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.Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species.^ Animals of many species also masturbate , even if other sexual partners are accessible."
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many species, behavior toward kin is markedly different from that toward nonkin.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For human sexual practices, see Human sexual behavior Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researchers have observed monogamy, promiscuity, sex between species, sexual arousal from objects or places, sex apparently via duress or coercion, copulation with dead animals, homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual sexual behaviour, and situational sexual behaviour and a range of other practices among animals other than humans.^ Human sexual behaviour · Sexology .
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animals learn by observing others.
  • Chapter 51 - Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human sexual arousal and orgasm .

.Related studies have noted diversity in sexed bodies and gendered behaviour, such as intersex and transgender animals.^ Related studies have noted diversity in sexed bodies and gendered behaviour, such as intersex and transgender animals.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "To turn the approach on its head: No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are over 1000 species of animal where non-reproductive sexual behaviour has been observed and documented, including such family favourites as ducks,cats, dolphins and giraffes.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The study of animal sexuality (and primate sexuality especially) is a rapidly developing field.^ The study of animal sexuality (and primate sexuality especially) is a rapidly developing field.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The field of animal studies is burgeoning.
  • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study was the first to demonstrate an association between natural variations in sexual partner preferences and brain structure in nonhuman animals.
  • Biology behind homosexuality in sheep, study confirms 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.It used to be believed that only humans and a handful of species performed sexual acts other than for procreation, and that animals' sexuality was instinctive and a simple response to the "right" stimulation (sight, scent).^ Human sexuality: A response.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vegans believe that humans and animals are equal.” .
  • God’s Hunters - Animal Rights - Patrick Battuello - timesunion.com - Albany NY 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC blog.timesunion.com [Source type: General]

^ For products to be used for or on the animal not on humans.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Current understanding is that many species that were formerly believed monogamous have now been proven to be promiscuous or opportunistic in nature; a wide range of species appear both to masturbate and to use objects as tools to help them do so; in many species animals try to give and get sexual stimulation with others where procreation is not the aim; and homosexual behaviour has now been observed among 1,500 species and in 500 of those it is well documented.^ Now, granted that homosexuality is natural..
  • Unnatural Affections? | Cerebral Salad 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC anandphilip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original article was at Animal sexual behaviour .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many other species also use auditory communication.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Contents

Mating systems

.In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour.^ This is where you use human emotions and feelings to describe the behaviour of animals.
  • Animal Behaviour and Welfare: basic principles - un knol de Clive Dalton 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original article was at Animal sexual behaviour .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NZ system) in Behavioural Ecology.
  • Animal Behavior Society's News and Announcments 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.animalbehavior.org [Source type: General]

.The mating system specifies which males mate with which females, and under what circumstances.^ Mating system in which any male within a social group may mate with any female in the group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mating system in which one male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship with each other.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mating system describes which males mate with which females and under what circumstances.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following are some of the mating systems generally recognised in humans and other animals:
.
  • Monogamy: One male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship.
  • Polygamy: One or more males have an exclusive relationship with one or more females.^ In vertebrates, the most common polygamous system is one in which a male has an exclusive mating relationship with two or more females.
    • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ B. All males mate with more than one female.
    • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A. Each male mates with just one female.
    • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    Three types are recognized:
    • Polygyny (the most common polygamous mating system in vertebrates so far studied): One male has an exclusive relationship with two or more females
    • Polyandry: One female has an exclusive relationship with two or more males.
    • Polygynandry: Two or more males have an exclusive relationship with two or more females; the numbers of males and females need not be equal, and in vertebrate species studied so far, there are usually fewer males.
  • Promiscuity: Any male and female will mate within the social group.

Monogamy

.Zoologists and biologists now have solid evidence that monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive.^ Zoologists and biologists now have solid evidence that monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is seldom we hear of animal rapists taking humans as sexual preys, although this is always funny to read about.

^ Sexuality researchers appear determined to ignore the evidence that exclusive homosexual feelings and behaviors are not typical of men and women who report homosexual feelings and behaviors.
  • StraightGuise | Chapter 1. Who is homosexual? The false homosexual/heterosexual dichotomy 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.straightguise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with extra-pair partners[2 ][3][4 ][5 ][6][7][8 ][9][10][11 ][12][13][14][15][16 ] This includes previous exemplars such as swans.^ Many permanent groups have dominance hierarchies which means that subordinate animals limited in their mating opportunities.
  • Animal Groups 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reply Daniel August 11, 2009 at 10:16 am I would like an exchange with “LoVeLy_CaLiGrL1_18″, her story would be fascinating I think.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Matt 10:14,15] -------------------- No man has a right in America to treat any other man "tolerantly" for tolerance is the assumption of superiority.
  • snopes.com: Homosexuality not condemned in the Bible? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring.^ Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am not opposed to sexual activity, but I do understand why some would think it should be an expression of love between two people and part of pair-bonding.
  • Homosexuality in Leviticus, and Deuteronomy, by Tex Norman 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC searchwarp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These activities might also be expected to coincide with increased functional and metabolic activity in the parietal lobes, which in turn might lead to an expansion of this tissue (inferior parietal) and an increased need to intercommunicate.
  • http://brainmind.com/sexdifferences.html 10 September 2009 21:54 UTC brainmind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Genetic tests frequently show that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female mating with an extra-pair male partner.^ Females have some ability to choose the males with whom they mate.

^ Mating is the paring of a male and female animal that can lead to the production of offspring.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic tests frequently show that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female having sex with an extra-pair male partner.
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4 ][5 ][17][18 ] These discoveries have led biologists to adopt new ways of talking about monogamy:

Social monogamy

.
Social monogamy refers to a male and female's social living arrangement (e.g., shared use of a territory, behaviour indicative of a social pair, and/or proximity between a male and female) without inferring any sexual interactions or reproductive patterns.^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, homosexual has been commonly used to refer to the male homosexuals, though it applies to males and females.
  • Homosexuality Is NOT A Sin: What Christ Said And More | Forum | Gaia Online 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.gaiaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homosexuality” refers to male-male and female-female relationships.
  • WordAlone - Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wordalone.org [Source type: Academic]

.In humans, social monogamy equals monogamous marriage.^ In humans, social monogamy equals monogamous marriage.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plenary Speaker, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Evanston, IL. June "Sexual selection, sexual dialectics, and evolution of social monogamy; a Darwinian-Feminist view" .
  • Patty Gowaty -- Curriculum Vita 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only a handful of mammal species, including most human societies, are socially monogamous.
  • social behaviour, animal :: Social interactions involving sex -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions.^ Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sexual selection in males and females.

^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, the term genetic monogamy is used when DNA analyses can confirm that a female-male pair reproduce exclusively with each other.^ The male ornaments are useful in terms of charming and winning the female.

^ Mating system in which one male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship with each other.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monogamy : One male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e.g., sociosexual and sociogenetic monogamy describe corresponding social and sexual, and social and genetic monogamous relationships, respectively.
Reichard, 2003, page 4[19]
.Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous.^ (Reichard, 2003, page 4) [31] Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous.
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does it make them bisexual or trans-sexual?

^ (Reichard, 2003, page 4) [19] Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.^ Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intersection of evolution of social behavior, sexual selection, genetic structure, and evolutionary demography (Science 226:1030; Behav.
  • Animal Behavior Society Graduate Program Bulletin - MAIN - 1996 (HTML) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC abs.animalbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These childhood gender nonconformity differences typically show up in a child's life long before any sexual awareness occurs.
  • Welcome Committee Booklet 5: Does Homosexuality Have a Biological Basis? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.welcome-committee.info [Source type: Academic]

.Social monogamy is relatively rare in the animal kingdom.^ Social monogamy is relatively rare in the animal kingdom.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sexual monogamy is very rare among animals.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social monogamy is relatively rare in mammals but common in birds.
  • Animal Behavior/Sex - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree.^ The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female quality, variation in paternal care, and social monogamy.
  • Patty Gowaty -- Curriculum Vita 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scholars who study the social construction of homosexuality investigate the various forms that same-sex relationships have taken in different societies, and look for patterns as well as differences.
  • Homosexuality - Bisexuality Wiki 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bisexuality.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.^ Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great majority of socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulations, making them sexually non-monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gowaty has estimated that, out of 180 different species of socially monogomous songbirds, only 10 percent are sexually monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][20]
.This stands in contrast to mammals.^ This stands in contrast to mammals.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only 3 percent of mammalian species are socially monogamous, although up to 15 percent of primate species are socially monogamous.^ Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 3 percent of mammalian species are socially monogamous, although up to 15 percent of primate species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only in a few isolated species are any animals even occasionally preferentially homosexual (as in some primates, including Japanese macaques; see Small, 1993, p.
  • A Paradox of Evolution 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: Academic]

[13][20] .Social monogamy has also been observed in reptiles, fish, and insects.^ It has also been observed in some species of fish and insects.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social monogamy has also been observed in reptiles, fish, and insects.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We see “social”, or at least familial, relationships in Birds, Fish, Reptiles, and all manner of Mammals, are there any truly self-serving animals out there?
  • Do Animals Have Morality? | Unreasonable Faith 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sexual monogamy is very rare among animals.^ Sexual monogamy is very rare among animals.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you're a bigot looking for an unnatural sexual practice to rail against, try monogamy - it's OK for many birds but very few mammals do it.
  • Does homosexuality occur in the rest of the animal kingdom? | Notes and Queries | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ If there is one thing to be learned from the Museum of Sex's new exhibit, "The Sex Lives of Animals," it's that when it comes to animal sex, there are very few rules -- animals switch genders, some males give birth, some females have penises and lifelong monogamy is very rare.
  • Animal Sex -- Museum Celebrates the Sex Lives of Animals - Asylum.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.asylum.com [Source type: General]

.The great majority of socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulations, making them sexually non-monogamous.^ The great majority of socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulations, making them sexually non-monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extra-pair Copulations in a Monogamous Gibbon (Hylobates lar).
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extra-pair copulations and extra-pair paternity in birds.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, while over 90% of birds are socially monogamous, "on average, 30 percent or more of the baby birds in any nest [are] sired by someone other than the resident male."^ More than one bird species.
  • An Argument Against Homosexuality in Animals [Archive] - Jolt Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We human beings, to pick an obvious example, will typically have between 0 and a dozen babies over our lifetimes; we have sex rather more often than that, and engage in a host of other sex related behaviors, from girl-watching and flirting and dating to masturbation and sexual relations other than vaginal intercourse.
  • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Patricia Adair Gowaty has estimated that, out of 180 different species of socially monogamous songbirds, only 10 percent are sexually monogamous.^ Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research conducted by Patricia Adair Gowaty.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gowaty has estimated that, out of 180 different species of socially monogomous songbirds, only 10 percent are sexually monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species.^ The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic determination of variation in the level of the need for sensory stimulation and of emotional reactivity in rats.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH ON ANIMAL PERSONALITY & TEMPERAMENT 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC homepage.psy.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We found that variations in maternal care were associated with the age of puberty in the rat, suggesting that such effects may be common across a wide range of species.
  • PLoS ONE: Maternal Programming of Sexual Behavior and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Function in the Female Rat 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.For a few rare species, the incidence of genetic monogamy is 100 percent, with all offspring genetically related to the socially monogamous pair.^ Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a few rare species, the incidence of genetic monogamy is 100 percent, with all offspring genetically related to the socially monogamous pair.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Few species at all can even comprehend such a concept, at least as far as we humans can observe and/or deduce.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.But genetic monogamy is strikingly low in other species.^ But genetic monogamy is strikingly low in other species.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given recent findings in genetics, the biological capacity for language may be more accurately described as a collection of biological capacities, some of which we share with other species.
  • Animal Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Barash and Lipton note:
The highest known frequency of extra-pair copulations are found among the fairy-wrens, lovely tropical creatures technically known as .Malurus splendens and Malurus cyaneus.^ "The highest known frequency of extra-pair copulations are found among the fairy-wrens, lovely tropical creatures technically known as Malurus splendens and Malurus cyaneus .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More than 65 percent of all fairy-wren chicks are fathered by males outside the supposed breeding group.
Barash & Lipton, 2001, page 12[20]
.Such low levels of genetic monogamy have surprised biologists and zoologists, forcing them to rethink the role of social monogamy in evolution.^ (Barash & Lipton, 2001, page 12) [20] Such low levels of genetic monogamy have surprised biologists and zoologists, forcing them to rethink the role of social monogamy in evolution.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genetical evolution of social behavior.
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Variations from modern standards of beauty, social roles, sexual positions, and age disparities are of such magnitude so as to render meaningless any projection of modern roles onto historical personages.
  • Homosexuality - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They can no longer assume social monogamy determines how genes are distributed in a species.^ They were no longer of the Garden.

^ They can no longer assume social monogamy determines how genes are distributed in a species.
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also assume that genes determine most behavioral traits.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lower the rates of genetic monogamy among socially monogamous pairs, the less of a role social monogamy plays in determining how genes are distributed among offspring.^ GN: Do genetics play a role?
  • The Biblical View of Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lower the rates of genetic monogamy among socially monogamous pairs, the less of a role social monogamy plays in determining how genes are distributed among offspring.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can no longer assume social monogamy determines how genes are distributed in a species.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See also Evolution of Monogamy.^ See also Evolution of Monogamy .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Polygamy

.Polygamy is defined as a mating structure in which a single individual of one gender has exclusive access to several individuals of the opposite gender.^ Each one has been opposite-gender.
  • The Evolution of Homosexuality Boing Boing 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As often as not we find that communication between individuals in nature involves not just one type of signal but a combination of several types.
  • Communication among Animals 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC w2.byuh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I would define homosexual behavior as sexual behavior between two individuals of the same gender.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It takes two main forms - polygyny and polyandry.^ Present: May take two forms.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a main form of hatred though it takes other forms.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ponyplay and dogplay are the two most popular forms this takes.
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As polygyny is the most common form of polygamy among vertebrates (including humans, to some extent), it has been studied far more extensively than polyandry.^ But we are not more important to God than most.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY & THE HEBREW BIBLE 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Twinning is rare, but may be more common than in humans.

^ Are some human lives more important than others?
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Polygyny

.In some species, notably those with harem male structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate.^ Each group was composed of seven females, one adult male, and one juvenile male.
  • Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 39, Number 3 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mating system in which any male within a social group may mate with any female in the group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mating system in which one male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship with each other.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Should the active male be driven out, killed, or otherwise removed from the group, in a number of species the new male will ensure that breeding resources are not wasted on another male's young.^ Any intact male would have been driven out.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Should the active male be driven out, in a number of species the new male will ensure that breeding resources are not wasted on another males' young.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should the active male be driven out, then a number of species, the new male will ensure that breeding resources are not wasted on another males' young.
  • Animal sexuality - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] The new male may achieve this in many different ways, including:
in lions and some .monkeys the new male will kill other young; therefore, the females, which are no longer nursing, rapidly become receptive again.^ Competitive infanticide - in lions and some monkeys the new male will kill other young, therefore the females, no longer nursing, rapidly become receptive again.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Young males dominate young females.
  • Animal Behaviour and Welfare: Dogs - un knol de Clive Dalton 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ Some now espouse that monkeys, and basically the over-all animal kingdom, are naturally, sexually perverted as a part of male dominance while leaving the female monkey simply perverted….
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

amongst wild horses and .baboons, the male will "systematically harass" pregnant females until they miscarry.^ Harassment to miscarriage - amongst wild horses and baboons , the male will "systematically harass" pregnant females until they miscarry.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sexual harassment as a cost for molly females: bigger males cost less.

^ Dr Vasey said that once they evolved the capacity to mount males, they could gain the same sexual gratification from mounting females.

in some rodents such as .mice, a new male with a different scent will cause females who are pregnant to spontaneously fail to implant recently fertilized eggs.^ And it was the males, not the females, who hunted.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would reduce the male female difference.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pheromone based spontaneous abortion - in some rodents such as mice , a new male with a different scent will cause females who are pregnant to spontaneously fail to implant recently fertilized eggs.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This does not require contact; it is mediated by scent alone.^ This does not require contact; it is mediated by scent alone.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is known as the Bruce-Parkes effect.^ It is known as the Bruce-Parkes effect .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Promiscuity

.Two examples of systems in primates are promiscuous mating chimpanzees and bonobos.^ Two examples of systems in primates are promiscuous mating chimpanzees and bonobos .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The example of the Bonobo chimpanzees.
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bonobos are chimpanzees - primates.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.These species live in social groups consisting of several males and several females.^ All four species live in groups consisting of a subunit of females with their young and a subunit of adult males.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mating system in which any male within a social group may mate with any female in the group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any male within the social group may mate with any female in the social group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each female copulates with many males, and vice versa.^ Each male copulates with many females, and vice versa.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mature males do not typically copulate with females until they are maximally tumescent, although exceptions to this rule have been observed.

^ Only when all these forms of communication are successful does a receptive female allow the male to attempt copulation.
  • Chapter 51 - Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In bonobos, the amount of promiscuity is particularly striking because bonobos use sex to alleviate social conflict as well as to reproduce.^ In bonobos, the amount of promiscuity is particularly striking because bonobos use sex to alleviate social conflict as well as to reproduce.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These the sexual displays have been well studied and provide wonderful examples of how birds can use visual cues to sexually stimulate members of the opposite sex.

^ D well, the counter argument is that most people who were and are gay still get married to the members of the opposite sex and have children because of social norms.
  • Homosexuality: Genetic or choice? [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

Seasonal nature of animal sexuality

.Many animal species have specific mating (or breeding) seasons (seasonal breeding).^ Many animal species have specific mating (or breeding) seasons.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not at all evident that this adaptive information processing could be achieved by general cognitive abilities not structured or specialized to solve particular adaptive problems specific to mating…” .

^ Every course offers information that is both pertinent to all research animals and specific to the one animal species presented.
  • Working With Nonhuman Primates in Research Settings 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.researchtraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are often associated with changes to herd or group structure, and behavioural changes, including territorialism amongst individuals.^ These are often associated with changes to herd or group structure, and behavioral changes, including territorialism amongst individuals.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only individuals but groups also defend territory.
  • animal behaviour advantages no 1 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) into an existing group: behavioural reactions and changes in cortisol levels.

.These may be annual (eg wolves), biannual (eg dogs) or more frequently (eg horses).^ These may be annual (eg wolves), biannual (eg dogs) or more frequently (eg horses).
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known.

^ In other words, the very fact that these behaviors are dangerous may make them all the more titillating.
  • If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moralgrounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough t 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.personal.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During these periods, females of most species are more mentally and physically receptive to sexual advances, a period scientifically described as estrous but commonly described as being "in season" or "in heat", but outside them animals still engage in sexual behaviours,[25] and such acts as do occur are not necessarily harmful.^ The original article was at Animal sexual behaviour .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is during this time that females are sexually receptive and that the bulk of copulations with mature males occur.

^ Necrophilia in animals is where a living animal engages in a sexual act with a dead animal.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Interpretation of animal sexuality

.The field of study of sexuality in non-human species has been a long standing taboo,[1] with researchers either failing to observe or mis-categorizing and mis-describing sexual behaviour which does not meet their preconceptions.^ Human and non-human research evaluated.

^ Human sexual behaviour · Sexology .
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research in human sexual behavior.
  • Course Listing For PSYC 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC bulletin.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

(See: Observer bias) More current research provides views such as that of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo, which in 2006 held an exhibition on animal sexuality:
.
Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex.^ Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex.
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These organizations do research on many topics out sexual orientations and have no invested interest in supporting homosexuals .
  • Opposing Views: Is Homosexuality a Sin? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.opposingviews.com [Source type: General]

They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles.
[1]
An example of overlooking behaviour relates to descriptions of giraffe mating:
When nine out of ten pairings occur between males, "[e]very male that sniffed a female was reported as sex, while anal intercourse with orgasm between males was only [categorized as] 'revolving around' dominance, competition or greetings.
[1]

Sex for pleasure

.It is a common myth that animals do not (as a rule) have sex for pleasure, or alternatively that humans, pigs (and perhaps cats, dolphins and one or two species of primate) are the only species which do.^ Not only that but it is unnatural The same as sex with an animal is unnatural!
  • Homosexuality is a Sin and God Hates Sin! Homosexuality is an Abomination, Homosexuality = SIN! 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.freejesus.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Common fate between humans and animals?

^ The species snobbery of the human animal.

This is sometimes formulated "animals mate only for reproduction".
.Science cannot say at present conclusively what animals do or do not find "pleasurable", a question considered in more depth under Emotion in animals.^ Science cannot say at present conclusively what animals do or do not find "pleasurable", a question considered in more depth under Emotion in animals .
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That means that up to 4.5 billion animals are needlessly killed after experiencing unnecessary privation under our present husbandry methods.
  • Animal Place - Ethical and Practical Considerations for Nonhuman Animals Used for Food and Fiber 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC animalplace.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If a researcher, through carelessness or ignorance, should use more animals for a project than is necessary, it must be considered unethical.
  • Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Variables 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.awionline.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Enrichment 5-9 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.saplonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The urban myth website Snopes.com considers this particular view in depth.^ The urban myth site Snopes.com considers this particular view in depth.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common assertion that animals "only have sex for reproduction" is discussed in depth by the urban myth website snopes.com .
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its conclusions are broadly that the statement is true, but only using a very specific definition of "sex for pleasure" [italics in original], in which sexual acts tied to a reproductive cycle or for which an alternative explanation can be asserted, are ignored, as is all sexual activity that does not involve penetration.^ Its conclusions are broadly that the statement is true, but only using a very specific definition of "sex for pleasure" [italics in original], in which sexual acts tied to a reproductive cycle or for which an alternative explanation can be asserted, are ignored, as is all sexual activity that does not involve penetration.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See Animal sexuality#Sex for pleasure ).
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the above statement, YOU are the ONLY person using the word "all."
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Animals put themselves at risk to engage in sex, and as a result, most species have evolved sexual signals (usually scent and behaviour) to indicate the presence of receptive periods.^ Most animals don’t have sex .
  • Psychoanalytic theory and the etiology of homosexuality: What does research say? — Warren Throckmorton 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wthrockmorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have instances where animals engage in Homosexual sex.
  • An Argument Against Homosexuality in Animals [Archive] - Jolt Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have instances where animals engage in sex for fun.
  • An Argument Against Homosexuality in Animals [Archive] - Jolt Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

.During these, sex is sought, and outside these it is usually not sought (or is sought but not permitted).^ Some of the American Indians provide an example of a society where sex role changes are permitted despite strong orientation during rearing (Mead, 1961).
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And, the majority of these women probably have sex with over five thousand men each, during the course of their working career.
  • http://brainmind.com/sexdifferences.html 10 September 2009 21:54 UTC brainmind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Snopes comments that this is not in fact a reflection of whether sex is pleasurable or not, but rather a reflection of whether individuals have sex at arbitrary times.^ The main point of fact would be whether it was for a substantial point of time.
  • ksl.com - Logan man arrested for animal cruelty 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: General]

^ Then, one must consider whether the sex difference is attributable to the actions of gonadal steroids at the time of testing and/or is sexually differentiated permanently by the action of gonadal steroids during development.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In your final comment, “The next time a Christian suggests that Christians enforce their beliefs on sex to the society at large…”, I have to ask, than who is enforcing their beliefs on every one of us?
  • Truthdig - Inventing Sin: Religion and Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Truthdig - Inventing Sin: Religion and Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

They conclude:[27]
"Of course, we have to make many seemingly artificial distinctions to arrive at our conclusion. Animals other than humans have no awareness that their sexual activities are connected with reproduction: They engage in sex because they're biologically driven to do so, and if the fulfillment of their urges produces a physical sensation we might appropriately call 'pleasure,' it isn't the least bit affected by the possibility (or impossibility) of producing offspring. We are also discounting cases in which animals do engage in sex even though reproduction is an impossibility because we claim there are other 'purposes' (of which the animals themselves are unaware) at play. (For example, the females of some species of birds will invite males to mate with them even after they have laid their eggs, but we ascribe a purpose to this behaviour: this is a biological "trick" to fool males into caring for hatchlings they didn't father.) We also employ subjective terms such as 'willingly' and 'regularly' in claiming that bonobos and dolphins are the only other animals who "willingly (and regularly) engage in sex with each other" ... and even then it may be the case that these species have some other 'purpose' for doing so that we haven't yet discovered..."
A 2006 Danish Animal Ethics Council report[28] which examined current knowledge of animal sexuality in the context of legal queries concerning sexual acts by humans, has the following comments, primarily related to domestically common animals:
.
Even though the evolution-related purpose of mating can be said to be reproduction, it is not actually the creating of offspring which originally causes them to mate.^ "Even though the evolution-related purpose of mating can be said to be reproduction, it is not actually the creating of offspring which originally causes them to mate.
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, animals are generally created to be attracted to the opposite sex for reproductive purposes (in our genes).
  • THE GENETICS OF HOMOSEXUALITY | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rabbi said, "Go, for you were created for this purpose."
  • Full Metal Jesus - Skip Williamson - Open Salon 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is probable that they mate because they are motivated for the actual copulation, and because this is connected with a positive experience.^ It is probable that they mate because they are motivated for the actual copulation, and because this is connected with a positive experience.
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most gays have for a long time maintained that this is not a choice, this is how they were born, but few actually want the genetic trigger that proves this position identified just because of the associated problems that have been described here.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are likely to be ineffectual because they fail to confront, engage, and defeat the realities that define the experience and outlook of those who oppose these efforts.
  • Roots of Human Resistance to Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is therefore reasonable to assume that there is some form of pleasure or satisfaction connected with the act.^ There must be some other reason.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore reasonable to assume that there is some form of pleasure or satisfaction connected with the act.
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there any reason not to assume that he’s a fundamentalist of some Abrahamic stripe?
  • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.This assumption is confirmed by the behaviour of males, who in the case of many species are prepared to work to get access to female animals, especially if the female animal is in oestrus, and males who for breeding purposes are used to having sperm collected become very eager, when the equipment they associate with the collection is taken out.
[29]
There is nothing in female mammals’ anatomy or physiology, that contradicts that stimulation of the sexual organs and mating is able to be a positive experience.^ Associations are especially common with adult males and with estrus females.

^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Care and use of animals for scientific purposes - p.
  • Animal Behaviour and Welfare: basic principles - un knol de Clive Dalton 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, the clitoris acts in the same way as with women, and scientific studies have shown that the success of reproduction is improved by stimulation of clitoris on (among other species) cows and mares in connection with insemination, because it improves the transportation of the sperm due to contractions of the inner genitalia.^ Count the other 9 worms the same way.

^ But I am aware of no scientific study that has ever shown this.
  • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The act of reproduction that we engage in is not fundamentally different in any way than any other species.
  • Homosexuality: Genetic or choice? [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

.This probably also concerns female animals of other animal species, and contractions in the inner genitals are seen e.g.^ The development of sexual feeling is governed by the simplistic assumption that the male and female are attracted to each other because their genitals are different.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Homosexuality" 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is something deeper shared by probably all of our brethern in the animal species who can identiy themselves as male or female.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Why is the questioner so concerned about the cow species while being unconcerned about these other species?
  • Sentience - Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sentience.co.za [Source type: Original source]

also during orgasm for women. It is therefore reasonable to assume that sexual intercourse may be linked with a positive experience for female animals.
[30]

Types of activity

Autoeroticism (masturbation)

.It appears that many animals, both male and female, masturbate, both when partners are available and otherwise.^ "Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

^ Autoeroticism also occurs widely among animals, both male and female.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

For example, http://www.petplace.com comments in its guide on assessing potential breeding stock purchases: "Masturbation is a normal behaviour in all stallions that does not reduce semen production or performance in the breeding shed, and thus the use of devices to prevent such behaviour is strongly discouraged and can be harmful to the stallion."[31] Likewise the paper "Sexual Behaviour - Current Topics in Applied Ethology and Clinical Methods" by Sue McDonnell of the Equine Behaviour Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine states:
.
One example is the behaviour known within the horse breeding industry as masturbation.^ "One example is the behavior known within the horse breeding industry as masturbation.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good example of this, and one that points up another key consideration, is the tobacco industry.
  • Sentience - Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sentience.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ Exotic breeding is one example of this kind of abuse, especially when the breeding results in animals that are at a greater risk for certain diseases or biological defects.
  • Sentience - Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sentience.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.This involves normal periodic erections and penile movements.^ This involves normal periodic erections and penile movements.
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This behaviour, both from the descriptive field studies cited above and in extensive study of domestic horses, is now understood as normal, frequent behaviour of male equids.
.Attempting to inhibit or punish masturbation, for example by tying a brush to the area of the flank underside where the penis rubs into contact with the underside, which is still a common practice of horse managers regionally around the world, often leads to increased masturbation and disturbances of normal breeding behaviour (McDonnell and Hinze, in preparation).^ [Breeding in mares: normal and abnormal behaviour].
  • AWIC Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses: Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Israel was surrounded by idolatry, and for both practical and illustrative purposes their negative examples were often invoked as an example of how not to be, and of the punishment that such iniquities incurred.

^ Descriptors: ethogram, equine behavior, stable vices, management practices, stereotypic behavior, behavioral treatments, prevention of abnormal behavior, handbook for horse owners.
  • AWIC Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses: Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[33] .Castration does not prevent masturbation, as it is also observed in geldings, and even mares.^ Even if transfer does occur in humans, the effect is small, as notable masculinization of girls with a male co-twin has not be observed.
  • Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Full text | The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.rbej.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if we accept that we should prevent predation (and we don't accept that), it does not follow that, because we do not, we are therefore justified in exploiting moral patients ourselves.
  • ANIMALS RIGHTS FAQS 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.awbi.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Sentience - Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sentience.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.Sexual release seeking is common in both domestic and non-domestic species.^ There are over 1000 species of animal where non-reproductive sexual behaviour has been observed and documented, including such family favourites as ducks,cats, dolphins and giraffes.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ These "genuine homosexuals" were considered incorrigible and held in special barracks, while many non-effeminate homosexuals were released (ibid.:137).

^ Main article: Animal sexuality The common concept of animals as heterosexual and only interested in their own species, is seen as scientifically inaccurate by researchers into animal behavior.
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a video (non-explicit) showing a kangaroo masturbating, inadvertently caught during a TV broadcast, can be found here.^ FIG. 4 shows an example of a video frame with the image of a mouse.
  • Method for Predicting Treatment Classes Using Animal Behavior Informatics - Patent application 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Systems and methods for monitoring behavior informatics - Patent 7269516 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Now, Phoenix1962, non-sequitur here means that voodooKobra is saying that the diseases cited in my post somehow don't show that homosexuality is harmful.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Animal Inventory TV is a new video web show (in association with my blog, Animal Inventory ) that profiles profound relationships between humans and other animals.
  • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethos » Ethics 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, another video (explicit) of a kangaroo performing autofellatio can be found here, and a dog balancing on rear legs in order to masturbate with both front paws, here.^ The raccoons have left their distinctive paw prints -- the front one resembling a human hand and the rear one a footprint -- in fresh concrete on the new bridge.

^ The function of tutoring was found only in talk to infants, and was expressed through deictic utterances and imitation of the infant's sounds, both of which are exceedingly rare in talk to dogs.

^ Here were males and females openly and visibly challenging both their gender of rearing and denying that their genitals or gonads were determining their identity as men or women.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The female porcupine has been observed to use a stick as a dildo, holding one end of a stick and walking around, straddling it as it bumped against the ground and vibrated against her genitalia.^ They have even been observed sharpening sticks with their teeth and using them as spears to kill small animals for food.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As in the case of Heinrichs ravens, Winky tended to remain in one place while drawing the rope, while Wanda either walked on the rope or remained in one place while using her trunk and left foot.
  • Theory of Mind and Insight in Chimpanzees, Elephants, and Other Animals 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.is.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one end of the ladder, a dark compartment exists to entice the animal to walk toward the perceived "safety" of the dark cover.
  • Method for Predicting Treatment Classes Using Animal Behavior Informatics - Patent application 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[34] Sexologist Havelock Ellis in his 1927 "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" identified bulls, goats, sheep, camels and elephants as species known to practice autoeroticism, adding of some other species:
.
I am informed by a gentleman who is a recognized authority on goats, that they sometimes take the penis into the mouth and produce actual orgasm, thus practicing auto-fellatio.^ Similarly, in regards to people who suffer from severely diminished mental capacity, it is illegal to engage in sex with them, as they are considered incapable of really understanding what is happening, and thus are incapable of really giving informed consent.
  • Sex with animals. Should this be a crime? - JREF Forum 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: General]

^ Anyone who has ever gotten to know a rat recognizes how incredibly intelligent they are and how rich their personalities can be.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, they fail to take into account something: the soul.
  • Homosexuality Is NOT A Sin: What Christ Said And More | Forum | Gaia Online 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.gaiaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

As regards ferrets ... ."if the bitch, when in heat, cannot obtain a dog [ie, male ferret] she pines and becomes ill.^ Male dogs determine if a bitch is in heat by licking and sniffing at her urine, anal gland secretions and vulvar secretions.
  • REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF SMALL ANIMALS 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To obtain a constant supply of males, isolates were heat shocked and maintained by backcrossing.

^ Some male dogs are able to determine not just if the bitch is in estrus but if shes at the optimal time for breeding; presumably this, too, is pheromone-mediated.
  • REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF SMALL ANIMALS 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a smooth pebble is introduced into the hutch, she will masturbate upon it, thus preserving her normal health for one season.^ Thus, simply calling upon everyone to "love" one another, without coming to some common understanding of what that means, will not solve the homosexual debate.
  • KenBoa.org - All That Heaven Allows - Homosexuality and the Meaning of Love 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.kenboa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This alsoincludes theexperiemtnal investigation of vocal learning, one of the mechanismsthat can beused to introduce novel signals into a communication system.
  • Evolution, Ecology and Animal Behaviour 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC bio.st-andrews.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, introducing too many animals into the circular osmotic barrier used in the classical osmotic avoidance assays can result in crowding and the escape of normally defective animals.

But if this artificial substitute is given to her a second season, she will not, as formerly, be content with it." [...] Blumenbach observed a bear act somewhat similarly on seeing other bears coupling, and hyenas, according to Ploss and Bartels, have been seen practicing mutual masturbation by licking each other's genitals.
In his 1999 book, Biological exuberance, Bruce Bagemihl PhD documents (p. 71, 209-210) that:
.
Autoeroticism also occurs widely among animals, both male and female.^ "Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

^ Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

^ Both are male to female.
  • Homosexuality [Archive] - weebls-stuff forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.weebls-stuff.com [Source type: Original source]

.A variety of creative techniques are used, including genital stimulation using the hand or front paw (primates, Lions), foot (Vampire Bats, primates), flipper (Walruses), or tail (Savanna Baboons), sometimes accompanied by stimulation of the nipples (Rhesus Macaques, Bonobos); auto-fellating or licking, sucking and/or nuzzling by a male of his own penis (Common Chimpanzees, Savanna Bonobos, Vervet Monkeys, Squirrel Monkeys, Thinhorn Sheep, Bharal, Aovdad, Dwarf Cavies); stimulation of the penis by flipping or rubbing it against the belly or in its own sheath (White-tailed and Mule Deer, Zebras and Takhi); spontaneous ejaculations (Mountain Sheep, Warthogs, Spotted Hyenas); and stimulation of the genitals using inanimate objects (found in several primates and cetaceans).
[35]
Many birds masturbate by mounting and copulating with tufts of grass, leaves or mounds of earth, and some mammals such as primates and Dolphins also rub their genitals against the ground or other surfaces to stimulate themselves.
[35]
Autoeroticism in female mammals, as well as heterosexual and homosexual intercourse (especially in primates), often involves direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris [...].^ Associations are especially common with adult males and with estrus females.

^ If the female remains in the bower, the male will mount the female and copulate.

^ One exception involves trios: occasionally a bond forms between 3 birds---2 females and 1 male---and sometimes the females will mount and copulate with the other female.

This organ is present in the females of all mammalian species and several other animal groups.
[35]
and that:
Apes and Monkeys use a variety of objects to masturbate with and even deliberately create implements for sexual stimulation [...] often in highly creative ways.
[35]
Petter Bøckman of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo commented (in respect of a 2006 exhibition on homosexuality in the animal kingdom) that:
.
Masturbation is common in the animal kingdom ...^ Masturbation is common in the animal kingdom.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Homosexuality exists is common in the animal kingdom.
  • IL Teacher Suspended For Assigning Article On Homosexuality In Animals | Crooks and Liars 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was aware that masturbation among animals is common, but this fresh phenomenon is just astonishing.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

.We have a Darwinist mentality that all animals only have sex to procreate.^ Not only that but it is unnatural The same as sex with an animal is unnatural!
  • Homosexuality is a Sin and God Hates Sin! Homosexuality is an Abomination, Homosexuality = SIN! 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.freejesus.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's only possible to have sex with a domestic animal.
  • Sex with animals... is it ok? // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have a Darwinist mentality that all animals only have sex to procreate.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

.But there are plenty of animals who will masturbate when they have nothing better to do.^ They have nothing better to do.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there are plenty of animals who will masturbate when they have nothing better to do.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have friends who swear that if they stroke and say sweet ‘n’ low things to the plants in their garden, they respond and grow better.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Masturbation has been observed among primates, deer, killer whales and penguins, and we're talking about both males and females.^ It’s a potential life we’re talking about.
  • Thoughts from an Abortion Doctor | Unreasonable Faith 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

^ Homosexuality is found in both males and females.

.They rub themselves against stones and roots.^ They rub themselves against stones and roots.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A man or a woman who acts as a medium or fortuneteller shall be put to death by stoning; they have no one but themselves to blame for their death.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spaniards commonly used their dogs in fighting against these naked people, and the dogs threw themselves upon them as though they were wild boars on timid deer.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orangutans are especially inventive.^ Orangutans are especially inventive.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

They make dildos of wood and bark.
[1]

Oral sex

.Animals of several species are documented as engaging in both autofellatio and oral sex.^ There are over 1000 species of animal where non-reproductive sexual behaviour has been observed and documented, including such family favourites as ducks,cats, dolphins and giraffes.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Bagemihl’s research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been observed in close to 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.
  • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sexual behaviour exhibited by animals is as varied as that of humans, including masturbation, oral, same sex (Bonobos are described as a fully bi-sexual species), cross species, fetishes over inanimate objects, voyeurism, paediphilia and necrophilia.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Although easily confused by lay-people, this is a separate and sexually oriented behaviour, distinct from non-sexual grooming or the investigation of scents.^ I can't even get angry at Mr. Ragan's role in damaging the lives of other people confused by their sexual preferences.
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t think you can separate morality from social behaviour very easily.
  • Do Animals Have Morality? | Unreasonable Faith 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is, although intimate partnerships and/or relationships happen between people they are not open to sexual union because that specific gift to humanity is reserved for the covenent and relationship of marriage.
  • Opposing Views: Is Homosexuality a Sin? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.opposingviews.com [Source type: General]

.Auto-fellatio or oral sex in animals is documented in goats, primates, hyaenas, bats[36] and sheep.^ Goats are smarter animals than sheep.
  • BIBLE PROBLEMS 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC home.teleport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bagemihl’s research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been observed in close to 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.
  • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, yes, there are several species in which lifetime pair-bonding beyond same-sex animals has been documented.
  • An Argument Against Homosexuality in Animals [Archive] - Jolt Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

.(see section Masturbation for details).^ (See previous section on Common Techniques for Isolating Visual Stimuli for more detail.

Homosexual behaviour

.
Two male Mallards, Anas platyrhynchos.
^ The annual cycle of plasma leutinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ).

.Mallards form male-female pairs only until the female lays eggs, at which time the male leaves the female.^ Single females will lay eggs in a homosexual pair's nest.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Banned Books Week 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ Egg-laying, males and mating .

^ C. Males and females form lifelong pair-bonds.
  • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mallards have rates of male-male sexual activity that are unusually high for birds, in some cases, as high as 19% of all pairs in a population.^ In some cases, but not in all.
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sexual activity is after all a social practice.
  • RCP,USA: On the Position on Homosexuality in the New Draft Programme 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore sexual activity with animals is, in some instances, a high risk activity.
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.The presence of same-sex sexual behaviour was not scientifically observed on a large scale until recent times.^ Sex differences in human jealousy: A coordinated study of forced-choice, continuous rating-scale, and physiological responses on the same subjects.

^ He is a long-time member of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and an elected fellow of the American Anthropological Association.
  • The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Contributors 10 September 2009 21:54 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted by timethief • 1 year ago • Subscribe to this Discussion [RSS] Topics: evidence , genetics , homosexuality , research , same sex attraction , scientific study , sexual orientation .
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

.Homosexual behaviour does occur in the animal kingdom outside humans, especially in social species, particularly in marine birds and mammals, monkeys, and the great apes.^ Further information: Homosexuality in animals , List of animals displaying homosexual behavior Homosexual sexual behavior occurs in the animal kingdom, especially in social species, particularly in marine birds and mammals, monkeys, and the great apes .
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans are social animals.
  • Science OR religion - Atheism vs Christianity | Google Groups 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extreme form of social living that occurs in some animal species.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Homosexual behaviour has been observed among 1,500 species, and in 500 of those it is well documented.^ Homosexual behaviour has been observed in 1,500 animal species.
  • Banned Books Week 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ Homosexual behavior has been observed among 1,500 species, and in 500 of those it is well documented.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis.
  • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Klingon homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.klingon.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.
To turn the approach on its head: No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis.^ No sex at all.
  • Homosexuality is a Sin and God Hates Sin! Homosexuality is an Abomination, Homosexuality = SIN! 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.freejesus.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no such thing as a homosexual who must have sex.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A percentage of all animal species are homosexual.

.Moreover, a part of the animal kingdom is hermaphroditic, truly bisexual.^ We are not part of the animal kingdom?
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, a part of the animal kingdom is hermaphroditic, truly bisexual.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, a part of the animal kingdom is hermaphroditic, truly bisexual.
  • Klingon homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.klingon.org [Source type: Original source]

For them, homosexuality is not an issue.
[1]
.Georgetown University professor Janet Mann has specifically theorised that homosexual behaviour, at least in dolphins, is an evolutionary advantage that minimizes intraspecies aggression, especially among males.^ Georgetown University professor Janet Mann has specifically theorized that homosexual behavior, at least in dolphins , is an evolutionary advantage that minimizes intraspecies aggression, especially among males.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homosexual behaviour is well documented in many different animals, but it is not understood in detail.” – Professor Stuart West, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Oxford .
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In our own heritage the Greeks, at least in the male aristocracy, combined homosexual and heterosexual behavior.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding.^ For example, male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding.
    • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If one of her eggs rolls out of the nest, a female graylag goose will instinctively use her bill to push the egg back into the nest.
    • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a well-publicized story from 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertile egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring.
    • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertilized egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring.^ In a well-publicized story from 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertile egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring.
    • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Harem - one male with females and offspring.
    • Animal Groups 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A zoo in Germany has now done what South Park failed to do with Mr. Garrison, have two gay penguins hatch an egg, and adopt it as their own chick successfully.
    • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

    [39] .German and Japanese zoos have also reported homosexual behaviour among their penguins.^ However, that picture changed in the 1990s when a pair of behavioural genetics studies reported findings suggesting that homosexuality has a heredtiary basis.
    • Homosexuality: Genetic or choice? [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This phenomenon has also been reported at Kelly Tarlton's Aquarium in Auckland, New Zealand.^ This also was consistent with reports from New Zealand, Western Australian and South Africa.
    • animal behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The second study, Homosexuality and Mental Illness by J. Michael Bailey, reported on a New Zealand study which followed 1007 individuals since birth.
    • IslamOnline - Contemporary Section 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.islamonline.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cruelty-free Consumption in New Zealand: A National Report on the Perspectives and Experiences of Vegetarians and Other Ethical Consumers.
    • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Humans have created the myth that sexuality can be justified only by reproduction, which by definition limits it to hetero sex," says Michael Bronski, author of The Pleasure Principle: Culture, Backlash, and the Struggle for Gay Freedom.^ I would say for humans the purpose of sex is to reproduce and/or for pleasure.
    • snopes.com: Homosexuality not condemned in the Bible? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only the creator can justify what truth is.
    • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Human reproduction and sexual behavior.

    ."But here is an animal society that uses homosexuality to improve its social life."
  • Mounting of one female by another is common among cattle.^ Pronk-mount: A female pronks while grasping another animal around the waist.
    • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What is moral in one society is an abhorration in another.
    • Do Animals Have Morality? | Unreasonable Faith 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am not choosing one animal over another to focus on.

    (See also, Freemartin. .Freemartins occur because of clearly causal hormonal factors at work during gestation.^ (Large fluctuations in hormone concentrations occur in both sexes in seasonally breeding mammals, because of the period of reproductive quiescence tied to specific environmental conditions.
    • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For example, the hormonal changes occurring during the normal menstrual cycle ( i.e.
    • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is the wiring in the brain most likely during gestation during pregnancy as the fetus is exposed to sex hormones.
    • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • Bonobos in zoos. After studying the primates for his book Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape, primatologist Frans de Waal, a professor of psychology at Emory University in Atlanta, says that such expressions of intimacy are consistent with the homosexual behaviour of what he terms "the erotic champions of the world." "Same-sex, opposite-sex — bonobos just love sex play," de Waal said in an interview. ."They have so much sex, it gets boring."
  • Homosexual behaviour in male sheep (found in 6-10% of rams) is associated with variations in cerebral mass distribution and chemical activity.^ Anal cancers was strongly associated with a history of male homosexual activity.
    • WordAlone - Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wordalone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis.
    • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Klingon homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.klingon.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Homosexuality is the phenomenon of a person (male or female) preferring a partner of the same sex for sexual activity and intimate bonding.

    .A study reported in Endocrinology concluded that biological and physiological factors are in effect.^ The results of the research of the biological effects of the non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation were studied from the position of "thermal" and "unthermal" mechanisms.
    • Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.earthpulse.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stress is the effect produced by external (i.e., physical or environmental) events or internal (i.e., physiologic or psychologic) factors, referred to as stressors , which induce an alteration in an animal's biologic equilibrium.
    • Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Enrichment 5-9 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.saplonline.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studies of physiological arousal when subjects are shown pictures of naked men and women aren’t subject to under-reporting bias, because they don’t rely on self-reports.
    • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    [40] These findings are similar to human findings reported by Simon LeVay.
.Approximately eight percent of [male] rams exhibit sexual preferences [that is, even when given a choice] for male partners (male-oriented rams) in contrast to most rams, which prefer female partners (female-oriented rams).^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, males and females are sexually dimorphic.

^ Studies have shown that 8-10% of rams are male-oriented in partner selection.

.We identified a cell group within the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of age-matched adult sheep that was significantly larger in adult rams than in ewes...^ Examination of the brains of the 2 ram subgroups (ie, female-oriented rams, male-oriented rams) indicates that female-oriented rams have a larger ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus than do male-oriented rams.

^ The anterior commissure, a relatively small bundle of axons connecting the two brain hemispheres, which is larger in women than in men, was found to be also larger in gay men than it is in heterosexual men.
  • IslamOnline - Contemporary Section 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.islamonline.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Touch mediated by the anterior touch cells can be assayed in severely uncoordinated animals by monitoring pharyngeal pumping ( Chalfie et al., 1985 ; M. Chalfie, unpub.

.
  • Male bighorn sheep are divisible into two kinds: the typical males among whom homosexual behaviour, including intercourse, is common and "effeminate sheep", or "behavioural transvestites", which are not known to engage in homosexual behaviour.^ So homosexuality being present in so many bisexual (two sex) animals including humans should indicate it does serve a genetic purpose benefitting the species.
    • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I fall on the side of homosexuals (including males) possessing a capacity for romantic attachment.
    • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Similarly, in 1 Timothy 1:9-10 Paul says that the law is intended to expose sinners of all kinds, including homosexuals along with murderers, kidnappers, perjurers, and the like.
    • KenBoa.org - All That Heaven Allows - Homosexuality and the Meaning of Love 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.kenboa.org [Source type: Original source]

    [41][42]

Cross species sex

.While it is commonly believed that animal sexuality is instinctive and thus somewhat mechanistic, research regularly records that many animals are sexual opportunists, partaking in sexual relations with individuals of visibly distinct species [43].^ For examples of the many attempts to identify the uniqueness of the human species, see supra notes 35-36; Andrew N. Rowan, Of Mice, Models, and Men: A Critical Evaluation of Animal Research 74-90 (St.
  • Roots of Human Resistance to Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So homosexuality being present in so many bisexual (two sex) animals including humans should indicate it does serve a genetic purpose benefitting the species.
  • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book has many fascinating stories of how Tellington developed her methods and how she has applied them to an incredible range of animal species."
  • Books: Animal Intelligence, Behavior and Emotions 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC katberard.com [Source type: General]

.This is more visible in domesticated species and animals in captivity, as domestication commonly selects for increased breeding rate (and so an accelerated breeding cycle has commonly arisen in domesticated species over the centuries), and also because these species are more easily observed by humans.^ The species snobbery of the human animal.

^ Attitudes toward animals: Species ratings.

^ Now I love animals but I love humans more.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, animals have been observed in the wild to attempt sexual activity with other species or indeed inanimate objects.^ Wild animals are other nations.

^ However, observational learning has also been observed in many other species of animal.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Object play: Play with inanimate objects and other species.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attempts by wild moose to obtain sex from domestic horses are apparently well known by wildlife specialists.^ The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known.

^ This time course of hours to days is consistent with many well-known behavioral effects of sex steroids.
  • Sample Chapter for Adkins-Regan, E.: Hormones and Animal Social Behavior. 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioural adaptation in the domestic horse: Potential role of apparently abnormal responses including stereotypic behaviour: Adaptability of sport horses to stressful conditions .
  • AWIC Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Horses: Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the wild, where observation is harder, genetic studies have shown a "large number" of inter-species hybrids, and other investigations describe productive and non-productive inter-species mating as a "natural occurrence".[44] Recent genetic evidence strongly suggesting this has occurred even within the history of the human species, and that early humans often had sexual activity with other primate species, is considered below.^ The amygdala and autism: implications from non-human primate studies.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Non-Human Primates: Model Animals for Developmental Psychopathology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All we have to go on is based on human observations of ours and other species..
  • Klingon homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.klingon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a natural activity among species, and it is natural among humans as well.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hybrid offspring can result from two organisms of distinct but closely related parent species, although the resulting offspring is not always fertile.^ Within the group, three generations are often encompassed including one or two breeding females with one breeding male and related adults (possibly parents or siblings) and the breeding pairs' offspring.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Non-Human Primates: Model Animals for Developmental Psychopathology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From an ultimate perspective, manatees are also quite challenging due to the lack of closely related extant species and to the sparse fossil record.
  • Species Brief: The West Indian Manatee, Trichechus manatusThe ElusiveManatee 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sirenian.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Having two same sex parents is not likely to result in abuse at school.
  • Why homosexuality is un-important in evolution - talk.origins | Google Groups 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the definition of a species, if two organisms cannot or will not mate and produce a fertile offspring, they are different species.^ They cannot, however, fertilize themselves.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mcwilliams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the coming together of two different genders that have the potential (though not the necessity) of producing offspring that makes marriage something far more than a religious act.

^ In a series of experiments [*pg 450] across five different species, evolutionary biologist Patricia Adair Gowaty has found that females who were able to mate with their preferred male had offspring with increased rates of viability and reproductive success.
  • Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy: Julie A. Seaman, The Peahen's Tale, Or Dressing Our Parts At Work, 14 Duke J. of Gender L. & Pol'y 423 (2007) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .The mule, for example (a horse/donkey cross) is normally sterile, whilst the liger (lion/tiger cross) has fertile females and sterile males.^ To cross from the male to the female "path" in Fig.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The explanation for the incomplete masculinization of females usually is that the testosterone treatment does not fully mimic the normal patterns of concentrations or timing of hormone exposure found in males.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, changes do occur in males, for example with the circadian rhythm and with age, but potentially with different rates and amplitudes than in females.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Novosibirsk zoo director Rostislav Shilo says on the liger (born in its zoo); "It’s just that the lion and the tiger live in neighboring caves in the Novosibirsk zoo, and got used to each other.^ Laboratory experiments that use rats, mice, rabbits, pigeons, monkeys, and other animals are an important part of psychology, just as in medicine.

^ Besides, what gives us right to use other living creatures to test out things that we as humans want to use?
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cave-like living quarters of bottom-row caged animals is often so dim that caretakers routinely have to use flashlights to identify and inspect them (Figure 13).
  • Comfortable Quarters for Nonhuman Primates 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.awionline.org [Source type: Academic]

It’s practically impossible in the wild".
.Due to the difficulties of observation, interspecies sex of this kind between two top-level predators, occurring in the wild, was only conclusively documented with the finding of a grizzly-polar bear hybrid in April 2006[46].^ Only anal sex between two men, or .
  • Should be homosexuality considered as a sin? - CreateDebate 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.createdebate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, I would say that consensual sex (meaning sex absent of any form of coercion) between two adults is a wholly different arena.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The findings are given punch by the observation that "homosexuality was the only trait that all thirty-three pairs shared."
  • KenBoa.org - All That Heaven Allows - Homosexuality and the Meaning of Love 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.kenboa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Again, as with lions and tigers, the two species would normally not share enough common territory to provide adequate opportunity for much cross-species sexual activity.^ I would achieve cross-species communication."
  • Books: Animal Intelligence, Behavior and Emotions 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC katberard.com [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, all STD's would be virtually non-existent in time if mankind obeyed God's laws regarding sexual activity.

^ Relying on the observation of species in the animal kingdom for ‘guidance’ on what is ‘normal’ sexual activity in humans is not advisable… this is a MORAL issue.
  • Public Faces, Private Lives: Homosexuality in Barbados « Barbados Underground 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bajan.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Animal sexual advances on, and attempted interactions with, humans and other species, have been documented by ethologists such as Kohler, Gerald Durrell and Desmond Morris, as well as authoritative researchers such as Birute Galdikas who studied orangutans in Borneo.^ Social animals are animals that are highly interactive with other members of their own species.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This at least is the study of humans _compared_ to other animals.
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a natural activity among species, and it is natural among humans as well.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Philosopher and animal welfare activist Peter Singer reports:
.
While walking through the camp with Galdikas, my informant was suddenly seized by a large male orangutan, his intentions made obvious by his erect penis.^ The wetness made sure to get it all, he may be my little brothers penis.
  • New Orleans Black / New video: Lovely Blonde Loves the Bittersweet Dogcock 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC neworleansblack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And "an erect, unclothed male with an erect and quite visible penis might have proven noticeable and attractive" (Tanner 1987).
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When my dog (a different one, a bassett) was going to die, that morning he made it clear to me just through his pleading terrible facial expression.

.Fighting off so powerful an animal was not an option, but Galdikas called to her companion not to be concerned, because the orangutan would not harm her, and adding, as further reassurance, that 'they have a very small penis' ...^ They would be repulsed by the very idea of this.
  • ELCA completely embraces homosexuality | Cranach: The Blog of Veith 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.geneveith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But I think they will be a very small minority.
  • Continuation of Gay Marriage Discussion between hydro and lotr | NewsBusters.org 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ordinarily it would be wrong to have sex with animals, because ordinarily it harms them.

though the orangutan lost interest before penetration took place.[47]

Prostitution

.In some penguin species, the females, even when in a committed relationship, will exchange sexual favours with strange males for the pebbles they need to build their nests.^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristics of male and female sexual responses.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Males of this promiscuous species build bowers to attract females.

[48].

Sexual fetishes

.Although not often reported, animals, or primates at the least, are able to sexualize inanimate objects similar to the way human beings sexualize the objects of their sexual fetishes.^ I am a sexual human being being.
  • Public Faces, Private Lives: Homosexuality in Barbados « Barbados Underground 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bajan.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there a "way out" of being human?
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are animals anyhow sexually attracted to humans?

.Not only will an animal that has a habitual object for masturbation sometimes appear to sexualize that object, primates have generalized further to sexualize kinds of objects for which no instinctual or prior sexual connection exists.^ As for your uncle, if he exists – there is no correlation between abusive fathers and sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SEXUAL ORIENTATION PYRAMID (from embryo masculinization of Body and Brain) (all embryos begin as femaleif its to be a male it needs to be masculinized in both body and brain, but sometimes only one or the other happens.

^ Opponents of attributing the phenomenal consciousness to animals are not committed to denying the more general kind of consciousness of various external and bodily events, so there is no logical entailment from awareness of things in the environment or the body to animal sentience.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Thus Gabriel, a chimpanzee at the Southwest National Primate Research Center, is said to have a shoe fetish (or possibly a leather fetish) according to caretaker Bert Barrera, and it is reported that:
A male chimpanzee raised in captivity developed a bit of a shoe fetish, masturbating obsessively by rubbing his caretaker's leather boot.
The sexualization of objects or locations is also well recognized in the breeding world. .So for example, stallions may often 'drop' (become sexually aroused) upon visiting a location where they have been allowed to have sex before, or upon seeing a stimulus previously associated with sexual activity such as an artificial vagina.^ (See Animal sexuality#Sex for pleasure ).
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may well be that sexual odors of the female attract the male, and the sexual swelling of the female genitalia at estrus may also function in such a fashion.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All may come and associate but all are not to become members of the body of Christ until they have the above attitudes of not willingly and openly "practicing sin" (present continuous tense).
  • Video | Southern Adventist University: Student Debate on Homosexuality | Spectrum 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC spectrummagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this case however, the primary structure is Pavlovian conditioning, and the fetishistic association is due to a conditioned response (or association) formed with a distinctive 'reward'. Human fetishism can also be traced back to similar or near-identical conditioning: likewise based upon the Pavlovian association between an erotic sensation or anticipation, and objects which become mentally associated with that activity.^ However, in operant learning, the association is between a behavior and a reward or punishment.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All genetic traits interact with the environment, and some traits, - such as human behavior - are *very dependent on the environment, and are a complex interactions of survival strategies and conditioned responses learned in childhood, social rewards and punishments, interactions with other genes, etc.
  • Why homosexuality is un-important in evolution - talk.origins | Google Groups 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Across all these disparate cases, a consistent pattern emerges: while there is a profound similarity between human and nonhuman animals abilities to learn about and act on the perceptual relations between events, properties and objects in the world, only humans appear capable of reinterpreting the higher-order relation between these perceptual relations in a structurally systematic and inferentially productive fashion.
  • Darwin�s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human andnonhuman minds 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

Sexual imagery viewing

.A study by Platt, Khera and Deaner at Duke University North Carolina (reported in Current Biology and online here), showed that male monkeys will give up privileges (in this case, juice, which is highly valued), to be allowed to see a female monkey's hindquarters.^ North Carolina State University, 1985 a.
  • Animal Behavior Society Graduate Program Bulletin - MAIN - 1996 (HTML) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC abs.animalbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The researcher sees a male give a female a cunnilingus, then sees the female reciprocate.
  • Primate prostitution proves human female gold-diggery - Feministing 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Villanova University vs. University of North Carolina .
  • The PETA Files | animal testing | Archives 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC blog.peta.org [Source type: General]

[49 ]
.Deaner and his team reported that monkeys would take a juice cut to look at powerful males' faces or the perineum of a female, but to persuade the monkeys to stare at subordinate males, the researchers had to bribe them with larger drinks.^ This would reduce the male female difference.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Just look at the male and female bodies.
  • "Christianity and Homosexuality" - Christian Discussion Forums - CARM 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.carm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, females nest together, take turns to have offspring (sired by a male playing away while his partner is at sea) and both feed them.
  • Same-sex relationships may play important role in evolution | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

."Virtually all [male] monkeys will give up juice to see female hindquarters ...^ The researcher sees a male give a female a cunnilingus, then sees the female reciprocate.
  • Primate prostitution proves human female gold-diggery - Feministing 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All they can say is 'give up and give in.'
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I say: Zoologists have observed humping or similar by all species when a female in heat was present and the males couldn't get to her.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

they really value the images."
.The researchers stress that in monkey society, such behaviours have great social utility and we should therefore not simply reach the conclusion that "monkeys enjoy pornographic pictures". There is no evidence at this point that viewable pictures or movies of sexual activity are valued for their sexual enjoyment, although as noted above (Masturbation), there are reports that watching sex in real life may have such an effect.^ There is little evidence that the prostitutes engaged in sexual activities with men.
  • Homosexuality Is NOT A Sin: What Christ Said And More | Forum | Gaia Online 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.gaiaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much more in life than simply sexuality and life is itself much more than sex, sexuality or sexual desire.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once again, there is not simply an absence of evidence; there is evidence of an absence.
  • Darwin�s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human andnonhuman minds 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The subject of animals and sexual imagery is not yet well researched.^ Applications will be evaluated on the contribution that the completed project will make to Human-Animal studies, the qualifications of the applicant to complete the research, and how well the applicant’s project complements the other projects.
  • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state.

^ Investigators who use animals in biomedical and behavioral research have an obligation not only to conduct high-quality research but also to promote the health and well-being of their animal subjects to the greatest extent possible given the research objectives.
  • ILAR Journal Vol 46(2) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Problems with encouraging pandas to mate in captivity have been very common. .However, showing young male pandas "panda pornography" is widely credited with a recent population boom among pandas in zoos.^ However, TP-treated males seldomly showed sexual behavior during aggressive encounters and additional treatment with progesterone did not affect their behavior.

^ At the height of their booms, these breeds showed an average increase of 1,165% above their baseline population (range = 512% to 4,238%).

^ However, despite innumerable education efforts, the homosexual male population remains plagued by disease.
  • If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moralgrounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough t 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.personal.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[50]

Coercive sex

.Controversial interpretations and implications aside (see Sociobiological theories of rape), sex in a forceful or apparently coercive context has also been documented in a variety of species.^ The implications of theory for excavation, analysis, and interpretation.

^ Bagemihl’s research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been observed in close to 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.
  • Is Our World Too Comfortable With Bizarre Sexual Behaviour? - DOMINICA - Life Unscripted on the Nature Island 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.dominica-weekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, yes, there are several species in which lifetime pair-bonding beyond same-sex animals has been documented.
  • An Argument Against Homosexuality in Animals [Archive] - Jolt Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

.A notable example is bottlenose dolphins, where at times, a pod of bachelor males will 'corner' a female.^ The explanation for the incomplete masculinization of females usually is that the testosterone treatment does not fully mimic the normal patterns of concentrations or timing of hormone exposure found in males.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, at times a male may control sexual access to a female, preventing other males from mating with her.

^ This allowed the researchers to record the time spent with each female (mate choice) as the end of the tank chosen by the male.
  • Animal Groups 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Furthermore, in a zoo where it is common practice to put newly captured dolphins in with dolphins who are established in their enclosures, other species of dolphin are never put in together with bottlenoses because the bottlenose dolphins frequently torment and rape them.^ You, therefore, have no excuse, you who pass judgment on someone else, for at whatever point you judge the other, you are condemning yourself, because you who pass judgment do the same things.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mcwilliams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dolphins also show that they understand responsibility, both as relates to other dolphins and other species.
  • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethos » Ethics 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Males who are actively moving up the dominance heirarchy may not spend time away from other males frequently, as in doing so, they may sacrifice social status.

[52] .The behaviour is also common in some arachnids (spiders), notably those whose females eat the males during sex if not tricked with food and/or tied down with threads,[53] and in some herbivorous herd species or species where males and females are very different in size, where the male dominates sexually by sheer force and size.^ Not all species reproduce sexually, and of those that do, not all consist of two sexes that can be defined thus as male and female.
  • Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy: Julie A. Seaman, The Peahen's Tale, Or Dressing Our Parts At Work, 14 Duke J. of Gender L. & Pol'y 423 (2007) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, males and females are sexually dimorphic.

^ So in this species, sex appears to be the limited resource for males and not females.
  • Primate prostitution proves human female gold-diggery - Feministing 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species of birds appear to combine sexual intercourse with apparent violent assault; these include ducks,[54] geese, and white-fronted bee-eaters.^ These the sexual displays have been well studied and provide wonderful examples of how birds can use visual cues to sexually stimulate members of the opposite sex.

^ Some societis show little specialization of individualss other than that determined by sexual differences or differences in physical size and endurance.
  • behavioral¡¡ecology--biology‘sblog 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freehostz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These natural sounds include auditory signals produced by other species (e.g., insects, birds, and mammals) and weather-related noises (wind, thunder, rain).
  • ILAR Journal Vol 46(2) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.According to Emlen and Wrege (1986)[55] forced copulations occur in this socially nesting species, and females must avoid the unwelcome attention of males as they emerge from their nest burrows or they are forced to the ground and mated with.^ Females have some ability to choose the males with whom they mate.

^ Any male within the social group may mate with any female in the social group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the most part, males are attracted to and mate with females of their own species.
  • behavioral¡¡ecology--biology‘sblog 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freehostz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apparently, such attacks are made preferentially on females who are laying and who may thus mother their offspring as a result.^ Anok Who has made such a claim?
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Should a mother die while her offspring is still young, an older sibling or frequent associate of the mother (presumably mother’s sibling) may assume the role of caretaker of the younger chimp.

^ Such revisionist views may be useful for modern re-interpreters who have more liberal views on the binding nature of scripture and its possible cultural limitations.
  • Homosexuality and the Bible « By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bycommonconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2007, research suggested that in the Acilius genus of water beetles (also known as "diving beetles"), an "evolutionary arms race" between the genders means that there is no courtship system for these beetles.^ It’s by no means universal, but there you have it.
  • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There has been no updated research.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is by no means there yet."

"It's a system of rape. .But the females don't take things quietly.^ I could say a lot of things about female DNA, but I don´t feel like it.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

.They evolve counter-weapons."^ They evolve counter-weapons."
  • Animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Non-human animal sexual behavior - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cited mating behaviours include males suffocating females underwater till exhausted, and allowing only occasional access to the surface to breathe for up to six hours (to prevent them breeding with other males), and females which have a variety of body shapings (to prevent males from gaining a grip).^ Mating system in which one male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship with each other.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship with each other.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Each male mates with just one female.
  • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Foreplay is "limited to the female desperately trying to dislodge the male by swimming frantically around."^ Each culture selects from the genetic potential a set of physical and social characteristics and wraps the male and/or female genderrole label around them.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reach and touch:During copulation, a female reaches around with one arm and touches male on the head.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The call produced by male frogs, which both male and female frogs can receive by hearing, results in frogs of both sexes congregating in a limited area.
  • behavioral¡¡ecology--biology‘sblog 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freehostz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
Charles Siebert reports in his New York Times article Elephant Crackup? that:
Since the early 1990’s, for example, young male elephants in Pilanesberg National Park and the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve in South Africa have been raping and killing rhinoceroses; this abnormal behaviour, according to a 2001 study in the journal Pachyderm, has been reported in ‘‘a number of reserves’’ in the region.
[57]

Sex between adults and juveniles

.It has also been recorded that certain species of mole will impregnate newborns of their own species.^ Although each species of animal has its own specific behaviors, there are certain components of reproductive behavior that are common to nearly all kinds of animals.
  • behavioral¡¡ecology--biology‘sblog 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freehostz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not clear if this is forceful or not. .Similarly, the male stoat (Mustela erminea) will mate with infant females of their species.^ For the most part, males are attracted to and mate with females of their own species.
  • behavioral¡¡ecology--biology‘sblog 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.freehostz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Each male mates with just one female.
  • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even when raised in total isolation, upon first encountering a conspecific female, most mature males manifest the species-specific courtship behavior.
  • Theory of Mind and Insight in Chimpanzees, Elephants, and Other Animals 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.is.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .This apparently is a natural part of their reproductive biology - there is a delayed gestation period, so these females give birth the following year when they are fully grown.^ It is part of our biology and it is natural.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is part of our natural biology.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God had to test Israel for 40 years to find out if they would keep his commandments; apparently he didn't know (Deut 8:2).
  • BIBLE PROBLEMS 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC home.teleport.com [Source type: Original source]

.A male spotted hyena which attempted to mate with a female which succeeded in driving it off, eventually turned to its ten-month-old cub, repeatedly mounting it and ejaculating on it.^ This allowed the researchers to record the time spent with each female (mate choice) as the end of the tank chosen by the male.
  • Animal Groups 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As for the "sluts" remark, yes, I have also seen in documentaries how female chimps will allow younger, lower status males to mate with them when the leader is not looking.
  • Primate prostitution proves human female gold-diggery - Feministing 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The OS females, having been exposed to extra testosterone, would be less popular, while OS males, having had their testosterone partially off-set by female hormones, would be more popular than other males.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cub sometimes ignored this and sometimes struggled 'slightly as if in play'. The mother did not intervene.^ While this effect was statistically significant, OS males had only a slightly greater tendency to resemble their mothers (47.2%) than did DZ SS males (44.4%).
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

[59]
.Infants and children in Bonobo societies are often involved in sexual behaviour.^ Thus, let us consider behaviour involved in walking, eating, drinking, defecation, sleeping and waking, sexual intercourse, the care of young infants, fear and the avoidance of danger.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Just as in naturalistic observations, visual stimuli that are particularly effective in eliciting learned sexual behavior often involve stimuli that contain species-specific cues.

^ People in these societies notice that children have sexual encounters and afterward puberty does occur, and this sequencing verifies to them their causal perspective.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]

Sexual cannibalism

.Sexual cannibalism, which has been documented in arachnids, insects and amphipods, is a phenomenon in which a female organism kills and consumes the male before, during, or after copulation.^ Males copulate with females during infertile cycles as well as during fertile cycles.

^ During copulation the female exhibits compressed lips and the male exhibits pursed lips.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is during this time that females are sexually receptive and that the bulk of copulations with mature males occur.

.Although it does confer some known advantages to reproduction, whether or not the male is complicit has not been scientifically determined.^ This is the idea that Roughgarden favors: that some degree of homosexuality confers a direct advantage to individuals living in a community, because it facilitates bonding between same-sex individuals.
  • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But to some extent the position of a male in the male group is also determined by the position of his natal matriline in the female group, both in cases where he stays for a time in the adult male unit of his natal group and in cases where he transfers to another group.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether the male has played with her, groomed her, or engaged in other friendly behaviors with her as she matured or when she is not maximally swollen, may play some role.

Necrophilia

.Necrophilia in animals is where a living animal engages in a sexual act with a dead animal.^ What I said had nothing to do with Bestiality (having sex with animals), being a Pedophile, Adultry, or any other sexually explicit act you named.
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Sexual acts with animals by humans are always physical abuse."
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The link between sadistic sexual acts with animals and sadistic practices with humans or lust murders has been heavily researched.
  • Zoophilia - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In one of the most well-known examples, Kees Moeliker of the Rotterdam Natural History Museum, Netherlands observed sexual activities[61] outside his office between a live duck and a dead one.^ Natural History 93:54-61.

^ A well-known example of observational learning is .
  • TE Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ London: Natural History Museum, 2008.
  • Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 48, Number 2 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Two male mallards which Moeliker believed were engaged in rape flight, a common motif in duck sexual behaviour, collided with his window.^ The physiology of male sexual behaviour.
  • Neurological control of human sexual behaviour: insights from lesion studies -- Baird et al. 78 (10): 1042 -- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC jnnp.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are over 1000 species of animal where non-reproductive sexual behaviour has been observed and documented, including such family favourites as ducks,cats, dolphins and giraffes.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3.
  • Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.earthpulse.net [Source type: Academic]

."When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback—well, didn't get any feedback," according to Moeliker, who described the event as "homosexual necrophilia."^ It applies not just to myself, but to other as well.
  • Opposing Views: Is Homosexuality a Sin? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.opposingviews.com [Source type: General]

^ In other words, you want the religious right..those who believe and accept Gods word..the Old Testament and the New…to change and accept homosexuality!
  • Truthdig - Inventing Sin: Religion and Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Truthdig - Inventing Sin: Religion and Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who & how does this benefit or detract from ones & other lives.
  • Homosexuality: Genetics or Environment [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

.The case was reported scientifically in Deinsea 8-2001, along with photos.^ Evidence indicating that is the case was reported by Rattermann and her colleagues (Rattermann & Gentner, 1998; Thompson, Rattermann, & Oden, 2001).
  • Zentall HTML 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psyc.queensu.ca [Source type: Academic]

[62], and earned .Moeliker an Ig Nobel Prize in biology, awarded for humorous research.^ They would probably be awarded a Nobel prize because of such a huge breakthrough.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.Additionally, male cane toads have been documented (in Cane Toads: An Unnatural History) engaging in copulation with dead toads and inanimate objects.^ Sexual behavior*: Mounting, pelvic thrusting, mock copulation, with a partner or inanimate object.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to copulation itself, the time it takes for a male to begin copulation when in the presence of hermaphrodites ( Tendency to Mate ) can be determined.

Notes on specific species

Bonobos

.The Bonobo, which has a matriarchal society, is a fully bisexual species — both males and females engage in sexual behaviour with the same and the opposite sex, with females being particularly noted for engaging in sexual behaviour with each other and at up to 75% of sexual activity being nonreproductive.^ Other estrus females may travel in the same sexual party.

^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ FTM : female-to-male transsexuals in society .
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Bonobos often use sexual activity to prevent violence and conflict.^ When black people were bought and sold as slaves, white men often used black women for sexual purposes.

^ People have used torture and violence to keep others within a specific range of sexual expressions, sexual acts.
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The documentary showed that > one species of ape engaged in male-male and > female-female sexual activities as a form of conflict > resolution as well as the forging of relationships > and bonds.
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]

Birds

.Some black swans of Australia form sexually active male-male mated pairs and steal nests, or form temporary threesomes with females to obtain eggs, driving away the female after she lays the eggs.^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Single females will lay eggs in a homosexual pair's nest.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Banned Books Week 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ Females have some ability to choose the males with whom they mate.

.More of their cygnets survive to adulthood than those of different-sex pairs possibly due to their superior ability to defend large portions of land.^ The only large sex difference was in perceptual speed, for which females were superior.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sex differences in cognitive abilities.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sex differences: Summarizing more than a century of scientific research .
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

.In early February 2004 the New York Times reported that a male pair of chinstrap penguins named Roy and Silo in the Central Park Zoo in New York City were partnered and had successfully hatched a female chick from an egg.^ Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate ".
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In 1975, 1,235 cases of amebiasis were reported from New York City.
  • If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moralgrounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough t 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.personal.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dusk descends on New York City.
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] .Other penguins in New York have also been reported to be forming same-sex pairs.^ Occupying the museums first-floor gallery, the show reveals orally inclined sheep, masturbating walruses, voyeuristic flamingos, same-sex penguin pairings and a deer ménage à trois that would definitely be inappropriate for Bambi.
  • Same-sex relationships may play important role in evolution | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ At the same time, graduate students in anthropology from Washington University and New York University undertook long-term behavioral studies of anubis, hamadryas, and hybrid groups.
  • Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 48, Number 2 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Normalized Repertoire As with any form of enrichment, the effects of television viewing on other kinds of behavior vary by sex, age, and species.
  • ILAR Journal Vol 46(2) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Zoos in Japan and Germany have also documented male penguin couples.^ A zoo in Germany has now done what South Park failed to do with Mr. Garrison, have two gay penguins hatch an egg, and adopt it as their own chick successfully.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True, he has assembled neglected documents in Greek and Old Slavic tongues from various archives that bless male couples.
  • Homosexuality in the Middle Ages - William A. Percy 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.williamapercy.com [Source type: Original source]

.The couples have been shown to build nests together and use a stone to replace an egg in the nest.^ For example, male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a well-publicized story from 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertile egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swatting insects Killing insects Catching insects Nest building Tool using: Specify tool and object acted on.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researchers at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, found twenty such pairs at sixteen major aquariums and zoos in Japan.^ Many labs doing similar work to ours do not pair-house their subjects, but all 14 of our macaques are pair-housed, and we have found this arrangement to be very compatible with our research (Roberts).
  • Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 48, Number 2 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of the media in making information available on such research as mentioned above is of major importance.
  • IslamOnline - Contemporary Section 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.islamonline.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Well-being of Animals in Zoo and Aquarium Sponsored Research: Putting Best Practices Forward, 25-38.
  • Lincoln Park Zoo : Conservation & Science : Resources : Publications 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lpzoo.org [Source type: Academic]

.Bremerhaven Zoo in Germany attempted to break up the male couples by importing female penguins from Sweden and separating the male couples; they were unsuccessful.^ The penguin population at Bremerhaven was heavyly male.
  • Same-sex relationships may play important role in evolution | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It is not natural to couple male with male and female with female.
  • "Christianity and Homosexuality" - Christian Discussion Forums - CARM 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forums.carm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A zoo in Germany has now done what South Park failed to do with Mr. Garrison, have two gay penguins hatch an egg, and adopt it as their own chick successfully.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

.The zoo director stated the relationships were too strong between the couples.^ By stating homosexual relationships between two consenting adults, which are neither harmful nor dangerous, are the same as crimes murder and theft you are, in essence.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I've never found a Scripture where He defines how a marital relationship should be between a homosexual couple, as Proverbs 31 & Ephesians 5:22-33 defines a heterosexual couple.
  • JG-TC.com > Opinion > LETTER: Bible does discuss marriage, homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.jg-tc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise, the relationships Paul describes are heavy with lust; they are not relationships between consenting adults who are committed to each other as faithfully and with as much integrity as any heterosexual couple.” .

.Recently, a mated pair of swans in Boston were found to both be female.^ This research suggests that both males and females compete for and choose their mates.
  • Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy: Julie A. Seaman, The Peahen's Tale, Or Dressing Our Parts At Work, 14 Duke J. of Gender L. & Pol'y 423 (2007) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that at least in some species, both males and females prefer mates who are particularly suited to them individually.
  • Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy: Julie A. Seaman, The Peahen's Tale, Or Dressing Our Parts At Work, 14 Duke J. of Gender L. & Pol'y 423 (2007) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of those persons he studied had been found to have been born with biological characteristics of both males and females.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

They too had attempted to raise eggs together. [2]
.Studies have shown that ten to fifteen percent of female western gulls in some populations in the wild prefer other females.^ Just a question of, this is my opinion and that is yours; leave others to judge; some will like or prefer mine and others will prefer yours.
  • Public Faces, Private Lives: Homosexuality in Barbados « Barbados Underground 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bajan.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some studies have shown that the size of the hypothalmus in the brain tends to be significantly different between heteros and gays.
  • Homosexuality: Genetics or Environment [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But then again, technically ten percent of any given population is homosexual, so it would be abnormal to not have anyone homosexual.
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As many as 19% of Mallard pairs in a given population have been observed to consist of male-male homosexuals.^ So, in any given population, a number of people will have homosexual orientation and will act on it.

^ But then again, technically ten percent of any given population is homosexual, so it would be abnormal to not have anyone homosexual.
  • Homosexuality, Like Short Tempers, Is Merely a Character Flaw / Queerty 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.queerty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This behavior has been observed only in the younger silverbacked male who displays it frequently and incorporates it into many behavior patterns.
  • Primate Info Net: Gorilla Ethograms 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC pin.primate.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]

Lizards

.Whip-tailed lizard females have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis and as such males are rare and sexual breeding non-standard.^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristics of male and female sexual responses.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, a male and female are needed to reproduce.
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

.Females engage in sexual behaviour to stimulate ovulation, with their behaviour following their hormonal cycles; during low levels of estrogen, these (female) lizards engage in "masculine" sexual roles.^ Role of estrogens and progestins in the development of female sexual behavior potential.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As hormone levels change during their cycle, so does the size of the female’s anogenital swelling.

^ These studies show the significant role androgens usually play in contrast to the "female" hormones, the estrogens and progesterone, in maintaining and stimulating erotic inclination, sexual desire, and behavior in females.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Those animals with currently high estrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles.^ It is not only what nature has given but also what has become culture, whether of a high or low level, that comes into play in sexual life.
  • Discussion on Leninist-International about Homosexuality 1998 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.neue-einheit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The animals huddled together with regularity on high-level structures but never on low-level structures or on the floor.
  • Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Enrichment 5-9 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.saplonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You calling out those who have high level education level ..
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fecundity than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviours.^ The cortisol concentrations of dogs during their first day in the shelter were greater than either those of the same dogs on Day 4/5 in the shelter or those of a group of pet dogs sampled in their own homes.

^ This in itself is not surprising in view of the greater all-round interest in the psychological field coupled with the increased publicity given to studies bearing on sexual behavior.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ My sympathy goes to those whose only sexual love can be obtained from members of the same sex…this is acceptance of certain human behaviour.
  • Homosexual Agenda Gaining Ground In Barbados « Barbados Underground 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bajan.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success.^ Successful reproduction requires males and females to follow different sexual strategies, and to display their fitness indicators to different audiences.
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Geographic variation in reproductive success and the necessity of male parental care in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis.
  • Patty Gowaty -- Curriculum Vita 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The female's pretrial vocalizations continued when the visual screen was withdrawn, even though the male was now able to see the cue light again.
  • Linguistic Behavior in Nonhuman Species: A Paradigm for Testing Mental Continuity 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.skiltopo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From an evolutionary standpoint these females are passing their full genetic code to all of their offspring rather than the 50% of genes that would be passed in sexual reproduction.^ If sexual orientation is a choice, than ALL sexual orientation is a choice.
  • evidence homosexuality linked to genetics // General Discussion // BlogCatalog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality .
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These genetic males are phenotypically female.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

Certain species of gecko also reproduce by parthenogenesis.

Flatworm

.Penis fencing is a mating behaviour engaged in by certain species of flatworm, such as Pseudobiceros hancockanus.^ Start with Wikipedia: > "In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves > as the only such opening for the intestinal, reproductive and urinary > tracts of certain animal species.
  • Why homosexuality is un-important in evolution - talk.origins | Google Groups 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While such computers do not exist, we DO know that certain living organisms on this planet possess the requisites complexity of specialized and highly organized structure for the emergence mantal states.
  • ANIMALS RIGHTS FAQS 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.awbi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "To turn the approach on its head: No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

.Species which engage in the practice are hermaphroditic, possessing both eggs and sperm-producing testes.^ Currently, conservation biologists fertilize the eggs of endangered species with frozen sperm to combat the difficulties of reproduction in captivity and to ultimately help preserve species in the wild.
  • RESURRECTING THE WOOLLY MAMMOTH 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC stlr.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some species that form lifelong monogamous relationships, both members of the pair-bond engage in an interactive courtship dance.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. Valdez: Sexuality preferences within a hermaphroditic species is of moot point precisely because both parties have dual-gender reproductive gear.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

[67]
.Child-bearing, while necessary for the continuation of a species, requires considerable resources from the mother.^ He devoted considerable attention in both the Origin and in the Descent of Man to animal behavior, with the obvious goal of demonstrating mental continuity among the species.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Many of the monasteries both in ancient times and at the present day practiced vegetarianism...The requirement to be vegetarian has been diluted considerably since the earliest days, but the practice of vegetarianism was continued by many saints, monks, and laymen.
  • Full Metal Jesus - Skip Williamson - Open Salon 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But they may also be bolstered by scientific investigations of behavior and neurology as well as considerations of evolutionary continuity (homology) between species.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, from a biological point of view, it is preferable to be the father rather than the mother.^ I am a mother and i rather a dog dying than my new born child.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However it is not for us to judge the motives of these people whatever our point of view but rather to be tolerant towards them as we would expect others to be tolerant with us.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking, and alert rather than non-alert.

.The species "fence" using two-headed dagger-like penises which are pointed, and white in color.^ Two hypotheses are concerned with fostering species-typical behavior: use (versus nonuse) of the enrichment, and whether use of enrichment helps normalize other aspects of the behavioral repertoire.
  • ILAR Journal Vol 46(2) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm like those white fellers that hang around with black dudes and use the N word.
  • Homosexuality [Archive] - weebls-stuff forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.weebls-stuff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The top panel shows two equal-likelihood contours corresponding to points that are equally likely to occur given a particular category.
  • Avian Visual Attention in Science and Culture 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The "winner" is the organism that inseminates the other.^ The winner is the organism that inseminates the other.
  • Charlie Brooker on animal sex | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilization in the "loser".

Sheep

An October 2003, study by Dr. Charles E. Roselli et al. .(Oregon Health & Science University) states that homosexuality in male sheep (found in eight percent of rams) is associated with a region in the rams' brains which the authors call the "ovine Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus" (oSDN) which is half the size of the corresponding region in other male sheep.^ Sexual dimorphism: male larger.

^ Kay Larkin and colleagues from Oregon Health and Science University found the difference was in a particular region of the hypothalamus - the preoptic nucleus.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgetown University professor Janet Mann has specifically theorized that homosexual behavior, at least in dolphins , is an evolutionary advantage that minimizes intraspecies aggression, especially among males.
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some view this study to be flawed in that the determination of homosexuality within the sheep, (sample population of twenty-seven for the study), was to have animals who were unable to mount female ewes placed in a cage with two stanchioned males and two unstanchioned females (that is, the males could not move or struggle while the females could).^ Homosexuality” refers to male-male and female-female relationships.
  • WordAlone - Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wordalone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And it was the males, not the females, who hunted.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criminology and animal studies: A sociological view.

.Given the aggressive nature of the sheep copulation, the uneven treatment of males and females, many see this as simply evidence that the sheep in question were unable to be aggressive enough to mount females.^ To be male or female—that is the question.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Male beetles attracted by females mounting.

^ The position that estrous females of many species exhibit when a male mounts.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some say that the results were situational sexuality, unlike the bonds seen in human homosexuality.^ If you're going to compare human homosexuality to the rest of the animal kingdom, then call it what it is - the desire for sexual gratification.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think that if we publicize the biological bases for sexual orientation, there will still be some people who say "So what?
  • Continuation of Gay Marriage Discussion between hydro and lotr | NewsBusters.org 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the idea that Roughgarden favors: that some degree of homosexuality confers a direct advantage to individuals living in a community, because it facilitates bonding between same-sex individuals.
  • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The scientists found that, "The oSDN in rams that preferred females was significantly larger and contained more neurons than in male-oriented rams and ewes.^ There was a clear preference for the larger female.
  • Animal Groups 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One male has an exclusive mating relationship with more than one female, or one female has an exclusive mating relationship with more than one male.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One male has an exclusive mating relationship with more than one female; or one female has an exclusive mating relationship with more than one male.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, the oSDN of the female-oriented rams expressed higher levels of aromatase, a substance that converts testosterone to estradiol, an estrogen hormone believed to facilitate typical male sexual behaviours.^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristics of male and female sexual responses.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An enzyme that converts testosterone to 17ß-estradiol.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Aromatase expression was no different between male-oriented rams and ewes."
"The dense cluster of neurons that comprise the oSDN express cytochrome P450 aromatase. .Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression."^ Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females.
  • Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates resource guide. Abnormal Behavior: Animal Welfare Information Center 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the wild, males weigh between 34 and 70 kg, whereas females are slightly smaller, weighing between 26 and 50 kg.

^ Fox claims that male parental investment was something females wanted and got, whereas Hrdy insists that this investment was in the males' own interest.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These results suggest that "...naturally occurring variations in sexual partner preferences may be related to differences in brain anatomy and its capacity for estrogen synthesis."^ However, these differences result from differing circumstances.
  • Sentience - Animal Rights 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.sentience.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ Our laboratory has noted that juvenile male goats display profound separation anxiety when removed from pen mates and this impairs performance in a variety of behavior tests, suggesting that there may be differences in how a sexually inexperienced goat learns to identify sexual partners versus how a goat habituates to a novel situation.
  • ISAE Canada Meetings - Quebec City '02 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This may be related to differences in the habitat and the behavior of prey.

[68] .As noted previously, given the potential unagressiveness of the male population in question, the differing aromatase levels may also have been evidence of aggression levels, not sexuality.^ Given the evidence presented, what may we conclude?
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Our laboratory has noted that juvenile male goats display profound separation anxiety when removed from pen mates and this impairs performance in a variety of behavior tests, suggesting that there may be differences in how a sexually inexperienced goat learns to identify sexual partners versus how a goat habituates to a novel situation.
  • ISAE Canada Meetings - Quebec City '02 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The development of sexual feeling is governed by the simplistic assumption that the male and female are attracted to each other because their genitals are different.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Homosexuality" 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.The results of this study have not been confirmed by others.^ Though the Gardners defended their studies against Terrace's critiques (Gardner & Gardner 1989), other researchers tried to control for alternative interpretations of their results.
  • Animal Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I suspect that studies of other senses, perhaps sound or touch (I don’t know if they have been performed), would result in similar difference in levels of attraction.
  • Psychoanalytic theory and the etiology of homosexuality: What does research say? — Warren Throckmorton 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wthrockmorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the release of LeVays study, other researchers have found that brain structures can change as a result of life experiences.
  • IslamOnline - Contemporary Section 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.islamonline.net [Source type: Academic]

Spotted Hyena

.The female Spotted Hyena has a unique urinary-genital system, closely resembling the penis of the male, called a pseudo-penis.^ The designation is biological, not sociological, thus the text gives freedom to interpret male and female as unique beings and masculine and feminine stereotypes are not imposed.
  • Considering the often cited biblical texts on homosexuality. 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC fou.uniting.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ They often take wives from hostile villages and in return marry their female children to males in those villages (called "delayed marital exchange").
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was not responding well to his upbringing as a female and the absence of a penis didn't seem to dampen either his identifying himself as a male or decreasing his stereotypic male behaviors.
  • Pacific Center for Sex and Society - Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The family structure is matriarchal and dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females.^ Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships.

^ Some now espouse that monkeys, and basically the over-all animal kingdom, are naturally, sexually perverted as a part of male dominance while leaving the female monkey simply perverted….
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a mechanism is necessary in order to ensure that when multiple relations predicate the same property, the fact that it is the same property in each case is somehow manifest in the structural similarity between the representations.
  • Darwin�s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human andnonhuman minds 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.They are notable for using visible sexual arousal as a sign of submission and not dominance, in males as well as females (females have a sizable erectile clitoris), to the extent that biologist Robert Sapolsky speculates that in order to facilitate this, their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems may be partially reversed in respect to their reproductive organs.^ Other estrus females may travel in the same sexual party.

^ I. Theories of female and male sexuality.
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mating system in which any male within a social group may mate with any female in the group.
  • Animal Behavior - CK12 - Flexbooks 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]

Bottlenose Dolphins

.Bottlenose Dolphin males have been observed working in pairs to follow and/or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive.^ Add and observe 1 male at a time.

^ It is during this time that females are sexually receptive and that the bulk of copulations with mature males occur.

^ Mature males do not typically copulate with females until they are maximally tumescent, although exceptions to this rule have been observed.

.The same pairs have also been observed engaging in intense sexual play with each other.^ Other estrus females may travel in the same sexual party.

^ The pleasurable sense of warmth inherent in love can be intensified by playing on the helplessness of others, in the same way that warmth is enriched by the nurture of a pet or a child.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Homosexuality" 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others can selectively quote the same Bible and note that it provides specific rules for engaging in trading and owning slaves.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality - On Faith at washingtonpost.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Janet Mann, a professor of biology and psychology at Georgetown University, argues[70] that the common same-sex behaviour among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species evolutionarily.^ It is about sex, not bonding!
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If it's only about bonding, then why have sex?
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be found in the nature of swans and in some mammalian species like whales and dolphins, giraffes and apes and so on- so we can talk about a “natural phenomenon”, something that exists in nature.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They cite studies that have shown the dolphins later in life are bisexual and the male bonds forged from homosexuality work for protection as well as locating females to reproduce with.^ Homosexuality” refers to male-male and female-female relationships.
  • WordAlone - Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wordalone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yes, a male and female are needed to reproduce.
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Homosexuality: A psychoanalytic study of male homosexuals.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1991 an English man was prosecuted for allegedly having sexual contact with a dolphin.^ The New English Bible, which I own, translates it as "18:6 “‘No man is to approach any close relative to have sexual intercourse with her.
  • On Faith: Guest Voices: My Conversion from Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's a challenge being a gay man (with two young kids, by the way) and having one's sexuality dissected in public like a frog in high school lab.
  • Evolution and homosexuality : Pharyngula 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And why did the religious leaders not also bring before Jesus for judgement and potential stoning to death the man with whom the woman had allegedly had sexual relations?
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .The man was found not guilty after it was revealed at trial that the dolphin was known to tow bathers through the water by hooking its large penis around them.^ A large hose is used to flush water through the shark's gills, so it can breathe throughout a process that can take 20 minutes.
  • Outposts | Animal behavior | Los Angeles Times 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the man that influenced generations through his Kinsey Institute and his biography just came out revealing all this stuff.
  • The Biblical View of Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July, a Norwegian man fishing in a fjord had a shock when he landed a John Dory, a fish more usually found in temperate waters off southern Europe or Africa.
  • animal behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]

Seahorses

.Seahorses, long upheld as monogamous and mating for life, are identified as "promiscuous, flighty, and more than a little bit gay" according to research published in 2007.^ They are little more than pagans.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Obama supporter: ‘God delivered me from homosexuality’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is little more than the lowest of smears.

^ Perhaps they have only a little more room than the chickens in factory farms—room to turn around, for example.

[72]
Scientists at 15 aquariums studied 90 seahorses of 3 species. .Of 3168 sexual encounters, 37% were same sex acts.^ We now know that same-gender sex acts have been observed in a multitude of species from sea gulls to porcupines...
  • Homosexuality - Wikiquote 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What I said had nothing to do with Bestiality (having sex with animals), being a Pedophile, Adultry, or any other sexually explicit act you named.
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The usage here is not a single Hebrew word or idiom which can refer to any sex acts between the same gender.
  • Homosexuality and Christianity 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.jeramyt.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Flirting was common (up to 25 potential partners a day of both genders); only one species (the British Spiny Seahorse) included faithful representatives, and for these 5 of 17 were faithful, 12 were not.^ How might one account for these disparities in performance across species and between tasks?
  • Zentall HTML 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psyc.queensu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ SEXUAL ORIENTATION PYRAMID (from embryo masculinization of Body and Brain) (all embryos begin as femaleif its to be a male it needs to be masculinized in both body and brain, but sometimes only one or the other happens.

^ I suppose I would refuse any support to one of these options, because there are other ways and because both options are clearly harmful for the chimps their interests.
  • EthologicalEthics : Messages : 93-122 of 2466 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC pets.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .Bisexuality was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big bellied seahorses of both genders not showing partner preference.^ Foreword / John P. De Cecco -- Introduction : Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?
  • Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: X 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I hope the reader has noticed that I have explained homosexuality in both types of societies by reference to our kinship and gender systems - the same systems which explain heterosexual partner choices.
  • Chapter 6 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. Valdez: Sexuality preferences within a hermaphroditic species is of moot point precisely because both parties have dual-gender reproductive gear.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

[72] .1986 contacts were male-female, 836 were female-female and 346 were male-male.^ (Goodall 1986: 508-509) Eventually all of the males in the loser group were dead, along with some of the females; other females joined the winning group.
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, forms of cooperative hunting have been observed among chimps of Gombe, where a few females hunt along with the males (Goodall 1986: 286).
  • Evolution of Kinship and Gender 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC socio.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weight of both male and female mice depends on intrauterine position (Kinsley, Miele, Wagner, Ghiraldi, Broida, & Svare, 1986).
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller - Prenatal Sex Hormone Transfer 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]

Lions

.Male lions often lead their social groups jointly with one or more of their brothers.^ Twenty-four male wister rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of five (socially reared) for 6 weeks.
  • Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.earthpulse.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Often it is appropriate to include a placebo-treated male control group for comparison.
  • Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior -- Becker et al. 146 (4): 1650 -- Endocrinology 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This leads to the belief that homesexual molestors will molest more children than heterosexual ones, a greater percentage of heterosexuals are child molestors.
  • Homosexuality is a Sin and God Hates Sin! Homosexuality is an Abomination, Homosexuality = SIN! 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.freejesus.net [Source type: Original source]

.To ensure loyalty, the male co-leaders will "strengthen the bonds" by often having sex with each other.^ To ensure loyalty, they strengthen the bonds by often having sex with each other.
  • 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Original source]

^ SSAD [same sex attraction disorder] among males is mistrust of women’s love… Male children in fatherless homes often feel overly responsible for their mothers.
  • WordAlone - Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC wordalone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Homosexuality is the phenomenon of a person (male or female) preferring a partner of the same sex for sexual activity and intimate bonding.

[1]

Horses

.Anecdotal evidence suggest that some horses have environment or appearance preferences when selecting mates.^ Gender differences in mate selection preferences: A test of the parental investment model.
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The probable consanguineous nature of wolf groups and facets of the social behavior suggest that some form of group selection could be operative in the wild.

^ I am not aware of any evidence suggesting that Arab men of any period generally preferred marriage to pre-pubescent girls over marriage with sexually mature young women.
  • Armed and Dangerous » Blog Archive » Reinventing Homosexuality 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC esr.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is also anecdotal evidence [73] of limited bisexual behaviour in some stallions, although there is (as of 2008) no conclusive scientific confirmation.^ If there is no scientific evidence that being gay is genetic....
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no scientific evidence that anybody is born homosexual.
  • HOMOSEXUALITY DRASTICALLY SHORTENS YOUR LIFE : Stop The ACLU 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.stoptheaclu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No conclusive evidence has yet to be found.

.The anecdotal evidence claims this is most likely to occur in a single isolated group, with no access to mares.^ Chris Pyle, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine: Since our baboons are in single cages, and not grouped or free ranging, our environment differs from most in this discussion.
  • Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 39, Number 3 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.brown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps the most convincing evidence of formal analogical reasoning by a nonhuman animal in a cognitive manner analogous to that claimed for humans comes from Sarah, a chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ).
  • Zentall HTML 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC psyc.queensu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This is what is known in the empirical sciences as anecdotal evidence: Anecdotal evidence is based on single observations.
  • ...............EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY............. 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC evolpsychology.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Humboldt penguins

.In 2009 at a zoo in Bremerhaven, Germany, two gay adult humboldt penguins adopted an egg that had been abandoned by its biological parents.^ The adults laid eggs, but abandoned them.
  • animal behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate ".
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some researchers run behavioral assays only on animals from synchronized plates where adult hermaphrodites laid eggs over a two hour period (and then the parents were removed) to keep animal age constant.

.After the egg hatched, the two gay penguins raised, protected, cared for, and fed the chick in the same manner that heterosexual penguins raise their own biological offspring.^ Yeah I'm sure two Penguins raising a chick is very objectionable.
  • Banned Books Week 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ A zoo in Germany has now done what South Park failed to do with Mr. Garrison, have two gay penguins hatch an egg, and adopt it as their own chick successfully.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gay men [157] and lesbians are more verbally fluent than heterosexuals of the same sex [158] [159] [160] (but two studies did not find this result).
  • Homosexuality - LGBT Info 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]

Other evidence of interspecies sexual activity

.Looking back in history, current research into human evolution tends to confirm that in some cases, interspecies sexual activity may have been responsible for the evolution of entire new species.^ Handbook of the evolution of human sexuality .
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Language and life history: A new perspective on the development and evolution of human language.
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The evolution of human sexuality .
  • Spent - Geoffrey Miller - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: Academic]

Analysis of human and animal genes in 2006 provides strong evidence that after humans had diverged from other apes, interspecies mating nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool:
.
A new comparison of the human and chimp genomes suggests that after the two lineages separated, they may have begun interbreeding.^ Additionally, many people strongly associate the term ‘person’ with the word ‘human’ and may even use the words as synonyms when, in fact, they are not.
  • Ethos » Animal Studies 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC practicalethics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, in careful studies of human sexuality, both critical observations and controlled experimentation may take place, and hence the total weight of the evidence becomes important, especially when suggesting new hypotheses.
  • Welcome Committee Booklet 5: Does Homosexuality Have a Biological Basis? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.welcome-committee.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Because they also behave differently toward the two different predators, Marler and Evans suggest that the alarm cries functionally refer to the kind of predator approaching.
  • Animal Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[...] A principal finding is that the X chromosomes of humans and chimps appear to have diverged about 1.2 million years more recently than the other chromosomes.
The research suggests that:
.
There were in fact two splits between the human and chimp lineages, with the first being followed by interbreeding between the two populations and then a second split.^ You are, first and foremost, a human being.
  • Homosexuality is a Sin and God Hates Sin! Homosexuality is an Abomination, Homosexuality = SIN! 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.freejesus.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, there is population overabundance.
  • Why homosexuality is un-important in evolution - talk.origins | Google Groups 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a whole area of science now studying how genetics factor into attraction-- that a whole orchestra of genetic information is being exchanged in the first few seconds that two people meet, all very subconscious, all out of their control.
  • Change of Subject: Seven reasons why homosexuality is immoral, and seven answers 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: Original source]

The suggestion of a hybridization has startled paleoanthropologists, who nonetheless are "treating the new genetic data seriously."
The Washington Post comments, "If this theory proves correct, it will mean modern people are descended from something akin to chimp-human hybrids."[75]

Role in discussion of human sexuality

.Information about animal sexuality frequently arises as a persuasive device in arguments regarding human sexuality.^ It’s not about whether animals or humans are ‘better’.
  • Your View: Is Animal Testing Necessary? - Listverse 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 1980s, Reisman has exhaustively investigated and debunked the "research" of Kinsey, best known for his 1948 and 1953 books about human sexual behavior.
  • Exposing the Homosexual Agenda 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The special attention was spared to analysing the information characterising the high sensitiveness of the human and animals organism to the very-low intensity electromagnetic fields.
  • Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Animal Behavior 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.earthpulse.net [Source type: Academic]

.Originally, the lack of documented animal sexual behaviour deviant from heterosexual sexual monogamy was used to argue that the dominant heterosexual monogamy of most modern human societies is more natural and acceptable.^ AM Originally posted by Rocky1138 Humans are not more than mere animals.
  • Homosexuality: Genetics or Environment [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Human evolutionary psychology and animal behaviour.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH ON ANIMAL PERSONALITY & TEMPERAMENT 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC homepage.psy.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The concept and definition of dominance in animal behaviour.

.Likewise, the lack of documented sex between animals for the purpose of pleasure was used to promote the moral standard of reserving sex primarily for procreation.^ While men had sex with women for pleasure at times, it was mostly for the purpose of procreation.
  • Should be homosexuality considered as a sin? - CreateDebate 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.createdebate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lacking in moral standards?
  • Being Gay: A Life Style Choice? - LGBT Homosexuality And Bisexuality Meanings 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Immoral and moral uses of animals.

.Proponents of alternate sexuality attribute this early lack of documented evidence to an observer bias in researchers, who, they argue, tended to interpret sexual behaviour inconsistent with their values as other behaviour.^ This is Us, who has chosen this sexual bias.
  • Homosexuality « Paulo Coelho’s Blog 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC paulocoelhoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This does not mean they were sexual, in fact, but rather that someone -- in this case, someone in scripture who has a rather sordid track record :) -- accused one of them of being sexual.
  • Opposing Views: Is Homosexuality a Sin? 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.opposingviews.com [Source type: General]

^ People need to learn to accept people for who they are, not they're sexuality race or beleifs.
  • Homosexuality [Archive] - weebls-stuff forums 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC forum.weebls-stuff.com [Source type: Original source]

.With increasing published evidence of different types of sexual behaviour between animals, arguments for heterosexual monogamy in human society have moved towards characterizing these behaviours as resulting from differences between humans and animals, and in particular on ambiguity in motivation and subjective experience in animals, which is difficult to study.^ There is a big difference between humans and animals.
  • ksl.com - Logan man arrested for animal cruelty 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: General]

^ Animal in human societies.

^ Common fate between humans and animals?

.Arguments identifying human and animal behaviour are characterized as anthropomorphism, and in some cases an opposite observer bias is attributed to researchers.^ Some remarks on the human-animal relationship.

^ In some cases, some of these persons were identified.
  • Homosexual Agenda Gaining Ground In Barbados « Barbados Underground 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC bajan.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Human evolutionary psychology and animal behaviour.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH ON ANIMAL PERSONALITY & TEMPERAMENT 10 February 2010 10:15 UTC homepage.psy.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Supporters of alternate sexuality embrace the new research as confirmation of the naturalness of alternate sexual behaviour and evidence of its long-term feasibility and utility.^ Part III: The psychopharmacology of long-term aggression--toward an evidence-based algorithm.

^ Now, to the genetic predisposition….don’t believe there is any evidence to support there being a gene for sexuality.
  • How Does Our Church Approach…Homosexuality? — Shaun in the City 9 February 2010 14:14 UTC www.shauninthecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boccia, M.L. Long-term effects of a natural foraging task on aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pigtail macaques.
  • Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Nonhuman Primates 3 February 2010 17:40 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "1,500 animal species practice homosexuality". News-medical.net. 2006-10-23. http://www.news-medical.net/?id=20718. Retrieved 2007-02-19.  
  2. ^ Ågren, G., Zhou, Q. & Zhong, W. (1989). Ecology and social behaviour of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, at Xiliuhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Animal Behaviour, 37, 11-27.
  3. ^ Barash, D.P. (1981). Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots (Marmota caligata). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 9, 187-193.
  4. ^ a b Birkhead, T.R. & Møller, A.P. (1995). Extra-pair copulations and extra-pair paternity in birds. Animal Behaviour, 49, 843-848.
  5. ^ a b Birkhead, T.R. & Møller, A.P. (1996). Monogamy and sperm competition in birds. In J. M. Black (Ed.), Partnerships in Birds: The Study of Monogamy (pp. 323-343). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Foltz, D.W. (1981). Genetic evidence for long-term monogamy in a small rodent, Peromyscus polionotus. American Naturalist, 117, 665-675.
  7. ^ Gursky, S.L. (2000). Sociality in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. American Journal of Primatology, 51, 89-101.
  8. ^ Hasselquist, D. S. & Sherman, P.W. (2001). Social mating systems and extrapair fertilizations in passerine birds. Behavioural Ecology, 12, 457-466.
  9. ^ Hubrecht, R.C. (1985). Home range size and use and territorial behaviour in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus jacchus, at the Tapacura Field Station, Recife, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 6, 533-550.
  10. ^ Mason, W.A. (1966). Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus moloch: a preliminary report. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 13, 23-28.
  11. ^ McKinney, F., Derrickson, S.R., & Mineau, P. (1983). Forced copulation in waterfowl. Behaviour, 86, 250-294.
  12. ^ Reichard, U. (1995). Extra-pair Copulations in a Monogamous Gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology, 100, 99-112.
  13. ^ a b c Reichard, U.H. (2002). Monogamy—A variable relationship. Max Planck Research, 3, 62-67.
  14. ^ Richardson, P.R.K. (1987). Aardwolf mating system: overt cuckoldry in an apparently monogamous mammal. South African Journal of Science, 83, 405-412.
  15. ^ Welsh, D. & Sedinger, J.S. (1990). Extra-Pair copulations in Black Brant. The Condor, 92, 242-244.
  16. ^ Westneat, D.F. & Stewart, I.R.K. (2003). Extra-pair paternity in birds: causes, correlates, and conflict. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 365-396.
  17. ^ Owens, I.P.F. & Hartley, I.R. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism? Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B265, 397–407.
  18. ^ Solomon, N.G., Keane, B., Knoch, L.R., & Hogan, P.J. (2004). Multiple paternity in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82, 1667-1671.
  19. ^ Reichard, U.H. (2003). Monogamy: Past and present. In U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (Eds.), Monogamy: Mating strategies and parnternships in birds, humans, and other mammals (pp.3-25).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ a b c Barash, D.P. & Lipton, J.E. (2001). The Myth of Monogamy. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.
  21. ^ Mating for Life? It's Not for the Birds of the Bees - New York Times
  22. ^ Research conducted by Patricia Adair Gowaty. Reported by Morell, V. (1998). Evolution of sex: A new look at monogamy. Science, 281, 1982-1983.
  23. ^ Technically, polygyny in sociobiology and zoology is defined as a system in which a male has a relationships with more than one female, but the females are predominantly bonded to a single male.
  24. ^ This section and examples taken from:Robert Sapolsky Why Zebras Don't get Ulcers, p.140-141.
  25. ^ For example, masturbation, trial mounting, and other behaviours are regularly seen in male animals out of season
  26. ^ 2006 Danish Animal Ethics Council report: "The mucous membrane in the female animal’s vagina and the animal’s behaviour is under influence of its rut cycle. That means that the animal is physically and mentally more ready for sexual activities at some times than at others. But this does not mean that sexual activity will lead to injuries, fear or suffering, if it happens outside the rut period." (Danish: "Slimhinden i hundyrets vagina og dyrets adfærd er under indflydelse af dets brunstcyklus. Det betyder, at dyret er fysisk og mentalt mere parat til seksuelle aktiviteter på nogle tidspunkter end på andre. Men dette er ikke ensbetydende med, at den seksuelle aktivitet vil være forbundet med skader, angst og lidelse, hvis den foregår udenfor brunstperioden.") Report November 2006 (PDF)
  27. ^ Buried Pleasure
  28. ^ Danish Animal Ethics Council report Udtalelse om menneskers seksuelle omgang med dyr published November 2006. Council members included two academics, two farmers/smallholders, and two veterinary surgeons, as well as a third veterinary surgeon acting as secretary.
  29. ^ Danish: "Selv om det evolutionsmæssige formål med at parre sig kan siges at være reproduktion, er det ikke selve det, at dyrene får afkom, der i første omgang får dem til at parre sig. Det er til gengæld sandsynligt, at de parrer sig, fordi de er motiverede for selve parringsakten, og at denne er forbundet med en positiv oplevelse. Det er derfor rimeligt at antage, at der er en eller anden form for behag eller tilfredsstillelse forbundet med akten. Denne antagelse bekræftes af adfærden hos handyr, der for mange arters vedkommende er parate til at arbejde for at få adgang til hundyr, især hvis hundyret er i brunst, og handyr der i avlsøjemed er vant til at få tappet sæd – de viser stor ivrighed, når det udstyr, de forbinder med sædopsamlingen, tages frem." Report November 2006 (PDF)
  30. ^ Danish: "Der er intet ved hunpattedyrenes anatomi eller fysiologi, der modsiger, at stimulation af kønsorganerne og parring skulle kunne være en positiv oplevelse – fx fungerer klitoris på samme måde som hos kvinder. Videnskabelige undersøgelser har vist, at reproduktionssuccesen forbedres ved stimulation af klitoris på bl.a. køer og hopper i forbindelse med insemination, fordi det forbedrer sædtransporten pga. sammentrækninger af de indre kønsdele. Dette gælder sandsynligvis også hundyr af andre dyrearter, og sammentrækninger i de indre kønsdele ses fx også under orgasme hos kvinder. Det er derfor rimeligt at antage, at det seksuelle samvær kan være forbundet med en positiv oplevelse for hundyrene." Report November 2006 (PDF)
  31. ^ Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion
  32. ^ McDonnell, S.M., Henry, M., & Bristol, F. (1991). Spontaneous erection and masturbation in equids. Proceedings Vth International Equine Reproduction Symposium. J Reprod Fert Suppl, 44, 664-665.
  33. ^ Sexual Behaviour - Current Topics in Applied Ethology and Clinical Methods
  34. ^ Don't Hold Back
  35. ^ a b c d Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8
  36. ^ Min Tan; Gareth Jones, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, Shuyi Zhang, Libiao Zhang (October 28, 2009). "Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time". PLoS ONE 4 (10). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007595. Retrieved 11-08-2009.  
  37. ^ Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, St. Martin's Press, 1999; ISBN 0312192398
  38. ^ "Oslo gay animal show draws crowds". BBC News. 2006-10-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6066606.stm. Retrieved 2006-10-19.  
  39. ^ "Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate" by Dinitia Smith, San Francisco Chronicle, February 7, 2004
  40. ^ "The Volume of a Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference" by Charles E. Roselli, et al., The Endocrine Society, October 2, 2003
  41. ^ In BriefRams Will Be Rams
  42. ^ On the Originality of Species
  43. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7379554.stm "The seal then alternated between resting on the penguin, and thrusting its pelvis, trying to insert itself, unsuccessfully."
  44. ^ Haeberle (1978) states that sexual intercourse is not so very unusual between animals of different species as it is between humans and animals. Kinsey et al. (1948, p. 668) states "When one examines the observed cases of such crosses, and especially the rather considerable number of instances in which primates, including man, have been involved, one begins to suspect that the rules about intraspecific mating are not so universal as tradition would have it". Kinsey et al. (1953) further point out that genetic studies have shown the existence of a "large number" of inter-specific hybrids, that have occurred in the wild, and investigations (eg, Cauldwell, 1968; Ford & Beach, 1951; Harris, 1969; Masters, 1962; Ullerstam, 1966, etc) have found that interspecies mating is a "natural occurrence".' (Cited by Miletski, in her anthrozoological study of animal-human sexuality, 1999, p.51)
  45. ^ de Queiroz K (2005). "Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 Suppl 1: 6600–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502030102. PMID 15851674. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15851674.  
  46. ^ "Wild find: Half grizzly, half polar bear: Hunter bags what expert 'never thought would happen' in wild". MSNBC.MSN.com. May 11, 2006. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12738644/?GT1=8199. Retrieved 2006-05-14.  
  47. ^ Heavy Petting
  48. ^ "Penguins are turning to prostitution.". BBC. 1998-02-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/60302.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-12.  
  49. ^ Current Biology - Deaner M. O., Khera A. V. & Platt M. L. Curr. Biol. published online
  50. ^ Porn sparks panda baby boom in China: Research — and blue movies — attributed to record-high birth rate in 2006, Denis D. Gray, Associated Press, 4:58 p.m. ET Nov 27, 2006
  51. ^ N. Angier, New York Times 18 February 1992, "Dolphin courtship: brutal, cunning and complex", retrieved on 21 February 2009.
  52. ^ M. Ventura, 'The zoo where you're fed to God', L.A. Weekly 11-17 December 1992, p. 18
  53. ^ Making Love Can Be real Sacrifice: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/08/10/1060454080025.html?from=storyrhs, retrieved November 6 2007
  54. ^ R.O.Bailey, N. R. Seymour and G.R. Stewart, 'Rape behaviour in blue-winged teal', Auk 95 (1978), pp. 188-90. Also D.P. Barash, 'Sociobiology of rape in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): responses of the mated male;, Science197(19 August 1977) pp. 788-9
  55. ^ S.T. Emlen and P.H. Wrege 'Forced copulations and intraspecific parasitism: two costs of social living in the white-fronted bee-eater' Ethology 71 (1986) pp.2-29
  56. ^ The Times, 25 June 2007 p.25, and online at "Not tonight, not ever. I’ve got a headache. Don’t come near me"
  57. ^ An Elephant Crackup?, Charles Siebert, New York Times Magazine, October 8, 2006.
  58. ^ Doncarlos, Michael W., Petersen, Jay S., Tilson, Ronald L. (1986). "Captive biology of an asocial mustelid; Mustela erminea". Zoo Biology 5 (4): 363–370. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430050407.  
  59. ^ H. Kruuk, The Spotted Hyena, (University of Chicago Press, 1972), p. 232
  60. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2004). "Chimpanzees". The Ancestor's Tale. Houghton Mifflin.  
  61. ^ C.W. Moeliker. The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the mallard (page 243-247)
  62. ^ DEINSEA states on its website: "DEINSEA publishes original papers and short communications dealing with zoology, paleontology and (urban) ecology. Contributions that are entirely or partly based on material from the collection of the Natural History Museum Rotterdam (coll. NMR) and/or that are the result of research by NMR staff, have priority." The Mallard paper and photographs are available online as a summary and also the paper is available in PDF format.
    See also: MacLeod, Donald (2005-03-08). "Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers". The Guardian. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,9865,1432991,00.html. Retrieved 2006-04-05.  
  63. ^ MacLeod, Donald (2005-03-08). "Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers". The Guardian. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,9865,1432991,00.html. Retrieved 2006-04-05.  
  64. ^ National Geographic: Homosexual Activity Among Animals Stirs Debate [1]; Retrieved November 6 2007
  65. ^ Smith, Dinitia (7 February 2004). "Love That Dare Not Squeak Its Name". New York Times (New York). http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/07/arts/07GAY.html?pagewanted=1.  
  66. ^ Bagemihl, Bruce (1999): Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity: 479-481. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312192398
  67. ^ Leslie Newman. "Fighting to mate: flatworm penis fencing". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/episodes/hunt_explo2.html.  
  68. ^ The Volume of a Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference - Roselli et al. 145 (2): 478 - Endocr...
  69. ^ Sapolsky, Why Zebras don't get Ulcers, p.127-129.
  70. ^ Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate
  71. ^ a b Brian Unwin (2008-01-22). "'Tougher laws' to protect friendly dolphins". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/3322580/Tougher-laws-to-protect-friendly-dolphins.html.  
  72. ^ a b c d e Promiscuous and bisexual — the ‘faithful’ seahorse has a secret sex life
  73. ^ http://www.mini-horse.org/health_care_homo.html
  74. ^ 'Gay penguins' rear adopted chick, BBC, June 3, 2009
  75. ^ Two Splits Between Human and Chimp Lines Suggested (Published: May 18, 2006)

External links


Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms, even within the same species. Researchers have observed monogamy, promiscuity, sex between species, sexual arousal from objects or places, sex apparently via duress or coercion, copulation with dead animals, homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual sexual behaviour, and situational sexual behaviour and a range of other practices among animals other than humans. Related studies have noted diversity in sexed bodies and gendered behaviour, such as intersex and transgender animals.

The study of animal sexuality (and primate sexuality especially) is a rapidly developing field. It used to be believed that only humans and a handful of species performed sexual acts other than for procreation, and that animals' sexuality was instinctive and a simple response to the "right" stimulation (sight, scent). Current understanding is that many species that were formerly believed monogamous have now been proven to be promiscuous or opportunistic in nature; a wide range of species appear both to masturbate and to use objects as tools to help them do so; in many species animals try to give and get sexual stimulation with others where procreation is not the aim; and homosexual behaviour has now been observed among 1,500 species and in 500 of those it is well documented.[1]

Contents

Mating systems

In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The mating system specifies which males mate with which females, and under what circumstances.

The following are some of the mating systems generally recognised in humans and other animals:

  • Monogamy: One male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship.
  • Polygamy: A single individual concurrently carries a relationship/mates with one or more of the opposite sex. Three types are recognized:
    • Polygyny (the most common polygamous mating system in vertebrates so far studied): One male has an exclusive relationship with two or more females.
    • Polyandry: One female has an exclusive relationship with two or more males.
    • Polygynandry: Two or more individuals have an exclusive relationship with two or more individuals from the opposite sex; the numbers of males and females need not be equal, and in vertebrate species studied so far, there are usually fewer males.
  • Promiscuity: Any male and female will mate within the social group.

Monogamy

Zoologists and biologists now have solid evidence that monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with extra-pair partners[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] This includes previous exemplars such as swans. Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring. Genetic tests frequently show that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female mating with an extra-pair male partner.[4][5][17][18] These discoveries have led biologists to adopt new ways of talking about monogamy:

Social monogamy

Social monogamy refers to a male and female's social living arrangement (e.g., shared use of a territory, behaviour indicative of a social pair, and/or proximity between a male and female) without inferring any sexual interactions or reproductive patterns. In humans, social monogamy equals monogamous marriage. Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions. Finally, the term genetic monogamy is used when DNA analyses can confirm that a female-male pair reproduce exclusively with each other. A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e.g., sociosexual and sociogenetic monogamy describe corresponding social and sexual, and social and genetic monogamous relationships, respectively.
—Reichard, 2003, page 4[19]

Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous. Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.

Social monogamy is relatively rare in the animal kingdom. The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree. Over 90 percent of avian species are socially monogamous.[13][20]

This stands in contrast to mammals. Only 3 percent of mammalian species are socially monogamous, although up to 15 percent of primate species are socially monogamous.[13][20] Social monogamy has also been observed in reptiles, fish, and insects.

Sexual monogamy is also rare among animals. Many socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulations, making them sexually non-monogamous. For example, while over 90% of birds are socially monogamous, "on average, 30 percent or more of the baby birds in any nest [are] sired by someone other than the resident male."[21] Patricia Adair Gowaty has estimated that, out of 180 different species of socially monogamous songbirds, only 10 percent are sexually monogamous.[22]

The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species. For a few rare species, the incidence of genetic monogamy is 100 percent, with all offspring genetically related to the socially monogamous pair. But genetic monogamy is strikingly low in other species. Barash and Lipton note:

The highest known frequency of extra-pair copulations are found among the fairy-wrens, lovely tropical creatures technically known as Malurus splendens and Malurus cyaneus. More than 65 percent of all fairy-wren chicks are fathered by males outside the supposed breeding group.
—Barash & Lipton, 2001, page 12[20]

Such low levels of genetic monogamy have surprised biologists and zoologists, forcing them to rethink the role of social monogamy in evolution. They can no longer assume social monogamy determines how genes are distributed in a species. The lower the rates of genetic monogamy among socially monogamous pairs, the less of a role social monogamy plays in determining how genes are distributed among offspring. See also Evolution of Monogamy.

Polygamy

Polygamy is defined as a mating structure in which a single individual of one gender has exclusive access to several individuals of the opposite gender. It takes two main forms - polygyny and polyandry. As polygyny is the most common form of polygamy among vertebrates (including humans, to some extent), it has been studied far more extensively than polyandry.

Polygyny

In some species, notably those with harem male structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate.[23] Should the active male be driven out, killed, or otherwise removed from the group, in a number of species the new male will ensure that breeding resources are not wasted on another male's young.[24] The new male may achieve this in many different ways, including:

in lions and some monkeys, the new male will kill other young; therefore, the females, which are no longer nursing, rapidly become receptive again.
amongst wild horses and baboons, the male will "systematically harass" pregnant females until they miscarry.
in some rodents such as mice, a new male with a different scent will cause females who are pregnant to spontaneously fail to implant recently fertilized eggs. This does not require contact; it is mediated by scent alone. It is known as the Bruce-Parkes effect.

Promiscuity

Two examples of systems in primates are promiscuous mating chimpanzees and bonobos. These species live in social groups consisting of several males and several females. Each female copulates with many males, and vice versa. In bonobos, the amount of promiscuity is particularly striking because bonobos use sex to alleviate social conflict as well as to reproduce.

Seasonal nature of animal sexuality

Many animal species have specific mating (or breeding) seasons (seasonal breeding). These are often associated with changes to herd or group structure, and behavioural changes, including territorialism amongst individuals. These may be annual (e.g. wolves), biannual (e.g. dogs) or more frequently (e.g. horses). During these periods, females of most species are more mentally and physically receptive to sexual advances, a period scientifically described as estrous but commonly described as being "in season" or "in heat", but outside them animals still engage in sexual behaviours,[25] and such acts as do occur are not necessarily harmful.[26]

Interpretation of animal sexuality

The field of study of sexuality in non-human species has been a long standing taboo,[1] with researchers either failing to observe or mis-categorizing and mis-describing sexual behaviour which does not meet their preconceptions. (See: Observer bias.) More current research provides views such as that of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo, which in 2006 held an exhibition on animal sexuality:

Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles.
[1]

An example of overlooking behaviour relates to descriptions of giraffe mating:

When nine out of ten pairings occur between males, "[e]very male that sniffed a female was reported as sex, while anal intercourse with orgasm between males was only [categorized as] 'revolving around' dominance, competition or greetings.
[1]

Sex for pleasure

It is a common myth that animals do not (as a rule) have sex for pleasure, or alternatively that humans, pigs (and perhaps cats, dolphins and one or two species of primate) are the only species which do. This is sometimes formulated "animals mate only for reproduction".

Science cannot say at present conclusively what animals do or do not find "pleasurable", a question considered in more depth under Emotion in animals. The urban myth website Snopes.com considers this particular view in depth. Its conclusions are broadly that the statement is true, but only using a very specific definition of "sex for pleasure" [italics in original], in which sexual acts tied to a reproductive cycle or for which an alternative explanation can be asserted, are ignored, as is all sexual activity that does not involve penetration. Animals put themselves at risk to engage in sex, and as a result, most species have evolved sexual signals (usually scent and behaviour) to indicate the presence of receptive periods. During these, sex is sought, and outside these it is usually not sought (or is sought but not permitted). Snopes comments that this is not in fact a reflection of whether sex is pleasurable or not, but rather a reflection of whether individuals have sex at arbitrary times. They conclude:[27]

"Of course, we have to make many seemingly artificial distinctions to arrive at our conclusion. Animals other than humans have no awareness that their sexual activities are connected with reproduction: They engage in sex because they're biologically driven to do so, and if the fulfillment of their urges produces a physical sensation we might appropriately call 'pleasure,' it isn't the least bit affected by the possibility (or impossibility) of producing offspring. We are also discounting cases in which animals do engage in sex even though reproduction is an impossibility because we claim there are other 'purposes' (of which the animals themselves are unaware) at play. (For example, the females of some species of birds will invite males to mate with them even after they have laid their eggs, but we ascribe a purpose to this behaviour: this is a biological "trick" to fool males into caring for hatchlings they didn't father.) We also employ subjective terms such as 'willingly' and 'regularly' in claiming that bonobos and dolphins are the only other animals who "willingly (and regularly) engage in sex with each other" ... and even then it may be the case that these species have some other 'purpose' for doing so that we haven't yet discovered..."

A 2006 Danish Animal Ethics Council report[28] which examined current knowledge of animal sexuality in the context of legal queries concerning sexual acts by humans, has the following comments, primarily related to domestically common animals:

Even though the evolution-related purpose of mating can be said to be reproduction, it is not actually the creating of offspring which originally causes them to mate. It is probable that they mate because they are motivated for the actual copulation, and because this is connected with a positive experience. It is therefore reasonable to assume that there is some form of pleasure or satisfaction connected with the act. This assumption is confirmed by the behaviour of males, who in the case of many species are prepared to work to get access to female animals, especially if the female animal is in oestrus, and males who for breeding purposes are used to having sperm collected become very eager, when the equipment they associate with the collection is taken out.
[29]
There is nothing in female mammals’ anatomy or physiology, that contradicts that stimulation of the sexual organs and mating is able to be a positive experience. For instance, the clitoris acts in the same way as with women, and scientific studies have shown that the success of reproduction is improved by stimulation of clitoris on (among other species) cows and mares in connection with insemination, because it improves the transportation of the sperm due to contractions of the inner genitalia. This probably also concerns female animals of other animal species, and contractions in the inner genitals are seen e.g. also during orgasm for women. It is therefore reasonable to assume that sexual intercourse may be linked with a positive experience for female animals.
[30]

Types of activity

Autoeroticism (masturbation)

It appears that many animals, both male and female, masturbate, both when partners are available and otherwise.

For example, Petplace.com comments in its guide on assessing potential breeding stock purchases: "Masturbation is a normal behavior in all stallions that does not reduce semen production or performance in the breeding shed"[31] Likewise a review from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine says:

the behavior known within the horse breeding industry as masturbation. This involves normal periodic erections and penile movements. This behavior, both from the descriptive field studies cited above and in extensive study of domestic horses, is now understood as normal, frequent behavior of male equids.[32] Attempting to inhibit or punish masturbation, for example by tying a brush to the area of the flank underside where the penis rubs into contact with the underside, which is still a common practice of horse managers regionally around the world, often leads to increased masturbation and disturbances of normal breeding behavior.[33]
—Sue M. McDonnell, Sexual Behavior - Current Topics in Applied Ethology and Clinical Methods[34]

Castration does not prevent masturbation, as it is observed in geldings.[35] Masturbation is common in both mares and stallions, before and after puberty.

Sexual release seeking is common in both domestic and non-domestic species. For example, a video (non-explicit) showing a kangaroo masturbating, inadvertently caught during a TV broadcast, can be found here. Also, another video of a kangaroo performing autofellatio can be found here, and a dog balancing on rear legs in order to masturbate with both front paws, here.

The female porcupine has been observed to use a stick as a dildo, holding one end of a stick and walking around, straddling it as it bumped against the ground and vibrated against her genitalia.[36] Sexologist Havelock Ellis in his 1927 "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" identified bulls, goats, sheep, camels and elephants as species known to practice autoeroticism, adding of some other species:

I am informed by a gentleman who is a recognized authority on goats, that they sometimes take the penis into the mouth and produce actual orgasm, thus practicing auto-fellatio. As regards ferrets ... "if the bitch, when in heat, cannot obtain a dog [ie, male ferret] she pines and becomes ill. If a smooth pebble is introduced into the hutch, she will masturbate upon it, thus preserving her normal health for one season. But if this artificial substitute is given to her a second season, she will not, as formerly, be content with it." [...] Blumenbach observed a bear act somewhat similarly on seeing other bears coupling, and hyenas, according to Ploss and Bartels, have been seen practicing mutual masturbation by licking each other's genitals.

In his 1999 book, Biological exuberance, Bruce Bagemihl PhD documents (p. 71, 209-210) that:

Autoeroticism also occurs widely among animals, both male and female. A variety of creative techniques are used, including genital stimulation using the hand or front paw (primates, Lions), foot (Vampire Bats, primates), flipper (Walruses), or tail (Savanna Baboons), sometimes accompanied by stimulation of the nipples (Rhesus Macaques, Bonobos); auto-fellating or licking, sucking and/or nuzzling by a male of his own penis (Common Chimpanzees, Savanna Bonobos, Vervet Monkeys, Squirrel Monkeys, Thinhorn Sheep, Bharal, Aovdad, Dwarf Cavies); stimulation of the penis by flipping or rubbing it against the belly or in its own sheath (White-tailed and Mule Deer, Zebras and Takhi); spontaneous ejaculations (Mountain Sheep, Warthogs, Spotted Hyenas); and stimulation of the genitals using inanimate objects (found in several primates and cetaceans).
[37]
Many birds masturbate by mounting and copulating with tufts of grass, leaves or mounds of earth, and some mammals such as primates and Dolphins also rub their genitals against the ground or other surfaces to stimulate themselves.
[37]
Autoeroticism in female mammals, as well as heterosexual and homosexual intercourse (especially in primates), often involves direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris [...]. This organ is present in the females of all mammalian species and several other animal groups.
[37]

and that:

Apes and Monkeys use a variety of objects to masturbate with and even deliberately create implements for sexual stimulation [...] often in highly creative ways.
[37]

Petter Bøckman of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo commented (in respect of a 2006 exhibition on homosexuality in the animal kingdom) that:

Masturbation is common in the animal kingdom ... We have a Darwinist mentality that all animals only have sex to procreate. But there are plenty of animals who will masturbate when they have nothing better to do. Masturbation has been observed among primates, deer, killer whales and penguins, and we're talking about both males and females. They rub themselves against stones and roots. Orangutans are especially inventive. They make dildos of wood and bark.
[1]

Oral sex

Animals of several species are documented as engaging in both autofellatio and oral sex. Although easily confused by lay-people, this is a separate and sexually oriented behaviour, distinct from non-sexual grooming or the investigation of scents.

Auto-fellatio or oral sex in animals is documented in goats, primates, hyaenas, bats[38] and sheep (see section Masturbation for details).

Homosexual behaviour

File:Males Anas platyrhynchos 2 .jpg
Two male Mallards, Anas platyrhynchos. Mallards form male-female pairs only until the female lays eggs, at which time the male leaves the female. Mallards have rates of male-male sexual activity that are unusually high for birds, in some cases, as high as 19% of all pairs in a population.[39]

The presence of same-sex sexual behaviour was not scientifically observed on a large scale until recent times. Homosexual behaviour does occur in the animal kingdom outside humans, especially in social species, particularly in marine birds and mammals, monkeys, and the great apes. Homosexual behaviour has been observed among 1,500 species, and in 500 of those it is well documented.[40]

To turn the approach on its head: No species has been found in which homosexual behaviour has not been shown to exist, with the exception of species that never have sex at all, such as sea urchins and aphis. Moreover, a part of the animal kingdom is hermaphroditic, truly bisexual. For them, homosexuality is not an issue.
[1]

Georgetown University professor Janet Mann has specifically theorised that homosexual behaviour, at least in dolphins, is an evolutionary advantage that minimizes intraspecies aggression, especially among males.

  • Male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding. In 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertilized egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring.[41] German and Japanese zoos have also reported homosexual behaviour among their penguins. This phenomenon has also been reported at Kelly Tarlton's Aquarium in Auckland, New Zealand. "Humans have created the myth that sexuality can be justified only by reproduction, which by definition limits it to hetero sex," says Michael Bronski, author of The Pleasure Principle: Culture, Backlash, and the Struggle for Gay Freedom. "But here is an animal society that uses homosexuality to improve its social life."
  • Mounting of one female by another is common among cattle. (See also, Freemartin. Freemartins occur because of clearly causal hormonal factors at work during gestation.)
  • Bonobos in zoos. After studying the primates for his book Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape, primatologist Frans de Waal, a professor of psychology at Emory University in Atlanta, says that such expressions of intimacy are consistent with the homosexual behaviour of what he terms "the erotic champions of the world." "Same-sex, opposite-sex — bonobos just love sex play," de Waal said in an interview. "They have so much sex, it gets boring."
  • Homosexual behaviour in male sheep (found in 6-10% of rams) is associated with variations in cerebral mass distribution and chemical activity. A study reported in Endocrinology concluded that biological and physiological factors are in effect.[42] These findings are similar to human findings reported by Simon LeVay.
Approximately eight percent of [male] rams exhibit sexual preferences [that is, even when given a choice] for male partners (male-oriented rams) in contrast to most rams, which prefer female partners (female-oriented rams). We identified a cell group within the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of age-matched adult sheep that was significantly larger in adult rams than in ewes...
  • Male bighorn sheep are divisible into two kinds: the typical males among whom homosexual behaviour, including intercourse, is common and "effeminate sheep", or "behavioural transvestites", which are not known to engage in homosexual behaviour.[43][44]

Cross species sex

While it is commonly believed that animal sexuality is instinctive and thus somewhat mechanistic, research regularly records that many animals are sexual opportunists, partaking in sexual relations with individuals of visibly distinct species [45]. This is more visible in domesticated species and animals in captivity, as domestication commonly selects for increased breeding rate (and so an accelerated breeding cycle has commonly arisen in domesticated species over the centuries), and also because these species are more easily observed by humans. Nevertheless, animals have been observed in the wild to attempt sexual activity with other species or indeed inanimate objects. Attempts by wild moose to obtain sex from domestic horses are apparently well known by wildlife specialists.[citation needed]

In the wild, where observation is harder, genetic studies have shown a "large number" of inter-species hybrids, and other investigations describe productive and non-productive inter-species mating as a "natural occurrence".[46] Recent genetic evidence strongly suggesting this has occurred even within the history of the human species, and that early humans often had sexual activity with other primate species,[47] is considered below.

Hybrid offspring can result from two organisms of distinct but closely related parent species, although the resulting offspring is not always fertile. According to the definition of a species, if two organisms cannot or will not mate and produce a fertile offspring, they are different species.[48] The mule, for example (a horse/donkey cross) is normally sterile, whilst the liger (lion/tiger cross) has fertile females and sterile males.[citation needed] Novosibirsk zoo director Rostislav Shilo says on the liger (born in its zoo); "It’s just that the lion and the tiger live in neighboring caves in the Novosibirsk zoo, and got used to each other. It’s practically impossible in the wild"[citation needed].

Due to the difficulties of observation, interspecies sex of this kind between two top-level predators, occurring in the wild, was only conclusively documented with the finding of a grizzly-polar bear hybrid in April 2006[49]. Again, as with lions and tigers, the two species would normally not share enough common territory to provide adequate opportunity for much cross-species sexual activity[citation needed].

Animal sexual advances on, and attempted interactions with, humans and other species, have been documented by ethologists such as Kohler, Gerald Durrell and Desmond Morris, as well as authoritative researchers such as Birute Galdikas who studied orangutans in Borneo. Philosopher and animal welfare activist Peter Singer reports:

While walking through the camp with Galdikas, my informant was suddenly seized by a large male orangutan, his intentions made obvious by his erect penis. Fighting off so powerful an animal was not an option, but Galdikas called to her companion not to be concerned, because the orangutan would not harm her, and adding, as further reassurance, that 'they have a very small penis' ... though the orangutan lost interest before penetration took place.[50]

Prostitution

In some penguin species, the females, even when in a committed relationship, will exchange sexual favours with strange males for the pebbles they need to build their nests.[51]

Sexual fetishes

Although not often reported, animals, or primates at the least, are able to sexualize inanimate objects similar to the way human beings sexualize the objects of their sexual fetishes. Not only will an animal that has a habitual object for masturbation sometimes appear to sexualize that object, primates have generalized further to sexualize kinds of objects for which no instinctual or prior sexual connection exists.[citation needed]

Thus Gabriel, a chimpanzee at the Southwest National Primate Research Center, is said to have a shoe fetish (or possibly a leather fetish) according to caretaker Bert Barrera, and it is reported that:

A male chimpanzee raised in captivity developed a bit of a shoe fetish, masturbating obsessively by rubbing his caretaker's leather boot.

The sexualization of objects or locations is also well recognized in the breeding world. So for example, stallions may often 'drop' (become sexually aroused) upon visiting a location where they have been allowed to have sex before, or upon seeing a stimulus previously associated with sexual activity such as an artificial vagina.[citation needed]

In this case however, the primary structure is Pavlovian conditioning, and the fetishistic association is due to a conditioned response (or association) formed with a distinctive 'reward'. Human fetishism can also be traced back to similar or near-identical conditioning: likewise based upon the Pavlovian association between an erotic sensation or anticipation, and objects which become mentally associated with that activity.[citation needed]

Sexual imagery viewing

A study by Platt, Khera and Deaner at Duke University North Carolina (reported in Current Biology and online here), showed that male monkeys will give up privileges (in this case, juice, which is highly valued), to be allowed to see a female monkey's hindquarters.[52]

Deaner and his team reported that monkeys would take a juice cut to look at powerful males' faces or the perineum of a female, but to persuade the monkeys to stare at subordinate males, the researchers had to bribe them with larger drinks. "Virtually all [male] monkeys will give up juice to see female hindquarters ... they really value the images."

The researchers stress that in monkey society, such behaviours have great social utility and we should therefore not simply reach the conclusion that "monkeys enjoy pornographic pictures". There is no evidence at this point that viewable pictures or movies of sexual activity are valued for their sexual enjoyment, although as noted above (Masturbation), there are reports that watching sex in real life may have such an effect. The subject of animals and sexual imagery is not yet well researched.

Problems with encouraging pandas to mate in captivity have been very common. However, showing young male pandas "panda pornography" is widely credited with a recent population boom among pandas in zoos.[53]

Coercive sex

Controversial interpretations and implications aside (see Sociobiological theories of rape), sex in a forceful or apparently coercive context has also been documented in a variety of species. A notable example is bottlenose dolphins, where at times, a pod of bachelor males will 'corner' a female.[54] Furthermore, in a zoo where it is common practice to put newly captured dolphins in with dolphins who are established in their enclosures, other species of dolphin are never put in together with bottlenoses because the bottlenose dolphins frequently torment and rape them.[55] The behaviour is also common in some arachnids (spiders), notably those whose females eat the males during sex if not tricked with food and/or tied down with threads,[56] and in some herbivorous herd species or species where males and females are very different in size, where the male dominates sexually by sheer force and size.[citation needed]

Some species of birds appear to combine sexual intercourse with apparent violent assault; these include ducks,[57] geese, and white-fronted bee-eaters. According to Emlen and Wrege (1986)[58] forced copulations occur in this socially nesting species, and females must avoid the unwelcome attention of males as they emerge from their nest burrows or they are forced to the ground and mated with. Apparently, such attacks are made preferentially on females who are laying and who may thus mother their offspring as a result.

In 2007, research suggested that in the Acilius genus of water beetles (also known as "diving beetles"), an "evolutionary arms race" between the genders means that there is no courtship system for these beetles. "It's a system of rape. But the females don't take things quietly. They evolve counter-weapons." Cited mating behaviours include males suffocating females underwater till exhausted, and allowing only occasional access to the surface to breathe for up to six hours (to prevent them breeding with other males), and females which have a variety of body shapings (to prevent males from gaining a grip). Foreplay is "limited to the female desperately trying to dislodge the male by swimming frantically around."[59]

Charles Siebert reports in his New York Times article Elephant Crackup? that:

Since the early 1990’s, for example, young male elephants in Pilanesberg National Park and the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve in South Africa have been raping and killing rhinoceroses; this abnormal behaviour, according to a 2001 study in the journal Pachyderm, has been reported in ‘‘a number of reserves’’ in the region.
[60]

Sex between adults and juveniles

It has also been recorded that certain species of mole will impregnate newborns of their own species.[citation needed] It is not clear if this is forceful or not. Similarly, the male stoat (Mustela erminea) will mate with infant females of their species.[61] This apparently is a natural part of their reproductive biology - there is a delayed gestation period, so these females give birth the following year when they are fully grown.

A male spotted hyena which attempted to mate with a female which succeeded in driving it off, eventually turned to its ten-month-old cub, repeatedly mounting it and ejaculating on it. The cub sometimes ignored this and sometimes struggled 'slightly as if in play'. The mother did not intervene.[62]

Infants and children in Bonobo societies are often involved in sexual behaviour.[63]

Sexual cannibalism

Sexual cannibalism, which has been documented in arachnids, insects and amphipods, is a phenomenon in which a female organism kills and consumes the male before, during, or after copulation. Although it does confer some known advantages to reproduction, whether or not the male is complicit has not been scientifically determined.

Necrophilia

Necrophilia in animals is where a living animal engages in a sexual act with a dead animal. In one of the most well-known examples, Kees Moeliker of the Rotterdam Natural History Museum, Netherlands observed sexual activities[64] outside his office between a live duck and a dead one. Two male mallards which Moeliker believed were engaged in rape flight, a common motif in duck sexual behaviour, collided with his window. "When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback—well, didn't get any feedback," according to Moeliker, who described the event as "homosexual necrophilia." The case was reported scientifically in Deinsea 8-2001, along with photos.[65], and earned Moeliker an Ig Nobel Prize in biology, awarded for research that cannot or should not be reproduced.[66]

Additionally, male cane toads have been documented (in Cane Toads: An Unnatural History) engaging in copulation with dead toads and inanimate objects.

Notes on specific species

Bonobos

The Bonobo, which has a matriarchal society, is a fully bisexual species — both males and females engage in sexual behaviour with the same and the opposite sex, with females being particularly noted for engaging in sexual behaviour with each other and at up to 75% of sexual activity being nonreproductive. Primatologist Frans de Waal believes that Bonobos use sexual activity to resolve conflict between individuals.[67] Sexual activity occurs between almost all ages and sexes of Bonobo societies.[68]

Birds

Some black swans of Australia form sexually active male-male mated pairs and steal nests, or form temporary threesomes with females to obtain eggs, driving away the female after she lays the eggs. More of their cygnets survive to adulthood than those of different-sex pairs possibly due to their superior ability to defend large portions of land.

In early February 2004 the New York Times reported that a male pair of chinstrap penguins named Roy and Silo in the Central Park Zoo in New York City were partnered and had successfully hatched a female chick from an egg.[69] Other penguins in New York have also been reported to be forming same-sex pairs.[citation needed]

Zoos in Japan and Germany have also documented male penguin couples. The couples have been shown to build nests together and use a stone to replace an egg in the nest. Researchers at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, found twenty such pairs at sixteen major aquariums and zoos in Japan. Bremerhaven Zoo in Germany attempted to break up the male couples by importing female penguins from Sweden and separating the male couples; they were unsuccessful. The zoo director stated the relationships were too strong between the couples.[citation needed]

Recently, a mated pair of swans in Boston were found to both be female. They too had attempted to raise eggs together. [3]

Studies have shown that ten to fifteen percent of female western gulls in some populations in the wild prefer other females.

As many as 19% of Mallard pairs in a given population have been observed to consist of male-male homosexuals.[70]

Lizards

Whip-tailed lizard females have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis and as such males are rare and sexual breeding non-standard. Females engage in sexual behaviour to stimulate ovulation, with their behaviour following their hormonal cycles; during low levels of estrogen, these (female) lizards engage in "masculine" sexual roles. Those animals with currently high estrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles.

Lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fecundity than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviours. So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success.

From an evolutionary standpoint these females are passing their full genetic code to all of their offspring rather than the 50% of genes that would be passed in sexual reproduction. Certain species of gecko also reproduce by parthenogenesis.

Flatworm

Penis fencing is a mating behaviour engaged in by certain species of flatworm, such as Pseudobiceros bedfordi. Species which engage in the practice are hermaphroditic, possessing both eggs and sperm-producing testes.[71]

The species "fence" using two-headed dagger-like penises which are pointed, and white in color. One organism inseminates the other. The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilization.

Sheep

An October 2003, study by Dr. Charles E. Roselli et al. (Oregon Health & Science University) states that homosexuality in male sheep (found in eight percent of rams) is associated with a region in the rams' brains which the authors call the "ovine Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus" (oSDN) which is half the size of the corresponding region in other male sheep.

However, some view this study to be flawed in that the determination of homosexuality within the sheep, (sample population of twenty-seven for the study), was to have animals who were unable to mount female ewes placed in a cage with two stanchioned males and two unstanchioned females (that is, the males could not move or struggle while the females could). Given the aggressive nature of the sheep copulation, the uneven treatment of males and females, many see this as simply evidence that the sheep in question were unable to be aggressive enough to mount females. Some say that the results were situational sexuality, unlike the bonds seen in human homosexuality.

The scientists found that, "The oSDN in rams that preferred females was significantly larger and contained more neurons than in male-oriented rams and ewes. In addition, the oSDN of the female-oriented rams expressed higher levels of aromatase, a substance that converts testosterone to estradiol, an estrogen hormone believed to facilitate typical male sexual behaviours. Aromatase expression was no different between male-oriented rams and ewes."

"The dense cluster of neurons that comprise the oSDN express cytochrome P450 aromatase. Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression." These results suggest that "...naturally occurring variations in sexual partner preferences may be related to differences in brain anatomy and its capacity for estrogen synthesis."[72] As noted previously, given the potential unagressiveness of the male population in question, the differing aromatase levels may also have been evidence of aggression levels, not sexuality. The results of this study have not been confirmed by others.

Spotted Hyena

The female Spotted Hyena has a unique urinary-genital system, closely resembling the penis of the male, called a pseudo-penis. The family structure is matriarchal and dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females.

They are notable for using visible sexual arousal as a sign of submission and not dominance, in males as well as females (females have a sizable erectile clitoris), to the extent that biologist Robert Sapolsky speculates that in order to facilitate this, their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems may be partially reversed in respect to their reproductive organs.[73]

Bottlenose Dolphins

Bottlenose Dolphin males have been observed working in pairs to follow and/or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive. The same pairs have also been observed engaging in intense sexual play with each other.

Janet Mann, a professor of biology and psychology at Georgetown University, argues[74] that the common same-sex behaviour among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species evolutionarily. They cite studies that have shown the dolphins later in life are bisexual and the male bonds forged from homosexuality work for protection as well as locating females with which to reproduce.

In 1991 an English man was prosecuted for allegedly having sexual contact with a dolphin.[75] The man was found not guilty after it was revealed at trial that the dolphin was known to tow bathers through the water by hooking its large penis around them.[75]

Seahorses

Seahorses, long upheld as monogamous and mating for life, are identified as "promiscuous, flighty, and more than a little bit gay" according to research published in 2007.[76]

Scientists at 15 aquariums studied 90 seahorses of 3 species. Of 3168 sexual encounters, 37% were same sex acts.[76] Flirting was common (up to 25 potential partners a day of both genders); only one species (the British Spiny Seahorse) included faithful representatives, and for these 5 of 17 were faithful, 12 were not.[76] Bisexuality was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big bellied seahorses of both genders not showing partner preference.[76] 1986 contacts were male-female, 836 were female-female and 346 were male-male.[76]

Lions

Male lions often lead their social groups jointly with one or more of their brothers. To ensure loyalty, the male co-leaders will "strengthen the bonds" by often having sex with each other.[1]

Horses

Anecdotal evidence[citation needed] suggest that some horses have environment or appearance preferences when selecting mates. There is also anecdotal evidence [77] of limited bisexual behaviour in some stallions, although there is (as of 2008) no conclusive scientific confirmation. The anecdotal evidence claims this is most likely to occur in a single isolated group, with no access to mares.

Humboldt penguins

In 2009 at a zoo in Bremerhaven, Germany, two male adult humboldt penguins adopted an egg that had been abandoned by its biological parents. After the egg hatched, the two penguins raised, protected, cared for, and fed the chick in the same manner that heterosexual penguins raise their own biological offspring.[78]

Other evidence of interspecies sexual activity

Looking back in history, current research into human evolution tends to confirm that in some cases, interspecies sexual activity may have been responsible for the evolution of entire new species. Analysis of human and animal genes in 2006 provides strong evidence that after humans had diverged from other apes, interspecies mating nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool:

A new comparison of the human and chimp genomes suggests that after the two lineages separated, they may have begun interbreeding. [...] A principal finding is that the X chromosomes of humans and chimps appear to have diverged about 1.2 million years more recently than the other chromosomes.

The research suggests that:

There were in fact two splits between the human and chimp lineages, with the first being followed by interbreeding between the two populations and then a second split. The suggestion of a hybridization has startled paleoanthropologists, who nonetheless are "treating the new genetic data seriously."

The Washington Post comments, "If this theory proves correct, it will mean modern people are descended from something akin to chimp-human hybrids."[79]

A 1932 exploitation film, The Sex Life of a Gorilla, was based on supposed reports of primitive cults in Africa routinely having sexual relations with gorillas.

Role in discussion of human sexuality

Information about animal sexuality frequently arises as a persuasive device in arguments regarding human sexuality. Originally, the lack of documented animal sexual behaviour deviant from heterosexual sexual monogamy was used to argue that the dominant heterosexual monogamy of most modern human societies is more natural and acceptable. Likewise, the lack of documented sex between animals for the purpose of pleasure was used to promote the moral standard of reserving sex primarily for procreation. Proponents of alternate sexuality attribute this early lack of documented evidence to an observer bias in researchers, who, they argue, tended to interpret sexual behaviour inconsistent with their values as other behaviour.

With increasing published evidence of different types of sexual behaviour between animals, arguments for heterosexual monogamy in human society have moved towards characterizing these behaviours as resulting from differences between humans and animals, and in particular on ambiguity in motivation and subjective experience in animals, which is difficult to study. Arguments identifying human and animal behaviour are characterized as anthropomorphism, and in some cases an opposite observer bias is attributed to researchers. Supporters of alternate sexuality embrace the new research as confirmation of the naturalness of alternate sexual behaviour and evidence of its long-term feasibility and utility.

See also

References

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  3. ^ Barash, D.P. (1981). Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots (Marmota caligata). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 9, 187-193.
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  19. ^ Reichard, U.H. (2003). Monogamy: Past and present. In U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (Eds.), Monogamy: Mating strategies and parnternships in birds, humans, and other mammals (pp.3-25).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ a b c Barash, D.P. & Lipton, J.E. (2001). The Myth of Monogamy. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.
  21. ^ Angier, Natalie (1990-08-21). "Mating for Life? It's Not for the Birds of the Bees". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CEFDC143FF932A1575BC0A966958260. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  22. ^ Research conducted by Patricia Adair Gowaty. Reported by Morell, V. (1998). Evolution of sex: A new look at monogamy. Science, 281, 1982-1983.
  23. ^ Technically, polygyny in sociobiology and zoology is defined as a system in which a male has a relationships with more than one female, but the females are predominantly bonded to a single male.
  24. ^ This section and examples taken from:Robert Sapolsky Why Zebras Don't get Ulcers, p.140-141.
  25. ^ For example, masturbation, trial mounting, and other behaviours are regularly seen in male animals out of season
  26. ^ 2006 Danish Animal Ethics Council report: "The mucous membrane in the female animal’s vagina and the animal’s behaviour is under influence of its rut cycle. That means that the animal is physically and mentally more ready for sexual activities at some times than at others. But this does not mean that sexual activity will lead to injuries, fear or suffering, if it happens outside the rut period." (Danish: "Slimhinden i hundyrets vagina og dyrets adfærd er under indflydelse af dets brunstcyklus. Det betyder, at dyret er fysisk og mentalt mere parat til seksuelle aktiviteter på nogle tidspunkter end på andre. Men dette er ikke ensbetydende med, at den seksuelle aktivitet vil være forbundet med skader, angst og lidelse, hvis den foregår udenfor brunstperioden.") Report November 2006 (PDF)
  27. ^ Buried Pleasure
  28. ^ Danish Animal Ethics Council report Udtalelse om menneskers seksuelle omgang med dyr published November 2006. Council members included two academics, two farmers/smallholders, and two veterinary surgeons, as well as a third veterinary surgeon acting as secretary.
  29. ^ Danish: "Selv om det evolutionsmæssige formål med at parre sig kan siges at være reproduktion, er det ikke selve det, at dyrene får afkom, der i første omgang får dem til at parre sig. Det er til gengæld sandsynligt, at de parrer sig, fordi de er motiverede for selve parringsakten, og at denne er forbundet med en positiv oplevelse. Det er derfor rimeligt at antage, at der er en eller anden form for behag eller tilfredsstillelse forbundet med akten. Denne antagelse bekræftes af adfærden hos handyr, der for mange arters vedkommende er parate til at arbejde for at få adgang til hundyr, især hvis hundyret er i brunst, og handyr der i avlsøjemed er vant til at få tappet sæd – de viser stor ivrighed, når det udstyr, de forbinder med sædopsamlingen, tages frem." Report November 2006 (PDF)
  30. ^ Danish: "Der er intet ved hunpattedyrenes anatomi eller fysiologi, der modsiger, at stimulation af kønsorganerne og parring skulle kunne være en positiv oplevelse – fx fungerer klitoris på samme måde som hos kvinder. Videnskabelige undersøgelser har vist, at reproduktionssuccesen forbedres ved stimulation af klitoris på bl.a. køer og hopper i forbindelse med insemination, fordi det forbedrer sædtransporten pga. sammentrækninger af de indre kønsdele. Dette gælder sandsynligvis også hundyr af andre dyrearter, og sammentrækninger i de indre kønsdele ses fx også under orgasme hos kvinder. Det er derfor rimeligt at antage, at det seksuelle samvær kan være forbundet med en positiv oplevelse for hundyrene." Report November 2006 (PDF)
  31. ^ Bedford-Guaus, Dr. Sylvia. "Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion". www.petplace.com. http://www.petplace.com/horses/breeding-soundness-examination-of-the-stallion/page2.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-04. "Inspection of the penis may reveal the presence of infection, tumors or scar tissue resulting from the placement of stallion rings to prevent masturbation. Masturbation is a normal behavior in all stallions that does not reduce semen production or performance in the breeding shed, and thus the use of devices to prevent such behavior is strongly discouraged and can be harmful to the stallion." 
  32. ^ McDonnell, S.M., Henry, M., & Bristol, F. (1991). Spontaneous erection and masturbation in equids. Proceedings Vth International Equine Reproduction Symposium. J Reprod Fert Suppl, 44, 664-665.
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  34. ^ McDonnell, S. M.. "Specific Normal Behaviors of Domestic Horses That Are Misunderstood as Abnormal". Equine Behavior Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. http://research.vet.upenn.edu/HavemeyerEquineBehaviorLabHomePage/ReferenceLibraryHavemeyerEquineBehaviorLab/HavemeyerWorkshops/HorseBehaviorandWelfare1316June2002/HorseBehaviorandWelfare2/SexualBehaviorCurrentTopicsinAppliedEthol/tabid/3128/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  35. ^ McDonnell, S. M.; Diehl, N. K.; Garcia, M. C.; Kenney, R. M. (1989). "Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Affects Precopulatory Behavior in Testosterone-Treated Geldings". Physiology & Behavior 45: 145–148. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(89)90177-7. http://research.vet.upenn.edu/Portals/49/89gonadU.pdf. 
  36. ^ Don't Hold Back
  37. ^ a b c d Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8
  38. ^ Min Tan; Gareth Jones, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, Shuyi Zhang, Libiao Zhang (October 28, 2009). "Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time". PLoS ONE 4 (10): e7595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595. PMID 19862320. PMC 2762080. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007595. Retrieved 11-08-2009. 
  39. ^ Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, St. Martin's Press, 1999; ISBN 0312192398
  40. ^ "Oslo gay animal show draws crowds". BBC News. 2006-10-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6066606.stm. Retrieved 2006-10-19. 
  41. ^ "Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate" by Dinitia Smith, San Francisco Chronicle, February 7, 2004
  42. ^ "The Volume of a Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference" by Charles E. Roselli, et al., The Endocrine Society, October 2, 2003
  43. ^ In BriefRams Will Be Rams
  44. ^ On the Originality of Species
  45. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7379554.stm "The seal then alternated between resting on the penguin, and thrusting its pelvis, trying to insert itself, unsuccessfully."
  46. ^ Haeberle (1978) states that sexual intercourse is not so very unusual between animals of different species as it is between humans and animals. Kinsey et al. (1948, p. 668) states "When one examines the observed cases of such crosses, and especially the rather considerable number of instances in which primates, including man, have been involved, one begins to suspect that the rules about intraspecific mating are not so universal as tradition would have it". Kinsey et al. (1953) further point out that genetic studies have shown the existence of a "large number" of inter-specific hybrids, that have occurred in the wild, and investigations (eg, Cauldwell, 1968; Ford & Beach, 1951; Harris, 1969; Masters, 1962; Ullerstam, 1966, etc) have found that interspecies mating is a "natural occurrence".' (Cited by Miletski, in her anthrozoological study of animal-human sexuality, 1999, p.51)
  47. ^ Early humans had sex with chimps. Agençe France-Presse. 18 May 2006.
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  50. ^ Heavy Petting
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  52. ^ Current Biology - Deaner M. O., Khera A. V. & Platt M. L. Curr. Biol. published online
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  59. ^ The Times, 25 June 2007 p.25, and online at "Not tonight, not ever. I’ve got a headache. Don’t come near me"
  60. ^ An Elephant Crackup?, Charles Siebert, New York Times Magazine, October 8, 2006.
  61. ^ Doncarlos, Michael W., Petersen, Jay S., Tilson, Ronald L. (1986). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Captive biology of an asocial mustelid; Mustela erminea"]. Zoo Biology 5 (4): 363–370. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430050407. 
  62. ^ H. Kruuk, The Spotted Hyena, (University of Chicago Press, 1972), p. 232
  63. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2004). "Chimpanzees". The Ancestor's Tale. Houghton Mifflin. 
  64. ^ C.W. Moeliker. The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the mallard (page 243-247)
  65. ^ DEINSEA states on its website: "DEINSEA publishes original papers and short communications dealing with zoology, paleontology and (urban) ecology. Contributions that are entirely or partly based on material from the collection of the Natural History Museum Rotterdam (coll. NMR) and/or that are the result of research by NMR staff, have priority." The Mallard paper and photographs are available online as a summary and also the paper is available in PDF format.
    See also: MacLeod, Donald (2005-03-08). "Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers". London: The Guardian. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,9865,1432991,00.html. Retrieved 2006-04-05. 
  66. ^ MacLeod, Donald (2005-03-08). "Necrophilia among ducks ruffles research feathers". London: The Guardian. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,9865,1432991,00.html. Retrieved 2006-04-05. 
  67. ^ National Geographic: Homosexual Activity Among Animals Stirs Debate [1]; Retrieved November 6, 2007
  68. ^ Context and Development of Sexual Behavior of Wild Bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Zaire [2] ;Retrieved April 3, 2010
  69. ^ Smith, Dinitia (7 February 2004). "Love That Dare Not Squeak Its Name". New York Times (New York). http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/07/arts/07GAY.html?pagewanted=1. 
  70. ^ Bagemihl, Bruce (1999): Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity: 479-481. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312192398
  71. ^ Leslie Newman. "Fighting to mate: flatworm penis fencing". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/episodes/hunt_explo2.html. 
  72. ^ The Volume of a Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference - Roselli et al. 145 (2): 478 - Endocr...
  73. ^ Sapolsky, Why Zebras don't get Ulcers, p.127-129.
  74. ^ Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate
  75. ^ a b Brian Unwin (2008-01-22). "'Tougher laws' to protect friendly dolphins". London: The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/3322580/Tougher-laws-to-protect-friendly-dolphins.html. 
  76. ^ a b c d e Promiscuous and bisexual — the ‘faithful’ seahorse has a secret sex life
  77. ^ http://www.mini-horse.org/health_care_homo.html
  78. ^ 'Gay penguins' rear adopted chick, BBC, June 3, 2009
  79. ^ Two Splits Between Human and Chimp Lines Suggested (Published: May 18, 2006)

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Animal sexual behaviour, which are similar to those in the above article.








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