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The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed in 1936, between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt, officially (but seldom) known as The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty the King of Egypt. The treaty required the United Kingdom to withdraw all troops from Egypt except those necessary to protect the Suez Canal and its surroundings, 10,000 troops plus auxiliary personnel. The UK would also supply and train Egypt's army and assist in its defense in case of war. The treaty was signed on August 26 in Zaafarana palace and ratified on December 22 and was to last for 20 years.

The pretext for the treaty was the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that started in 1935. King Farouk feared that the Italians would also invade Egypt. The treaty was not welcomed by nationalists like the Arab Socialist Party who wanted full independence for Egypt. It ignited a wave of anti-British and anti-Wafdist demonstrations. Neither did the treaty resolve the question of Sudan. The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899 stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and the UK. Despite that agreement, real power was in British hands and the 1936 treaty expressively favoured maintaining the status quo.

The new Wafd government unilaterally abrogated the treaty in 1951. Three years later, the UK agreed to withdraw their troops. The withdrawal was finalized in July 1956 and thus seen as giving Egypt full independence. On 26 July 1956 Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam[1], precipitating the Suez Crisis.


  1. ^ "Suez crisis" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.

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