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The Angels of Mons is a popular legend about a group of angels who supposedly protected members of the British army in the Battle of Mons at the outset of World War I. The evidence suggests that the story is fictitious, developed through a combination of a patriotic short story by Arthur Machen, rumours, mass hysteria and urban legend, some actual visions seen[citation needed] after the battle and also possibly deliberately seeded propaganda.

Contents

History

On 22-23 August 1914, the first major engagement of the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War occurred at the Battle of Mons. Advancing German forces were thrown back by heavily outnumbered British troops, who also suffering casualties and being outflanked were forced into rapid retreat the next day. The retreat and the battle were rapidly perceived by the British public as being a key moment in the war. Despite the censorship going on in Britain at the time, this battle was the first indication the British public had that defeating Germany would not be as easy as some had thought. Considering the numbers of German forces that were involved in the battle, the British ability to hold them off for as long as they did seemed remarkable and recruitment to the army shot up in the weeks that followed.

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Arthur Machen and "The Bowmen"

On 29 September 1914, Welsh author Arthur Machen published a short story entitled “The Bowmen” in the London newspaper The Evening News, inspired by accounts that he had read of the fighting at Mons and an idea he had had soon after the battle.

Machen, who had already written a number of factual articles on the conflict for the paper, set his story at the time of the retreat from the Battle of Mons in August 1914. The story described phantom bowmen from the Battle of Agincourt summoned by a soldier calling on Saint George, destroying a German host.[1] Machen's story was not however labelled as fiction and the same edition of the Evening News ran a story by a different author under the heading "Our Short Story." Additionally, Machen's story was written from a first hand perspective and was a kind of false document, a technique Machen knew well. The unintended result was that Machen had a number of requests to provide evidence for his sources for the story soon after its publication, from readers who thought it was true, to which he responded that it was completely imaginary, as he had no desire to create a hoax.

A month or two afterwards, Machen received requests from the editors of parish magazines to reprint the story, which were granted. A priest, the editor of one of these magazines, subsequently wrote to Machen asking if he would allow the story to be reprinted in pamphlet form, and would he write a short preface giving authorities for the story. Machen replied that they were welcome to reprint but he could not give any authorities for the story since he had none. The priest replied that Machen must be mistaken, that the "facts" of the story must be true, and that Machen had just elaborated on a true account. As Machen later said:

It seemed that my light fiction had been accepted by the congregation of this particular church as the solidest of facts; and it was then that it began to dawn on me that if I had failed in the art of letters, I had succeeded, unwittingly, in the art of deceit. This happened, I should think, some time in April, and the snowball of rumour that was then set rolling has been rolling ever since, growing bigger and bigger, till it is now swollen to a monstrous size.
Arthur Machen, Preface to The Bowmen[1]

Around that time variants of the story began to appear, told as authentic histories, including a variant which told how dead German soldiers had been found on the battlefield with arrow wounds.

In "The Bowmen" Machen's soldier saw "a long line of shapes, with a shining about them." A Mr. A.P. Sinnett, writing in the Occult Review stated that "those who could see said they saw 'a row of shining beings' between the two armies." This led Machen to suggest that the bowmen of his story had become the Angels of Mons.[1]

The Angels

On 24 April 1915, an account was published in the British Spiritualist magazine telling of visions of a supernatural force that miraculously intervened to help the British at the decisive moment of the battle.[2] This rapidly resulted in a flurry of similar accounts and the spread of wild rumours. Descriptions of this force varied from it being medieval longbow men alongside Saint George, to a strange luminous cloud, though eventually the most popular version came to be angelic warriors. Similar tales of such battlefield visions occurred in medieval and ancient warfare. Atrocity reports like the Rape of Belgium and that of the Crucified Soldier paved the way for a belief that God would intervene directly against such an evil enemy. However there are strong similarities between many of these accounts of visions and Machen's story published six months earlier.

In May 1915, a full blown controversy was erupting, with the angels being used of proof of the action of divine providence on the side of the Allies in sermons across Britain, and then spreading into newspaper reports published widely across the world. Machen, bemused by all this, attempted to end the rumours by republishing the story in August in book form, with a long preface stating the rumours were false and originated in his story. It became a bestseller, and resulted in a vast series of other publications claiming to provide evidence of the Angels' existence.[1] Machen tried to set the record straight, but any attempt to lessen the impact of such an inspiring story was seen as bordering on treason by some. These new publications included popular songs and artists' renderings of the angels. There were more reports of angels and apparitions from the front including Joan of Arc.

Kevin McClure's study describes two types of stories circulating, some more clearly based on Machen, others with different details.[3] In a time of intense media interest all these reports confirming sightings of supernatural activity were second-hand and some of them were hoaxes created by soldiers who were not even at Mons. A careful investigation by the Society for Psychical Research in 1915 said of the firsthand testimony, “we have received none at all, and of testimony at second-hand we have none that would justify us in assuming the occurrence of any supernormal phenomenon.” The SPR went on to say the stories relating to battlefield “visions” which circulated during the spring and summer of 1915, “prove on investigation to be founded on mere rumour, and cannot be traced to any authoritative source.”[2] Given that the Society for Psychical Research believed in the existence of supernatural forces, the conclusions of this report are highly significant.

The sudden spread of the rumours in the spring of 1915 six months after the events and Machen's story was published is also puzzling. The stories published then often attribute their sources to mysterious anonymous British officers. The latest and most detailed examination of the Mons story by David Clarke suggests these men may have been part of a covert attempt by military intelligence to spread morale-boosting propaganda and disinformation. As it was a time of allied problems with the Lusitania sinking, Zeppelin attacks and failure to achieve a breakthrough on the Western Front the timing would make military sense. Some of the stories conveniently claimed that sources could not be revealed for security reasons.[4]

The only real evidence of visions from actual named serving soldiers provided during the debate stated that they saw visions of phantom cavalrymen, not angels or bowmen, and this occurred during the retreat rather than at the Battle itself. Furthermore these visions did not intervene to attack or deter German forces, a crucial element in Machen's story and in the later tales of Angels. Since during the retreat many troops were exhausted and had not slept properly for days such visions may have been hallucinations.[2]

According to the conclusion of the most detailed study of the event it seems then that Machen's story provided the genesis for the vast majority of tales of Angels at the time. The stories of angels themselves certainly boosted morale on the home front as popular enthusiasm was dying down in 1915 and demonstrate the importance of religion in wartime.[4] They also serve as testimony to the rapid spread of rumour and myth during wartime via the media and bear comparison to the modern craze for UFO sightings. Machen's role, though not deliberate, can be compared to Orson Welles' part in the The War of the Worlds radio hoax.

Post War developments

After the war the story continued to be frequently repeated but no evidence to prove the Angels existed was ever revealed by those who were there. The best evidence provided was in Brigadier-General John Charteris' memoirs At G.H.Q., published in 1931, which said the story of the Angels of Mons was a popular rumour amongst the troops in September 1914, this was the earliest any account said the rumour was in circulation. However it appears from examination of his original letters he wrote those entries after the war and falsified the dates.[5] Given his association with pieces of allied propaganda like the story of the “German Corpse-Rendering Works” (Kadaververwertungsanstalt) this might indicate Charteris had been behind an attempt to use the Angels for propaganda purposes.

Machen was associated with the story for the rest of his life and grew sick of the connection, as he regarded “The Bowmen” as a poor piece of work. He made little money from the story then or later.[citation needed]

The sudden revival of interest in appearances of angels from the 1980s onwards, especially in the United States, not only amongst Christians, but those interested in the New Age, has caused uncritical accounts of the story of the angels who saved the British army to be regularly published in books and magazines. Similarly, the story is also often used by sceptics as a good example of how believers in the supernatural can become convinced of fantastic things by slender evidence.[6] References to the story can be found in World War One set novels and films like FairyTale: A True Story. The Friends of Arthur Machen frequently publish articles on developments in the case.

The William Doidge Hoax

In 2001, an article in The Sunday Times claimed that a diary, film and photographic evidence proving the existence of the Angels of Mons from a WWI soldier named William Doidge had been found. The article discussed a long involved story in which Doidge was involved with an American GI and an angel seen years later in Woodchester Mansion. It was claimed Marlon Brando and Tony Kaye were going to spend 350,000 pounds sterling to buy the evidence to make a film. Other papers like Variety and the Los Angeles Times and television programmes soon followed up the story and a website connected to the mystery became very popular. The footage was supposedly found in a trunk in an antique shop by Danny Sullivan in Monmouth, close to Machen's birthplace of Caerleon. In 2002 in a BBC Radio documentary The Making of an Urban Myth Sullivan admitted the story was a complete hoax to drum up interest in Woodchester Mansion; the footage and soldier never existed.[7]

In popular culture

  • In the movie Fairy Tale: A True Story based on the Cottingley Fairies, the Theosophic Society organizes a seminar, where a participant speaks to the audience claiming to be an eyewitness of the apparition.
  • The Angels of the Mons were depicted as phantom bowmen from the Battle of Agincourt sighted by the immortal Orlando during the Battle of Mons in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier.
  • The Angels of Mons are referenced in the Black Library novel Ghostmaker by Dan Abnett, where a sniper is advised by the statue of an Imperial Saint.
  • The Explosions in the Sky album artwork for Those Who Tell The Truth Shall Die, Those Who Tell The Truth Shall Live Forever is said to be inspired by the Angels of the Mons.
  • At the start of the film Ed Wood, Wood is shown producing a play based upon the legend.
  • "The Whole Enchilada", the second episode of the first series of Demons makes reference to hundreds of troops on the western front simultaneously sighting the Angels of Mons.
  • In 1979, former Genesis guitarist, Steve Hackett released the instrumental, "Clocks - The Angel of Mons", on his album: Spectral Mornings. The album also includes another World War I ghost narrative in a song entitled "Tigermoth".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Arthur Machen, “The Bowmen”, (also includes his Introduction).
  2. ^ a b c David Clarke, “Rumours of angels: a legend of the First World War – detailed study”, Folklore, October 2002.
  3. ^ Kevin Maclure, “Visions of Bowmen and Angels”.
  4. ^ a b David Clarke, The Angel of Mons: Phantom Soldiers and Ghostly Guardians (2005).
  5. ^ David Clarke, “Rumours of Angels: a response to Simpson”, Folklore, April 2004.
  6. ^ James Randi, “Angels of Mons”, An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural.
  7. ^ David Clarke, “Angels on the Battlefield”, Fortean Times, May 2003.

External links


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