Anglophobia: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" + Greek φόβος -phobos, "fear") means hatred or fear of England or the English people.[1] The term is sometimes used more loosely for general Anti-British sentiment.[1]

Contents

Within the United Kingdom

In his essay "Notes on Nationalism", written in May 1945 and published in the first issue of the intellectual magazine Polemic (October 1945), George Orwell wrote, 'Welsh, Irish and Scottish nationalism have points of difference but are alike in their anti-English orientation.'.[2]

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Scotland

A 2005 study by Hussain and Millar of the Department of Politics at the University of Glasgow examined the prevalence of Anglophobia in relation to Islamophobia in Scotland. One finding of the report suggested that national ‘phobias’ have common roots independent of the nations they are directed toward. The study states that:

Scottish identity comes close to rivalling low levels of education as an influence towards Anglophobia. Beyond that, having an English friend reduces Anglophobia by about as much as having a Muslim friend reduces Islamophobia. And lack of knowledge about Islam probably indicates a broader rejection of the ‘other’, for it has as much impact on Anglophobia as on Islamophobia.[3]

Hussain and Millar's study found that Anglophobia was slightly less prevalent than Islamophobia, but that while Anglophobia was correlated with Scottish identity, this was not a significant factor in Islamophobia. However, the study goes on to say: "Few of the English (only 16 percent) see conflict between Scots and English as even 'fairly serious'".

In 1999 an Inspector and race relations officer with Lothian and Borders Police said that a correlation had been noticed between the establishment of the Scottish Parliament and anti-English incidents.[4] However, Hussain and Millar's research suggested that Anglophobia had fallen slightly since the introduction of devolution.

One person was assaulted, allegedly for having an English accent while in Scotland.[5] Similar cases have been connected with major football matches and tournaments, particularly international tournaments where the English and Scottish football teams often compete with each other.[6][7][8][9]

Wales

Anglophobia has existed in Wales to some extent since the establishment of England, and vice versa. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 also known as the "Acts of Union", passed by the Parliament of England, annexed Wales to the Kingdom of England, and replaced the Welsh language and Welsh law with the English language and English law. In particular, Section 20 of the 1535 Act made English the only language of the law courts and stated that those who used Welsh would not be appointed to any public office in Wales. Throughout the centuries with the suppression of the Welsh language in almost every public sphere, including in schools with the use of the Welsh Not, the Welsh speaking population was gradually Anglicised and reduced to a linguistic minority of roughly 20 percent of the total population of Wales today.

Concerns over the decline of the Welsh language and its historical proscription, and in recent years the cultural impact of English immigration, have contributed to anti-English sentiment in Wales. From 1979-1994, the Welsh militant group Meibion Glyndŵr (English: the Sons of (Owain) Glyndŵr), motivated by cultural and economic concerns, firebombed 300 English-owned second homes in Wales and attempted arson against several estate agents in Wales and England, and against the offices of the Conservative Party in London.[10][10][11]

In 2000, the Chairman of Swansea Bay Race Equality Council said that "Devolution has brought a definite increase in anti-English behaviour" citing three women who believed that they were being discriminated against in their careers because they could not speak Welsh.[12] Author Simon Brooks recommended that English-owned homes in Wales be "peacefully occupied".[10] In 2001 Dafydd Elis-Thomas, a former leader of Plaid Cymru, said that there was an anti-English strand to Welsh nationalism.[13]

Northern Ireland

Outside the United Kingdom

"Roastbeef" (or "rosbif") is a long standing Anglophobe French slang term to designate the English or British people. Its origins lies in William Hogarth's francophobic painting The Gate of Calais or O! The Roast Beef of Old England, in which the roastbeef allegory is used as a mockery. Its popular use includes movies, TV shows and sketch comedies.

Republic of Ireland

In August 2008 a English pipefitter based in Dublin was awarded €20,000 for the racial abuse and discrimination he received at his workplace.[14]

France

After the Norman conquest in 1066, French replaced English as the official language of England. However, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Plantagenet kings of England lost most of their possessions in France, began to consider England to be their primary domain, and turned to the English language. King Edward I, when issuing writs for summoning parliament in 1295, claimed that the King of France planned to invade England and extinguish the English language, "a truly detestable plan which may God avert".[15][16] In 1338, Philip VI of France authored the Ordinance of Normandy, which again called for the destruction and elimination of the English nation and language. The so-called Hundred Years War (1337-1453) between England and France changed societies on both sides of the Channel.

The English and French were engaged in numerous wars in the following centuries. England's ongoing conflict with Scotland provided France with an opportunity to destabilise England, and there was a firm friendship (known as the Auld Alliance) between France and Scotland from the late-thirteenth century to the mid-sixteenth century. The alliance eventually foundered because of growing Protestantism in Scotland. Opposition to Protestantism became a major feature of later French Anglophobia (and conversely, fear of Catholicism was a hallmark of Francophobia). Antipathy and intermittent hostilities between France and Britain, as distinct from England, continued during later centuries.

Iran

Anti-British sentiment, sometimes described as Anglophobia, has been described as "deeply entrenched in Iranian culture",[17] and reported to be increasingly prevalent in Iran. In July 2009, an adviser to Ayatollah Ali Khamenei called Britain "worse than America" for its alleged interference in Iran's post-election affairs. In the first part of the 20th century, the British exerted political influence over Iran (Persia), and British government influence was widely seen to be behind the rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the ousting of prime minister Mohammad Mosaddeq in 1953.[18][19][20]

United States

The Irish-American community in the United States has historically shown antipathy towards the English in particular.[21] The film industry is widely perceived to give an English nationality to a disproportionate number of villains.[22] Lyndon LaRouche, a perennial candidate for U.S. President and a movement leader known for theories of conspiracies, has been called the "most illustrious" Anglophobe in American politics.[23]

Australia and New Zealand

"Pommy" or "Pom" (derived from "pomegranate", rhyming slang for "immigrant") is a common Australasian slang word for the English, often combined with 'whing[e]ing' (complaining) to make the expression 'whingeing Pom' - an English immigrant who stereotypically complains about everything. Although the term is sometimes applied to British immigrants generally, it is usually applied specifically to the English, by both Australians and New Zealanders.[24][25] From the 19th century onwards, there were feelings among established Australians that many immigrants from England were poorly skilled, unwanted by their home country, and unappreciative of the benefits of their new country.[26] In recent years, complaints about two newspaper articles blaming English tourists for littering a local beach, and headed "Filthy Poms" and "Poms fill the summer of our discontent", were accepted as complaints and settled through conciliation by the Australian Human Rights Commission when the newspapers published apologies. However, letters and articles which referred to English people as "Poms" or "Pommies" did not meet the threshold for racial hatred.[27] In 2007 a complaint to Australia's Advertising Standards Bureau about a television commercial using the term 'Pom' was upheld and the commercial was withdrawn.[28] Generally, however, Australia and the United Kingdom have a close relationship and the term is only used as a tongue in cheek insult.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of English, OUP, 2005
  2. ^ "George Orwell - Notes on Nationalism - Essay (see: Positive Nationalism (ii) Celtic Nationalism)". George Orwell - the complete works website. George-Orwell.org. 2003. http://www.george-orwell.org/Notes_on_Nationalism/0.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22.  
  3. ^ Hussain, Asifa; Miller, William (March 2005). "Towards a Multicultural Nationalism? Anglophobia and Islamophobia in Scotland" (PDF). Devolution Briefings: Briefing No. 24 (Economic & Social Research Council): p. 4. http://www.devolution.ac.uk/pdfdata/Briefing%2024%20-%20Hussain-Miller.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-20.  
  4. ^ "Anti-English taunts drive family over the border - News". The Independent. 1999-02-17. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/antienglish-taunts-drive-family-over-the-border-1071347.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  5. ^ "Scotland | North East/N Isles | 'Anti-English' punch hurts woman". BBC News. 2009-01-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/north_east/7826264.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  6. ^ Urquhart, Frank. "Aberdeen leaders condemn anti-English attacks in city - Scotsman.com Sport". Sport.scotsman.com. http://sport.scotsman.com/worldcupallegiance/Aberdeen-leaders-condemn-antiEnglish-attacks.2789878.jp. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  7. ^ Horne, Marc. "Moderator says anti-English bigotry is 'like sectarianism' - Scotland on Sunday". Scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com. http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/latestnews/Moderator-says-antiEnglish-bigotry-is.3786145.jp. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  8. ^ "Scotland | North East/N Isles | England fan assaulted in Aberdeen". BBC News. 2006-07-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/north_east/5139054.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  9. ^ "Boy, 7, attacked in Scotland for wearing England shirt | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2006-06-22. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-391763/Boy-7-attacked-Scotland-wearing-England-shirt.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  10. ^ a b c Ward, David (March 1, 2002). "Wales swamped by tide of English settlers". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4365404,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  11. ^ Kivisto, Peter (2002). Multiculturalism in a global society. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780631221944. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H7T-f_QiVHkC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  12. ^ Milmo, Cahal (2000-08-04). "English the victims of racism in Wales - This Britain, UK". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/english-the-victims-of-racism-in-wales-710971.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  13. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/1716615.stm
  14. ^ "Englishman wins Irish race case". BBC. 2008-08-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7555589.stm. Retrieved 2008-12-12.  
  15. ^ Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood. Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 45.
  16. ^ "[Rex Franciae] linguam anglicam, si conceptae iniquitatis proposito detestabili potestas correspondeat, quod Deus avertat, omnino de terra delere proponit." William Stubbs, Select Charters (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946), p. 480.
  17. ^ Jonathan Freedland, If this crisis can be overcome, think about the negotiations that matter, The Guardian, 4 April 2007. Accessed 24 November 2009
  18. ^ Ali Ansari, Why Iran is obsessed with the British wily fox, The Times, 25 June 2009. Accessed 24 November 2009
  19. ^ Tara Bahrampour, In Wake of Unrest, Britain Replacing U.S. as Iran's Great Satan, Washington Post, 17 July 2009. Accessed 24 November 2009
  20. ^ Conference on "Iran and British colonialism", March 2008. Accessed 24 November 2009
  21. ^ John Moser. "John Moser, The Decline of American Anglophobia". Personal.ashland.edu. http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/anglophobia.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  22. ^ "'Brenglish' in a snit over Hollywood's history lessons". Telegraph. 2001-06-19. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1346010/Brenglish-in-a-snit-over-Hollywoods-history-lessons.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21.  
  23. ^ Vankin, Jonathan; John Whalen (2004). Eighty greatest conspiracies of all time. Citadel Press. ISBN 0806525312.  
  24. ^ A dictionary of slang and unconventional English, Eric Partridge, 1984
  25. ^ The Ping Pong Poms at EmigrateNZ.co.uk
  26. ^ James Jupp, The English in Australia, pp 195-196
  27. ^ Australian Human Rights Commission, Guide to the Racial Hatred Act
  28. ^ Lagan, Bernard (2007-01-26). "Poms Whinge so Hard that Beer Ad is Pulled". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1296165.ece. Retrieved 2008-07-20.  

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Latin Anglus (Angle) + Ancient Greek φόβος (phobos), fear).

Noun

Anglophobia

  1. The fear or hatred of the English or British.

Related terms


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