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Anemia
Classification and external resources

Peripheral blood smear microscopy of a patient with iron-deficiency anemia.
ICD-10 D50.-D64.
ICD-9 280-285
DiseasesDB 663
MedlinePlus 000560
eMedicine med/132 emerg/808 emerg/734
MeSH D000740
.Anemia (pronounced /əˈniːmiə/, also spelled anaemia and anæmia; from Ancient Greek ἀναιμία anaimia, meaning "lack of blood") is a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.^ A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the erythrocytes ("red blood cells" or RBCs) are larger than their normal volume.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] .However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency.^ Treatment with drugs that inhibit the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other types of retroviruses to multiply in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Other Laboratory Findings • • Decreased serum iron - characteristic finding; precedes anaemia Decreased transferrin, which is usually measured as total iron binding capacity - occurs after the decrease in serum iron.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Since hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs.^ Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein inside red blood cells.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Iron chelation with desferrioxamine should be considered after 20-25 units of red cells have been received.3 Anemia (AmE) or anæmia/anaemia (BrE), from the Greek (Ἀναιμία) (an-haîmia) meaning "without blood," is defined as a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences.^ Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The oxygen is used in the mitochondria , the power source within all cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These studies provide a strong pre-clinical model for “what it would take” to genetically correct SCA, and perhaps Cooley’s anemia, and is a foundation for a human clinical trial.
  • Ninth Cooley's Anemia Symposium | The New York Academy of Sciences 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nyas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood.^ Symptoms of anemia The most common symptom of anemia is tiredness.
  • Anemia - Causes of Anemia, Symptoms of Anemia, Hemoglobin Levels 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.indianwomenshealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IDA is the most common type of anemia.
  • Anemia << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anemia is a common blood disorder, affecting an estimated 3.4 million Americans.
  • Anemia - Anemia Disease Symptom, Treatment, Cause 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes.^ Treatments for anemia There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are different kinds of anemia.

^ Several factors can cause anemia: .
  • ANEMIA 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.aids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.^ Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anemia News, Video and Description 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: News]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anemia - Anemia Disease Symptom, Treatment, Cause 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Anemia News, Video and Description - Page 2 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Anemia Clinical Trial - Deficiency Hemoglobin Study - Precision Trials 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC precisiontrials.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.
  • Anemia Support Group - DailyStrength 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Anemias can be classified using two basic approaches: etiology (pathophysiology) : the causes of erythrocyte and hemoglobin depletion morphology : the characteristic changes in the erythrocytes red blood cells (RBCs), size, shape, and color An etiologic classification is based on the various conditions that can result from any of the physiologic changes and helps determine direction for planning care.

.The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis).^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two major approaches: the "kinetic" approach which involves evaluating production, destruction and loss[3], and the "morphologic" approach which groups anemia by red blood cell size.^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is an abnormal reduction in red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.The morphologic approach uses a quickly available and cheap lab test as its starting point (the MCV).^ The morphologic approach uses a quickly .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This section is written from the perspective that molecular genetic testing for this disorder is available on a research basis only and results should not be used for clinical purposes.
  • Fanconi Anemia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Here is a schematic representation of how to consider anemia with MCV as the starting point: .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, focusing early on the question of production may allow the clinician more rapidly to expose cases where multiple causes of anemia coexist.^ Other tests may be needed to find out what's causing the anemia.
  • Anemia: When Low Iron Is the Cause -- familydoctor.org 10 September 2009 21:31 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • Anemia: When Low Iron Is the Cause -- familydoctor.org 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • Anemia - When low blood iron is the cause 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cfpc.ca [Source type: General]
  • Anemia | Health Services | Clark University 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.clarku.edu [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, focusing early on the question of production may allow the clinician more rapidly to expose cases where multiple causes of anemia coexist.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some other causes of anemia include: .

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.
Main symptoms that may appear in anemia.
^ Anemia may occur without symptoms and be detected only during a medical examination that includes a blood test.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because anemia may be the first symptom of a serious illness, determining its cause is very important.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms your doctor may ask about (in association with Anemia) may include: Anemia symptoms Why: e.g.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be minor or vague.^ Signs and symptoms Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be small and vague.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many symptoms associated with anemia are not caused by diminished RBC mass.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The signs and symptoms can be related to the anemia itself, or the underlying cause.^ Causes Symptoms & Signs Exams and Tests Treatments Prognosis Possible Complications When to contact a medical professional References Disclaimer Anemia has been added to your Health Portfolio.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Anemia, like a fever, is a symptom of disease that requires investigation to determine the underlying etiology.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs and symptoms Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be small and vague.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most commonly, people with anemia report non-specific symptoms of a feeling of weakness, or fatigue, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration.^ Weakness and fatigue are the most common symptoms of anemia.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most commonly, people with anemia report a feeling of weakness or fatigue in general or during exercise, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the non-specific symptoms of anemia, specific features of vitamin B12 deficiency include peripheral neuropathy and subacute combined degeneration of the cord with resulting balance difficulties from posterior column spinal cord pathology.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.They may also report shortness of breath, dyspnea, on exertion.^ People with more severe anemia often report dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.In very severe anemia, the body may compensate for the lack of oxygen carrying capability of the blood by increasing cardiac output.^ Very severe anemia prompts the body to compensate by increasing cardiac output, leading to palpitations and sweatiness, and to heart failure.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Healthy red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperbaric Oxygenation Treatment of exceptional blood loss (anemia) is recognized as an indication for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if preexisting heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.^ Many patients with heart failure also have anemia.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult thalassemia patients are higher risk patients for transplant-related toxicity due to an advanced phase of disease and have a cure rate of 65% with current treatment protocol.
  • Ninth Cooley's Anemia Symposium | The New York Academy of Sciences 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nyas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Very severe anemia prompts the body to compensate by increasing cardiac output, leading to palpitations and sweatiness, and to heart failure.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.On examination, the signs exhibited may include pallor (pale skin, mucosal linings and nail beds) but this is not a reliable sign.^ Pallor (pale skin, mucosal linings and nail beds) is often a useful diagnostic sign in moderate or severe anemia, but it is not always apparent.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia may occur without symptoms and be detected only during a medical examination that includes a blood test.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with albinism may have vision problems and white or yellow hair; reddish, violet, blue or brown eyes; and pale skin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.There may be signs of specific causes of anemia, e.g., koilonychia (in iron deficiency), jaundice (when anemia results from abnormal break down of red blood cells — in hemolytic anemia), bone deformities (found in thalassaemia major) or leg ulcers (seen in sickle cell disease).^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In severe anemia, there may be signs of a hyperdynamic circulation: a fast heart rate (tachycardia), flow murmurs, and cardiac enlargement.^ Anemia may also contribute to heart problems.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This faster heart rate is called tachycardia.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signs • • • • • Pallor (best seen in the mucosa of tongue and mouth, especially in people with dark skin) Κοιλονψχηια (spoon shaped nails with longitudinal ridging) Ανγυλαρ χηειλιτισ (ulceration at the corners of the mouth) Ατροπηιχ γλοσσιτισ In marked anaemia there may be tachycardia, a flow murmur, cardiac enlargement, ankle oedema and heart failure.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.There may be signs of heart failure.^ A high level of aspartate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Who should be referred to secondary care?4 • • • • If someone has profound anaemia and signs of acute heart failure, they should be admitted urgently to hospital.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs and symptoms of anemia may include pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, lethargy, and fatigability.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pica, the consumption of non-food based items such as dirt, paper, wax, grass, ice, and hair, may be a symptom of iron deficiency, although it occurs often in those who have normal levels of hemoglobin.^ When they occur, symptoms may include: .
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normal-to-high iron levels, but iron cannot be used to make hemoglobin.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pica, the consumption of non-food such as dirt, paper, wax, grass, ice and hair, may be a symptom of iron deficiency, although it occurs often in those who have normal levels of hemoglobin.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.^ Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In children, severe anemia can impair growth and motor and mental development.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levels of erythropoietin are reduced in anemia of chronic disease.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.Restless legs syndrome is more common in those with iron deficiency anemia.^ Iron deficiency anemia in an urban slum.
  • Anemia: Free Medical and Health Information on Anemia Treatment and Research 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iron-deficiency anemia in infants and small children can be due to one or more of the following factors: .
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, sickle cell anemia with superimposed iron deficiency; chronic gastric bleeding with B12 and folate deficiency; and other instances of anemia with more than one cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Less common symptoms may include swelling of the legs or arms, chronic heartburn, vague bruises, vomiting, increased sweating, and blood in stool.^ Common causes of blood loss include: .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Possible consequences for the mother include cardiovascular symptoms, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced immune function, tiredness, reduced peripartal blood reserves and increased need for blood transfusion in the postpartum period.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, as with rhEpo, a cat may eventually develop a reaction to blood transfusions, and the odds seem to increase with each transfusion.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diagnosis

.Generally, clinicians request complete blood counts in the first batch of blood tests in the diagnosis of an anemia.^ Various tests are used in the diagnosis of Anemia.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A complete blood count (CBC) blood test is performed to determine the presence of anemia.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosis Generally, clinicians request complete blood counts in the first batch of blood tests in the diagnosis of an anemia.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Apart from reporting the number of red blood cells and the hemoglobin level, the automatic counters also measure the size of the red blood cells by flow cytometry, which is an important tool in distinguishing between the causes of anemia.^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examination of a stained blood smear using a microscope can also be helpful, and is sometimes a necessity in regions of the world where automated analysis is less accessible.^ Examination of a stained blood smear using a microscope can also be helpful, and is sometimes a necessity in regions of the world where automated analysis is less accessible.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cell size In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either done automatically or on microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A rational approach is to begin by examining the peripheral smear and laboratory values obtained on the blood count.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.In modern counters, four parameters (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, MCV and RDW) are measured, allowing others (hematocrit, MCH and MCHC) to be calculated, and compared to values adjusted for age and sex.^ In modern counters, four parameters (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, MCV and RDW) are measured, allowing others (hematocrit, MCH and MCHC) to be calculated, and compared to values adjusted for age and sex.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children ages 6 months - 5 years: Below 33% Children ages 5 years - 12 years: Below 35% Children ages 12 years - 15 years: Below 36% Adult men: Below 39% Adult non-pregnant women: Below 36% Adult pregnant women: Below 33% Other hemoglobin measurements such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) may also be calculated.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the erythrocytes ("red blood cells" or RBCs) are larger than their normal volume.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some counters estimate hematocrit from direct measurements.^ Some counters estimate hematocrit from direct measurements.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some doctors may also test your hematocrit level, which measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells.
  • Anemia - Questions for Your Doctor - What to Ask About Anemia - NY Times Health 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

WHO's Hemoglobin thresholds used to define anemia[5] (1 g/dL = 0.6206 mmol/L)[citation needed]
Age or gender group Hb threshold (g/dl) Hb threshold (mmol/l)
Children (0.5–5.0 yrs) 11.0 6.8
Children (5–12 yrs) 11.5 7.1
Children (12–15 yrs) 12.0 7.4
Women, non-pregnant (>15yrs) 12.0 7.4
Women, pregnant 11.0 6.8
Men (>15yrs) 13.0 8.1
.Reticulocyte counts, and the "kinetic" approach to anemia, have become more common than in the past in the large medical centers of the United States and some other wealthy nations, in part because some automatic counters now have the capacity to include reticulocyte counts.^ Common types of anemia and their causes include: .
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Anemia is far more common in underdeveloped countries than in the United States.
  • Anemia, Chronic: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This may be more of a problem in some brands (e.g., Eprex) than in others.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.A reticulocyte count is a quantitative measure of the bone marrow's production of new red blood cells.^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, and their count reflects the rate of red blood cell production.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.The reticulocyte production index is a calculation of the ratio between the level of anemia and the extent to which the reticulocyte count has risen in response.^ The reticulocyte production index is a calculation of the ratio between the level of anemia and the extent to which the reticulocyte count has risen in response.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, a patient with anemia without evidence of bleeding or iron deficiency with normal indirect bilirubin and normal or decreased reticulocyte count probably has a defect in the production of erythrocytes.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, and their count reflects the rate of red blood cell production.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the degree of anemia is significant, even a "normal" reticulocyte count actually may reflect an inadequate response.^ The reticulocyte count is elevated, and the MCV is normal.
  • Case Based Pediatrics Chapter 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the degree of anemia is significant, even a "normal" reticulocyte count actually may reflect an inadequate response.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticulocyte production index shows inadequate production response to anemia.

.If an automated count is not available, a reticulocyte count can be done manually following special staining of the blood film.^ If an automated count is not available, a reticulocyte count can be done manually following special staining of the blood film.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, both conditions show a low reticulocyte production index , suggesting that reticulocyte production is impaired and not enough to compensate for the decreased red blood cell count.
  • Anemia of chronic disease - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Part 20 – Tests for Anemia: Blood Tests Part 21 – Blood Tests Continued… Part 22 – Anemia in Children and Physical signs of Anemia Sufferers Part 23 – Medical Testing: Hematocrit and Reticulocyte count testing.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency - the Causes and Risk Factors such as Poisons, Toxins, Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC vitamin-b12deficiency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In manual examination, activity of the bone marrow can also be gauged qualitatively by subtle changes in the numbers and the morphology of young RBCs by examination under a microscope.^ This bone marrow sample is examined in a laboratory.

^ In manual examination, activity of the bone marrow can also be gauged qualitatively by subtle changes in the numbers and the morphology of young RBCs by examination under a microscope.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In certain types of cancer, erythropoietin production by the kidneys as well as its activity on the bone marrow is inhibited by cancer-produced cytokines (the substances that mediate inflammation) as well as by chemotherapy drugs.
  • Anemia in Your Pet - Dogs Cats And Ferrets 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.2ndchance.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newly formed RBCs are usually slightly larger than older RBCs and show polychromasia.^ Newly formed RBCs are usually slightly larger than older RBCs and show polychromasia.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pernicious anemia occurs most often in persons older than 30 years of age, although a juvenile form of the disease does occur, usually in children younger than 3 years of age.
  • pernicious anemia (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ RBCs in macrocytic anemias appear larger than normal cells on a peripheral blood smear.
  • Macrocytic Anaemia - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.healthvitaminsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even where the source of blood loss is obvious, evaluation of erythropoiesis can help assess whether the bone marrow will be able to compensate for the loss, and at what rate.^ Even where the source of blood loss is obvious, evaluation of erythropoiesis can help assess whether the bone marrow will be able to compensate for the loss, and at what rate.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this phase, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When the cause is not obvious, clinicians use other tests: ESR, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, RBC folate level, serum vitamin B12, hemoglobin electrophoresis, renal function tests (e.g.^ It is caused by impaired absorption or insufficient intake of vitamin B12 and folate.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin B12 & Folate -- Elevated counts .
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other iron status blood tests are also used.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

serum creatinine).
.When the diagnosis remains difficult, a bone marrow examination allows direct examination of the precursors to red cells.^ Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ When the diagnosis remains difficult, a bone marrow examination allows direct examination of the precursors to red cells.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this phase, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Classification

Production vs. destruction or loss

.The "kinetic" approach to anemia yields what many argue is the most clinically relevant classification of anemia.^ The "kinetic" approach to anemia yields what many argue is the most clinically relevant classification of anemia.
  • Anemia - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Classification [edit] Production vs. The "kinetic" approach to anemia yields what many argue is the most clinically relevant classification of anemia.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although anemia is the most common disorder of the blood, many times anemia goes undetected due to vague and ambiguous symptoms.
  • Mesothelioma SOS - Glossary - Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.mesotheliomasos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This classification depends on evaluation of several hematological parameters, particularly the blood reticulocyte (precursor of mature RBCs) count.^ This classification depends on evaluation of several hematological parameters, particularly the blood reticulocyte (precursor of mature RBCs) count.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, and their count reflects the rate of red blood cell production.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A reticulocyte count is a quantitative measure of the bone marrow's production of new red blood cells.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.This then yields the classification of defects by decreased RBC production versus increased RBC destruction and/or loss.^ This can be a result of decreased production or increased destruction of red blood cells.

^ This then yields the classification of defects by decreased RBC production versus increased RBC destruction and/or loss.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anemia - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemolysis (increased RBC destruction) .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Clinical signs of loss or destruction include abnormal peripheral blood smear with signs of hemolysis; elevated LDH suggesting cell destruction; or clinical signs of bleeding, such as guiaic-positive stool, radiographic findings, or frank bleeding.^ Clinical signs of loss or destruction include abnormal peripheral blood smear with signs of hemolysis; elevated LDH suggesting cell destruction; or clinical signs of bleeding, such as guiaic-positive stool, radiographic findings, or frank bleeding.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia caused by hemolysis (premature destruction of red blood cells).
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common causes of blood loss include: .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

The following is a simplified schematic of this approach:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.Reticulocyte production index shows inadequate production response to anemia.^ Thus, a patient with anemia without evidence of bleeding or iron deficiency with normal indirect bilirubin and normal or decreased reticulocyte count probably has a defect in the production of erythrocytes.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the degree of anemia is significant, even a "normal" reticulocyte count actually may reflect an inadequate response.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The reticulocyte production index is a calculation of the ratio between the level of anemia and the extent to which the reticulocyte count has risen in response.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

 
 
 
.Reticulocyte production index shows appropriate response to anemia = ongoing hemolysis or blood loss without RBC production problem.^ Confirm by repeating reticulocyte count: ongoing combination of low reticulocyte production index, normal MCV and hemolysis or loss may be seen in bone marrow failure or anemia of chronic disease, with superimposed or related hemolysis or blood loss.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the erythrocytes ("red blood cells" or RBCs) are larger than their normal volume.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperbaric Oxygenation Treatment of exceptional blood loss (anemia) is recognized as an indication for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.No clinical findings consistent with hemolysis or blood loss: pure disorder of production.^ No clinical findings consistent with hemolysis or blood loss: pure disorder of production.

^ Clinical findings and abnormal MCV: hemolysis or loss and chronic disorder of production*.

^ The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction ( hemolysis ) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis ).

 
.Clinical findings and abnormal MCV: hemolysis or loss and chronic disorder of production*.^ No clinical findings consistent with hemolysis or blood loss: pure disorder of production.

^ Clinical findings and abnormal MCV: hemolysis or loss and chronic disorder of production*.

^ The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction ( hemolysis ) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis ).

 
.Clinical findings and normal MCV= acute hemolysis or loss without adequate time for bone marrow production to compensate**.^ No clinical findings consistent with hemolysis or blood loss: pure disorder of production.

^ Clinical findings and normal MCV= acute hemolysis or loss without adequate time for bone marrow production to compensate**.

^ Clinical findings and abnormal MCV: hemolysis or loss and chronic disorder of production*.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Macrocytic anemia (MCV>100)
 
Normocytic anemia (80<MCV<100)
 
 
Microcytic anemia (MCV<80)
 
 
 
 
* For instance, sickle cell anemia with superimposed iron deficiency; chronic gastric bleeding with B12 and folate deficiency; and other instances of anemia with more than one cause.
** Confirm by repeating reticulocyte count: ongoing combination of low reticulocyte production index, normal MCV and hemolysis or loss may be seen in bone marrow failure or anemia of chronic disease, with superimposed or related hemolysis or blood loss.

Red blood cell size

.In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either done automatically or on microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear.^ Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is a condition that develops from a lack of healthy red blood cells.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A low level of circulating red blood cells is known as anemia.
  • CIGNA - Acquired Aplastic Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]
  • CIGNA - Anemia, Fanconi 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

.The size is reflected in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV).^ Microcytosis means that there is as a low mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The size is reflected in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normocytic anemia Normocytic anaemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume) remains normal.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the cells are smaller than normal (under 80 fl), the anemia is said to be microcytic; if they are normal size (80–100 fl), normocytic; and if they are larger than normal (over 100 fl), the anemia is classified as macrocytic.^ Megaloblastic anemia is a blood disorder in which there is anemia with larger-than-normal red blood cells.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ If the cells are smaller than normal (under 80 fl), the anemia is said to be microcytic; if they are normal size (80-100 fl), normocytic; and if they are larger than normal (over 100 fl), the anemia is classified as macrocytic.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare disease in which red blood cells break down earlier than normal.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.This scheme quickly exposes some of the most common causes of anemia; for instance, a microcytic anemia is often the result of iron deficiency.^ Some anemias, such as iron deficiency anemia, are common.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ A common cause of childhood anemia.
  • Normocytic Anemia - November 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Case Based Pediatrics Chapter 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that lack of iron in the diet is not a common cause of iron deficiency anemia, except in infants.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.In clinical workup, the MCV will be one of the first pieces of information available; so even among clinicians who consider the "kinetic" approach more useful philosophically, morphology will remain an important element of classification and diagnosis.^ In clinical workup, the MCV will be one of the first pieces of information available; so even among clinicians who consider the "kinetic" approach more useful philosophically, morphology will remain an important element of classification and diagnosis.
  • Anemia - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use the reference information at the end of each article to search MedLine for more complete and accurate information.
  • CHFpatients.com - HeartBytes About Heart Failure 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chfpatients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services.
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Pernicious anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

Here is a schematic representation of how to consider anemia with MCV as the starting point:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Macrocytic anemia (MCV>100)
 
 
 
 
 
Normocytic anemia (MCV 80–100)
 
 
 
 
 
Microcytic anemia (MCV<80)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High reticulocyte count
 
 
 
 
 
Low reticulocyte count
 
 
 
 
.
Other characteristics visible on the peripheral smear may provide valuable clues about a more specific diagnosis; for example, abnormal white blood cells may point to a cause in the bone marrow.
^ A condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Other characteristics visible on the peripheral smear may provide valuable clues about a more specific diagnosis; for example, abnormal white blood cells may point to a cause in .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone marrow failure - neurologic abnormalities ...
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

Microcytic anemia

Microcytic anemia is primarily a result of hemoglobin synthesis failure/insufficiency, which could be caused by several etiologies:
  • Heme synthesis defect
  • Globin synthesis defect
    • alpha-, and beta-thalassemia
    • HbE syndrome
    • HbC syndrome
    • and various other unstable hemoglobin diseases
  • Sideroblastic defect
    • Hereditary sideroblastic anemia
    • Acquired sideroblastic anemia, including lead toxicity
    • Reversible sideroblastic anemia
.Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia overall and it has many causes.^ Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How Common are these Causes of Anemia?
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.RBCs often appear hypochromic (paler than usual) and microcytic (smaller than usual) when viewed with a microscope.^ RBCs often appear hypochromic (paler than usual) and microcytic (smaller than usual) when viewed with a microscope.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Newly formed RBCs are usually slightly larger than older RBCs and show polychromasia.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, a donor usually cannot give blood more often than every two months.
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure/anaemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Iron deficiency anemia is caused by insufficient dietary intake or absorption of iron to replace losses from menstruation or losses due to diseases.^ Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency, anemia due to ...
    • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia is caused by insufficient dietary intake or absorption of iron to replace losses from menstruation or losses due to diseases.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    [6] .Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, and low iron levels result in decreased incorporation of hemoglobin into red blood cells.^ Low Red blood cells count...
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Critical Red blood cells .
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, and low iron levels result in decreased incorporation of hemoglobin into red blood cells.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In the United States, 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men.^ Anemia during pregnancy Anemia affects 20% of all females of childbearing age in the United States.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the United States, 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia in an urban slum.
    • Anemia: Free Medical and Health Information on Anemia Treatment and Research 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The principal cause of iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women is blood lost during menses.^ The principal cause of iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women is blood lost during menses.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia in an urban slum.
    • Anemia: Free Medical and Health Information on Anemia Treatment and Research 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia - children .
    • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    .Studies have shown that iron deficiency without anemia causes poor school performance and lower IQ in teenage girls.^ IQ in teenage girls.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron-poor diets are a cause of anemia only in people with existing risks for iron deficiency.
    • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The deficiency may be caused by poor diet.

    .Iron deficiency is the most prevalent deficiency state on a worldwide basis.^ The most prevalent and preventable form of microcytic anemia is iron deficiency anemia.
    • Anemia in Children - October 15, 2001 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency is the most prevalent deficiency state on a worldwide basis.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Iron deficiency is sometimes the cause of abnormal fissuring of the angular (corner) sections of the lips (angular stomatitis).
  • Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.^ Gastrointestinal bleeding is the other occult cause of anemia due to blood loss.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency is sometimes the cause of abnormal fissuring of the angular (corner) sections of the lips (angular stomatitis).
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Faecal occult blood testing, upper endoscopy and lower endoscopy should be performed to identify bleeding lesions.^ Fecal occult blood testing, upper endoscopy and lower endoscopy should be performed to identify bleeding lesions.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gastrointestinal bleeding is the other occult cause of anemia due to blood loss.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Every patient with iron deficiency anemia should have a stool examination for occult blood.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In men and post-menopausal women the chances are higher that bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract could be due to colon polyp or colorectal cancer.
  • Worldwide, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is parasitic infestation (hookworm, amebiasis, schistosomiasis and whipworm).^ Gastrointestinal bleeding is the other occult cause of anemia due to blood loss.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Asbestos that is swallowed may cause cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    [7]

Macrocytic anemia

.
  • Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid (or both).^ Macrocytic anemia • Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid (or both).
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Deficiency in folate and/or vitamin B12 can be due either to inadequate intake or insufficient absorption.^ Vitamin B12 & Folate -- Elevated counts .
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ B12 or folate deficiency.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Deficiency in folate and/or vitamin B12 can be due either to inadequate intake or insufficient absorption.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Folate deficiency normally does not produce neurological symptoms, while B12 deficiency does.^ Folate deficiency normally does not produce neurological symptoms, while B12 deficiency does.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ B12 or folate deficiency.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the ileum as a complex with intrinsic factor produced in the gastric parietal cells; folate on the other hand is absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .
    • Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor.^ In most anemias, one of these causes is the dominant factor.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ In non-vegans the main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia, which is an auto-immune condition with antibodies being produced against gastric parietal cells in 90% and intrinsic factor in 70% of patients.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Subtypes of Anemia: Pernicious anemia (14 causes), Hemolytic anemia (56 causes), Red cell breakdown .
      • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

      .Intrinsic factor is required to absorb vitamin B12 from food.^ Intrinsic factor is required to absorb vitamin B12 from food.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the ileum as a complex with intrinsic factor produced in the gastric parietal cells; folate on the other hand is absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ In non-vegans the main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia, which is an auto-immune condition with antibodies being produced against gastric parietal cells in 90% and intrinsic factor in 70% of patients.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      .A lack of intrinsic factor may arise from an autoimmune condition targeting the parietal cells (atrophic gastritis) that produce intrinsic factor or against intrinsic factor itself.^ Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition thought to be due to a directed attack against intrinsic factor produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ In non-vegans the main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia, which is an auto-immune condition with antibodies being produced against gastric parietal cells in 90% and intrinsic factor in 70% of patients.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the ileum as a complex with intrinsic factor produced in the gastric parietal cells; folate on the other hand is absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      .These lead to poor absorption of vitamin B12.
    • Macrocytic anemia can also be caused by removal of the functional portion of the stomach, such as during gastric bypass surgery, leading to reduced vit B12/folate absorption.^ Macrocytic anemia can also be caused by removal of the functional portion of the stomach, such as during gastric bypass surgery, leading to reduced vit B12/folate absorption.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Therefore, the destruction of intrinsic factor, leads to poor absorption of vitamin B12.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the ileum as a complex with intrinsic factor produced in the gastric parietal cells; folate on the other hand is absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum.
      • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

      .Therefore one must always be aware of anemia following this procedure.
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Alcoholism commonly causes a macrocytosis, although not specifically anemia.^ Therefore one must always be aware of anemia following this procedure.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alcoholism causes a macrocytosis, although not specifically anemia Μετηοτρεξατε, zidovudine, and other drugs that inhibit DNA replication.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The causes of non-megaloblastic macrocytosis include:     Alcohol: most frequent cause of MCV in the absence of anaemia Liver disease Myxoedema Myelodysplastic syndromes .
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    Other types of Liver Disease can also cause macrocytosis.
  • Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that inhibit DNA replication.
.Macrocytic anemia can be further divided into "megaloblastic anemia" or "non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemia". The cause of megaloblastic anemia is primarily a failure of DNA synthesis with preserved RNA synthesis, which result in restricted cell division of the progenitor cells.^ Non-Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anaemia There are many non-megaloblastic causes of macrocytic anaemia.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cause of megaloblastic anemia is primarily a failure of DNA synthesis with preserved RNA synthesis, which result in restricted cell division of the progenitor cells.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias have different etiologies (i.e.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The megaloblastic anemias often present with neutrophil hypersegmentation (6–10 lobes).^ The megaloblastic anemias often present with neutrophil hypersegmentation (6-10 lobes).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Progressive bone marrow failure, manifest as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and anemia, typically presenting by age seven to eight years, often initially with either thrombocytopenia or leukopenia.
  • Fanconi Anemia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias have different etiologies (i.e. there is unimpaired DNA globin synthesis,) which occur, for example in alcoholism.
.In addition to the non-specific symptoms of anemia, specific features of vitamin B12 deficiency include peripheral neuropathy and subacute combined degeneration of the cord with resulting balance difficulties from posterior column spinal cord pathology.^ In addition to the non-specific symptoms of anemia, specific features of vitamin B12 deficiency include peripheral neuropathy and subacute combined degeneration of the cord with resulting balance difficulties from posterior column spinal cord pathology.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The treatment for vitamin B12-deficient anemia was first devised by William Murphy who bled dogs to make them anemic and then fed them various substances to see what (if anything) would make them healthy again.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Other features may include a smooth, red tongue and glossitis.^ Other features may include a smooth, red tongue and glossitis.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment for vitamin B12-deficient anemia was first devised by William Murphy who bled dogs to make them anemic and then fed them various substances to see what (if anything) would make them healthy again.^ The treatment for vitamin B12-deficient anemia was first devised by William Murphy who bled dogs to make them anemic and then fed them various substances to see what (if anything) would make them healthy again.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the non-specific symptoms of anemia, specific features of vitamin B12 deficiency include peripheral neuropathy and subacute combined degeneration of the cord with resulting balance difficulties from posterior column spinal cord pathology.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Anemia may include: Iron supplements High-iron diet Healthy diet Intravenous iron - mainly for those on kidney dialysis Vitamin B12 supplements Folic acid supplements EPO injections - if anemia from an EPO deficiency more treatments...» Review further information on Anemia Treatments .
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.He discovered that ingesting large amounts of liver seemed to cure the disease.^ He discovered that ingesting large amounts of liver seemed to cure the disease.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.George Minot and George Whipple then set about to chemically isolate the curative substance and ultimately were able to isolate the vitamin B12 from the liver.^ George Minot and George Whipple then set about to chemically isolate the curative substance and ultimately were able to isolate the vitamin B12 from the liver.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.All three shared the 1934 Nobel Prize in Medicine.^ All three shared the 1934 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Normocytic anemia

.Normocytic anemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume) remains normal.^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical Red blood cells .
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normocytic anemia Normocytic anaemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume) remains normal.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Causes include:

Dimorphic anemia

.When two causes of anemia act simultaneously, e.g., macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to deficiency of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid [10] or following a blood transfusion more than one abnormality of red cell indices may be seen.^ For instance, sickle cell anemia with superimposed iron deficiency; chronic gastric bleeding with B12 and folate deficiency; and other instances of anemia with more than one cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Red blood cells count...
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Macrocytic anemia • Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid (or both).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Evidence for multiple causes appears with an elevated RBC distribution width (RDW), which suggests a wider-than-normal range of red cell sizes.^ Evidence for multiple causes appears with an elevated RBC distribution width (RDW), which suggests a wider-than-normal range of red cell sizes.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cell size In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either done automatically or on microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Heinz body anemia

.Heinz bodies form in the cytoplasm of RBCs and appear like small dark dots under the microscope.^ In manual examination, activity of the bone marrow can also be gauged qualitatively by subtle changes in the numbers and the morphology of young RBCs by examination under a microscope.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heinz body anemia Heinz bodies are an abnormality that form on the cells in this condition.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ RBCs often appear hypochromic (paler than usual) and microcytic (smaller than usual) when viewed with a microscope.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are many causes of Heinz body anemia, and some forms can be drug induced.^ Treatments for anemia There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Haemolytic anaemias There are many causes of haemolytic anaemia.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heinz body anemia Heinz bodies are an abnormality that form on the cells in this condition.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is triggered in cats by eating onions[11] or acetaminophen (Tylenol).^ This form of anemia may be brought on by taking certain medications; it is also triggered in cats by eating onionsHYPERLINK \l "cite_note-6"[7] or acetaminophen (Tylenol).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can be triggered in dogs by ingesting onions or zinc, and in horses by ingesting dry red maple leaves.^ It can be triggered in dogs by ingesting onions or zinc, and in horses by ingesting dry red maple leaves.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Cause

.
  • Anemia of prematurity occurs in premature infants at 2 to 6 weeks of age and results from diminished erythropoietin response to declining hematocrit levels.
  • Aplastic anemia is a condition generally unresponsive to anti-anemia therapies where bone marrow fails to produce enough red blood cells.
  • Fanconi anemia is a hereditary disorder or defect featuring aplastic anemia and various other abnormalities.
  • Hemolytic anemia causes a separate constellation of symptoms (also featuring jaundice and elevated LDH levels) with numerous potential causes.^ Low Red blood cells count...
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Causes Causes of anemia are numerous and multifaceted.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .It can be autoimmune, immune, hereditary or mechanical (e.g.^ It can be autoimmune, immune, hereditary or mechanical (e.g.
    • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    heart surgery). .It can result (because of cell fragmentation) in a microcytic anemia, a normochromic anemia, or (because of premature release of immature red blood cells from the bone marrow), a macrocytic anemia.
  • Hereditary spherocytosis is a hereditary defect that results in defects in the RBC cell membrane, causing the erythrocytes to be sequestered and destroyed by the spleen.^ In this phase, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Low Red blood cells count...
    • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    This leads to a decrease in the number of circulating RBCs and, hence, anemia.
  • Sickle-cell anemia, a hereditary disorder, is due to homozygous hemoglobin S genes.
  • Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an anemia caused by autoimmune attack against red blood cells, primarily by IgG.
  • Cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia is primarily mediated by IgM.
  • Pernicious anemia is a form of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12.
  • Myelophthisic anemia or Myelophthisis is a severe type of anemia resulting from the replacement of bone marrow by other materials, such as malignant tumors or granulomas.
  • Anemia of Pregnancy is anemia that is induced by blood volume expansion experienced in pregnancy.

Possible complications

.Anemia diminishes the capability of affected individuals to perform physical activities, a result of one's muscles being forced to depend on anaerobic metabolism.^ Possible complications Anemia diminishes the capability of individuals who are affected to perform physical activities.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a result of one's muscles being forced to depend on anaerobic metabolism.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical anomalies are not generally a cause of mortality in individuals with Fanconi anemia.
  • Fanconi Anemia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The lack of iron associated with anemia can cause many complications, including hypoxemia, brittle or rigid fingernails, cold intolerance, and possible behavioral disturbances in children.^ Many symptoms associated with anemia are not caused by diminished RBC mass.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lack of iron associated with anemia can cause many complications, including hypoxemia, brittle or rigid fingernails, cold intolerance, and possible behavioral disturbances in children.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments for anemia There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Hypoxemia resulting from anemia can worsen the cardio-pulmonary status of patients with pre-existing chronic pulmonary disease.^ Hypoxemia resulting from anemia can worsen the cardiopulmonary status of patients with pre-existing chronic pulmonary disease.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia of chronic disease .
  • Anemia | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ HIV (anemia to chronic disease) .
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cold intolerance occurs in one in five patients with iron deficiency anemia, and becomes visible through numbness and tingling.^ Cold intolerance occurs in one in five patients with iron deficiency anemia, and becomes visible through numbness and tingling.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iron deficiency anemia in an urban slum.
  • Anemia: Free Medical and Health Information on Anemia Treatment and Research 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iron-deficiency anemia in infants and small children can be due to one or more of the following factors: .
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Anemia during pregnancy

.Anemia affects 20 percent of all women of childbearing age in the United States[citation needed].^ Anemia during pregnancy Anemia affects 20% of all females of childbearing age in the United States.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As many as 20 to 50 percent of all women develop fibroids.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to the subtlety of the symptoms, affected women are often unaware that they have this disorder, as they attribute the symptoms to the stresses of their daily lives.^ Because of the subtlety of the symptoms, women are often unaware that they have this disorder, as they attribute the symptoms to the stresses of their daily lives.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unnecessary hysterectomies due to undiagnosed bleeding disorder in women : The bleeding disorder called Von Willebrand's disease is quite common in women, but often...
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During pregnancy, women should be especially aware of the symptoms of anemia, as an adult female loses an average of two milligrams of iron daily.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Possible problems for the fetus include increased risk of growth retardation, prematurity, intrauterine death, rupture of the amnion and infection.^ Neutropenia is associated with an increased risk for infections.
  • Fanconi Anemia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with AIDS are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.An expectant woman should be especially aware of the symptoms of anemia, as an adult female loses an average of two milligrams[citation needed] of iron daily.^ During pregnancy, women should be especially aware of the symptoms of anemia, as an adult female loses an average of two milligrams of iron daily.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in an adult in the United States should be attributed to bleeding unless other causes can be proven.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Therefore, she must intake a similar quantity of iron in order to compensate for this loss. Additionally, a woman loses approximately 500 milligrams[citation needed] of iron with each pregnancy, compared with a loss of 4–100 milligrams[citation needed] of iron with each period. .Possible consequences include cardiovascular symptoms, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced immune function, fatigue, reduced peripartal blood reserves and increased need for blood transfusion in the postpartum period.^ Symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, depression, and the inability to exercise.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A desire to satisfy a physical or mental need, such as for food, sex, or adventure.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Does Blood Transfusion increase CD4 count?
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This may severely affect the health of the child.

Treatments

.There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.^ Treatments for anemia There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many different causes and types of anemia.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many parts of Africa severe anemia is also caused by Malaria.

.Iron deficiency from nutritional causes is rare in non-menstruating adults (men and post-menopausal women).^ Iron deficiency from nutritional causes is rare in non-menstruating adults (men and postmenopausal women).
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Failure to investigate IDA properly by practitioners in primary care can cause significant delay in final diagnosis with associated morbidity.3 This article is based on the Clinical Knowledge Summary Guidance on iron deficiency anaemia.4 Epidemiology • • • In the developed world, 2-5% of adult men and post-menopausal women have iron deficiency anaemia.5 4-13% of referrals to gastroenterologists are because of iron deficiency anaemia.5 Pre-menopausal women have a higher incidence of iron deficiency anaemia because of heavy menstrual blood losses and pregnancy.2 .
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute iron poisoning is rare in adults but can be fatal in children who take adult-strength tablets.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnosis of iron deficiency mandates a search for potential sources of loss such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ulcers or colon cancer.^ Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnosis of iron deficiency mandates a search for potential sources of loss such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ulcers or colon cancer.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, sickle cell anemia with superimposed iron deficiency; chronic gastric bleeding with B12 and folate deficiency; and other instances of anemia with more than one cause.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mild to moderate iron deficiency anemia is treated by oral iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous gluconate.^ Iron deficiency anemia ...
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia, Iron-Deficiency ...
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

When taking iron supplements, it is very common to experience stomach upset and/or darkening of the feces. The stomach upset can be alleviated by taking the iron with food, however this decreases the amount of iron absorbed. .Vitamin C aids in the body's ability to absorb iron, so taking oral iron supplements with orange juice is of benefit.^ In cancer prevention, a clinical trial that studies whether taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements can prevent cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Vitamin supplements given orally (folic acid) or subcutaneously (vitamin B-12) will replace specific deficiencies.^ Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Anemia may include: Iron supplements High-iron diet Healthy diet Intravenous iron - mainly for those on kidney dialysis Vitamin B12 supplements Folic acid supplements EPO injections - if anemia from an EPO deficiency more treatments...» Review further information on Anemia Treatments .
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.In anemia of chronic disease, anemia associated with chemotherapy, or anemia associated with renal disease, some clinicians prescribe recombinant erythropoietin, epoetin alfa, to stimulate red cell production.^ Anemia: Reduced red blood cells in the blood.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin B12 deficiency ,folate deficiency, drug toxicity; if normal cell size can be chronic disease , hemolysis, renal failure.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Anemia, as listed in our database.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.In severe cases of anemia, or with ongoing blood loss, a blood transfusion may be necessary.^ In severe cases of anemia, or with ongoing blood loss, a blood transfusion may be necessary.
  • Anaemia - read free online 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood transfusions may be necessary for some types of hemolytic anemia.
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If anaemia is severe then you may also need to have a blood transfusion.

Blood transfusions

.Doctors attempt to avoid blood transfusion in general, since multiple lines of evidence point to increased adverse patient clinical outcomes with more intensive transfusion strategies.^ Antihistamines are used to prevent fevers in patients receiving blood transfusions and to treat allergies, coughs, and colds.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Does Blood Transfusion increase CD4 count?
  • Anemia -- The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The physiological principle that reduction of oxygen delivery associated with anemia leads to adverse clinical outcomes is balanced by the finding that transfusion does not necessarily mitigate these adverse clinical outcomes.
In severe, acute bleeding, transfusions of donated blood are often lifesaving. Improvements in battlefield casualty survival is attributable, at least in part, to the recent improvements in blood banking and transfusion techniques.[citation needed]
.Transfusion of the stable but anemic hospitalized patient has been the subject of numerous clinical trials, and transfusion is emerging as a deleterious intervention.^ In a clinical trial, a medical test on a patient that is not a part of the original study design.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Four randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate aggressive versus conservative transfusion strategies in critically ill patients.^ In a clinical trial, a medical test on a patient that is not a part of the original study design.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

All four of these studies failed to find a benefit with more aggressive transfusion strategies.[12][13][14][15]
.In addition, at least two retrospective studies have shown increases in adverse clinical outcomes with more aggressive transfusion strategies.^ It has been tried in some countries as a treatment for cancer, but it has not been shown to work in clinical studies.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16][17]

Hyperbaric oxygen

.Treatment of exceptional blood loss (anemia) is recognized as an indication for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.^ Anemia occurs when the amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying protein in the blood) in the blood becomes low, causing the tissues of the body to be deprived of oxygen-rich blood.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinically, anemia represents a reduction in the oxygen-transporting capacity of a designated volume of blood, resulting from an imbalance between blood loss (through hemorrhage or hemolysis) and blood production.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood Clot Medications or substances causing Anemia: .
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[18][19] .The use of HBO is indicated when oxygen delivery to tissue is not sufficient in patients who cannot be transfused for medical or religious reasons.^ Antihistamines are used to prevent fevers in patients receiving blood transfusions and to treat allergies, coughs, and colds.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who do not get better with other forms of treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.HBO may be used for medical reasons when threat of blood product incompatibility or concern for transmissible disease are factors.^ Antisense oligonucleotides may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Antisense agents may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The information on this site is not to be used for diagnosing or treating any health concerns you may have - please contact your physician or health care professional for all your medical needs.
  • Anemia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:45 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] The beliefs of some religions (ex: Jehovah's Witnesses) may prohibit the receipt of transfused blood products.[18]
In 2002, Van Meter reviewed the publications surrounding the use of HBO in severe anemia and found that all publications report a positive result.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ MedicineNet.com --> Definition of Anemia Last Editorial Review: 12/9/2000 8:31:00 AM
  2. ^ merriam-webster dictionary --> anemia Retrieved on May 25, 2009
  3. ^ eMedicine – Anemia, Chronic : Article by Fredrick M Abrahamian, DO, FACEP
  4. ^ eMedicineHealth > anemia article Author: Saimak T. Nabili, MD, MPH. Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD. Last Editorial Review: 12/9/2008. Retrieved on 4 April 2009
  5. ^ World Health Organization (2008). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 9789241596657. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596657_eng.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  6. ^ Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States MMWR 1998;47 (No. RR-3) p. 5
  7. ^ Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control: A guide for programme managers
  8. ^ eMedicine – Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases : Article by Niranjan N Singh, MD, DM, DNB July 18, 2006
  9. ^ Physiology or Medicine 1934 – Presentation Speech
  10. ^ Dorlands Medical Dictionary
  11. ^ Onions are Toxic to Cats
  12. ^ Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. (1999). "A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (6): 409–17. PMID 9971864. 
  13. ^ Bush RL, Pevec WC, Holcroft JW (1997). "A prospective, randomized trial limiting perioperative red blood cell transfusions in vascular patients". Am. J. Surg. 174 (2): 143–8. doi:10.1016/S0002-9610(97)00073-1. PMID 9293831. 
  14. ^ Bracey AW, Radovancevic R, Riggs SA, et al. (1999). "Lowering the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in coronary artery bypass procedures: effect on patient outcome". Transfusion 39 (10): 1070–7. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1999.39101070.x. PMID 10532600. 
  15. ^ McIntyre LA, Fergusson DA, Hutchison JS, et al. (2006). "Effect of a liberal versus restrictive transfusion strategy on mortality in patients with moderate to severe head injury". Neurocritical care 5 (1): 4–9. doi:10.1385/NCC:5:1:4. PMID 16960287. 
  16. ^ Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Pearl RG, et al. (2004). "The CRIT Study: Anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill—current clinical practice in the United States". Crit. Care Med. 32 (1): 39–52. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000104112.34142.79. PMID 14707558. 
  17. ^ Vincent JL, Baron JF, Reinhart K, et al. (2002). "Anemia and blood transfusion in critically ill patients". JAMA 288 (12): 1499–507. doi:10.1001/jama.288.12.1499. PMID 12243637. 
  18. ^ a b c Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. "Exceptional Blood Loss — Anemia". http://www.uhms.org/ResourceLibrary/Indications/ExceptionalBloodLossAnemia/tabid/277/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
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External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: Smith et al. 2006
Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Pteridophyta
Classis: Pteridopsida
Ordo: Schizaeales
Familia: Schizaeaceae
Genus: Anemia
Species: A. elongata

Name

Anemia

References

  • Pabst, M.B. 1968 "The flora of the Chuckanut Formation—the Equisitales, Filicales, and Coniferales" University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 76

Simple English

Anemia (U.S. spelling) or anaemia means not having enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood.

Contents

Types or causes of anemia

Microcytic anemia

  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia overall
  • Hemoglobinopathies -- much rarer

Normocytic anemia

  • Acute blood loss
  • Anemia of chronic disease
  • Aplastic anemia (bone marrow failure)

Macrocytic anemia

  • Megaloblastic anemia due to not having enough of either vitamin B12 or folic acid (or both)
  • Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune problem with the parietal cells of the stomach
  • Alcoholism
  • Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that stop DNA replication. This is the most common cause in nonalcoholic patients.

Dimorphic anemia

Dimorphic anemia means two types of anemia at the same time. For example, macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to not enough of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid [1] or following a blood transfusion.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 05, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Anemia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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