitment via other DNA binding proteins. One example is serum response factor, a protein which activates several genes that cause muscle growth.[13]



The AR gene for the androgen receptor is located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12.[14][15]

AR deficiencies

The androgen insensitivity syndrome, formerly known as testicular feminization, is caused by a mutation of the Androgen Receptor gene located on the X chromosome (locus:Xq11-Xq12).[16] The androgen receptor seems to affect neuron physiology and is defective in Kennedy disease.[17][18] In addition, point mutations and trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms has been linked to a number of additional disorders.[19]


Structural domains of the two isoforms (AR-A and AR-B) of the human androgen receptor. Numbers above the bars refer to the amino acid residues which separate the domains starting from the N-terminus (left) to C-terminus (right). NTD = N-terminal domain, DBD = DNA binding domain. LBD = ligand binding domain. AF = activation function.


Two isoforms of the androgen receptor (A and B) have been identified:[20]

  • AR-A - 87 kDa - N-terminus truncated (lacks the first 187 amino acids)
  • AR-B - 110 kDa - full length


Like other nuclear receptors, the androgen receptor is modular in structure and is composed of the following functional domains labeled A through F:[21]

  • A/B) - N-terminal regulatory domain contains:[22]
    • activation function 1 (AF-1) between residues 101 and 370 required for full ligand activated transcriptional activity
    • activation function 5 (AF-5) between residues 360-485 is responsible for the constitutive activity (activity without bound ligand)
    • dimerization surface involving residues 1-36 (containing the FXXLF motif where F = phenylalanine, L = leucine, and X = any amino acid residue) and 370-494 which both interact with the LBD in an intramolecular[23][24][25] head-to-tail interaction[26][27][28]
  • C) - DNA binding domain (DBD)
  • D) - Hinge region - flexible region that connects the DBD with the LBD; along with the DBD, contains a ligand dependent nuclear localization signal[29]
  • E) - Ligand binding domain (LBD) containing
    • activation function 2 (AF-2), responsible for agonist induced activity (activity in the presence of bound agonist)
    • AF-2 binds either the N-terminal FXXFL motif intramolecularly or coactivator proteins (containing the LXXLL or preferably FXXFL motifs)[28]
    • A ligand dependent nuclear export signal[30]
  • F) - C-terminal domain


Androgen receptor has been shown to interact with RAD9A,[31] SART3,[32] EFCAB6,[33] Testicular receptor 4,[34] Testicular receptor 2,[35] CREB binding protein,[36][37][38][39] TGFB1I1,[40][41] Caveolin 1,[42] Nuclear receptor coactivator 2,[43][38][44][45][46] UBE2I,[47] FHL2,[48] Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1,[49][43][50][51] MYST2,[52] Cyclin D1,[53][54] Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2,[55][43][56] Nuclear receptor coactivator 3,[57][58][44] SRY,[59] Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3,[60][61][62] HDAC1,[63] FOXO1,[64] TMF1,[65] PTEN,[66] Src,[67][68][69] RNF14,[70][41][71][45] PA2G4,[72] Death associated protein 6,[73] STAT3,[74][75] Cyclin-dependent kinase 7,[76] CDK9,[77] MED1,[78] Epidermal growth factor receptor,[79][80] Calmodulin 1,[81] Nuclear receptor coactivator 1,[49][82][83] BAG1,[84][85][86] C-jun,[87] PATZ1,[88] UXT,[89] Retinoblastoma protein,[90][91] AKT1,[92] BRCA1,[93][94] Small heterodimer partner,[95] Deleted in Colorectal Cancer,[96] RCHY1,[97] Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase,[98] Protein inhibitor of activated STAT2,[99][100] PRPF6,[101] SVIL,[102] NCOA6,[103] Beta-catenin,[104][49][43][105][106][107] ZMIZ1,[108] GSK3B,[109] HTATIP,[63] Gelsolin,[110] RNF4,[111][112][88] NONO,[38] Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1,[113][114] RANBP9,[115] MAGEA11,[46][116] TRIM68,[117] PAK6,[118][119] NCOA4,[120][121][122][92][123][124][41][125][45] COX5B[126] and GNB2L1.[127]


  1. ^ Lu NZ, Wardell SE, Burnstein KL, Defranco D, Fuller PJ, Giguere V, Hochberg RB, McKay L, Renoir JM, Weigel NL, Wilson EM, McDonnell DP, Cidlowski JA (December 2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LXV. The pharmacology and classification of the nuclear receptor superfamily: glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, progesterone, and androgen receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (4): 782–97. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.9. PMID 17132855.  
  2. ^ Roy AK, Lavrovsky Y, Song CS, Chen S, Jung MH, Velu NK, Bi BY, Chatterjee B (1999). "Regulation of androgen action". Vitam. Horm. 55: 309–52. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(08)60938-3. PMID 9949684.  
  3. ^ Bardin CW, Brown T, Isomaa VV, Jänne OA (1983). "Progestins can mimic, inhibit and potentiate the actions of androgens". Pharmacol. Ther. 23 (3): 443–59. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(83)90023-2. PMID 6371845.  
  4. ^ Raudrant D, Rabe T (2003). "Progestogens with antiandrogenic properties". Drugs 63 (5): 463–92. doi:10.2165/00003495-200363050-00003. PMID 12600226.  
  5. ^ Mooradian AD, Morley JE, Korenman SG (1987). "Biological actions of androgens". Endocr. Rev. 8 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1210/edrv-8-1-1. PMID 3549275.  
  6. ^ a b Heinlein CA, Chang C (2002). "The roles of androgen receptors and androgen-binding proteins in nongenomic androgen actions". Mol. Endocrinol. 16 (10): 2181–7. doi:10.1210/me.2002-0070. PMID 12351684.  
  7. ^ Davison SL, Bell R (April 2006). "Androgen physiology". Semin. Reprod. Med. 24 (2): 71–7. doi:10.1055/s-2006-939565. PMID 16633980.  
  8. ^ Sinisi AA, Pasquali D, Notaro A, Bellastella A (2003). "Sexual differentiation". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 26 (3 Suppl): 23–8. PMID 12834017.  
  9. ^ Frank GR (September 2003). "Role of estrogen and androgen in pubertal skeletal physiology". Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 41 (3): 217–21. doi:10.1002/mpo.10340. PMID 12868122.  
  10. ^ Heemers HV, Tindall DJ (December 2007). "Androgen receptor (AR) coregulators: a diversity of functions converging on and regulating the AR transcriptional complex". Endocr. Rev. 28 (7): 778–808. doi:10.1210/er.2007-0019. PMID 17940184.  
  11. ^ Pandini G, Mineo R, Frasca F, Roberts CT Jr, Marcelli M, Vigneri R, Belfiore A (March 2005). "Androgens up-regulate the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Res. 65 (5): 1849–57. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1837. PMID 15753383.  
  12. ^ Fix C, Jordan C, Cano P, Walker WH (2004). "Testosterone activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and the cAMP response element binding protein transcription factor in Sertoli cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (30): 10919–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404278101. PMID 15263086.  
  13. ^ Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO, Lanz RB, Zoumpourlis VC, Schwartz RJ (2005). "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (9): 7786–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M413992200. PMID 15623502.  
  14. ^ Chang CS, Kokontis J, Liao ST (1988). "Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors". Science 240 (4850): 324–6. doi:10.1126/science.3353726. PMID 3353726.  
  15. ^ Trapman J, Klaassen P, Kuiper GG, van der Korput JA, Faber PW, van Rooij HC, Geurts van Kessel A, Voorhorst MM, Mulder E, Brinkmann AO (1988). "Cloning, structure and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 153 (1): 241–8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)81214-2. PMID 3377788.  
  16. ^ Brown TR (1995). "Human androgen insensitivity syndrome" (abstract). J. Androl. 16 (4): 299–303. PMID 8537246.  
  17. ^ Kennedy WR, Alter M, Sung JH (1968). "Progressive proximal spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy of late onset. A sex-linked recessive trait". Neurology 18 (7): 671–80. PMID 4233749.  
  18. ^ Yu Z, Dadgar N, Albertelli M, Gruis K, Jordan C, Robins DM, Lieberman AP (2006). "Androgen-dependent pathology demonstrates myopathic contribution to the Kennedy disease phenotype in a mouse knock-in model". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (10): 2663–72. doi:10.1172/JCI28773. PMID 16981011.  
  19. ^ Rajender S, Singh L, Thangaraj K (2007). "Phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations in androgen receptor gene". Asian J. Androl. 9 (2): 147–79. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2007.00250.x. PMID 17334586.  
  20. ^ Wilson CM, McPhaul MJ (1994). "A and B forms of the androgen receptor are present in human genital skin fibroblasts". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (4): 1234–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.4.1234. PMID 8108393.  
  21. ^ Brinkmann AO, Klaasen P, Kuiper GG, van der Korput JA, Bolt J, de Boer W, Smit A, Faber PW, van Rooij HC, Geurts van Kessel A, Voorhorst MM, Mulder E, Trapman J (1989). "Structure and function of the androgen receptor". Urol. Res. 17 (2): 87–93. doi:10.1007/BF00262026. PMID 2734982.  
  22. ^ Jenster G, van der Korput HA, Trapman J, Brinkmann AO (1995). "Identification of two transcription activation units in the N-terminal domain of the human androgen receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (13): 7341–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.13.7341. PMID 7706276.  
  23. ^ Schaufele F, Carbonell X, Guerbadot M, Borngraeber S, Chapman MS, Ma AA, Miner JN, Diamond MI (July 2005). "The structural basis of androgen receptor activation: intramolecular and intermolecular amino-carboxy interactions". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (28): 9802–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0408819102. PMID 15994236.  
  24. ^ Klokk TI, Kurys P, Elbi C, Nagaich AK, Hendarwanto A, Slagsvold T, Chang CY, Hager GL, Saatcioglu F (March 2007). "Ligand-specific dynamics of the androgen receptor at its response element in living cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 27 (5): 1823–43. doi:10.1128/MCB.01297-06. PMID 17189428.  
  25. ^ van Royen ME, Cunha SM, Brink MC, Mattern KA, Nigg AL, Dubbink HJ, Verschure PJ, Trapman J, Houtsmuller AB (April 2007). "Compartmentalization of androgen receptor protein-protein interactions in living cells". J. Cell Biol. 177 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1083/jcb.200609178. PMID 17420290.  
  26. ^ Langley E, Zhou ZX, Wilson EM (1995). "Evidence for an anti-parallel orientation of the ligand-activated human androgen receptor dimer". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (50): 29983–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.50.29983. PMID 8530400.  
  27. ^ Berrevoets CA, Doesburg P, Steketee K, Trapman J, Brinkmann AO (1998). "Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)". Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (8): 1172–83. doi:10.1210/me.12.8.1172. PMID 9717843.  
  28. ^ a b Dubbink HJ, Hersmus R, Verma CS, van der Korput HA, Berrevoets CA, van Tol J, Ziel-van der Made AC, Brinkmann AO, Pike AC, Trapman J (2004). "Distinct recognition modes of FXXLF and LXXLL motifs by the androgen receptor". Mol. Endocrinol. 18 (9): 2132–50. doi:10.1210/me.2003-0375. PMID 15178743.  
  29. ^ Kaku N, Matsuda KI, Tsujimura A, Kawata M (April 2008). "Characterization of nuclear import of the domain-specific androgen receptor in association with the importin α/β and Ran-GTP systems". Endocrinology 149: 3960. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0137. PMID 18420738.  
  30. ^ Saporita AJ, Zhang Q, Navai N, Dincer Z, Hahn J, Cai X, Wang Z (October 2003). "Identification and characterization of a ligand-regulated nuclear export signal in androgen receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (43): 41998–2005. doi:10.1074/jbc.M302460200. PMID 12923188.  
  31. ^ Wang, Liang; Hsu Cheng-Lung, Ni Jing, Wang Peng-Hui, Yeh Shuyuan, Keng Peter, Chang Chawnshang (Mar. 2004). "Human checkpoint protein hRad9 functions as a negative coregulator to repress androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (5): 2202–13. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 14966297.  
  32. ^ Liu, Ying; Kim Byung Oh, Kao Chinghai, Jung Chaeyong, Dalton James T, He Johnny J (May. 2004). "Tip110, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa as a negative regulator of androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (21): 21766–73. doi:10.1074/jbc.M314321200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15031286.  
  33. ^ Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki Kazuko, Taira Takahiro, Iguchi-Ariga Sanae M M, Ariga Hiroyoshi (Feb. 2003). "DJBP: a novel DJ-1-binding protein, negatively regulates the androgen receptor by recruiting histone deacetylase complex, and DJ-1 antagonizes this inhibition by abrogation of this complex". Mol. Cancer Res. (United States) 1 (4): 247–61. ISSN 1541-7786. PMID 12612053.  
  34. ^ Lee, Y F; Shyr C R, Thin T H, Lin W J, Chang C (Dec. 1999). "Convergence of two repressors through heterodimer formation of androgen receptor and testicular orphan receptor-4: a unique signaling pathway in the steroid receptor superfamily". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 96 (26): 14724–9. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10611280.  
  35. ^ Mu, Xiaomin; Chang Chawnshang (Oct. 2003). "TR2 orphan receptor functions as negative modulator for androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells PC-3". Prostate (United States) 57 (2): 129–33. doi:10.1002/pros.10282. ISSN 0270-4137. PMID 12949936.  
  36. ^ Kim, J; Jia L, Stallcup M R, Coetzee G A (Feb. 2005). "The role of protein kinase A pathway and cAMP responsive element-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated transcription at the prostate-specific antigen locus". J. Mol. Endocrinol. (England) 34 (1): 107–18. doi:10.1677/jme.1.01701. ISSN 0952-5041. PMID 15691881.  
  37. ^ Frønsdal, K; Engedal N, Slagsvold T, Saatcioglu F (Nov. 1998). "CREB binding protein is a coactivator for the androgen receptor and mediates cross-talk with AP-1". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (48): 31853–9. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9822653.  
  38. ^ a b c Ishitani, Ken; Yoshida Tasuku, Kitagawa Hirochika, Ohta Hiroaki, Nozawa Shiro, Kato Shigeaki (Jul. 2003). "p54nrb acts as a transcriptional coactivator for activation function 1 of the human androgen receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 306 (3): 660–5. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 12810069.  
  39. ^ Aarnisalo, P; Palvimo J J, Jänne O A (Mar. 1998). "CREB-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated signaling". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 95 (5): 2122–7. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 9482849.  
  40. ^ Wang, Xin; Yang Yue, Guo Xiaojian, Sampson Erik R, Hsu Cheng-Lung, Tsai Meng-Yin, Yeh Shuyuan, Wu Guan, Guo Yinglu, Chang Chawnshang (May. 2002). "Suppression of androgen receptor transactivation by Pyk2 via interaction and phosphorylation of the ARA55 coregulator". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (18): 15426–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111218200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11856738.  
  41. ^ a b c He, Bin; Minges John T, Lee Lori W, Wilson Elizabeth M (Mar. 2002). "The FXXLF motif mediates androgen receptor-specific interactions with coregulators". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (12): 10226–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111975200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11779876.  
  42. ^ Lu, M L; Schneider M C, Zheng Y, Zhang X, Richie J P (Apr. 2001). "Caveolin-1 interacts with androgen receptor. A positive modulator of androgen receptor mediated transactivation". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (16): 13442–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006598200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278309.  
  43. ^ a b c d Song, Liang-Nian; Coghlan Meghan, Gelmann Edward P (Jan. 2004). "Antiandrogen effects of mifepristone on coactivator and corepressor interactions with the androgen receptor". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 18 (1): 70–85. doi:10.1210/me.2003-0189. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 14593076.  
  44. ^ a b Wang, Qianben; Udayakumar T S, Vasaitis Tadas S, Brodie Angela M, Fondell Joseph D (Apr. 2004). "Mechanistic relationship between androgen receptor polyglutamine tract truncation and androgen-dependent transcriptional hyperactivity in prostate cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (17): 17319–28. doi:10.1074/jbc.M400970200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14966121.  
  45. ^ a b c He, Bin; Wilson Elizabeth M (Mar. 2003). "Electrostatic modulation in steroid receptor recruitment of LXXLL and FXXLF motifs". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (6): 2135–50. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 12612084.  
  46. ^ a b Bai, Suxia; He Bin, Wilson Elizabeth M (Feb. 2005). "Melanoma antigen gene protein MAGE-11 regulates androgen receptor function by modulating the interdomain interaction". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 25 (4): 1238–57. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.4.1238-1257.2005. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 15684378.  
  47. ^ Poukka, H; Aarnisalo P, Karvonen U, Palvimo J J, Jänne O A (Jul. 1999). "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (27): 19441–6. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10383460.  
  48. ^ Müller, J M; Isele U, Metzger E, Rempel A, Moser M, Pscherer A, Breyer T, Holubarsch C, Buettner R, Schüle R (Feb. 2000). "FHL2, a novel tissue-specific coactivator of the androgen receptor". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (3): 359–69. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.3.359. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 10654935.  
  49. ^ a b c Masiello, David; Chen Shao-Yong, Xu Youyuan, Verhoeven Manon C, Choi Eunis, Hollenberg Anthony N, Balk Steven P (Oct. 2004). "Recruitment of beta-catenin by wild-type or mutant androgen receptors correlates with ligand-stimulated growth of prostate cancer cells". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 18 (10): 2388–401. doi:10.1210/me.2003-0436. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 15256534.  
  50. ^ Cheng, Shinta; Brzostek Sabrina, Lee Suzanne R, Hollenberg Anthony N, Balk Steven P (Jul. 2002). "Inhibition of the dihydrotestosterone-activated androgen receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 16 (7): 1492–501. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 12089345.  
  51. ^ Hodgson, Myles C; Astapova Inna, Cheng Shinta, Lee Larissa J, Verhoeven Manon C, Choi Eunis, Balk Steven P, Hollenberg Anthony N (Feb. 2005). "The androgen receptor recruits nuclear receptor CoRepressor (N-CoR) in the presence of mifepristone via its N and C termini revealing a novel molecular mechanism for androgen receptor antagonists". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 280 (8): 6511–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M408972200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15598662.  
  52. ^ Sharma, M; Zarnegar M, Li X, Lim B, Sun Z (Nov. 2000). "Androgen receptor interacts with a novel MYST protein, HBO1". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (45): 35200–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004838200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10930412.  
  53. ^ Petre-Draviam, Christin E; Williams Erin B, Burd Craig J, Gladden Andrew, Moghadam Hamed, Meller Jaroslaw, Diehl J Alan, Knudsen Karen E (Jan. 2005). "A central domain of cyclin D1 mediates nuclear receptor corepressor activity". Oncogene (England) 24 (3): 431–44. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208200. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 15558026.  
  54. ^ Knudsen, K E; Cavenee W K, Arden K C (May. 1999). "D-type cyclins complex with the androgen receptor and inhibit its transcriptional transactivation ability". Cancer Res. (UNITED STATES) 59 (10): 2297–301. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 10344732.  
  55. ^ Liao, Guoqing; Chen Liuh-Yow, Zhang Aihua, Godavarthy Aparna, Xia Fang, Ghosh Jagadish Chandra, Li Hui, Chen J Don (Feb. 2003). "Regulation of androgen receptor activity by the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (7): 5052–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206374200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12441355.  
  56. ^ Dotzlaw, Helmut; Moehren Udo, Mink Sigrun, Cato Andrew C B, Iñiguez Lluhí Jorge A, Baniahmad Aria (Apr. 2002). "The amino terminus of the human AR is target for corepressor action and antihormone agonism". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 16 (4): 661–73. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11923464.  
  57. ^ Tan, J A; Hall S H, Petrusz P, French F S (Sep. 2000). "Thyroid receptor activator molecule, TRAM-1, is an androgen receptor coactivator". Endocrinology (UNITED STATES) 141 (9): 3440–50. ISSN 0013-7227. PMID 10965917.  
  58. ^ Gnanapragasam, V J; Leung H Y, Pulimood A S, Neal D E, Robson C N (Dec. 2001). "Expression of RAC 3, a steroid hormone receptor co-activator in prostate cancer". Br. J. Cancer (Scotland) 85 (12): 1928–36. doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2179. ISSN 0007-0920. PMID 11747336.  
  59. ^ Yuan, X; Lu M L, Li T, Balk S P (Dec. 2001). "SRY interacts with and negatively regulates androgen receptor transcriptional activity". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (49): 46647–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108404200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11585838.  
  60. ^ Chipuk, Jerry E; Cornelius Susan C, Pultz Nicole J, Jorgensen Joan S, Bonham Michael J, Kim Seong-Jin, Danielpour David (Jan. 2002). "The androgen receptor represses transforming growth factor-beta signaling through interaction with Smad3". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (2): 1240–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108855200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11707452.  
  61. ^ Hayes, S A; Zarnegar M, Sharma M, Yang F, Peehl D M, ten Dijke P, Sun Z (Mar. 2001). "SMAD3 represses androgen receptor-mediated transcription". Cancer Res. (United States) 61 (5): 2112–8. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 11280774.  
  62. ^ Kang, Hong-Yo; Huang Ko-En, Chang Shiuh Young, Ma Wen-Lung, Lin Wen-Jye, Chang Chawnshang (Nov. 2002). "Differential modulation of androgen receptor-mediated transactivation by Smad3 and tumor suppressor Smad4". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (46): 43749–56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205603200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12226080.  
  63. ^ a b Gaughan, Luke; Logan Ian R, Cook Susan, Neal David E, Robson Craig N (Jul. 2002). "Tip60 and histone deacetylase 1 regulate androgen receptor activity through changes to the acetylation status of the receptor". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (29): 25904–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203423200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11994312.  
  64. ^ Li, Pengfei; Lee Heehyoung, Guo Shaodong, Unterman Terry G, Jenster Guido, Bai Wenlong (Jan. 2003). "AKT-independent protection of prostate cancer cells from apoptosis mediated through complex formation between the androgen receptor and FKHR". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (1): 104–18. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 12482965.  
  65. ^ Hsiao, P W; Chang C (Aug. 1999). "Isolation and characterization of ARA160 as the first androgen receptor N-terminal-associated coactivator in human prostate cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (32): 22373–9. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10428808.  
  66. ^ Lin, Hui-Kuan; Hu Yueh-Chiang, Lee Dong Kun, Chang Chawnshang (Oct. 2004). "Regulation of androgen receptor signaling by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor through distinct mechanisms in prostate cancer cells". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 18 (10): 2409–23. doi:10.1210/me.2004-0117. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 15205473.  
  67. ^ Migliaccio, A; Castoria G, Di Domenico M, de Falco A, Bilancio A, Lombardi M, Barone M V, Ametrano D, Zannini M S, Abbondanza C, Auricchio F (Oct. 2000). "Steroid-induced androgen receptor-oestradiol receptor beta-Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (20): 5406–17. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.20.5406. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 11032808.  
  68. ^ Unni, Emmanual; Sun Shihua, Nan Bicheng, McPhaul Michael J, Cheskis Boris, Mancini Michael A, Marcelli Marco (Oct. 2004). "Changes in androgen receptor nongenotropic signaling correlate with transition of LNCaP cells to androgen independence". Cancer Res. (United States) 64 (19): 7156–68. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1121. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 15466214.  
  69. ^ Powell, S M; Christiaens V, Voulgaraki D, Waxman J, Claessens F, Bevan C L (Mar. 2004). "Mechanisms of androgen receptor signalling via steroid receptor coactivator-1 in prostate". Endocr. Relat. Cancer (England) 11 (1): 117–30. ISSN 1351-0088. PMID 15027889.  
  70. ^ Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Rahman Mujib, Takatera Hiroshi, Kang Hong-Yo, Yeh Shuyuan, Chang Hong-Chiang, Nishimura Kazuo, Fujimoto Naohiro, Chang Chawnshang (Feb. 2002). "A dominant-negative mutant of androgen receptor coregulator ARA54 inhibits androgen receptor-mediated prostate cancer growth". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (7): 4609–17. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108312200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11673464.  
  71. ^ Kang, H Y; Yeh S, Fujimoto N, Chang C (Mar. 1999). "Cloning and characterization of human prostate coactivator ARA54, a novel protein that associates with the androgen receptor". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (13): 8570–6. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10085091.  
  72. ^ Zhang, Yuexing; Fondell Joseph D, Wang Qianben, Xia Xianmin, Cheng Aiwu, Lu Michael L, Hamburger Anne W (Aug. 2002). "Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene (England) 21 (36): 5609–18. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205638. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 12165860.  
  73. ^ Lin, Ding-Yen; Fang Hsin-I, Ma Ai-Hong, Huang Yen-Sung, Pu Yeong-Shiau, Jenster Guido, Kung Hsing-Jien, Shih Hsiu-Ming (Dec. 2004). "Negative modulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity by Daxx". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (24): 10529–41. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.24.10529-10541.2004. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 15572661.  
  74. ^ Matsuda, T; Junicho A, Yamamoto T, Kishi H, Korkmaz K, Saatcioglu F, Fuse H, Muraguchi A (Apr. 2001). "Cross-talk between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and androgen receptor signaling in prostate carcinoma cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 283 (1): 179–87. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4758. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 11322786.  
  75. ^ Ueda, Takeshi; Bruchovsky Nicholas, Sadar Marianne D (Mar. 2002). "Activation of the androgen receptor N-terminal domain by interleukin-6 via MAPK and STAT3 signal transduction pathways". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (9): 7076–85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108255200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11751884.  
  76. ^ Lee, D K; Duan H O, Chang C (Mar. 2000). "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen receptor NH(2)-terminal associated coactivator". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (13): 9308–13. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10734072.  
  77. ^ Lee, D K; Duan H O, Chang C (Mar. 2001). "Androgen receptor interacts with the positive elongation factor P-TEFb and enhances the efficiency of transcriptional elongation". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (13): 9978–84. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002285200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11266437.  
  78. ^ Wang, Qianben; Sharma Dipali, Ren Yunsheng, Fondell Joseph D (Nov. 2002). "A coregulatory role for the TRAP-mediator complex in androgen receptor-mediated gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (45): 42852–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206061200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12218053.  
  79. ^ Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Carloni Vinicio, Muratori Monica, Formigli Lucia, Zecchi Sandra, Forti Gianni, Baldi Elisabetta (Oct. 2004). "EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling promoting invasion is disrupted in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells by an interaction between EGFR and androgen receptor (AR)". Int. J. Cancer (United States) 112 (1): 78–86. doi:10.1002/ijc.20362. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 15305378.  
  80. ^ Bonaccorsi, L; Muratori M, Carloni V, Marchiani S, Formigli L, Forti G, Baldi E (Aug. 2004). "The androgen receptor associates with the epidermal growth factor receptor in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells". Steroids (United States) 69 (8-9): 549–52. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2004.05.011. ISSN 0039-128X. PMID 15288768.  
  81. ^ Cifuentes, Eugenia; Mataraza Jennifer M, Yoshida Barbara A, Menon Mani, Sacks David B, Barrack Evelyn R, Reddy G Prem-Veer (Jan. 2004). "Physical and functional interaction of androgen receptor with calmodulin in prostate cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 101 (2): 464–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0307161101. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 14695896.  
  82. ^ Ueda, Takeshi; Mawji Nasrin R, Bruchovsky Nicholas, Sadar Marianne D (Oct. 2002). "Ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor by interleukin-6 and the role of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in prostate cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (41): 38087–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203313200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12163482.  
  83. ^ Bevan, C L; Hoare S, Claessens F, Heery D M, Parker M G (Dec. 1999). "The AF1 and AF2 domains of the androgen receptor interact with distinct regions of SRC1". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (12): 8383–92. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 10567563.  
  84. ^ Shatkina, Liubov; Mink Sigrun, Rogatsch Hermann, Klocker Helmut, Langer Gernot, Nestl Andrea, Cato Andrew C B (Oct. 2003). "The cochaperone Bag-1L enhances androgen receptor action via interaction with the NH2-terminal region of the receptor". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (20): 7189–97. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 14517289.  
  85. ^ Knee, D A; Froesch B A, Nuber U, Takayama S, Reed J C (Apr. 2001). "Structure-function analysis of Bag1 proteins. Effects on androgen receptor transcriptional activity". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (16): 12718–24. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010841200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278763.  
  86. ^ Froesch, B A; Takayama S, Reed J C (May. 1998). "BAG-1L protein enhances androgen receptor function". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (19): 11660–6. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9565586.  
  87. ^ Sato, N; Sadar M D, Bruchovsky N, Saatcioglu F, Rennie P S, Sato S, Lange P H, Gleave M E (Jul. 1997). "Androgenic induction of prostate-specific antigen gene is repressed by protein-protein interaction between the androgen receptor and AP-1/c-Jun in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (28): 17485–94. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9211894.  
  88. ^ a b Pero, Raffaela; Lembo Francesca, Palmieri Emiliano Antonio, Vitiello Carmen, Fedele Monica, Fusco Alfredo, Bruni Carmelo Bruno, Chiariotti Lorenzo (Feb. 2002). "PATZ attenuates the RNF4-mediated enhancement of androgen receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (5): 3280–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109491200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11719514.  
  89. ^ Markus, Steven M; Taneja Samir S, Logan Susan K, Li Wenhui, Ha Susan, Hittelman Adam B, Rogatsky Inez, Garabedian Michael J (Feb. 2002). "Identification and characterization of ART-27, a novel coactivator for the androgen receptor N terminus". Mol. Biol. Cell (United States) 13 (2): 670–82. doi:10.1091/mbc.01-10-0513. ISSN 1059-1524. PMID 11854421.  
  90. ^ Lu, J; Danielsen M (Nov. 1998). "Differential regulation of androgen and glucocorticoid receptors by retinoblastoma protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (47): 31528–33. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9813067.  
  91. ^ Yeh, S; Miyamoto H, Nishimura K, Kang H, Ludlow J, Hsiao P, Wang C, Su C, Chang C (Jul. 1998). "Retinoblastoma, a tumor suppressor, is a coactivator for the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer DU145 cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 248 (2): 361–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8974. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 9675141.  
  92. ^ a b Lin, H K; Yeh S, Kang H Y, Chang C (Jun. 2001). "Akt suppresses androgen-induced apoptosis by phosphorylating and inhibiting androgen receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 98 (13): 7200–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.121173298. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11404460.  
  93. ^ Park, J J; Irvine R A, Buchanan G, Koh S S, Park J M, Tilley W D, Stallcup M R, Press M F, Coetzee G A (Nov. 2000). "Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCAI) is a coactivator of the androgen receptor". Cancer Res. (UNITED STATES) 60 (21): 5946–9. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 11085509.  
  94. ^ Yeh, S; Hu Y C, Rahman M, Lin H K, Hsu C L, Ting H J, Kang H Y, Chang C (Oct. 2000). "Increase of androgen-induced cell death and androgen receptor transactivation by BRCA1 in prostate cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (21): 11256–61. doi:10.1073/pnas.190353897. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11016951.  
  95. ^ Gobinet, J; Auzou G, Nicolas J C, Sultan C, Jalaguier S (Dec. 2001). "Characterization of the interaction between androgen receptor and a new transcriptional inhibitor, SHP". Biochemistry (United States) 40 (50): 15369–77. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 11735420.  
  96. ^ Wafa, Latif A; Cheng Helen, Rao Mira A, Nelson Colleen C, Cox Michael, Hirst Martin, Sadowski Ivan, Rennie Paul S (Oct. 2003). "Isolation and identification of L-dopa decarboxylase as a protein that binds to and enhances transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor using the repressed transactivator yeast two-hybrid system". Biochem. J. (England) 375 (Pt 2): 373–83. doi:10.1042/BJ20030689. PMID 12864730.  
  97. ^ Beitel, L K; Elhaji Y A, Lumbroso R, Wing S S, Panet-Raymond V, Gottlieb B, Pinsky L, Trifiro M A (Aug. 2002). "Cloning and characterization of an androgen receptor N-terminal-interacting protein with ubiquitin-protein ligase activity". J. Mol. Endocrinol. (England) 29 (1): 41–60. ISSN 0952-5041. PMID 12200228.  
  98. ^ Koshy, B; Matilla T, Burright E N, Merry D E, Fischbeck K H, Orr H T, Zoghbi H Y (Sep. 1996). "Spinocerebellar ataxia type-1 and spinobulbar muscular atrophy gene products interact with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase". Hum. Mol. Genet. (ENGLAND) 5 (9): 1311–8. ISSN 0964-6906. PMID 8872471.  
  99. ^ Kotaja, N; Aittomäki S, Silvennoinen O, Palvimo J J, Jänne O A (Dec. 2000). "ARIP3 (androgen receptor-interacting protein 3) and other PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins differ in their ability to modulate steroid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 14 (12): 1986–2000. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11117529.  
  100. ^ Moilanen, A M; Karvonen U, Poukka H, Yan W, Toppari J, Jänne O A, Palvimo J J (Feb. 1999). "A testis-specific androgen receptor coregulator that belongs to a novel family of nuclear proteins". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (6): 3700–4. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9920921.  
  101. ^ Zhao, Yue; Goto Kiminobu, Saitoh Masayuki, Yanase Toshihiko, Nomura Masatoshi, Okabe Taijiro, Takayanagi Ryoichi, Nawata Hajime (Aug. 2002). "Activation function-1 domain of androgen receptor contributes to the interaction between subnuclear splicing factor compartment and nuclear receptor compartment. Identification of the p102 U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-binding protein as a coactivator for the receptor". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (33): 30031–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203811200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12039962.  
  102. ^ Ting, Huei-Ju; Yeh Shuyuan, Nishimura Kazuo, Chang Chawnshang (Jan. 2002). "Supervillin associates with androgen receptor and modulates its transcriptional activity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 99 (2): 661–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.022469899. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11792840.  
  103. ^ Goo, Young-Hwa; Na Soon-Young, Zhang Hao, Xu Jianming, Hong SunHwa, Cheong JaeHun, Lee Soo-Kyung, Lee Jae Woon (Feb. 2004). "Interactions between activating signal cointegrator-2 and the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma in androgen receptor transactivation". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (8): 7131–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M312563200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14645241.  
  104. ^ Yang, Fajun; Li Xiaoyu, Sharma Manju, Sasaki Carl Y, Longo Dan L, Lim Bing, Sun Zijie (Mar. 2002). "Linking beta-catenin to androgen-signaling pathway". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (13): 11336–44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111962200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11792709.  
  105. ^ Amir, Avital L; Barua Moumita, McKnight Nicole C, Cheng Shinta, Yuan Xin, Balk Steven P (Aug. 2003). "A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (33): 30828–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.M301208200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12799378.  
  106. ^ Mulholland, David J; Read Jason T, Rennie Paul S, Cox Michael E, Nelson Colleen C (Aug. 2003). "Functional localization and competition between the androgen receptor and T-cell factor for nuclear beta-catenin: a means for inhibition of the Tcf signaling axis". Oncogene (England) 22 (36): 5602–13. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206802. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 12944908.  
  107. ^ Pawlowski, John E; Ertel Jessica R, Allen Melissa P, Xu Mei, Butler Cheryl, Wilson Elizabeth M, Wierman Margaret E (Jun. 2002). "Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (23): 20702–10. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200545200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11916967.  
  108. ^ Sharma, Manju; Li Xiaoyu, Wang Yuzhuo, Zarnegar Mark, Huang Chun-Yin, Palvimo Jorma J, Lim Bing, Sun Zijie (Nov. 2003). "hZimp10 is an androgen receptor co-activator and forms a complex with SUMO-1 at replication foci". EMBO J. (England) 22 (22): 6101–14. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg585. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 14609956.  
  109. ^ Wang, Liang; Lin Hui-Kuan, Hu Yueh-Chiang, Xie Shaozhen, Yang Lin, Chang Chawnshang (Jul. 2004). "Suppression of androgen receptor-mediated transactivation and cell growth by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in prostate cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (31): 32444–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M313963200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15178691.  
  110. ^ Nishimura, Kazuo; Ting Huei-Ju, Harada Yasunori, Tokizane Takashi, Nonomura Norio, Kang Hong-Yo, Chang Hong-Chiang, Yeh Shuyuan, Miyamoto Hiroshi, Shin Masaru, Aozasa Katsuyuki, Okuyama Akihiko, Chang Chawnshang (Aug. 2003). "Modulation of androgen receptor transactivation by gelsolin: a newly identified androgen receptor coregulator". Cancer Res. (United States) 63 (16): 4888–94. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 12941811.  
  111. ^ Moilanen, A M; Poukka H, Karvonen U, Häkli M, Jänne O A, Palvimo J J (Sep. 1998). "Identification of a novel RING finger protein as a coregulator in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 18 (9): 5128–39. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 9710597.  
  112. ^ Poukka, H; Aarnisalo P, Santti H, Jänne O A, Palvimo J J (Jan. 2000). "Coregulator small nuclear RING finger protein (SNURF) enhances Sp1- and steroid receptor-mediated transcription by different mechanisms". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (1): 571–9. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10617653.  
  113. ^ Veldscholte, J; Berrevoets C A, Brinkmann A O, Grootegoed J A, Mulder E (Mar. 1992). "Anti-androgens and the mutated androgen receptor of LNCaP cells: differential effects on binding affinity, heat-shock protein interaction, and transcription activation". Biochemistry (UNITED STATES) 31 (8): 2393–9. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 1540595.  
  114. ^ Nemoto, T; Ohara-Nemoto Y, Ota M (Sep. 1992). "Association of the 90-kDa heat shock protein does not affect the ligand-binding ability of androgen receptor". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (ENGLAND) 42 (8): 803–12. ISSN 0960-0760. PMID 1525041.  
  115. ^ Rao, Mira A; Cheng Helen, Quayle Alandra N, Nishitani Hideo, Nelson Colleen C, Rennie Paul S (Dec. 2002). "RanBPM, a nuclear protein that interacts with and regulates transcriptional activity of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (50): 48020–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209741200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12361945.  
  116. ^ Bai, Suxia; Wilson Elizabeth M (Mar. 2008). "Epidermal-growth-factor-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation of MAGE-11 regulates its interaction with the androgen receptor". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 28 (6): 1947–63. doi:10.1128/MCB.01672-07. PMID 18212060.  
  117. ^ Miyajima, Naoto; Maruyama Satoru, Bohgaki Miyuki, Kano Satoshi, Shigemura Masahiko, Shinohara Nobuo, Nonomura Katsuya, Hatakeyama Shigetsugu (May. 2008). "TRIM68 regulates ligand-dependent transcription of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Res. (United States) 68 (9): 3486–94. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6059. PMID 18451177.  
  118. ^ Yang, F; Li X, Sharma M, Zarnegar M, Lim B, Sun Z (May. 2001). "Androgen receptor specifically interacts with a novel p21-activated kinase, PAK6". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (18): 15345–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010311200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278661.  
  119. ^ Lee, Suzanne R; Ramos Sharon M, Ko Andrew, Masiello David, Swanson Kenneth D, Lu Michael L, Balk Steven P (Jan. 2002). "AR and ER interaction with a p21-activated kinase (PAK6)". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 16 (1): 85–99. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11773441.  
  120. ^ Alen, P; Claessens F, Schoenmakers E, Swinnen J V, Verhoeven G, Rombauts W, Peeters B (Jan. 1999). "Interaction of the putative androgen receptor-specific coactivator ARA70/ELE1alpha with multiple steroid receptors and identification of an internally deleted ELE1beta isoform". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 13 (1): 117–28. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 9892017.  
  121. ^ Yeh, S; Chang C (May. 1996). "Cloning and characterization of a specific coactivator, ARA70, for the androgen receptor in human prostate cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 93 (11): 5517–21. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 8643607.  
  122. ^ Miyamoto, H; Yeh S, Wilding G, Chang C (Jun. 1998). "Promotion of agonist activity of antiandrogens by the androgen receptor coactivator, ARA70, in human prostate cancer DU145 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 95 (13): 7379–84. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 9636157.  
  123. ^ Yeh, S; Lin H K, Kang H Y, Thin T H, Lin M F, Chang C (May. 1999). "From HER2/Neu signal cascade to androgen receptor and its coactivators: a novel pathway by induction of androgen target genes through MAP kinase in prostate cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 96 (10): 5458–63. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10318905.  
  124. ^ Zhou, Zhong-xun; He Bin, Hall Susan H, Wilson Elizabeth M, French Frank S (Feb. 2002). "Domain interactions between coregulator ARA(70) and the androgen receptor (AR)". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 16 (2): 287–300. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11818501.  
  125. ^ Gao, T; Brantley K, Bolu E, McPhaul M J (Oct. 1999). "RFG (ARA70, ELE1) interacts with the human androgen receptor in a ligand-dependent fashion, but functions only weakly as a coactivator in cotransfection assays". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 13 (10): 1645–56. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 10517667.  
  126. ^ Beauchemin, A M; Gottlieb B, Beitel L K, Elhaji Y A, Pinsky L, Trifiro M A. "Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb interacts with human androgen receptor: a potential mechanism for neurotoxicity in spinobulbar muscular atrophy". Brain Res. Bull. (United States) 56 (3-4): 285–97. ISSN 0361-9230. PMID 11719263.  
  127. ^ Rigas, Anastasia C; Ozanne Daniel M, Neal David E, Robson Craig N (Nov. 2003). "The scaffolding protein RACK1 interacts with androgen receptor and promotes cross-talk through a protein kinase C signaling pathway". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (46): 46087–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306219200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12958311.  

See also

External links


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address