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Aneurysm
Classification and external resources

Angiography of an aneurism in a cerebral artery
ICD-10 I72.
ICD-9 442
DiseasesDB 15088
MedlinePlus 001122
MeSH D000783
.An aneurysm or aneurism (from Ancient Greekἀνεύρυσμα - aneurusma "dilation", from ἀνευρύνειν - aneurunein "to dilate"), is a localized, blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge) of a blood vessel[1] caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall.^ An aneurysm is much like a water-filled balloon...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ An aneurysm , which can form in any blood vessel, is a bulging or ballooning of the wall of the vessel.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure within the aorta progressively weakens the vessel walls and enlarges the aneurysm.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Aneurysms most commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain (the circle of Willis) and in the aorta (the main artery coming out of the heart, a so-called aortic aneurysm).^ Heart community Advertisement Advertisement Aortic Aneurysm .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Compression of nearby structures such as nerves, which may lead to weakness and numbness (most common with aneurysms that occur in the artery behind the knee) Infection, can lead to body-wide illness and rupture Rupture, which can cause massive bleeding that may lead to death Massive bleeding is commonly seen with abdominal aortic aneurysms, mesenteric artery aneurysms, and splenic artery aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.As the size of an aneurysm increases, there is an increased risk of rupture, which can result in severe hemorrhage, other complications or even death.^ What increases my risk for an aortic aneurysm?
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risk of rupture from incidental cerebral aneurysms.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ruptured aneurysms should be treated urgently (within 72 h of hemorrhage) to prevent rebleeding and to permit aggressive management of vasospasm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Diagnosis

.Diagnosis of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is commonly made by finding signs of subarachnoid hemorrhage on a CT scan (Computed Tomography, sometimes called a CAT scan, a computerized test that rapidly X-rays the body in cross-sections, or slices, as the body is moved through a large, circular machine).^ Media file 6: Shown here is a CT scan of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ X-ray computed tomography and angiography findings.

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Shown here is a CT scan of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the CT scan is negative but a ruptured aneurysm is still suspected, a lumbar puncture is performed to detect blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).^ Such a rupture is followed by subarachnoid hemorrhage, in which blood spills into the space normally occupied by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] A CT scan in an 82-year-old woman shows extensive subarachnoid blood within the cortical sulci, intraventricular hemorrhage, and an intracerebral hematoma adjacent to a large ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CT scan Ultrasound Aneurysm has been added to your Health Portfolio.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is an alternative to the traditional method and can be performed without the need for arterial catheterization.^ X-ray computed tomography and angiography findings.

^ Five months later, routine abdominal computed tomography revealed an aneurysm of the celiac artery approximately 1 cm distal to the artery's origin ( Fig.

^ Computed Tomographic Angiography Angiographiclike images of the cerebral vasculature can be obtained using rapid contrast infusion and thin-section dynamic CT scanning (CTA).
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This test combines a regular CT scan with a contrast dye injected into a vein.^ Patent aneurysms enhance strongly after contrast administration; thrombosed aneurysms are hyperintense on noncontrast CT scans.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of this, you will need regular X-rays or CT scans for as long as you have the graft.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your doctor thinks you have an aneurysm, you may have tests such as an ultrasound , a CT scan , or an MRI to find out where it is and how big it is.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the dye is injected into a vein, it travels to the brain arteries, and images are created using a CT scan.^ Computed Tomographic Angiography Angiographiclike images of the cerebral vasculature can be obtained using rapid contrast infusion and thin-section dynamic CT scanning (CTA).
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The macroscopic motion of the moving spins in flowing blood, together with background suppression of stationary tissue, can be used to create images of the cerebral vasculature.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.These images show exactly how blood flows into the brain arteries.^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is speculated that coronary reperfusion as late as 2 weeks after infarction prevents aneurysm formation by improving blood flow and fibroblast migration into the infarcted myocardium.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Image of dissecting aneurysm that shows the lumen of blood vessel in relation to the aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Classification

Aneurysms can be classified in several different ways:
  • True or false
  • Morphology
  • Location
  • Arterial vs. venous
  • Underlying condition

True and false

.In a true aneurysm the inner layers of a vessel have bulged outside the outer layer that normally confines them.^ A true aneurysm involves all 3 layers of the blood vessel wall.

^ An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel wall.
  • Aneurysm | Ask Dr. Oz 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC ask.doctoroz.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About aneurysms An aneurysm is a weak, bulging spot in an artery – similar to a small, thin balloon or a weak spot on a tire’s inner tube.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm | Swedish Medical Center / Seattle; Seattle Washington WA 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.swedish.org [Source type: Academic]

.The aneurysm is surrounded by these inner layers.^ A cerebral or intracranial aneurysm is a dilation of an artery in the brain that results from a weakening of the inner muscular layer (the intima) of a blood vessel wall ( detailed description of cerebral aneurysms ).
  • Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, TX - Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, Texas - Treatment Options for Cerebral Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These pathways tend to involve border zones surrounding the ventricular aneurysm (see Ch.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A dissecting aneurysm may result from a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, causing blood to leak into the layers.

.A false- or pseudoaneurysm does not primarily involve such distortion of the vessel.^ These false aneurysms, or pseudoaneurysms, are really cavities, typically within adjacent blood clots, that communicate with a vessel lumen.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is a collection of blood leaking completely out of an artery or vein, but confined next to the vessel by the surrounding tissue.^ The tissue injury Causes the surrounding blood vessels to be susceptible to vasospasm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm and Brain Anuerysm Treatment: The Advent of Endoscopic Clipping of Aneurysms - Skull Base Institute 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.skullbaseinstitute.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three main types of blood vessels are veins, arteries and capillaries.
  • Aneurysm - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As blood collects in this space, it compresses and damages the surrounding brain tissue.
  • Brain Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cerebral Aneurysm and Brain Anuerysm Treatment: The Advent of Endoscopic Clipping of Aneurysms - Skull Base Institute 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.skullbaseinstitute.com [Source type: Academic]

.This blood-filled cavity will eventually either thrombose (clot) enough to seal the leak or it will rupture out of the tougher tissue enclosing it and flow freely between layers of other tissues or into looser tissues.^ These false aneurysms, or pseudoaneurysms, are really cavities, typically within adjacent blood clots, that communicate with a vessel lumen.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevent buildup and keep your blood free-flowing with simple lifestyle changes.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the aneurysm, wall shear stress caused by the rapid changes of blood flow direction (the result of systole and diastole) continually damages the intima at an aneurysm cavity neck.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pseudoaneurysms can be caused by trauma that punctures the artery and are a known complication of percutaneous arterial procedures such as arteriography or of arterial grafting or of use of an artery for injection, such as by drug abusers unable to find a usable vein.^ The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft.

^ Other complications , such as stroke and infection of the graft, can also occur.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having high cholesterol increases your risk of atherosclerosis , which can cause aortic aneurysms and other conditions, such as coronary artery disease and stroke .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like true aneurysms they may be felt as an abnormal pulsatile mass on palpation.^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm may persist for years, producing only a pulsating periumbilical mass with a systolic bruit over the aorta.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The embolic agent may also be a liquid substance, such as n-butyl cyanoacrylate polymer, which solidifies in the aneurysm to form a solid mass.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm may exist for years, producing only a pulsating periumbilical mass with a systolic bruit over the aorta.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

Morphology

Aneurysms can be described by their shape. Traditionally, they are described as either "fusiform" (resembling a narrow cylinder) or "saccular" (berry) (resembling a small sac), though alternatives have been proposed.[2]

Location

.Most frequent site of occurrence of cerebral aneurysms is in the anterior communicating artery which is part of the circle of Willis.^ The distal anterior cerebral artery and peripheral cortical branches are commonly involved sites distal to the circle of Willis.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Funduscopic photograph of a subhyaloid hemorrhage in the right eye of a 45-year-old woman with a ruptured aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A common example is the third nerve palsy that is secondary to posterior communicating artery aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery at the level of the posterior communicating artery and at the ICA terminus.^ A common example is the third nerve palsy that is secondary to posterior communicating artery aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The VA is also a common site of arterial dissection.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The thoracic aorta has been described as the most common site of mycotic aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most (94%) non-intracranial aneurysms arise distal to the origin of the renal arteries at the infrarenal abdominal aorta, a condition mostly caused by atherosclerosis.^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Compression of nearby structures such as nerves, which may lead to weakness and numbness (most common with aneurysms that occur in the artery behind the knee) Infection, can lead to body-wide illness and rupture Rupture, which can cause massive bleeding that may lead to death Massive bleeding is commonly seen with abdominal aortic aneurysms, mesenteric artery aneurysms, and splenic artery aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Having high cholesterol increases your risk of atherosclerosis , which can cause aortic aneurysms and other conditions, such as coronary artery disease and stroke .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The thoracic aorta can also be involved. .One common form of thoracic aortic aneurysm involves widening of the proximal aorta and the aortic root, which leads to aortic insufficiency.^ The leading risk factors for an aortic aneurysm are: 2 .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thoracic aorta has been described as the most common site of mycotic aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aortic aneurysm can also lead to other problems.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aneurysms occur in the legs also, particularly in the deep vessels (e.g., the popliteal vessels in the knee).^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm is when the large blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs beco...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Flow-related aneurysms occur along proximal and distal feeding vessels.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most dissecting aneurysms that involve the craniocerebral vessels affect the extracranial segments; intracranial dissections are rare and usually occur only with severe head trauma.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Arterial vs. venous

.Arterial aneurysms are much more common, but venous aneurysms do happen (for example, the popliteal venous aneurysm).^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft.

^ More than one aneurysm can be present on the same artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Underlying condition

.Aneurysms can be classified by the underlying condition.^ Other conditions that might have Aneurysm as a complication may, potentially, be an underlying cause of Aneurysm.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conditions listing Aneurysm as a symptom may also be potential underlying causes of Aneurysm.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

Many aneurysms are atherosclerotic in nature.
.Another term used is "mycotic aneurysm". Some sources reserve this term for fungal infections only,[3] while other sources use the term to describe bacterial infections as well.^ According to another aspect of the invention, the use of an embolic agent allows for preparation of a composite embolic device for sealing the neck of the aneurysm.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In another embodiment, a glue or suture is not used, and the matrix is partially or substantially mechanically wedged or "trapped" by the frame arm and the aneurysm wall.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some aortic aneurysms can be repaired without traditional surgery, using endovascular aortic repair.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5]
.While most aneurysms occur in an isolated form, the occurrence of berry aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery of the circle of Willis is associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).^ The circle of Willis has been dissected, and 3 berry aneurysms are observed.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Management of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients with polycystic kidney disease.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Media file 3: The circle of Willis has been dissected, and 3 berry aneurysms are observed.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The third stage of syphilis also manifests as aneurysm of the aorta, which is due to loss of the vasa vasorum in the tunica adventitia.^ A more likely explanation is that infected embolic material reaches the adventitia through the vasa vasorum.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, a focal weakness in the muscular layer of the aorta (tunica media), due to degenerative changes, allows the inner layer (tunica intima) and outer layer (tunica adventitia) to stretch outward.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery for an already ruptured aneurysm may be tried but is not usually successful due to excessive, rapid blood loss.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Risks

.Rupture and blood clotting are the risks involved with aneurysms.^ The risk of rupture increases with aneurysm size and high blood pressure.
  • AAA Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Treatment Symptom Repair - San Diego CA. 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.northcountyrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main risk of an aortic aneurysm is rupture.

^ The risk of rupture increases with the size of the aneurysm.
  • Dean Health System: Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.deancare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rupture leads to drop in blood pressure, rapid heart rate, high cholesterol, and lightheadedness.^ An extreme drop in blood pressure.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Control high blood pressure.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an aneurysm ruptures, low blood pressure, high heart rate, and lightheadedness may occur.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The risk of death is high except for rupture in the extremities.^ Many patients choose against surgery and its risks (eg, death, disability) over preventing the possibility of future rupture.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Smaller aneurysms (less than 5.5 cm in diameter) that are not at high risk of rupturing are generally treated with medication used to treat high blood pressure, such as a beta-blocker .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ruptured aneurysms are most likely to rebleed within the first day (2-4%), and this risk remains very high for the first 2 weeks (about 25%) if left untreated.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Blood clots from popliteal arterial aneurysms can travel downstream and suffocate tissue.^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood ...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ An angiogram can help determine the size of the aneurysm and the presence of dissections, blood clots, or other blood vessel involvement.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only if the resulting pain and/or numbness are ignored over a significant period of time will such extreme results as amputation be needed.^ Although such inappropriate comments will be removed from the site, readers should be aware the offensive posts may be present for a period of time before removal.
  • Amarillo.com | Our Town: Police looking out for one of their own 10/14/09 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.amarillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Aneurysm neck occlusion provides a large safety factor for both doctor and the patient resulting in significant reductions in operating room time for the procedure.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As such, the expanded aneurysm-sealing device of the present invention has the potential to significantly reduce operating room time utilization, leading to significant economic advantages.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.As long as treatment is sought quickly, a doctor should be able to provide non-invasive treatment.^ Search & find: Doctors & care providers Hospitals & care facilities Drugs & treatments Insurance More...
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should work with your doctor to decide which treatment is best for you.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Blood clots should be treated with care as overpressure when trying to get rid of them can cause them to shift.^ Blood flow often slows in the bulging section of an aortic aneurysm, causing clots to form.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a blood clot breaks off from an aortic aneurysm in the chest area, it can travel to the brain and cause a stroke .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clotting in popliteal venous aneurysms is much more serious as the clot can embolise and travel to the heart, or through the heart to the lungs (a pulmonary embolism).^ Much more stuff like this and the good folks at EdWize will have an aneurysm.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ If a blood clot breaks off from an aortic aneurysm in the chest area, it can travel to the brain and cause a stroke .
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Risk factors

.Risk factors for an aneurysm are diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, alcoholism, and copper deficiency.^ The leading risk factors for an aortic aneurysm are: .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risks of treatment and no treatment vary depending on many patient-specific and aneurysm-specific factors, including aneurysm size, location, and morphology and patient age and medical comorbidities.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Juvela S, Porras M, Poussa K. Natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: probability and risk factors for aneurysm rupture.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Copper deficiency

A minority of aneurysms are caused by a copper deficiency. .Numerous animal experiments have shown that a copper deficiency can cause diseases affected by elastin[6] tissue strength [Harris].^ It is thought that atherosclerosis causes changes in the lining of the artery wall that may affect oxygen and nutrient flow to the aortic wall tissues.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lysyl oxidase that cross links connective tissue is secreted normally, but its activity is reduced,[7] due, no doubt, to some of the initial enzyme molecules (apo-enzyme or enzyme without the copper) failing to contain copper.^ A normal artery wall consists of 3 layers: the intima, which is the innermost endothelial layer; the media, which consists of smooth muscle; and the adventitia, the outermost layer, which consists of connective tissue.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[8][9]
.Aneurysms of the aorta are the chief cause of death of copper deficient chickens, and also depleting copper produces aneurysms in turkeys.^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm may persist for years, producing only a pulsating periumbilical mass with a systolic bruit over the aorta.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aneurysm is a weakening in the aorta that causes the artery to balloon out, getting weaker as it enlarges.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm may exist for years, producing only a pulsating periumbilical mass with a systolic bruit over the aorta.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.Men who die of aneurysms have a liver content (of copper) which can be as little as 26% of normal.^ Most people who have a ruptured aortic aneurysm die.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aneurysm of the ascending part of the aorta is usually seen in hypertensive men who are younger than age 60.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Experts recommend screening tests for aneurysms for men who are: .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] The median layer of the blood vessel (where the elastin is) is thinner but its elastin copper content is the same as normal men. The overall thickness is not different.[12] The body must therefore have some way of preventing elastin tissue from growing if there is not enough activated lysyl oxidase for it. .Men are more susceptible to aneurysms than young women, probably because estrogen increases the efficiency of absorption of copper.^ These men are more likely to have an aneurysm than are women or nonsmoking men.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people consider this to be more a fitting tribute than an Unfunny Aneurysm Moment.
  • Unfunny Aneurysm Moment - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Surgery is also recommended for small aneurysms that have grown more than .5 cm within 6 months.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, women can be affected by some of these problems after pregnancy, probably because women must give the liver of their babies large copper stores in order for them to survive the low levels of copper in milk. A baby’s liver has up to ten times as much copper as adult livers.[13] Elastin is about as flexible as a rubber band and can stretch to two times its length.[14] Collagen is about 1000 times stiffer.

Formation

.The occurrence and expansion of an aneurysm in a given segment of the arterial tree involves local hemodynamic factors and factors intrinsic to the arterial segment itself.^ Open aneurysm repair involves making an incision in the abdomen, removing the section of the artery with the aneurysm, and replacing the excised segment with a graft made of a synthetic tube.
  • Vascular Surgery | Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.valleyheart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treatment of large aneurysms involves the surgical removal of the diseased segment and its replacement with an artificial artery made from a synthetic fibre such as Dacron™.
  • aneurysm (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may show the location and size of an aortic aneurysm, and the arteries of the aorta that are involved.
  • Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.web-books.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CardioSmart: Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The human aorta is a relatively low-resistance circuit for circulating blood. .The lower extremities have higher arterial resistance, and the repeated trauma of a reflected arterial wave on the distal aorta may injure a weakened aortic wall and contribute to aneurysmal degeneration.^ It may show the location and size of an aortic aneurysm, and the arteries of the aorta that are involved.
  • Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.web-books.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CardioSmart: Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An aortic aneurysm is an abnormal bulge in the aorta...
  • aortic aneurysm – Dictionary definition of aortic aneurysm | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aneurysms may occur in any part of the aorta or major arteries.
  • aneurysm (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Systemic hypertension compounds the injury, accelerates the expansion of known aneurysms, and may contribute to their formation.^ Other factors such as hypertension or smoking may contribute to the formation of aneurysms.
  • aneurysms of the brain 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.avmsurgeon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aneurysmal formations may be fusiform (spindle -shaped) or saccular (pouchlike).
  • Get Information on an Aneurysm to Understand This Disorder Better 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain families without specific genetic disorders may exhibit a strong history of aortic aneurysm formation.

.Aneurysm formation is probably the result of multiple factors affecting that arterial segment and its local environment.^ Open aneurysm repair involves making an incision in the abdomen, removing the section of the artery with the aneurysm, and replacing the excised segment with a graft made of a synthetic tube.
  • Vascular Surgery | Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.valleyheart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aneurysm of the aorta is a bulge caused by weakened areas in the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in body resulting in widening or ballooning to greater than 50% of normal diameter.
  • Aortic Aneurysm Symposium - METAA - MIOT Hospitals Chennai India - Aortic Aneurysm Seminars Lectures Workshop Debate Live Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.metaa.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cerebral or intracranial aneurysm is a dilation of an artery in the brain that results from a weakening of the inner muscular layer (the intima) of a blood vessel wall ( detailed description of cerebral aneurysms ).
  • Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, TX - Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, Texas - Treatment Options for Cerebral Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hemodynamically, the coupling of aneurysmal dilation and increased wall stress is approximated by the law of Laplace.^ Although genetic conditions are associated with increased risk of aneurysm development (see Associated conditions ), most intracranial aneurysms probably result from hemodynamically induced degenerative vascular injury.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Excessively small patches reduce stroke volume and impair diastolic filling, but excessively large patches reduce ejection fraction and increase wall stress ( Fig.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether intranidal aneurysms arise from venous ectasias (dilatation) or from the flow-weakened walls of arterial vessels is unclear.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Specifically, the Laplace law applied to a cylinder states that the (arterial) wall tension is equal to the pressure times the radius of the arterial conduit (T = P x R).^ By Laplace's law (T = Pr /2h), at a constant ventricular pressure (P), increased radius of curvature (r) and decreased wall thickness (h) in the infarcted zone both contribute to increased muscle fiber tension (T) and further stretch the infarcted ventricular wall.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, these thin-walled structures are exposed to arterial pressure and are considered a likely site for AVM hemorrhage.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although this disclosure may make reference to aneurysms located on artery or parental artery walls, the invention is equally applicable to aneurysms located on venous walls.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.As diameter increases, wall tension increases, which contributes to more increase in diameter and risk of rupture.^ Of course, as the aneurysms grew and were associated with previously ruptured aneurysms in the same patient, and when the aneurysms were located at different locations (basilar tip, posterior communicating), the risk increased significantly.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Smoking increases the rate of aneurysm growth by 20% to 25% per year, which significantly increases the risk of rupture.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Laplace's law (T = Pr /2h), at a constant ventricular pressure (P), increased radius of curvature (r) and decreased wall thickness (h) in the infarcted zone both contribute to increased muscle fiber tension (T) and further stretch the infarcted ventricular wall.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.Increased pressure (systemic hypertension) and increased aneurysm size aggravate wall tension and therefore increase the risk of rupture.^ The risk of an aneurysm rupturing increases as the aneurysm gets larger.
  • The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.sts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of rupture increases with aneurysm size and high blood pressure.
  • AAA Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Treatment Symptom Repair - San Diego CA. 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.northcountyrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An aneurysm is a serious health concern, because as it increases in size, it can rupture.

.In addition, the vessel wall is supplied by the blood within its lumen in humans (? although aorta has Vasa vasorum).^ Blood pressure within the aorta progressively weakens the vessel walls and enlarges the aneurysm.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathology In arterial dissections, blood accumulates within the vessel wall through a tear in the intima and internal elastic lamina.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Image of dissecting aneurysm that shows the lumen of blood vessel in relation to the aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore[citation needed] in a developing aneurysm, the most ischemic portion of the aneurysm is at the farthest end, resulting in weakening of the vessel wall there and aiding further expansion of the aneurysm.^ Although genetic conditions are associated with increased risk of aneurysm development (see Associated conditions ), most intracranial aneurysms probably result from hemodynamically induced degenerative vascular injury.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether intranidal aneurysms arise from venous ectasias (dilatation) or from the flow-weakened walls of arterial vessels is unclear.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the compressed memory of the frame arms encourages expansion of the implant in the aneurysm sac, blood flow from the artery into the aneurysm further urges the expansion of the implant.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thus eventually all aneurysms will, if left to complete their evolution, rupture without intervention.^ If left undiagnosed and untreated, the aneurysm will grow larger and eventually rupture.

^ Surgery is usually performed within the first 3 days to clip the ruptured aneurysm and thus eliminate the risk of rebleeding.

^ Blood from the aneurysm can leak through this tear and spread between the layers of the aortic wall, eventually leading to rupture of the vessel.

.In dogs, collateral vessels supply the vessel and aneurysms are rare.^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm is when the large blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs beco...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Most dissecting aneurysms that involve the craniocerebral vessels affect the extracranial segments; intracranial dissections are rare and usually occur only with severe head trauma.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Intracranial aneurysm secondary to nonpenetrating trauma is rare and usually occurs at the skull base (where it involves the petrous, cavernous, or supraclinoid ICA) or along the peripheral intracranial vessels.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Treatment

.Historically, the treatment of arterial aneurysms has been surgical intervention, or watchful waiting in combination with control of blood pressure.^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood ...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Recently, endovascular or minimally invasive techniques have been developed for many types of aneurysms.^ There are many different types of aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm in the Brain - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Aneurysm in the Brain - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aneurysm in the brain Medical Information 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Aneurysm in the brain - Alexian Brothers Health System 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC alexianbrothershealth.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aneurysm in the brain - Baylor Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC info.baylorhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Aneurysm in the brain 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endovascular techniques were recently introduced to repair the aneurysm endoprosthetically.
  • Aneurysm of Aorta 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC enotes.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Minimally invasive intravascular embolization of aneurysms.
  • Brain Aneurysm AVM | Overview, Treatment, Rehabilitation, Facilities: UCLA 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC neurosurgery.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

Treatment of cranial aneurysms

.Currently there are two treatment options for brain aneurysms: surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.^ Media file 15: Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endovascular and surgical treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms: comparison of risks.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Surgical clipping was introduced by Walter Dandy of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1937. It consists of performing a craniotomy, exposing the aneurysm, and closing the base of the aneurysm with a clip.^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Craniotomy and clipping of aneurysm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such aneurysms can usually be approached either surgically (clipping) or endovascularly (coiling), depending on the location.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The surgical technique has been modified and improved over the years.^ Rapidly improving endovascular techniques are making previously inoperable lesions amenable to surgical resection or radiation therapy after pretreatment with embolization therapy.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Arteriovenous Malformation Center at MGH/Harvard ~ Cerebrovascular Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A large multicenter study revealed a significantly improved outcome after 1 year in patients with endovascular treatment compared with surgically treated patients.
  • Fatal Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Complete Endovascular Aneurysm Occlusion -- Bendszus et al. 27 (10): 2058 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the last 20 years, surgical techniques for repairing brain aneurysms have improved tremendously, and "microsurgical clipping" can be carried out with very little risk.
  • Brain Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surgical clipping remains the best method to permanently eliminate aneurysms.^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How is an aneurysm surgically clipped?
  • Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, TX - Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, Texas - Treatment Options for Cerebral Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The titanium clips remain on the aneurysm permanently.
  • Aneurysm - Neurosurgery - The Nebraska Medical Center 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nebraskamed.com [Source type: Academic]

.Endovascular coiling was introduced by Guido Guglielmi at UCLA in 1991. It consists of passing a catheter into the femoral artery in the groin, through the aorta, into the brain arteries, and finally into the aneurysm itself.^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft.

^ Transfemoral approach to gain access to the aneurysm via a small microcatheter (A) and final occlusion of the aneurysm with coils (B).
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once the catheter is in the aneurysm, platinum coils are pushed into the aneurysm and released.^ The catheter releases tiny platinum coils that block the flow of blood to the aneurysm.

^ He or she then uses a guide wire to push a soft platinum wire through the catheter and into the aneurysm.
  • Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A platinum coil will be pushed through the micro-catheter into the aneurysm.
  • Aneurysm Embolization at Invision Sally Jobe in Denver, Colorado 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.riainvision.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These coils initiate a clotting or thrombotic reaction within the aneurysm that, if successful, will eliminate the aneurysm.^ Surgery is usually performed within the first 3 days to clip the ruptured aneurysm and thus eliminate the risk of rebleeding.

^ Endovascular treatment of aneurysms involves placement of tiny platinum coils known as Gugelemi Detachable Coils (GDC) in the aneurysm to tightly pack off the lesion and eliminate it from the circulation.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Arteriovenous Malformation Center at MGH/Harvard ~ Cerebrovascular Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Occasionally, debris (emboli) contained within the aneurysm can break off and travel to the legs or other organs blocking the blood flow to these tissues.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Info 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.surgeryinfo.org [Source type: General]

.In the case of broad-based aneurysms, a stent is passed first into the parent artery to serve as a scaffold for the coils ("stent-assisted coiling").^ For aneurysms with a wide neck, coils can protrude into the parent vessel and can compromise the artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Celiac artery aneurysms: case reports.

^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.At this point it appears that the risks associated with surgical clipping and endovascular coiling, in terms of stroke or death from the procedure, are the same.^ Ruptured aneurysms are treated by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Hemorrhage at the Neuroscience Center at Allegheny General Hospital 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.aghneurosciences.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There will be a demonstration of surgical and endovascular procedures.
  • Aortic Aneurysm Symposium - METAA - MIOT Hospitals Chennai India - Aortic Aneurysm Seminars Lectures Workshop Debate Live Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.metaa.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endovascular coiling is a less invasive procedure than surgical clipping.
  • Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ISAT trials have shown, however, that patients who have experienced aneurysmal rupture have a 7% lower mortality rate when treated by coiling than patients treated by clipping, when all other factors are equal.^ Not all patients with aneurysms are candidates for stenting, however.
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Exact risks for clipping or coiling an aneurysm are not known and depend on patient and aneurysm specific factors.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Coiled aneurysms, however, do have a higher recurrence rate as demonstrated by angiography.^ When cerebral angiography demonstrates more than one aneurysm, determining which lesion is the most likely rupture site is important.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased safety of coiling over clipping was better demonstrated in the well-publicized International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) conducted in England.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other recent studies of large personal or institutional series have recorded higher rates of rupture for unruptured aneurysms.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, the most recent study by Jacques Moret and colleagues from Paris, France, (a group with one of the largest experiences in endovascular coiling) indicates that 28.6% of aneurysms recurred within one year of coiling, and that the recurrence rate increased with time.^ While centers of excellence, such as UCLA, consistently report mortality rates of less than 3.0% for aneurysm repair, multi-institutional community-based studies suggest that the mortality rate for elective aneurysm repair ranges from 6.0% to 10.0% each year.

^ Endovascular treatment of aneurysms involves placement of tiny platinum coils known as Gugelemi Detachable Coils (GDC) in the aneurysm to tightly pack off the lesion and eliminate it from the circulation.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Arteriovenous Malformation Center at MGH/Harvard ~ Cerebrovascular Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive technique, which means an incision in the skull is not required to treat the cerebral aneurysm.

.(Piotin M et al., Radiology 243(2):500-508, May 2007) These results are similar to those previously reported by other endovascular groups.^ Aneurysms may be associated with other types of blood vessel disorders, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, cerebral arteritis or arterial dissection, but these are very unusual.
  • What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.strokeassociation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These factors, in some cases, have affected and in the future (together with other factors) could affect our ability to implement our business strategy and may cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by the statements expressed in this press release.
  • Boston Scientific Announces Completion of Enrollment in Aneurysm Coiling Clinical Trial - news from Boston.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ You may be eligible for endovascular stent grafting depending on the size of the aneurysm and its location relative to other branches of the carotid artery.
  • Extracranial Carotid Artery Aneurysm: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance Jean Raymond and colleagues from Montreal, Canada, (another group with a large experience in endovascular coiling) reported that 33.6% of aneurysms recurred within one year of coiling.^ If treatment is chosen, two modalities can be chosen from: surgical clipping (open surgery via a craniotomy) and endovascular coiling, passing a catheter through a large vessel in the groin as a facilitator for coils to block the aneurysm.
  • Aneurysm Outreach a non profit organization 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.alink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endovascular treatment of aneurysms involves placement of tiny platinum coils known as Gugelemi Detachable Coils (GDC) in the aneurysm to tightly pack off the lesion and eliminate it from the circulation.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Arteriovenous Malformation Center at MGH/Harvard ~ Cerebrovascular Surgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive technique, which means an incision in the skull is not required to treat the cerebral aneurysm.

.(Raymond J et al., Stroke 34(6):1398-1403, June 2003) The long-term coiling results of one of the two prospective, randomized studies comparing surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling, namely the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) show similar results.^ Media file 15: Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, no studies to date have shown that the higher angiographic recurrence rate equals a higher rate of rebleeding.^ Continued follow-up from the ISAT study has recently been published and found that the original results were confirmed with a higher rate of seizures in the clipping group and a slightly higher rate of rebleeding in the coiling group.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other recent studies of large personal or institutional series have recorded higher rates of rupture for unruptured aneurysms.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus far, the ISAT trials listed above show no increase in the rate of rebleeding, and show a persistent 7% lower mortality rate in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients who have been treated with coiling..^ Coiling was also associated with lower inpatient mortality, shorter lengths of hospital stays, and lower costs.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ruptured aneurysms should be treated urgently (within 72 h of hemorrhage) to prevent rebleeding and to permit aggressive management of vasospasm.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the operative mortality rate may be higher, the overall patient mortality rate is lower.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In ISAT, the need for late retreatment of aneurysms was 6.9 times more likely for endovascular coiling as compared to surgical clipping.^ "Should an aneurysm be clipped or coiled?"
  • Aneurysm - Neurosurgery - The Nebraska Medical Center 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nebraskamed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Media file 15: Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

(Campi A et al., Stroke 38(5):1538-1544, May 2007)
.Patients who undergo endovascular coiling need to have annual studies (such as MRI/MRA, CTA, or angiography) to detect early recurrences, a practice that has not traditionally been performed with clipping.^ MRA is a helpful screening procedure, but catheter angiography is the procedure of choice for imaging vessel details such as dissection site.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although only neurosurgeons currently perform clipping, coiling is performed by interventional neuroradiologists or neurosurgeons or neurologists with endovascular training.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Media file 15: Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.If a recurrence is identified, the aneurysm may need to be retreated with either surgery or further coiling.^ To facilitate radio-imaging, the implant may further comprise a radiopaque coil jacket formed from any suitable material, such as platinum or another biocompatible metal.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Such aneurysms can usually be approached either surgically (clipping) or endovascularly (coiling), depending on the location.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Losing weight will not likely change the course of an aortic aneurysm, but it may lower the risk of complications if you eventually need surgery.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The risks associated with surgical clipping of previously-coiled aneurysms are very high.^ (B)Treatment of intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ruptured aneurysms are treated by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Hemorrhage at the Neuroscience Center at Allegheny General Hospital 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.aghneurosciences.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How is an aneurysm surgically clipped?
  • Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, TX - Neuroscience Institute, Tyler, Texas - Treatment Options for Cerebral Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ultimately, the decision to treat with surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling should be made by a cerebrovascular team with extensive experience in both modalities.^ Ruptured aneurysms are treated by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Brain Aneurysm and Hemorrhage at the Neuroscience Center at Allegheny General Hospital 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.aghneurosciences.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endovascular coiling is a less invasive procedure than surgical clipping.
  • OhioHealth - Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Treatment of aortic and peripheral aneurysms

.Aneurysms are treated by either endovascular techniques (angioplasty with stent) or open surgery techniques.^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Novel treatment strategies for treatment of wide-necked aneurysms include balloon-assisted (above) and stent-assisted (below) techniques.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both traditional surgery and endovascular aortic repair are used to treat aortic aneurysms.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media file 19: Novel treatment strategies for treatment of wide-necked aneurysms include balloon-assisted (above) and stent-assisted (below) techniques.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Open techniques include exclusion and excision. .Exclusion of an aneurysm means tightly tying suture thread around the artery both proximally and distally to the aneurysm, to cut off blood flow through the aneurysm.^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood ...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Pathology In arterial dissections, blood accumulates within the vessel wall through a tear in the intima and internal elastic lamina.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the aneurysm is infected or mycotic, it may then be excised (cut out and removed from the body).^ After the delivery device is unscrewed, it is removed from the area of the aneurysm and withdrawn from the patient's body.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If your doctor thinks you have an aneurysm, you may have tests such as an ultrasound , a CT scan , or an MRI to find out where it is and how big it is.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, with the increased incidence of drug abuse and immunocompromised states from various causes, mycotic aneurysms may have increased in frequency.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.If uninfected, the aneurysm is often left in place.^ After debridement of thrombus, a running 2-0 polypropylene suture may be placed at the aneurysm rim to optimize left ventricular size.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

After exclusion or excision, a bypass graft can be placed, to ensure blood supply to the affected area. .For some aneurysm repairs in the abdomen, where there is adequate collateral blood supply, bypass grafts are not needed.^ [Medline] Baciewicz PA, Weintraub WS, Jones EL, et al: Late follow-up after repair of left ventricular aneurysm and (usually) associated coronary bypass grafting.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If an aortic aneurysm bursts, or ruptures, there is sudden, severe pain, an extreme drop in blood pressure, and signs of shock .
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suprasellar cistern blood from many sites is common in SAH. However, some bleeding patterns have been associated with particular aneurysm locations.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.For aneurysms in the aorta, arms, legs, or head, the weakened section of the vessel may be replaced by a bypass graft that is sutured at the vascular stumps.^ Aneurysms of the aorta section of Diseases of the aorta chapter.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft.

^ An abdominal aortic aneurysm may persist for years, producing only a pulsating periumbilical mass with a systolic bruit over the aorta.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of sewing, the graft tube ends, made rigid and expandable by nitinol wireframe, can be inserted into the vascular stumps and permanently fixed there by external ligature.^ A tube called a stent graft is inserted through an artery in the groin.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .[15] New devices were recently developed to substitute the external ligature by expandable ring allowing use in acute ascending aorta dissection, providing airtight, easy and quick anastomosis extended to the arch concavity [16][2][3]Less invasive endovascular techniques allow covered metallic stent grafts to be inserted through the arteries of the leg and deployed across the aneurysm.^ A tube called a stent graft is inserted through an artery in the groin.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the aneurysm is located where the aorta ascends up out of the heart, surgery is recommended when it reaches 5.5 to 6.0 cm in diameter.
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ aneurysm at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Pappu S, Dardik A, Tagare H, Gusberg RJ (January 2008). "Beyond fusiform and saccular: a novel quantitative tortuosity index may help classify aneurysm shape and predict aneurysm rupture potential". Ann Vasc Surg 22 (1): 88–97. doi:10.1016/j.avsg.2007.09.004. PMID 18023556. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-5096(07)00312-3. 
  3. ^ mycotic aneurysm at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  4. ^ 00867 at CHORUS
  5. ^ "Cerebral Aneurysm: - eMedicine". http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252142-overview. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  6. ^ http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514267397/isbn9514267397.pdf elastin review.
  7. ^ Kosonen T Uriu-Hare JY Clegg MS Keen CL Rucker RB 1996 Copper incorporation into lysyl oxidase. FASEB Journal; 10; A293,
  8. ^ Rucker RB, Kosonen T, Clegg MS, Mitchell AE, Rucker BR, Uriu-Hare JY, Keen CL 1998 Copper, lysyl oxidase, and extracellular matrix protein cross-linking.; Am J Clin Nutr. May;67(5 Suppl):996S-1002S.
  9. ^ Smith-Mungo LI, Kagan HM.: Lysyl oxidase 1998 properties, regulation and multiple functions in biology; Matrix Biol. Feb;16(7); 387-98.
  10. ^ Guenther E Carlson CW Emerick RJ 1978 Copper salts for growth stimulation and alleviation of aortic rupture losses in turkeys., Poult. Sci. Sep;57(5):1313-24.
  11. ^ Tilson MD 1983 Decreased hepatic copper levels. Arch. Surgery 117; 1212.-1213
  12. ^ Senapati A Carlsson LK Fletcher CDM Browse NL & Thompson RPH 1995 Is tissue copper deficiency associated with aortic aneuryzms? British Journal of Surgery 72; 352-353.
  13. ^ Dorea JG, Brito M, Araujo MO. 1987 Concentration of copper and zinc in liver of fetuses and infants. J Am Coll Nutr. Dec;6(6):491-5.
  14. ^ Carnes 1971 WH Role of copper connective tissue metabolism. Fed. Proc. 30; 995.
  15. ^ Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29(1):56-9
  16. ^ Stefano Nazari: Expandable device type III for easy and reliable approximation of dissection layers in sutureless aortic anastomosis. Ex vivo experimental study.Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg 2010;10:161-164. doi:10.1510/icvts.2009.216291

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. .This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ Brought to you by the fine folks who publish mental health and psychology information at Psych Central Mental Health Forums The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

^ Medications to treat this are available, and you should consult with the anesthesiologist prior to the procedure about them.
  • TAAF: Brain Aneurysms: Treatment 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.taafonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Web site provides information about vascular conditions for patients and families.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ANEURYSM, or Aneurism (from Gr. .av€Vpcaµa, a dilatation), a cavity or sac which communicates with the interior of an artery and contains blood.^ Intraperitoneal rupture may initially be contained within the lesser sac, with subsequent free rupture into the peritoneal cavity, which produces the classic “double rupture” phenomenon.

^ A weak spot in the artery wall bulges out, giving way to the pressure of the blood flow, forming a sac.

^ These false aneurysms, or pseudoaneurysms, are really cavities, typically within adjacent blood clots, that communicate with a vessel lumen.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The walls of the cavity are formed either of the dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel.^ Although any weak blood vessel can be affected, aneurysms usually form in the abdominal or thoracic portions of the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart, or in arteries nourishing the brain.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A weak spot in the artery wall bulges out, giving way to the pressure of the blood flow, forming a sac.

^ Pathology In arterial dissections, blood accumulates within the vessel wall through a tear in the intima and internal elastic lamina.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dilatation of the artery is due to a local weakness, the result of disease or injury.^ An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood ...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Ischemic stroke refers to the blockage of an artery, usually by a blood clot (see thrombus ), which may be due to the narrowing of arteries caused by arterial disease (see atherosclerosis ).

^ Rarely, they result from congenital weakness in the arterial wall.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.The commonest cause is chronic inflammation of the inner coats of the artery.^ The inflammation in AAA is primarily in the middle and outer of the three layers of the artery, in contrast to atherosclerosis in which the inner and middle layers are mainly affected, and to giant cell arteritis, in which primarily the outermost layer is involved."
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), Direct (Bedside Nursing) Patient Care Links on: The Nurse Friendly 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nursefriendly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infections have long been known to cause inflammation and aneurysm of the aorta: about 66% of patients with chronic syphilis [aka Treponema pallidum] develop aortic aneurysms.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), Direct (Bedside Nursing) Patient Care Links on: The Nurse Friendly 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nursefriendly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The breaking of a bottle or glass in the hand is apt to cut through the outermost coat of the artery at the wrist (radial) and thus to cause a local weakening of the tube which is gradually followed by dilatation.^ Any condition that causes arterial walls to weaken or deteriorate can result in an aneurysm.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A tube called a stent graft is inserted through an artery in the groin.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small, hollow tubes called catheters are inserted through arteries in your groin.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Also when an artery is wounded and the wound in the skin and superficial structures heals, the blood may escape into the tissues, displacing them, and by its pressure causing them to condense and form the sac-wall.^ Intraperitoneal rupture may initially be contained within the lesser sac, with subsequent free rupture into the peritoneal cavity, which produces the classic “double rupture” phenomenon.

^ For example, hypertension and atherosclerosis may disrupt blood flow and exert pressure against a congenitally weak arterial wall, stretching it like an overblown balloon and making it likely to rupture.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eventually this pressure can cause the aneurysm sac to rupture.

.The coats of an artery, when diseased, may be torn by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed tissues which thus form the aneurysmal sac.^ Ventricular aneurysms may be a present since birth or may be due to a previous heart attack or severe chest trauma.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although any weak blood vessel can be affected, aneurysms usually form in the abdominal or thoracic portions of the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart, or in arteries nourishing the brain.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A weak spot in the artery wall bulges out, giving way to the pressure of the blood flow, forming a sac.

.The division of aneurysms into two classes, true and false, is unsatisfactory.^ True left ventricular aneurysms involve bulging of the full thickness of the left ventricular wall, while a false aneurysm of the left ventricle is, in fact, a rupture of the left ventricular wall contained by surrounding pericardium.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular False Aneurysm Ventricular false aneurysms are repaired with the same techniques used for true ventricular aneurysms according to the location and size of the aneurysm.
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are usually classified as being either "true" or "false" aneurysms.
  • Brain aneurysm, cerebral vasospasm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) information 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.brain-aneurysm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the face of it, an aneurysm which is false is not an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal tender.^ More than one aneurysm can be present on the same artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some people consider this to be more a fitting tribute than an Unfunny Aneurysm Moment.
  • Unfunny Aneurysm Moment - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Surgery is also recommended for small aneurysms that have grown more than .5 cm within 6 months.
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A better classification is into spontaneous and traumatic. The man who has chronic inflammation of a large artery, the result, for instance, of gout, arduous, straining work, or kidneydisease, and whose artery yields under cardiac pressure, has a spontaneous aneurysm; the barman or window-cleaner who has cut his radial artery, the soldier whose brachial or femoral artery has been bruised by a rifle bullet or grazed by a bayonet, and the boy whose naked foot is pierced by a sharp nail, are apt to be the subjects of traumatic aneurysm.^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Funduscopic photograph of a subhyaloid hemorrhage in the right eye of a 45-year-old woman with a ruptured aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During this procedure, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a large artery — usually in your groin — and threads it past your heart to the arteries in your brain.
  • OhioHealth - Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any condition that causes arterial walls to weaken or deteriorate can result in an aneurysm.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

.In those aneurysms which are a saccular bulging on one side of the artery the blood may be induced to coagulate, or may of itself deposit layer upon layer of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated.^ A saccular shaped aneurysm bulges or balloons out only on one side.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.sharp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The more common of the two, saccular or "berry" aneurysms, bulge out of one side of the artery wall.

^ In a saccular aneurysm one side of the artery wall is outputted.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), Direct (Bedside Nursing) Patient Care Links on: The Nurse Friendly 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nursefriendly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This laminar coagulation by constant additions gradually fills the aneurysmal cavity and the pulsation in the sac then ceases; contraction of the sac and its contents gradually takes place and the aneurysm is cured.^ The liquid embolic agents or glues can advantageously adopt the geometry of the aneurysm sac upon solidification and thereby provide an additional degree of safety for the patient.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Delivery of the Occlusion Device [0154] A delivery device is used to place the implant in the aneurysm sac.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The deployed embolic agents also fill the expanded frame and thereby provide an additional radial force support to keep the frame in an opened position in the aneurysm.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.But in those aneurysms which are fusiform dilatations of the vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for the blood sweeps evenly through it without staying to deposit clot or laminated fibrine.^ Aneurysms can occur in any blood vessel in the body.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), Direct (Bedside Nursing) Patient Care Links on: The Nurse Friendly 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.nursefriendly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An aneurysm is a blood-filled dilation of a blood vessel caused by a weakening of the vessel’s wall.

^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the blood pressure by absolute rest and moderated diet, but a cure is rarely effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now resorted to more promptly and securely than was previously the case.^ Changes in diet and exercise can help lower blood pressure.
  • OhioHealth - Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MINNEAPOLIS/ST. PAUL (May 28, 2009) – While minimally invasive coil treatments for those with a ruptured brain aneurysm have proved to be a more effective technique than traditional surgical operation in selected patients, the superior procedure is...
  • Aneurysm | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ More than one aneurysm can be present on the same artery.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of treatment by compression, or the application of an indiarubber bandage, the surgeon now without loss of time cuts down upon the artery, and applies an aseptic ligature close above the dilatation. Experience has shown that this method possesses great advantages, and that it has none of the disadvantages which were formerly supposed to attend it. .Saccular dilatations of arteries which are the result of cuts or other injuries are treated by tying the vessel above and below, and by dissecting out the aneurysm.^ For example, the invention can be used to treat medical conditions such as aneurysms in the brain, aorta, chest, and other parts of the body; facial tumors; arterial or venous diseases; blood vessel malformation; and hemangiomas.
  • Aneurysm Occlusion Devices - Patent application - implantable occlusion device for bridging the neck of an aneurysm comprises a biocompatible matrix 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Of course, we all have arterial bifurcations in the brain, but relatively few of us will ever develop a brain aneurysm (see 3., below).
  • Brain aneurysm, cerebral vasospasm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) information 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.brain-aneurysm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pathology In arterial dissections, blood accumulates within the vessel wall through a tear in the intima and internal elastic lamina.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Popliteal, carotid and other aneurysms, which are not of traumatic origin, are sometimes dealt with on this plan, which is the old "Method of Antyllus" with modern aseptic conditions.^ Other conditions that might have Aneurysm as a complication may, potentially, be an underlying cause of Aneurysm.
  • Causes of Aneurysm - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Having high cholesterol increases your risk of atherosclerosis , which can cause aortic aneurysms and other conditions, such as coronary artery disease and stroke .
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Yahoo! Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aortic Aneurysm - Aortic Aneurysm and exercise - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clearwater,FL Aortic Aneurysm; aortic aneurysms are caused by a number of ... 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An aneurysm may also be discovered by x-ray, computed tomography scan (CT scan), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that is being done for other conditions.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.sharp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Speaking generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with surgically the sooner that the artery is tied the better.^ Aneurysm clip Enlarge Image A surgical procedure to treat brain aneurysms involves opening the skull, finding the affected artery and then placing a metal clip over the narrow neck of the aneurysm.
  • OhioHealth - Brain aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1st successful resection of a visceral artery aneurysm was reported by Cooley and DeBakey in 1953, 52 and the 1st successful surgical treatment of a celiac aneurysm was reported by Shumacker in 1958.

^ Aneurysmal repair in general also improves diastolic filling, left ventricular diastolic compliance, left ventricular contractility, and effective arterial elastance (Ea).
  • Left Ventricular Aneurysm -- Glower and Lowe 2 (2003): 771 -- Cardiac Surgery in the Adult 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org [Source type: Academic]

Less heroic measures are too apt to prove painful, dangerous, ineffectual and disappointing. .For aneurysm in the chest or abdomen (which cannot be dealt with by operation) the treatment may be tried of injecting a pure solution of gelatine into the loose tissues of the armpit, so that the gelatine may find its way into the blood stream and increase the chance of curative coagulation in the distant aneurysmal sac.^ Ventricular aneurysms may be a present since birth or may be due to a previous heart attack or severe chest trauma.
  • GHI Your Health: Aneurysm Basics 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Media file 12: Near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography demonstrates blood flowing into an ophthalmic artery aneurysm and the internal carotid artery from which it arises.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: eMedicine Neurosurgery 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the size and rate at which the aortic aneurysm is growing, treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery.
  • Aortic aneurysm 10 February 2010 11:20 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

(E. O.*)


Simple English

An aneurysm (or aneurism) is a blood-filled bulge of a blood vessel. It is usually caused by disease or by the walls of the blood vessel becoming weak. Aneurysms usually happen in arteries at the base of the brain and in the aorta (the main artery coming out of the heart) - this is an aortic aneurysm. This bulge in a blood vessel can burst or break open and cause the person to die at any time. The larger an aneurysm becomes, the more likely it is to burst. Aneurysms can be treated.


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Up to date as of December 19, 2010

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