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Louisiana Department of Corrections patch with Angola Tab

The Louisiana State Penitentiary (also known as Angola and "The Farm") is a prison in Louisiana operated by the Louisiana Department of Corrections. The prison is the largest maximum security prison in the United States with 5,000 inmates and 1,800 staff members. It is located on an 18,000 acre (73 km²) property that was previously the Angola and other plantations owned by Isaac Franklin in unincorporated West Feliciana Parish, close to the Mississippi border. The prison is located at the terminus of Louisiana Highway 66, and the prison is about 22 miles (35 km) northwest of St. Francisville.[1] Angola is surrounded on three sides by the Mississippi River.

Contents

History

The land that has become Angola Penitentiary was purchased by Isaac Franklin from Francis Routh during the 1830s with the profits from his slave trading firm, Franklin and Armfield, of Alexandria, Virginia and Natchez, Mississippi as four contiguous plantations. These plantations, Panola, Belle View, Killarney and Angola, were joined during their sale by Franklin's widow, Adelicia Cheatham, to Samuel Lawrence James in 1880. The plantation, named after the area in Africa where the former slaves came from, contained a building called the Old Slave Quarters.[2] Samuel James ran the plantation using convicts leased from them which led to a great deal of abuse.[3]

A former Angola prisoner, William Sadler (also called "Wooden Ear" because of hearing loss he suffered after a prison attack), wrote a series of articles about Angola entitled "Hell on Angola" in the 1940s which helped cause prison reform.[4]

In 1952, 31 inmates cut their Achilles' tendons in protest of the hard work and brutality (referred to as the Heel String Gang.)[5] In 1972, Elayne Hunt, a reforming director of corrections, was appointed by Governor Edwin Edwards, and the U.S. courts in Gates v. Collier ordered Louisiana to clean up Angola once and for all, ending the Trusty system.[6] Current Warden Burl Cain maintains an open-door policy with the media, which led to the production of the award winning documentary The Farm.[2] Films such as Dead Man Walking[7] and Monster's Ball[8] were partly filmed in Angola.

In Stephen King's book The Green Mile (novel) and the adapted movie The Green Mile (film), the fictional setting of the Louisiana Cold Mountain Penitentiary was loosely based on life on death row at Angola in the 1930s.[citation needed]

On August 31, 2008, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin stated in a press conference that any New Orleans residents found looting during the evacuation of the city due to Hurricane Gustav would be arrested and immediately transported to Angola prison.[citation needed]

Today

Angola is still run as a working farm; Warden Cain once said that the key to running a peaceful maximum security prison was that "you've got to keep the inmates working all day so they're tired at night."[citation needed]

Many prisoners in Angola are serving sentences which are so long that there is no realistic prospect of parole e.g. 60 years or more. Inmates who develop terminal illnesses are treated at a secure hospice within the grounds of the prison, and subsequently buried in the prison cemetery if their family cannot afford to claim and bury the body.[citation needed]

The prison hosts a rodeo every April and October, and its inmates produce the award-winning magazine The Angolite, available to the general public and relatively uncensored.[9] There is a museum which features among its exhibits Louisiana's old electric chair, "Old Sparky", last used for the execution of Andrew Lee Jones on 22 July 1991. Angola Prison is also home to the country's only inmate-operated radio station.[10]

In the 1990s, Angola partnered with the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary to offer prisoners the chance to earn accredited bachelor's degrees in ministry. Dr. Bruce M Sabin wrote his doctoral dissertation evaluating moral development among those college students.[11]

Angola 3

Angola also housed Robert King Wilkerson, Albert Woodfox, and Herman Wallace who are now known as the Angola 3. Wilkerson was freed in 2001 after 29 years in solitary confinement. Woodfox and Wallace served 36 years in solitary confinement - the longest time in solitary confinement in United States history.[12] They were finally released on March 27, 2008 after a congressional delegation headed by Congressman John Conyers planned to visit Angola.[12] They are currently housed in the prison's maximum security wing.[13][14]

Radio

Angola is the only penitentiary in the U.S. to be issued an FCC license to operate a radio station. KLSP (Louisiana State Penitentiary) is a 100-watt radio station that operates at 91.7 on the FM dial from inside the prison to approximately 6,000 potential listeners including inmates and penitentiary staff. The station is operated by inmates and carries some satellite programming. Inside the walls of Angola, KLSP is called the "Incarceration Station" and "The Station that Kicks Behind the Bricks."

In 2002, the station left the airways because of old, dilapidated equipment. A fund-raiser was broadcast from inside the prison to radio stations in North and South Carolina (WLFJ, WRTP and The His Radio Network), Georgia (WVFJ, WLFS and WAFJ), Missouri (WIND) and Florida (WJIS and The Joy FM Network) that raised $120,000 to rebuild KLSP. His Radio Operations Manager Ken Mayfield led the team and the rebuild of the station.

The station's website is www.corrections.state.la.us/lsp/KLSP.php.[15]

Musical references

The prison has held many musicians and been the subject of a number of songs. Folk singer Leadbelly served over four years of his attempted murder sentence and was released early from Angola for good behavior. Tex-Mex artist Freddy Fender was pardoned from there.

The song "Grown So Ugly" by American blues musician and ex-convict Robert Pete Williams references Angola. The song's lyrics have some basis in fact, as Williams was imprisoned there and was officially pardoned (from a murder charge) in 1964, the year the song says that he left the prison.

The classic New Orleans song "Junco Partner" includes the lines:

Six months ain't no sentence, and a year ain't no time
They got boys down in Angola doin' one year to ninety-nine

Aaron and Charles Neville wrote "Angola Bound":

I got lucky last summer when I got my time, Angola bound
Well my partner got a hundred, I got ninety-nine, Angola bound

Angola also features in the Neville Brothers song "Sons and Daughters" on the album Brother's Keeper.

Folklorist Frederick Oster recorded "Angola Prison Worksongs" for his Folklyric Records in 1959, now re-released on Arhoolie Records. According to Oster, between 1929 and 1940, 10,000 floggings were carried out in Angola.

Singer Gil Scott-Heron wrote and recorded the song "Angola, Louisiana" on his 1978 album with Brian Jackson, Secrets. The song deals with the imprisonment of inmate Gary Tyler.

Comprising the entire B-Side of his album Remedies, New Orleans musician Dr. John features an extended 17:35 song titled "Angola Anthem".

Singer-songwriter Myshkin recorded "Angola" in 1998 for her album Blue Gold. The song refers to the case of former Angola warden C. Murray Henderson, who was sentenced to 50 years in Angola prison for the attempted murder of his wife, writer Anne Butler:

Release me from this life I will seek my punishment
On the other side but the judge said
"Warden in cold blood you shot your poor poor wife
You're going back to Angola, there your hell to find"

New Orleans rap artist Juvenile has part of a verse in the Hot Boys song "Dirty World" that says:

They'll plant dope on ya, go to court on ya
Give ya 99 years and slam the door on ya
Angola, the free man bout it, he don't play
Nigga get outta line, ship 'em to Camp J

New Orleans pianist James Booker mentions Angola prison in his cover of "Goodnight, Irene" ; where he was sent for heroin possession:

Lead Belly and little Booker both, had the pleasure of partying,
on the pon de rosa, *laughs* you know what I mean, you dig?
Yeah, on the pon de rosa, you know, down in Angola
where they have boys doing from one year to ninety nine

(As Booker was less than 10 years old when Leadbelly died, the song should be understood as poetic license rather than that they were actually there at the same time.)

Ray Davies has recorded a song entitled "Angola (Wrong Side of the Law)", which was released as a bonus track on the expanded release of Working Man's Café in February 2008.

The American folk singer David Dondero in the song "20 years" describes the experiences of a prisoner released from Angola prison:

All I got on me, is my Angola prison I.D.
Ain't a place in this whole damn city willing to hire me
It's been twenty years

See also

References and footnotes

Books about Angola

  • Cain's Redemption by Dennis Shere
  • Dead Man Walking by Sister Helen Prejean
  • God of the Rodeo - Daniel Bergner
  • A Life in the Balance: The Billy Wayne Sinclair Story by Billy Wayne Sinclair.
  • The prison is referred to in A Confederacy of Dunces by Jones when describing the racial inequality in the New Orleans judicial system.
  • The main character of Poppy Z. Brite's novel The Lazarus Heart is sent to Angola for the murder of his lover.
  • The House That Herman Built by Herman Wallace of the Angola 3, co-written with Artist Jackie Sumell.

Butler, Anne and C. Murray Henderson. 1992. Angola. Dying to Tell. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies

Butler, Anne and C. Murray Henderson 1990 Angola. Louisiana State Penitentiary A Half-Century of Rage and Reform. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies.

Carleton, Mark T. 1971 Politics and Punishment: The History of Louisiana State Penal system. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Foster, Burk, Wilbert Rideau and Douglas Dennis (Editors). 1995. The Wall is Strong: Corrections in Louisiana. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies

Howard, Robert. 2006 The other side of the coin. The spiritual life of a black man held captive in Angola prison 40 years. Austin TX: 78764.

King, Robert Hillarry King. 2009 From the bottom of the heap: The autobiography of Black Panther Robert Hillary King. Oakland, Ca: PM Press.

Mouledous, Joseph Clarence. 1962. Sociological Perspectives on a Prison Social System. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

Articles about Angola

  • America's Plantation Prisons, by Maya Schenwar, Global Research, August 30, 2008

External links

Coordinates: 30°57′18″N 91°35′42″W / 30.955107°N 91.594927°W / 30.955107; -91.594927

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Angola
—  Unincorporated community  —
Louisiana State Penitentiary

Angola
Location within the state of Louisiana
Coordinates: 30°57′02″N 91°34′09″W / 30.95056°N 91.56917°W / 30.95056; -91.56917Coordinates: 30°57′02″N 91°34′09″W / 30.95056°N 91.56917°W / 30.95056; -91.56917
Country United States
State Louisiana
Parish West Feliciana
Elevation 49 ft (15 m)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 70712
Area code(s) 225
FIPS code
GNIS feature ID 553304[1]
Angola Landing: 542930[2]
Website doc.louisiana.gov/lsp/

The Louisiana State Penitentiary (LSP, also known as Angola, and nicknamed the "Alcatraz of the South" and "The Farm"[3]) is a prison farm in Louisiana operated by the Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. The prison is the largest maximum security prison in the United States[4] with 5,000 inmates and 1,800 staff members. It is located on an 18,000 acre (73 km²) property that was previously the Angola and other plantations owned by Isaac Franklin in unincorporated West Feliciana Parish, close to the Mississippi border. The prison is located at the terminus of Louisiana Highway 66, and the prison is about 22 miles (35 km) northwest of St. Francisville. Angola is surrounded on three sides by the Mississippi River. As of 2010 Burl Cain is the warden. The prison houses the State of Louisiana's death row for men and the state execution chamber.

Contents

History

File:Warden John
John Whitley, who served as a warden at LSP

Before 1835, state inmates lived in a jail in New Orleans. The first Louisiana State Penitentiary, located at the intersection of 6th Street and Laurel Street in Baton Rouge, was modeled off of a prison in Wethersfield, Connecticut. In 1844 the state leased the prison and its prisoners to McHatton Pratt and Company, a private company. Union soldiers occupied the prison during the American Civil War. In 1869 Samuel Lawrence James, a former confederate major, received the lease to the prison.[5]

The land that has become Angola Penitentiary was purchased by Isaac Franklin from Francis Routh during the 1830s with the profits from his slave trading firm, Franklin and Armfield, of Alexandria, Virginia and Natchez, Mississippi as four contiguous plantations. These plantations, Panola, Belle View, Killarney and Angla, were joined during their sale by Franklin's widow, Adelicia Cheatham, to James in 1880. The plantation, named after the area in Africa where the former slaves came from, contained a building called the Old Slave Quarters.[6] Samuel James ran the plantation using convicts leased from them which led to a great deal of abuse.[7] The Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections states that the facility opened as a prison in 1901.[8]

Charles Wolfe and Kip Lornell, authors of The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, said that Angola "probably as close to slavery as any person could come in 1930." Hardened criminals broke down upon being notified that they were being sent to Angola. Around that year, white-black racial tensions existed and one of every ten inmates received stab wounds per year. Wolfe and Lornell said that the staff, consisting of 90 people, "ran the prison like it was a private fiefdom."[9] The two authors said that prisoners were viewed as ""niggers" of the lowest order."[10] The state did not appropriate very much funds into the operation of Angola, as the state decreased costs to try to save money. Much of the remaining money ended up in the operations of other state projects; Wolfe and Lornell said that the re-appropriation of funds occurred "mysteriously."[9]

In 1935 remains of a Native American individual were taken from Angola. They were donated to the Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science.[11]

A former Angola prisoner, William Sadler (also called "Wooden Ear" because of hearing loss he suffered after a prison attack), wrote a series of articles about Angola entitled "Hell on Angola" in the 1940s which helped cause prison reform.[12] Collier's Magazine, in one issue, referred to Angola as "the worst prison in America."[13]

In 1952, 31 inmates cut their Achilles' tendons in protest of the hard work and brutality (referred to as the Heel String Gang.)[14] In 1972, Elayne Hunt, a reforming director of corrections, was appointed by Governor Edwin Edwards, and the U.S. courts in Gates v. Collier ordered Louisiana to clean up Angola once and for all, ending the Trustee-guard and Trusty systems.[15]

In 1961 female inmates were moved to the newly-opened Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women.[16]

In the 1980s Kirksey McCord Nix Jr. perpetrated the "Angola Lonely Hearts" scam from within the prison.[17]

In 1993 LSP guards fatally shot 29-year old escapee Tyrone Brown.[18]

In 1999 six inmates who were serving life sentences for murder took three prison guards hostage in Camp D. The hostage takers bludgeoned and stabbed one guard, 29-year old Captain David Knapps, to death. Armed guards ended the rebellion by shooting the inmates, killing one, 26-year old Joel Durham, and seriously wounding another.[19]

In Stephen King's book The Green Mile and the adapted movie The Green Mile, the fictional setting of the Louisiana Cold Mountain Penitentiary was loosely based on life on death row at Angola in the 1930s.[citation needed]

On August 31, 2008, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin stated in a press conference that any New Orleans residents found looting during the evacuation of the city due to Hurricane Gustav would be arrested and immediately transported to Angola prison.[20]

Management

patch with Angola Tab]]

LSP was designed to be as self-sufficient as possible; it functioned a miniature community with a canning factory, a dairy, a mail system, a small ranch, repair shops, and a sugar mill. Prisoners raised food staples and cash crops. The self sufficiency was enacted so taxpayers would spend less money and so politicians such as Governor of Louisiana Huey P. Long would have an improved public image. In the 1930s prisoners worked from dawn until dusk.[10]

As of 2009 there are three levels of solitary confinement. "Extended lockdown" is colloquially known as "Closed Cell Restricted" or "CCR." Until a period before 2009, death row inmates had more privileges than "extended lockdown" inmates, including the privilege to watch television. "Extended lockdown" was originally intended as a temporary punishment. The next most restrictive level is "Camp J," referring to an inmate housing unit that houses the style of solitary confinement. The most restrictive level is "administrative segregation," colloquially referred to by inmates as the "dungeon" or the "hole."[21]

Location

Louisiana State Penitentiary is in unincorporated West Feliciana Parish, in east central Louisiana.[22] It is located at the base of the Tunica Hills, in a region described by Jenny Lee Rice of Paste as "breathtakingly beautiful."[23]

The prison is about 22 miles (35 km) northwest of St. Francisville,[24] about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Baton Rouge,[9] and 135 miles (217 km) northwest of New Orleans.[25] LSP is about a two hour driving distance from New Orleans.[26] The Mississippi River borders the facility on three sides.[10] The prison is in close proximity to the Louisiana-Mississippi border.[22]

Charles Wolfe and Kip Lornell, authors of The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, said that in the 1990s the prison remained "far away from public awareness."[10] The prison officials sometimes provide meals for official guests because of what the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections refers to as the "extreme remote location" of LSP; the nearest non-prison dining facility is, as of 1999, 30 miles (48 km) away.[27] The prison property is adjacent to the Angola Tract of the Tunica Hills Wildlife Management Area; due to security reasons regarding LSP, the Tunica Hills WMA's Angola Tract is closed to the general public from March 1 through August 31 every year.[28]

The main entrance is at the terminus of Louisiana Highway 66, a road described by Wolfe and Lornell as "a winding, often muddy state road."[9] From St. Francisville one would travel about 2 miles (3.2 km) north along U.S. Highway 61, turn left at Louisiana 66, and travel on that road for 20 miles (32 km) until it dead ends at LSP's front gate.[29] The Angola Ferry provides a ferry service between Angola and a point in unincorporated Pointe Coupee Parish. The ferry is only open to employees except during special events, when members of the general public may use the ferry.[30]

Weather

Climate data for Angola
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 59
(15)
64
(17.8)
71
(21.7)
77
(25)
84
(28.9)
89
(31.7)
91
(32.8)
91
(32.8)
87
(30.6)
79
(26.1)
70
(21.1)
62
(16.7)
77
(25)
Average low °F (°C) 40
(4.4)
43
(6.1)
49
(9.4)
56
(13.3)
64
(17.8)
70
(21.1)
72
(22.2)
72
(22.2)
68
(20)
56
(13.3)
48
(8.9)
42
(5.6)
56.7
(13.7)
Precipitation inches (mm) 6.42
(163.1)
5.45
(138.4)
5.13
(130.3)
5.24
(133.1)
5.35
(135.9)
4.57
(116.1)
4.74
(120.4)
5.05
(128.3)
4.89
(124.2)
3.68
(93.5)
4.99
(126.7)
5.63
(143)
61.14
(1,553)
Source: Weather.com[31]

Composition

[[File:|thumb|Aerial view of Louisiana State Penitentiary, January 10, 1998, U.S. Geological Survey]] The size of the 18,000-acre (7,300 ha) prison property is larger than the size of Manhattan.[32] Charles Wolfe and Kip Lornell, authors of The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, said that LSP of the 1990s looks "more like a large working plantation than one of the most notorious prisons in the United States." Guards patrol the complex on horseback, as many of the prison acres are devoted to cultivation of crops. By 1999 the prison's primary roads had been paved.[9] The prison property is hemmed in by the Tunica Hills and by the Mississippi River. The perimeter of the property is not fenced, while the individual prisoner dormitory and recreational camps are fenced.[23]

Inmate quarters

The state of Louisiana considers LSP to be a multi-security institution; 29% of the prison's beds are designated for maximum security inmates.[33]

The inmates live in several housing units scattered across the LSP grounds. By the 1990s air conditioning and heating units have been installed in the inmate housing units.[9] Most inmates live in dormitories instead of cell blocks. The prison administration states that this is because having "inmates of all ages and with long sentences to live this way encourages cooperation and healthy peer relationships."[8]

The Main Prison Complex consists of the East Yard and the West Yard. The East Yard has 16 minimum and medium custody prisoner dormitories and one maximum custody extended lockdown cellblock; the cellblock has long term extended lockdown prisoners, in-transit administrative segregation prisoners, inmates who need mental health attention, and protective custody inmates. The West Yard has 16 minimum and medium custody prisoner dormitories, two administrative segregation cellblocks, and the prison treatment center. The treatment center has geriatric, hospice, and in-transit ill prisoners.[34]

LSP also has several outcamps. Camp C includes eight minimum and medium custody dormitories, one cellblock with administrative segregation and working cellblock prisoners, and one extended lockdown cellblock. Camp D has the same features as Camp C, except that it has one working cellblock instead of an extended lockdown cellblock, and its other cellblock does not have working prisoners. Camp F has four minimum custody dormitories and the "Dog Pen," which houses 11 minimum custody inmates.[34] Camp F also houses LSP's execution chamber.[35] Camp J has four extended lockdown cellblocks, which contain prisoners with disciplinary problems, and one dormitory with minimum and medium custody inmates who provide housekeeping functions for Camp J.[34] The Reception Center contains the death row, with 101 extended lockdown cells housing condemned inmates. In addition it has one minimum custody dormitory with inmates who provide housekeeping for the facility.[34]

B-Line

The facility includes a group of houses, called the "B-Line,"[36] which function as the residences of the prison staff members and their families; inmates perform services for the staff members and their households. The employee housing includes recreational centers, pools, and parks.[37] The LSP B-Line Chapel was dedicated at on Friday, July 17, 2009 at 4:00 PM.[38]

Residents on the prison grounds are zoned to West Feliciana Parish Public Schools. Elementary school children attend Tunica Elementary School in Tunica,[39] located in proximity to Angola;[40] The school is several miles from LSP's main entrance, and many of its students live on the LSP grounds.[39] Secondary schools serving the LSP grounds are West Feliciana Middle School and West Feliciana High School in Bains.[41] The West Feliciana Parish Library is located in St. Francisville.[42] The library, previously a part of the Audubon Regional Library System, became independent in January 2004.[43]

Fire station

The fire station houses the LSP Emergency Medical Services Department staff, who provide fire and emergency services to LSP.[34] The LSP Fire Department is registered as department number 63001 with the Louisiana Fire Marshal's Office. The department's equipment includes one engine, one tanker, and one rescue truck. Within LSP the department protects 500 buildings, including employee and prisoner housing quarters. The department has mutual aid agreements with West Feliciana Parish and with Wilkinson County, Mississippi.[44]

Religious sites

St. Augustine Church, built in the early 1950s, is staffed by the Roman Catholic Church. The New Life Interfaith Chapel was dedicated in 1982.[34] In the 2000s the main prison church, the churches for Camps C and D, and a grounds chapel were constructed. A staff and family of staff chapel was also under construction. Outside donations and prison rodeo ticket sales funded the churches.[36] The Camp C Chapel was dedicated on Friday July 17, 2009 at 2:00 PM, and the B-Line Chapel was dedicated at 4:00 PM on that day.[38] The main entrance to LSP has an etched monument that gives tribute to Epistle to the Philippians 3:15.[45]

Recreational facilities

Prison staff members have access to recreational facilities on the LSP property. LSP has ball fields, the Prison View Golf Course, a swimming pool, a tennis court, a walking track.[46] Lake Killarney, an oxbow lake of the Mississippi River located on the prison grounds, has large crappie fish. The LSP administration controls access to Lake Killarney, and only a few people fish there. Therefore the crappie fish grow very large.[3] Prison View Golf Course, a 6,000-yard (5,500 m2), 9 hole, 72 par golf course, is located on the grounds of Angola. All individuals playing are required to provide personal information 48 hours before their arrival so the prison authorities can conduct background checks. Convicted felons and individuals on LSP visitation lists are not permitted to play in the golf course.[29]

Cemeteries

Point Lookout Cemetery is the prison cemetery; dead prisoners who cannot be transported out of the prison grounds by family members are buried at Point Lookout.[47] The current Point Lookout was formed after a 1927 flood destroyed the previous cemetery, which was located between the current Camps C and D. In September 2001 a memorial was dedicated to the unknown prisoners. The original Point Lookout plot, with 331 grave markers and an unknown number of bodies, is full. An annex opened in the mid-1990s. Before January 2002, all state prisoners unclaimed by families were buried at Point Lookout; during that month a cemetery opened at the Hunt Correctional Center, providing another place for burial.[34]

Angola Museum

The Angola Museum, operated by the nonprofit Louisiana State Penitentiary Museum Foundation, is the on-site prison museum. No admission charges are levied against visitors; visitors may donate to the museum if they wish.[48] The museum is located outside of the prison's main gate.[46]

Other prison facilities and features

The Front Gate Visiting Processing Center, with a rated capacity of 272 persons, is the processing and security screening point for visitors to the prison.[34] The United States Postal Service operates the Angola Post Office on the prison grounds.[49] David C. Knapps Correctional Officer Training Academy,[5] the state training center for prison guards is located on the northwest corner of LSP. Near the training center, Angola prisoners maintain the only nature preserve located on the grounds of a penal institution.[9] R. E. Barrow, Jr., Treatment Center is located on the Angola premises.[5] The K-9 Training Center is the area where dogs are trained.[50] The Louisiana State Penitentiary Wastewater Treatment Plant serves as the wastewater plant of the complex.[51]

History of composition

[[File:|thumb|Topographical map, July 1, 1980, U.S. Geological Survey]] The first building where inmates were housed, the former slave quarters, became Camp A; currently Camp A does not house any prisoners.[5]

Charles Wolfe and Kip Lornell, authors of The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, said that in the 1930s Angola was "even further removed from decent civilization" than it was in the 1990s. The two added "that's the way the state of Louisiana wanted it, for Angola held some of the meanest inmates."[10]

In 1930 about 130 women, most of them African-American, were imprisoned in Camp D. In 1930 Camp A, which held around 700 African American inmates, was close to the center of the Angola institution. Inmates worked on levee control, as the springtime high water posed a threat to Angola. The river was almost 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, and many inmates who tried to swim across drowned; many of their bodies were never recovered.[10]

In previous eras, the most restrictive inmate housing unit was colloquially referred to as "Red Hats," after the red paint-coated straw hats that its occupants wore when they worked in the fields.[21] "Red Hats," a one-story, 30 cell building at Camp E, was built in 1933.[52] Brooke Shelby Biggs of Mother Jones said that men who had lived in "Red Hats" "told of a dungeon crawling with rats, where dinner was served in stinking buckets splashed onto the floors." In 1972 "Red Hats" was condemned and closed due to a reform movement. In 1977 Camp J took "Red Hats"'s role as the most restrictive housing unit in Angola.[21]

Demographics

Louisiana State Penitentiary is, in population, the largest correctional facility in the United States.[53] The prison has 5,100 inmates and 1,700 employees.[54] Over 600 "free people" live on the property of LSP; the residents are LSP's emergency response personnel and their dependents.[46] In 1986 around 200 families of employees lived within the Angola property. Hilton Butler, who was then the warden of Angola, estimated that 250 children lived on the Angola property.[55]

Operations

Angola is still operated as a working farm; Warden Burl Cain once said that the key to running a peaceful maximum security prison was that "you've got to keep the inmates working all day so they're tired at night."[56] In 2009 James Ridgeway of Mother Jones said Angola was "An 18,000-acre complex that still resembles the slave plantation it once was."[57]

Of all American prisons, Angola has the largest number of inmates on life sentences in the United States. As of 2009 Angola had 3,712 inmates on life sentences, making up 74% of the population. Per year, 32 inmates die, while 4 are paroled during the same span of time.[58] Louisiana's tough sentencing laws result in long sentences for the inmate population, which mostly consists of armed robbers, murderers, and rapists. In 1998 Peter Applebome of The New York Times said "It's impossible to visit the place and not feel that a prisoner could disappear off the face of the earth and no one would ever know or care."[32]

Most new prisoners begin working in cotton fields; a prisoner may spend years working his way to a better job.[13]

Around 2000, the prison guards were among the lowest-paid in the United States, and few of them had graduated from high school.[13] As of 2009 about half of the prison guards are female.[59]

LSP prisoners do cleaning and general maintenance services for the West Feliciana Parish School Board and other government agencies and nonprofit groups within the West Feliciana Parish.[60]

Current Warden Burl Cain maintains an open-door policy with the media, which led to the production of the award winning documentary The Farm.[6] Films such as Dead Man Walking[61] and Monster's Ball[62] were partly filmed in Angola.

The prison hosts a rodeo every April and October, and its inmates produce the award-winning magazine The Angolite, available to the general public and relatively uncensored.[63] There is a museum which features among its exhibits Louisiana's old electric chair, "Old Sparky", last used for the execution of Andrew Lee Jones on 22 July 1991. Angola Prison is also home to the country's only inmate-operated radio station.[64]

Inmate education

LSP offers literacy classes for prisoners with no high school diploma and no General Equivalency Diploma (GED) from Monday through Friday in the main prison and in camps C-D and F. LSP also offers GED classes in the main prison and in camps C-D and F. The prison also offers ABE (Adult Basic Education) classes for prisoners who have high school diplomas or GEDs but who do not have high enough Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) test scores to get into vocational school. SSD (Special School District #1) provides services for special education students.[65]

Prisoners with sufficient TABE scores may get into vocational classes. Classes include automotive technology, carpentry, culinary arts, graphic communications, horticulture, and welding.[65] In the 1990s, Angola partnered with the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary to offer prisoners the chance to earn accredited bachelor's degrees in ministry. Dr. Bruce M Sabin wrote his doctoral dissertation evaluating moral development among those college students.[66] As of Spring 2008 95 prisoners are students in the program. LSP also offers the PREP Pre-Release Exit Program and Re-Entry Progams for prisoners who are about to be released into the free world.[65]

The inmate library services are provided by the Main Prison Library and four outcamp libraries. The prison is a part of an inter-library loan program with the State Library of Louisiana.[36]

Manufacturing

LSP has several manufacturing facilities. The Farm Warehouse (914) is the point of distribution of agricultural supplies. The Mattress/Broom/Mop shop makes mattresses and cleaning tools. The printing shop prints documents, forms, and other printed materials. The range herd managed 1,600 head of cattle. The row crops group harvests crops. The silk screen produces plates, badges, road and highway signs, and textiles; it also manages sales of sign hardware. The tag plant produces license plates for Louisiana and for overseas customers. The tractor repair shop repairs agricultural equipment. The transportation division delivers the good manufactured by the prison enterprises division.[67]

Radio

Angola is the only penitentiary in the U.S. to be issued an FCC license to operate a radio station. KLSP (Louisiana State Penitentiary) is a 100-watt radio station that operates at 91.7 on the FM dial from inside the prison to approximately 6,000 potential listeners including inmates and penitentiary staff. The station is operated by inmates and carries some satellite programming. Inside the walls of Angola, KLSP is called the "Incarceration Station" and "The Station that Kicks Behind the Bricks."[citation needed] The station has 20 hours of daily airtime, and all of the music aired by the station is donated.[45] Music from His Radio and the Moody Ministry Broadcasting Network (MBN) airs during several hours of the day. Prisoners make the majority of broadcasting decisions.[23]

A station was originally established in 1986 as a means of communication. Jenny Lee Rice of Paste said "the need to disseminate information rapidly is critical" because Angola is the largest prison in the United States.[53] The non-emergency uses of the station began in 1987 when Jimmy Swaggart, an evangelist, gave the prison old equipment from his radio network.[68] In 2001 Chuck Colson invited radio veteran Ken Mayfield and executives from a South Carolina radio network to visit Angola and conduct an on-radio fundraiser to buy new radio equipment.[45] The fundraiser exceeded its $80,000 goal, with over $120,000 within several hours. Warden Burl Cain used the funds to update the radio equipment and train prisoner DJs in using the new electronic systems.[23] The new radio equipment allowed KLSP to broadcast in stereo, expand its daily airtime to 20 hours and to upgrade its programming.[45] As of 2006 LSP has 100 watts of power. If one travels 7 miles (11 km) away from LSP on Louisiana Highway 61, the signal begins to fade. When one is 10 miles (16 km) away, one can hear white noise. Paul von Zielbauer of The New York Times said that "Still, 100 watts does not push the station's signal far beyond the prison gate."[45] All 24 hours are devoted to religious programming.[46]

Magazine

[[File:|thumb|Wilbert Rideau, was one of two co-editors of The Angolite]] The Angolite is the inmate published and edited magazine of the institution. In 1976 the administration allowed the magazine to begin.[69] Each year, six issues are published.[46] Louisiana prison officials believed that an independently-edited publication would help the prison. The Angolite gained a national reputation as a quality magazine and won international awards under two prisoner editors, Wilbert Rideau and Billy Sinclair,[70] who became co-editors in 1978.[71] Allen Johnson, Jr. of the Gambit Weekly said that Rideau and Sinclair "were once hailed as the Woodward and Bernstein of prison journalism."[72] By 1987 Sinclair disclosed that he was an informant of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, investigating a scheme involving the sale of pardons. The New York Times stated "But news of Mr. Sinclair's role shattered The Angolite's credibility. Mr. Sinclair, now a snitch, has been transferred out of the prison for his own safety, leaving Mr. Rideau to confront skeptical readers and sources."[70] Sinclair moved to the David Wade Correctional Center because of the stigma against "snitches" in prison.[72]

Burial of deceased

Coffins for deceased prisoners are manufactured by inmates on the LSP grounds. Previously dead prisoners were buried in cardboard boxes. After a body fell through the bottom of a box, warden Burl Cain changed a policy, allowing for the manufacture of coffins for the deceased.[23]

Inmate life

Sexual slavery

A 2010 memoir by Wilbert Rideau, an inmate at Angola from 1961 through 2001, states that "slavery was commonplace in Angola with perhaps a quarter of the population in bondage" throughout the 1960s and early 1970s.[73] The New York Times states that weak inmates served as slaves who were raped, gang-raped, and traded and sold like cattle. Rideau stated that "The slave's only way out was to commit suicide, escape or kill his master."[73] Herman Wallace and Albert Woodfox, members of the Angola 3, arrived at Angola in the late 1960s and became active members of the prison's chapter of the Black Panther Party, where they organized petitions and hunger strikes to protest conditions at the prison and helped new inmates protect themselves from rape and enslavement.[74] C. Murray Henderson, one of the wardens brought in to clean up the prison, states in one of his memoirs that the systemic sexual slavery was sanctioned and facilitated by the prison guards.[75][page needed]

Angola Rodeo

On one weekend in April and on every Sunday in October, Angola holds the Angola Prison Rodeo. On each occasion, thousands of visitors enter the prison complex.[46]

Musical references

The prison has held many musicians and been the subject of a number of songs. Folk singer Leadbelly served over four years of his attempted murder sentence and was released early from Angola for good behavior. Tex-Mex artist Freddy Fender was pardoned from there.

The song "Grown So Ugly" by American blues musician and ex-convict Robert Pete Williams references Angola. The song's lyrics have some basis in fact, as Williams was imprisoned there and was officially pardoned (from a murder charge) in 1964, the year the song says that he left the prison.

The classic New Orleans song "Junco Partner" includes the lines:

Six months ain't no sentence, and a year ain't no time
They got boys down in Angola doin' one year to ninety-nine

Aaron and Charles Neville wrote "Angola Bound":

I got lucky last summer when I got my time, Angola bound
Well my partner got a hundred, I got ninety-nine, Angola bound

Angola also features in the Neville Brothers song "Sons and Daughters" on the album Brother's Keeper.

Folklorist Frederick Oster recorded "Angola Prison Worksongs" for his Folklyric Records in 1959, now re-released on Arhoolie Records. According to Oster, between 1929 and 1940, 10,000 floggings were carried out in Angola.

Singer Gil Scott-Heron wrote and recorded the song "Angola, Louisiana" on his 1978 album with Brian Jackson, Secrets. The song deals with the imprisonment of inmate Gary Tyler.

Comprising the entire B-Side of his album Remedies, New Orleans musician Dr. John features an extended 17:35 song titled "Angola Anthem".

Singer-songwriter Myshkin recorded "Angola" in 1998 for her album Blue Gold. The song refers to the case of former Angola warden C. Murray Henderson, who was sentenced to 50 years in prison for the attempted murder of his wife, writer Anne Butler:

Release me from this life I will seek my punishment
On the other side but the judge said
"Warden in cold blood you shot your poor poor wife
You're going back to Angola, there your hell to find"

New Orleans rap artist Juvenile has part of a verse in the Hot Boys song "Dirty World" that says:

They'll plant dope on ya, go to court on ya
Give ya 99 years and slam the door on ya
Angola, the free man bout it, he don't play
Nigga get outta line, ship 'em to Camp J

New Orleans pianist James Booker mentions Angola prison in his cover of "Goodnight, Irene" ; where he was sent for heroin possession:

Lead Belly and little Booker both, had the pleasure of partying,
on the pon de rosa, *laughs* you know what I mean, you dig?
Yeah, on the pon de rosa, you know, down in Angola
where they have boys doing from one year to ninety nine

(As Booker was less than 10 years old when Leadbelly died, they would not have been there at the same time.)

Ray Davies has recorded a song entitled "Angola (Wrong Side of the Law)", which was released as a bonus track on the expanded release of Working Man's Café in February 2008.

The American folk singer David Dondero in the song "20 years" describes the experiences of a prisoner released from Angola prison:

All I got on me, is my Angola prison I.D.
Ain't a place in this whole damn city willing to hire me
It's been twenty years

Jazz trumpeter Christian Scott has a track on his 2010 album Yesterday You Said Tomorrow called "Angola, LA & the 13th Amendment"

Notable inmates

Death row and non-death row

Death row

Non-death row

Notable employees

See also

Louisiana portal
Law enforcement/Law enforcement topics portal

References and footnotes

  1. ^ "Angola, Louisiana". Geographic Names Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:553304. 
  2. ^ "Angola Landing, Louisiana". Geographic Names Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:542930. 
  3. ^ a b Sutton, Keith "Catfish." "Out There: Angola angling." 'ESPN Outdoors. May 31, 2006. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  4. ^ Oshinsky, David. "The View From Inside." The New York Times. June 11, 2010. Retrieved on August 24, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d "History Of The Prison." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 24, 2010.
  6. ^ a b www.corrections.state.la.us "HISTORY OF ANGOLA"
  7. ^ www.burkfoster.com "Major James and the Origins of Modern Corrections in Louisiana"
  8. ^ a b "Time in Prison." Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. 32/40. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Wolfe, Charles K. and Kip Lornell. The Life and Legend of Leadbelly. De Capo Press, 1999. 100. Retrieved from Google Books on August 25, 2010. ISBN 030680896X, 9780306808968
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Wolfe, Charles K. and Kip Lornell. The Life and Legend of Leadbelly. De Capo Press, 1999. 101. Retrieved from Google Books on August 25, 2010. ISBN 030680896X, 9780306808968
  11. ^ "Page 77907-77908." National Park Service. December 13, 2000. Volume 65, Number 240. Retrieved on October 13, 2010.
  12. ^ www.angolamuseum.org "Hell on Angola - the Wooden Ear Series"
  13. ^ a b c Stein, Joel. "The Lessons of Cain." TIME. Retrieved on July 21, 2010.
  14. ^ www.billygraham.org "Set Free in Angola Prison"
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  16. ^ "LOUISIANA CORRECTINS TIMELINE." [sic] The Advocate. March 12, 2000. News 13A. Retrieved on August 29, 2010. "1961 Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women opened in an old prison farm camp at St Gabriel with female prisoners moved from Angola..."
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  20. ^ "New Orleans mayor vows to throw looters in prison." Agence France Presse at Google News. August 31, 2008. Retrieved on August 26, 2010.
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  25. ^ Nolan, Bruce. "StoryCorps New Orleans: Angola is home to third-generation corrections officer." The Times-Picayune. Thursday July 15, 2010. Retrieved on September 2, 2010. "When StoryCorps, the oral history initiative, came to New Orleans in the spring, staffer Jeremy Helton packed a microphone and drove 135 miles north of the city to Angola to record something of the lives of people such as Butler."
  26. ^ Faure, Guillemette. "Jour de fête dans une prison de Louisiane." Le Figaro. October 15, 2007. Retrieved on August 30, 2010. "En pleine campagne, à deux heures de La Nouvelle-Orléans,"
  27. ^ "Response to Legislative Audit Report of December 18, 1998." Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. January 12, 1999. 3. Retrieved on August 26, 2010. "On occasion, it is necessary to serve meals to official guests because of the extreme remote location of the prison. The nearest dining location to the penitentiary is 30 miles away."
  28. ^ "Tunica Hills WMA." Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  29. ^ a b "Welcome to the Prison View Golf Course." Prison View Golf Course. Retrieved on August 26, 2010.
  30. ^ "Angola Ferry." U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved on August 26, 2010.
  31. ^ "Average Weather for Angola, LA (English)". http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USLA0015. Retrieved August 2010. 
  32. ^ a b Applebome, Peter. "Seconds of Freedom." The New York Times. October 18, 1998. Retrieved on August 25, 2010. "Angola covers 18,000 acres, larger than the island of Manhattan."
  33. ^ "Time in Prison." Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. 14/40. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h "Photo Album." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on July 20, 2010.
  35. ^ "Officials prep for Bordelon's execution Thursday." The Advocate. January 6, 2010. Retrieved on August 24, 2010. "Laborde said Bordelon has been moved from Angola's new Death Row facility to a cell at nearby Camp F, where the execution chamber is located"
  36. ^ a b c "Angola Prison Activities." National Geographic. Retrieved on July 24, 2010.
  37. ^ Sullivan, Laura. "Doubts Arise About 1972 Angola Prison Murder." National Public Radio. October 27, 2008. Retrieved on July 17, 2010.
  38. ^ a b "Chapel Dedications at Louisiana’s Maximum-Security Prison." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 24, 2010.
  39. ^ a b "Fair enlivens out-of-the-way school." The Advocate. May 18, 1991. Retrieved on August 16, 2010. "Tunica Elementary is only a few miles from the main gate of the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola and many of its students live on the 18000acre prison"
  40. ^ "Complaints build over cutbacks, board says." The Advocate. August 18, 1992. Retrieved on August 16, 2010. "John Cobb and Billy Bishop asked board members to overturn a staff decision to reassign their children to Tunica Elementary located near Angola..."
  41. ^ "Schools." West Feliciana Parish Public Schools. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  42. ^ "Directory." West Feliciana Parish Library. Retrieved on September 29, 2010.
  43. ^ "About Us." West Feliciana Parish Library. Retrieved on September 29, 2010.
  44. ^ "Fire Department." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  45. ^ a b c d e "Spinning Hope on Incarceration Station." The New York Times. April 12, 2006. 2. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  46. ^ a b c d e f "Time in Prison." Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. 34/40. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
  47. ^ "Time in Prison." Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. 33/40. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
  48. ^ "Angola Museum." Louisiana State Penitentiary Museum Foundation. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  49. ^ "Post Office™ Location - ANGOLA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on July 20, 2010.
  50. ^ "K-9 Training Center." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  51. ^ "Public Notice DRAFT WATER DISCHARGE PERMIT LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY AND CORRECTIONS/LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY AI Number 6634." Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality. Retrieved on September 28, 2010.
  52. ^ Sinclair, Billy Wayne and Jodie Sinclair. A Life in the Balance: The Billy Wayne Sinclair Story. Arcade Publishing, 2000. 51. Retrieved from Google Books on October 1, 2010. ISBN 1559705558, 9781559705554.
  53. ^ a b Rice, Jenny Lee. "Prison Radio." Paste. Issue 4. 1. Retrieved on September 26, 2010.
  54. ^ "10. Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola." Discovery Channel. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  55. ^ "Christmas at Angola not necessarily sad song." The Advocate. December 21, 1986. Retrieved on August 16, 2010. "About 200 families live inside the fences Butler guesses 250 children live at Angola"
  56. ^ a b James, Erwin. "37 years of solitary confinement: the Angola three." The Guardian. Wednesday March 10, 2010. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  57. ^ Ridgeway, James. "36 years of solitude." Mother Jones at San Francisco Bay View. March 13, 2009. Retrieved on August 26, 2010.
  58. ^ Jervis, Rick. "Inmates assist ill and dying fellow prisoners in hospices." (alternate location) USA Today. Updated November 30, 2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2010.
  59. ^ "Angola experiences a "Changing of the Guard"." WAFB-TV. November 11, 2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2010.
  60. ^ "General." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 26, 2010.
  61. ^ www.pbs.org "The Producer's Journey"
  62. ^ doaskdotell.com "DOASKDOTELL MOVIE REVIEWs of Monster's Ball"
  63. ^ www.angolarodeo.com "ANGOLA PRISON RODEO"
  64. ^ "Paste: Inside Angola's Incarceration Station" by Jenny Lee Rice
  65. ^ a b c "Educational Programs." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  66. ^ "A faith-based program evaluation: Moral development of seminary students at the Louisiana State Penitentiary" by Bruce M. Sabin, Ed.D.
  67. ^ "Prison Enterprises." Louisiana State Penitentiary. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  68. ^ "Spinning Hope on Incarceration Station." The New York Times. April 12, 2006. 1. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  69. ^ "Rehabilitative Services / Work Programs." Louisiana State Pentientiary. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  70. ^ a b "TOPICS OF THE TIMES; Freedom Behind Bars." The New York Times. May 11, 1987. Retrieved on October 7, 2010.
  71. ^ McConnaughey, Janet. "Jailhouse journalist is released." Associated Press at the The Argus-Press. Sunday December 24, 2000. 8A. Retrieved from Google News (5 of 25) on October 7, 2010. "Under Rideau and Billy Sinclair who became coeditor in 1978 [...]
  72. ^ a b c Johnson, Allen Jr. "Shared Fate." Gambit Weekly. March 20, 2001. Retrieved on October 2, 2010.
  73. ^ a b http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/13/books/review/Oshinsky-t.html
  74. ^ http://motherjones.com/politics/2009/12/herman-wallace-angola-3-solitary-confinement
  75. ^ Butler, Anne, and C. Murray Henderson. Dying to Tell. Center for Louisiana Studies, 1992.
  76. ^ Gold, Scott. "After 44 Years, Louisiana Man Is Freed." Los Angeles Times. January 17, 2005. Retrieved on August 29, 2010.
  77. ^ "CHURCH NEEDS TO AID KILLERS AS WELL AS VICTIMS' FAMILIES, NUN SAYS." Chicago Tribune. January 19, 1996. Metro Chicago 8. Retrieved on September 1, 2010. "It was at St Thomas in 1982 that an acquaintance asked her to write to Elmo "Pat " Sonnier, a stranger on Death Row."
  78. ^ Cases No. 97-60263 and 97-60704, "Appeals from the United States District Court For the Southern District of Mississippi," UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS For the Fifth Circuit, October 20, 1999.
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Books about Angola

  • In the Place of Justice: A Story of Punishment and Deliverance by Wilbert Rideau (Knopf, 2010)
  • Cain's Redemption by Dennis Shere
  • Dead Man Walking by Sister Helen Prejean
  • God of the Rodeo - Daniel Bergner
  • The Search for Hope, Faith, and a Six-Second Ride in Louisiana's Angola Prison - Daniel Bergner - Crown Publishers
  • Life Sentences, edited by Wilbert Rideau and Ron Wikberg (Random House, 1992)
  • A Life in the Balance: The Billy Wayne Sinclair Story by Billy Wayne Sinclair.
  • The prison is referred to in A Confederacy of Dunces by Jones when describing the racial inequality in the New Orleans judicial system.
  • The main character of Poppy Z. Brite's novel The Lazarus Heart is sent to Angola for the murder of his lover.
  • The House That Herman Built by Herman Wallace of the Angola 3, co-written with Artist Jackie Sumell.

Butler, Anne and C. Murray Henderson. 1992. Angola. Dying to Tell. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies

Butler, Anne and C. Murray Henderson 1990 Angola. Louisiana State Penitentiary A Half-Century of Rage and Reform. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies.

Carleton, Mark T. 1971 Politics and Punishment: The History of Louisiana State Penal system. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Foster, Burk, Wilbert Rideau and Douglas Dennis (Editors). 1995. The Wall is Strong: Corrections in Louisiana. Lafayette, La.: The Center for Louisiana Studies

Howard, Robert. 2006 The other side of the coin. The spiritual life of a black man held captive in Angola prison 40 years. Austin TX: 78764.

King, Robert Hillarry King. 2009 From the bottom of the heap: The autobiography of Black Panther Robert Hillary King. Oakland, Ca: PM Press.

Mouledous, Joseph Clarence. 1962. Sociological Perspectives on a Prison Social System. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

Articles about Angola

External links



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