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The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in India over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. The fourth war resulted in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan (who was killed in the final war, in 1799), and the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of its pro-British allies.

The First Anglo-Mysore War saw Hyder Ali inflicting crushing defeats on the combined armies of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the British. The Kingdom of Mysore gained large tracts of land to the north after this war.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War saw the rise of Tipu Sultan as a powerful military leader. Soldiers from Mysore decimated British armies in the east, repelled a joint Maratha-Hyderabad invasion from the north and captured territories in the south. The war was ended in 1784 with the Treaty of Mangalore, at which both sides agreed to restore the others' lands to the status quo ante bellum.

In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore and an ally of France, invaded the nearby state of Travancore in 1789, which was a British ally. The resultant war lasted three years and resulted in a resounding defeat for Mysore. The war ended after the 1792 siege of Seringapatam and the signing of the Treaty of Seringapatnam according to which Tipu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the East India Company.

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War saw the defeat of the kingdom of Mysore. Mysore's alliance with the French was seen as a threat to the East India Company and Mysore was attacked from all four sides. Tipu's troops were outnumbered 4:1 in this war. Mysore had only 35,000 soldiers, whereas the British commanded 60,000 troops. The Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas launched an invasion from the North. The British won a decisive victory at the Battle of Seringapatam in 1799. Tipu was killed during the defence of the city. Much of Tipu Sultan's territory was annexed by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas. The core of it, around Mysore and Seringapatam, was handed over to the Indian prince belonging to the Wodeyar dynasty, whose forefathers had been overthrown by Hyder Ali, and whose descendants ruled the Kingdom of Mysore until 1947 when it joined the Union of India.

The Battles of Plassey (1757) and Buxar (1764) which established British dominion over East India, the Anglo-Mysore wars (1766-1799) and the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1775-1818) consolidated the British claim over South Asia, resulting in the British Empire in India, though pockets of resistance among the Sikhs, Afghans and Burmese would last well into the 1880s.



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