The Full Wiki

Anemone: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anemone
Japanese Anemone (Anemone hupehensis var. japonica)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Anemone
L.
Type species
Anemone coronaria L.
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Anemoclema (Franch.) W. T. Wang
Anemonastrum Holub
Anemonidium (Spach) Holub
Anetilla Galushko
Arsenjevia Starod.
Eriocapitella Nakai
Jurtsevia Á. & D. Löve
Probable synonyms:
Barneoudia Gay
Hepatica Mill.
Knowltonia Salisb.
Miyakea Miyabe & Tatew.
Oreithales Schltdl.
Pulsatilla Mill.
Sources: GRIN,[1] ING,[2] FNA[3]

Anemone (pronounced /əˈnɛməniː/, from Greek Άνεμος 'wind'), is a genus of about 120 species of flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae in the north and south temperate zones. They are closely related to Pasque flowers (Pulsatilla) and Hepaticas (Hepatica); some botanists include both of these genera within Anemone.

Contents

Description

Anemone blanda Blue Shades

Anemone are perennial herbs, growing from rhizomes, caudices, or tubers. Species have basal leaves with long petiole stems that can be upright or prostate, the foliage is simple or compound with lobed, parted, or undivided leaf blades. The leaf margins are entire or toothed. The flowers are produced in terminal inflorescences with involucres, and they can be arranged in two-to-nine-flowered cymes or in umbels, or be solitary. They have involucral bracts that can be leaf-like and/or petal-like. The flowers are bisexual and are radially symmetrical with 10 to 200 stamens. The flowers have nectaries, and many simple pistils, but petals are missing in the majority of species. The pistils have one ovule. The 4 to 27 sepals can be white, purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, or red and wither away during fruit growth. The fruits are ovoid to odovoid shaped achenes that are collected together in a tight cluster, ending variously lengthened stalks; though many species have sessile clusters terminating the stems. The achenes are beaked and some species have feathery hairs attached to them.[3]

Species list

There are approximately 150 species[3], including:

Cultivation

Many of the species are favorite garden plants, particularly since the different species can provide flowers throughout the year.

Of the late spring bulbs, A. blanda is one of the commonest, and is often sold as a mixture of colours, although purple predominates. The genus contains many other spring-flowering plants, of which A. hortensis and A. fulgens have less divided leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers. They require similar treatment.

Among the best known summer anemone is Anemone coronaria, often called the poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with parsleylike divided leaves, and large showy poppylike blossoms on stalks of from 15–20 cm high; the flowers are of various colours, but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple, and white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties.[citation needed]

Anemone hupehensis, and its white cultivar 'Honorine Joubert', the latter especially, are amongst the finest of autumn-flowering hardy perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 60–100 cm in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf species, represented by the native British A. nemorosa and A. apennina, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for planting in woods and shady places.[citation needed]

Anemones grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected by a covering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the single varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of handsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop or crocus. Anemone thrives in partial shade, or in full sun provided they are shielded from the hottest sun in southern areas. A well-drained slightly acid soil, enriched with compost, is ideal.[citation needed]

It is best to harvest cut flowers early in the morning while it is still cold out side while the bloom is still closed. To open your flowers place in room temperature water out of direct sun. Anemone's are a great cut flower and will give you around nine days of vase life when properly cared for. Anemone blooms can be purchased from a florist between November and June depending upon availability.

Anemone species are sometimes targeted by cutworms, the larvae of noctuid moths such as Angle Shades and Heart and Dart.[citation needed]

History and symbolism

A collage of Anemone coronaria of various colors. Anemone coronaria comes in shades of red, pink, purple, blue, and white, but the commonest colour is red.
Anemone coronaria and Eucalyptus in northern Negev, Israel

The meaning of the anemone flower is "forsaken" and also "a dying hope". The flower Anemone could also be used to signify anticipation.[citation needed]

A simple translation of Anemone coronaria yields Crown Anemone, with a history that supports regal association. The Arabic name for Anemone coronaria is "شقائق النعمان | Shaqa'iq An-Nu'man" translated literally as the wounds, or "pieces", of Nu'man[4][5]. One possible source of the name traces back to the Sumerian god of food and vegetation, Tammuz, whose Phoenician epithet was "Nea'man"[6]. Tammuz is generally considered to have been drawn into the Greek pantheon as "Adonis". Adonis died of his wounds while hunting wild boar. The deity is transformed into a flower, stained by the blood of Adonis[7]. Tammuz's Phoenician epithet "Nea'man" is believed to be both the source of "An-Nu'man" in Arabic which came through Syriac, and of "Anemone" which came through Greek.[8]

Another possible source of its name traces back to An-Nu'man Bin Al-Munthir who was the last Lakhmid king of Al-Hirah (582-c.609 AD) and a Christian Arab. An-Nu'man is known to have protected the flowers during his reign[9]. According to myth, the flower thrived on An-Nu'man's grave, paralleling the death and rebirth of Adonis.

The story of Adonis' death is found in Ovid's Metamorphoses (book X), where Venus transforms the blood of her dead lover, Adonis, into an Anemone. One implication is that the blood-red petals are symbolic of her lost love because, as the verses conclude, they cling too loosely to the stem and are easily lost in the wind. In some versions of the myth, Venus's tears cause the transformation.[10]

The Anemone coronaria ("Kalanit" in Hebrew) is one of the best-known and beloved flowers in Israel. During the British Mandate of Palestine, British soldiers were nicknamed "Kalaniyot" for their red berrets.[citation needed]

The anemone is called the wind flower because it was believed that wind is what caused it to bloom.[11]

References

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2007-05-10). "Genus: Anemone L." (HTML). Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?664. Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  2. ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Plant Name Search Results" (HTML). International Plant Names Index. http://botany.si.edu/ing/INGsearch.cfm?searchword=Anemone. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  3. ^ a b c "5. Anemone Linnaeus". Flora of North America 3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=101733. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  4. ^ Arabic-English lexicon, Volume 1, Part 4 By Edward William Lane, p. 1578, http://books.google.com/books?id=3p4OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1578
  5. ^ The poetics of anti-colonialism in the Arabic qaṣīdah By Hussein N. Kadhim, p. 158, http://books.google.com/books?id=80JtT6_MEmwC&pg=PA158
  6. ^ History Of Syria: Including Lebanon And Palestine By Philip Khuri Hitti, p. 117, http://books.google.com/books?id=91YymsCw5DIC&pg=PA117
  7. ^ Ibid.
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ Arabic-English lexicon, Volume 1, Part 4 By Edward William Lane, p. 1578, http://books.google.com/books?id=3p4OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1578
  10. ^ See entry for "anemone" in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities edited by William Smith, http://books.google.com/books?id=DuwRAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA59&dq=ovid+anemone&lr=&as_brr=1&ei=qVGdSYi0MpHaMbrH8aQJ.
  11. ^ under "wind-flower" in http://ia331409.us.archive.org/3/items/mountainwild00hens/mountainwild00hens.pdf
An illustration of an Anemone.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANEMONE, or Wind-Flower (from the Gr. ivEµos, wind), a genus of the buttercup order (Ranunculaceae), containing about ninety species in the north and south temperate zones. Anemone nemorosa, wood anemone, and A. Pulsatilla, Pasque-flower, occur in Britain; the latter is found on chalk downs and limestone pastures in some of the more southern and eastern counties. The plants are perennial herbs with an underground rootstock, and radical, more or less deeply cut, leaves. The elongated flower stem bears one or several, white, red, blue or rarely yellow, flowers; there is an involucre of three leaflets below each flower. The fruits often bear long hairy styles which aid their distribution by the wind. Many of the species are favourite garden plants; among the best known is Anemone coronaria, often called the poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with parsley-like divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms on stalks of from 6 to 9 in. high; the flowers are of various colours, but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple and white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties. They grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected by a covering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the single varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of handsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop or crocus. The genus contains many other lively spring-blooming plants, of which A. hortensis and A. fulgens have less divided leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers; they require similar treatment. Another set is represented by A. Pulsatilla, the Pasque-flower, whose violet blossoms have the outer surface hairy; these prefer a calcareous soil. The splendid A. japonica, and its white variety called Honorine Joubert, the latter especially, are amongst the finest of autumn-blooming hardy perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 22 to 3 ft. in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf species, represented by the native British A. nemorosa and A. apennina, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for planting in woods and shady places.

The genus Hepatica is now generally included in anemone as a subgenus. The plants are known in gardens as hepaticas, and are varieties of the common South European A. Hepatica; they are charming spring-flowering plants with usually blue flowers.


<< Anemometer

Anencletus >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also anemone

Contents

Translingual

Anemone ranunculoides
Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Wikispecies-logo.svg
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

Etymology

From Ancient Greek ἀνεμώνη (anemōnē) from ἄνεμος (anemos), wind), named by botanist Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778).[1][2]

Proper noun

Anemone

  1. a taxonomic genus, within tribe Anemoneae - the anemones

See also

  • See Wikispecies for the many species

References

  • Notes:
  1. ^ Erhardt, Walter & Götz, Erich & Bödeker, Nils & Seybold, Siegmund, Zander. Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. Dictionary of plant names. Dictionnaire des noms de plantes, Ulmer, 2000.
  2. ^ Stearn T. William, Botanical Latin, Redwood Burn, third edition 1983

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Unassigned Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales
Familia: Ranunculaceae
Subfamilia: Ranunculoideae
Tribus: Anemoneae
Genus: Anemone
Subgenera: A. subg. Anemoclema - A. subg. Anemonanthea - A. subg. Anemone - A. subg. Anemonoides - A. subg. Omalocarpus - A. subg. Richardsonia - A. subg. Stolonifera
Species: A. acutiloba - A. alba - A. albana - A. alpina - A. ambigua - A. americana - A. angulosa - A. baldensis - A. begoniifolia - A. berlandieri - A. biflora - A. blanda - A. borealis - A. bungeana - A. canadensis - A. caroliniana - A. cernua - A. chinensis - A. coronaria - A. crinita - A. cylindrica - A. dahurica - A. davidii - A. decapetala - A. deltoidea - A. demissa - A. drummondii - A. edwardsiana - A. flaccida - A. fulgens - A. glaucifolia - A. halleri - A. helleborifolia - A. hepatica - A. hupehensis - A. hortensis - A. ×hybrida - A. lancifolia - A. ×lipsiensis - A. lithophila - A. lyallii - A. mexicana - A. montana - A. multiceps - A. multifida - A. narcissiflora - A. nemorosa - A. nikoensis - A. occidentalis - A. oregana - A. parviflora - A. patens - A. piperi - A. polyanthes - A. pratensis - A. pseudoaltaica - A. pulsatilla - A. quinquefolia - A. raddeana - A. ranunculoides - A. richardsonii - A. rivularis - A. rupestris - A. rupicola - A. sulphurea - A. sylvestris - A. taraoi - A. tetonensis - A. tetrasepala - A. tomentosa - A. transsilvanica - A. trifolia - A. tuberosa - A. virginiana - A. vitifolia

Name

Anemone L., Sp. Pl. 1: 538. 1753.

Synonyms

  • Anemanthus Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon sér. 2, 16: 323. 1868.
  • Anemonanthea S.F.Gray
  • Anemonastrum Holub
  • Anemonidium (Spach) A.Love & D.Love
  • Anemonoides Miller
  • Anetilla Galushko
  • Arsenjevia Starod.
  • Eriocapitella Nakai
  • Hepatica Mill.
  • Jurtsevia A.Love & D.Love
  • Knowltonia Salisb.
  • Pulsatilla Mill.

References

Vernacular names

Česky: Sasanka
Galego: Anémona
Magyar: Szellőrózsa
Slovenščina: vetrnica
Svenska: Sippsläktet
Türkçe: Dağ lalesi







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message