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Ankara
Top: Anıtkabir;
Center left: Atakule Tower, Center middle: Grand National Assembly of Turkey meeting place, Center right: Ethnography Museum and equestrian statue of Atatürk;
Bottom: Kızılay Square.
Motto: Heart of Turkey[citation needed]
Ankara is located in Turkey
Ankara
Location of Ankara
Coordinates: 39°52′N 32°52′E / 39.867°N 32.867°E / 39.867; 32.867
Country Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Ankara
Government
 - Mayor İ. Melih Gökçek (AKP)
 - Governor Kemal Önal
Area
 - Total 2,516.00 km2 (971.4 sq mi)
Elevation 850 m (2,789 ft)
Population (2007)[1]
 - Total 3,763,591
 Density 1,551.00/km2 (4,017.1/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 06x xx
Area code(s) 0312
Licence plate 06
Website http://www.ankara.bel.tr/

Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of 850 metres (2,790 ft), and as of 2007 the city had a population of 4,751,360, which includes eight districts under the city's administration.[1] Ankara also serves as the capital of Ankara Province.

As with many ancient cities, Ankara has gone by several names over the ages: The Hittites gave it the name Ankuwash before 1200 BC.[2][3] The Galatians and Romans called it Ancyra. In the classical, Hellenistic, and Byzantine periods it was known as Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra, meaning Anchor) in Greek. The city was also known in the European languages as Angora after its conquest by the Seljuk Turks in 1073, and continued to be internationally called with this name until it was officially renamed Ankara with the Turkish Postal Service Law of 1930.[4]

Centrally located in Anatolia, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. It is the center of the Turkish Government, and houses all foreign embassies. It is an important crossroads of trade, strategically located at the centre of Turkey's highway and railway networks, and serves as the marketing centre for the surrounding agricultural area. The city was famous for its long-haired Angora goat and its prized wool (mohair), a unique breed of cat (Angora cat), white rabbits and their prized wool (Angora wool), pears, honey, and the region's muscat grapes.

The historical center of Ankara is situated upon a steep and rocky hill, which rises 150 m (492 ft) above the plain on the left bank of the Ankara Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya (Sangarius) river. The city is located at 39°52'30" North, 32°52' East (39°52′30″N 32°50′00″E / 39.875°N 32.8333°E / 39.875; 32.8333Coordinates: 39°52′30″N 32°50′00″E / 39.875°N 32.8333°E / 39.875; 32.8333), about 351 km (218 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul, the country's largest city. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, which is 72 m2 per head.[5]

Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. The hill which overlooks the city is crowned by the ruins of the old castle, which adds to the picturesqueness of the view, but only a few historic structures surrounding the old citadel have survived to our date. There are, however, many finely preserved remains of Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine architecture, the most remarkable being the Temple of Augustus and Rome (20 BC) which is also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum.[6]

Contents

History

Hittite artifacts on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hatti civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey.)

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Ancient history

The oldest settlements in and around the city centre of Ankara belong to the Hatti civilization which existed during the Bronze Age. The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, (the capital of Phrygia), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was actually far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge.[7]

Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydian and later by Persian rule, though the strongly Phrygian character of the peasantry remained, as evidenced by the gravestones of the much later Roman period. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire amongst his generals, Ankara and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus.

Another important expansion took place under the Greeks of Pontos who came there around 300 BC and developed the city as a trading centre for the commerce of goods between the Black Sea ports and Crimea to the north; Assyria, Cyprus, and Lebanon to the south; and Georgia, Armenia and Persia to the east. By that time the city also took its name Áγκυρα (Ànkyra, meaning Anchor in Greek) which in slightly modified form provides the modern name of Ankara.

Celtic history

The Dying Gaul was a famous statue commissioned in some time between 230 BC and 220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BCE. Capitoline Museums, Rome.

In 278 BC, the city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by the Celtic race of Galatians, who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centres, the headquarters of the Tectosages tribe. Other centres were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, and Tavium, to the east of Ankara, for the Tolstibogii tribe. The city was then known as Ancyra. The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers; a warrior aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. However, the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia for many centuries. At the end of the 4th century AD, St. Jerome, a native of Galatia, observed that the language spoken around Ankara was very similar to that being spoken in the northwest of the Roman world near Trier.

Roman history

The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire. Now the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia, Ancyra continued to be a center of great commercial importance. Ankara is also famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. The ruins of Ancyra still furnish today valuable bas-reliefs, inscriptions and other architectural fragments.

Augustus decided to make Ancyra one of three main administrative centres in central Anatolia. The town was then populated by Phrygians and Celts—the Galatians who spoke a language closely related to Welsh and Gaelic. Ancyra was the center of a tribe known as the Tectosages, and Augustus upgraded it into a major provincial capital for his empire. Two other Galatian tribal centres, Tavium near Yozgat, and Pessinus (Balhisar) to the west, near Sivrihisar, continued to be reasonably important settlements in the Roman period, but it was Ancyra that grew into a grand metropolis.

Ancyra was the capital of the Celtic kingdom of Galatia, and later of the Roman province with the same name, after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC.

An estimated 200,000 people lived in Ancyra in good times during the Roman Empire, a far greater number than was to be the case from after the fall of the Roman Empire until the early twentieth century. A small river, the Ankara Çayı, ran through the centre of the Roman town. It has now been covered over and diverted, but it formed the northern boundary of the old town during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Çankaya, the rim of the majestic hill to the south of the present city center, stood well outside the Roman city, but may have been a summer resort. In the 19th century, the remains of at least one Roman villa or large house were still standing not far from where the Çankaya Presidential Residence stands today. To the west, the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station, while on the southern side of the hill, it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University. It was thus a sizeable city by any standards and much larger than the Roman towns of Gaul or Britannia.

Ancyra's importance rested on the fact was that it was the junction point where the roads in northern Anatolia running north-south and east-west intersected. The great imperial road running east passed through Ankara and a succession of emperors and their armies came this way. They were not the only ones to use the Roman highway network, which was equally convenient for invaders. In the second half of the 3rd century, Ancyra was invaded in rapid succession by the Goths coming from the west (who rode far into the heart of Cappadocia, taking slaves and pillaging) and later by the Arabs. For about a decade, the town was one of the western outposts of one of the most brilliant queens of the ancient world, the Arab empress Zenobia from Palmyra in the Syrian desert, who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to set up a short-lived state of her own.

In the Temple of Augustus and Rome (commonly known as Monumentum Ancyranum) in Ulus, the primary intact copy of Res Gestae written by the first Roman Emperor Augustus survives.

The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire under the Emperor Aurelian in 272. The tetrarchy, a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian (284-305), seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum (now Eskişehir).

In its heyday, Roman Ankara was a large market and trading center but it also functioned as a major administrative capital, where a high official ruled from the city's Praetorium, a large administrative palace or office. During the 3rd century, life in Ancyra, as in other Anatolian towns, seems to have become somewhat militarised in response to the invasions and instability of the town. In this period, like other cities of central Anatolia, Ankara was also undergoing Christianisation.

Early martyrs, about whom little is known, included Proklos and Hilarios who were natives of the otherwise unknown village of Kallippi, near Ancyra, and suffered repression under the emperor Trajan (98-117). In the 280s AD we hear of Philumenos, a Christian corn merchant from southern Anatolia, being captured and martyred in Ankara, and Eustathius.

As in other Roman towns, the reign of Diocletian marked the culmination of the persecution of the Christians. In 303, Ancyra was one of the towns where the co-Emperors Diocletian and his deputy Galerius launched their anti-Christian persecution. In Ancyra, their first target was the 38-year-old Bishop of the town, whose name was Clement. Clement's life describes how he was taken to Rome, then sent back, and forced to undergo many interrogations and hardship before he, and his brother, and various companions were put to death. The remains of the church of St. Clement can be found today in a building just off Işıklar Caddesi in the Ulus district. Quite possibly this marks the site where Clement was originally buried. Four years later, a doctor of the town named Plato and his brother Antiochus also became celebrated martyrs under Galerius. Theodotus of Ancyra is also venerated as a saint.

The Column of Julianus, now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra in 362.

However, the persecution proved unsuccessful and in 314 Ancyra was the center of an important council of the early church; which considered ecclesiastical policy for the reconstruction of the Christian church after the persecutions, and in particular the treatment of 'lapsi'—Christians who had given in and conformed to paganism during these persecutions.

Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia in Asia Minor, during the 4th century. The first, an orthodox plenary synod, was held in 314, and its 25 disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance. Nine of them deal with conditions for the reconciliation of the lapsi; the others, with marriage, alienations of church property, etc.

Though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement's day, it may still have been the majority religion. Twenty years later, Christianity and monotheism had taken its place. Ancyra quickly turned into a Christian city, with a life dominated by monks and priests and theological disputes. The town council or senate gave way to the bishop as the main local figurehead. During the middle of the 4th century, Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ, and a form of Arianism seems to have originated there.

The synod of 358 was a Semi-Arian conciliabulum, presided over by Basil of Ancyra. It condemned the grosser Arian blasphemies, but set forth an equally heretical doctrine in the proposition that the Son was in all things similar to the Father, but not identical in substance. In 362-363, the Emperor Julian the Apostate passed through Ancyra on his way to an ill-fated campaign against the Persians, and according to Christian sources, engaged in a persecution of various holy men. The stone base for a statue, with an inscription describing Julian as "Lord of the whole world from the British Ocean to the barbarian nations", can still be seen, built into the eastern side of the inner circuit of the walls of Ankara Castle. The Column of Julian which was erected in honor of the emperor's visit to the city in 362 still stands today. In 375, Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops, among them St. Gregory of Nyssa. The modern Ankara, also known in some Western texts as Angora, remains a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Galatia in Asia Minor, suffragan of Laodicea. Its episcopal list is given in Gams, "Series episc. Eccl. cath."; also that of another Ancyra in Phrygia Pacatiana.

In the later 4th century Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort. After Constantinople became the East Roman capital, emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra. Theodosius II (408-450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. The city's military as well as logistical significance lasted well into the long Byzantine rule. Although Ancyra temporarily fell into the hands of several Arab Muslim armies numerous times after the seventh century, it remained an important crossroads polis within the Byzantine Empire until the late 11th century. It was also the capital of the powerful Opsician Theme, and after ca. 750 of the Bucellarian Theme.

Turkish history

In 1071, the Turkish Seljuk Sultan Alparslan conquered much of eastern and central Anatolia after his victory at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). He then annexed Ankara, an important location for military transportation and natural resources, to his territory in 1073. After Battle of Kösedağ in 1243 which Mongols defeated Seljuks, most of Anatolia became dominion of Mongols. Taking advantage of Seljuk decline, a semi religious cast of craftsmen and trade people named Ahiler chose Ankara as their independent city state in 1290. Orhan I, the second Bey of the Ottoman Empire, captured the city in 1356. Timur defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and took the city, but in 1403 Ankara was again under Ottoman control.

Dikmen Valley Towers.
Armada Tower in the center and Halkbank Tower in the background.

Following the Ottoman defeat at World War I, the Ottoman capital Istanbul and much of Anatolia were occupied by the Allies, who planned to share these lands between Armenia, France, Greece, Italy and the United Kingdom, leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. In response, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, established the headquarters of his resistance movement in Ankara in 1920 (see the Treaty of Sèvres and the Turkish War of Independence.) After the War of Independence was won and the Treaty of Sèvres was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. A few days earlier, Ankara had officially replaced Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) as the new Turkish capital city, on 13 October 1923.

After Ankara became the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey, new development divided the city into an old section, called Ulus, and a new section, called Yenişehir. Ancient buildings reflecting Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman history and narrow winding streets mark the old section. The new section, now centered around Kızılay, has the trappings of a more modern city: wide streets, hotels, theaters, shopping malls, and high-rises. Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new section.

Ankara has experienced a phenomenal growth since it was made Turkey's capital. It was "a small town of no importance"[8] when it was made the capital of Turkey. In 1924, the year after the government had moved there, Ankara had about 35,000 residents. By 1927 there were 44,553 residents and by 1950 the population had grown to 286,781.

A view of Ankara, with Atakule Tower seen at left.

Climate

Ankara has a continental climate, with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Under Köppen's climate classification, Ankara features the rare Continental Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) [9] due to its elevation, the forementioned cold, snowy winters and hot dry summers and peaks of precipitation during the spring and autumn. It borders on a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) due to the low 416.7 mm (16 in) average annual precipitation. Because of Ankara's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Ankara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11
(52)
17
(63)
27
(81)
27
(81)
31
(88)
38
(100)
37
(99)
42
(108)
33
(91)
30
(86)
21
(70)
17
(63)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 1
(34)
4
(39)
10
(50)
15
(59)
20
(68)
24
(75)
27
(81)
28
(82)
24
(75)
18
(64)
10
(50)
4
(39)
16
(61)
Average low °C (°F) -6
(21)
-5
(23)
-1
(30)
3
(37)
6
(43)
9
(48)
12
(54)
12
(54)
8
(46)
3
(37)
-1
(30)
-3
(27)
3
(37)
Record low °C (°F) -31
(-24)
-31
(-24)
-27
(-17)
-7
(19)
-6
(21)
2
(36)
3
(37)
3
(37)
-2
(28)
-8
(18)
-18
(-0)
-25
(-13)
-31
(-24)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
31
(1.22)
36
(1.42)
51
(2.01)
52
(2.05)
39
(1.54)
17
(0.67)
15
(0.59)
18
(0.71)
32
(1.26)
36
(1.42)
48
(1.89)
415
(16.34)
Avg. snowy days 13 10 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 42
Avg. precipitation days 16 15 15 17 17 13 7 5 5 10 12 16 148
Source: Weatherbase [10]

Demographics

Central Ankara has a population of 3,763,591 (2007) of which 1,870,831 are men and 1,892,760 are women. The metropolitan municipality, containing the central part of the city and the remaining balance of the 8 districts under its jurisdiction, had a total population of 3,901,201 the same year.[1]

Population of Ankara
Year Population
2007 3,901,201
2000 3,703,362
1990 2,583,963
1985 2,251,533
1970 1,209,000
1965 906,000
1960 646,000
1955 453,000
1950 287,000
1927 75,000

Attractions

Museums

Anıtkabir, Atatürk's mausoleum.
A Hattian artifact,[11] from the 3rd millennium BC, in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
is located on an imposing hill, Anıttepe quarter of the city, where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, stands. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. Anıtkabir is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays.
This museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard, in the Ulus district. There is a fine collection of folkloric as well as Seljuk- and Ottoman-era artifacts.
Situated at the entrance of Ankara Castle, it is an old "bedesten" (covered bazaar) that has been beautifully restored and now houses a unique collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian, and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures.
This museum is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions.
This building, located on Ulus Square, was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit.
The museum is near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut. It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force (e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre, F-100 Super Sabre, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-104 Starfighter, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160.) Also, a Hungarian MiG-21, a Pakistani MiG-19, and a Bulgarian MiG-17 are on display in the museum.

Archeological sites

Ankara Citadel

Ankara Citadel walls.

The foundations of the citadel or castle were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop, and the rest was completed by the Romans. The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. There are also recreational areas to relax. Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine.

The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927-1952 and 1983-1989.[12]

Roman Theatre

The remains, the stage, and the backstage can be seen outside the castle. Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (see above). The seating area is still under excavation.

Temple of Augustus and Rome

The temple, also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum, was built between 25 BC - 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire and the formation of the Roman province of Galatia, with Ancyra (modern Ankara) as its administrative capital. After the death of Augustus in 14 AD, a copy of the text of Res Gestae Divi Augusti was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. The temple, on the ancient Acropolis of Ancyra, was enlarged by the Romans in the 2nd century. In the 5th century it was converted into a church by the Byzantines. It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city.

Roman Bath

This bath has all the typical features of a classical Roman bath: a frigidarium (cold room), tepidarium (warm room) and caldarium (hot room). The bath was built during the reign of Emperor Caracalla in the 3rd century AD to honour Asclepios, the God of Medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain. It is situated in the Ulus quarter.

Column of Julian

The column, popularly known among the locals as the Belkıs Minaresi (literally the "Queen of Sheba Column", for reasons unknown), was erected to commemorate a visit to Ancyra by the Roman emperor Julian in A.D. 362. The Corinthian capital dates to the 6th century; the stork's nest, a permanent crowning feature, is of more recent vintage.

Mosques

  • The Alaaddin Mosque
It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuk ruler, Mesut.
  • Ahi Elvan Mosque
The mosque was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.
  • Hacı Bayram Mosque[13]
This mosque, in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus, was built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style by an unknown architect. It was subsequently restored by architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century, with Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427-28). The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m2 (4,704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m2 (2,831 sq ft) on the second floor.
  • Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque
This the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone (red porphyry), an example of very fine workmanship. Yeni Cami is on Ulucanlar Avenue.
This is the largest and most notable mosque in the city. Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city.

Historic buildings

Modern monuments

Kızılay Square is the heart of Ankara.

Victory Monument

Erected in 1927 on Zafer Square in the Sıhhiye quarter, it depicts Atatürk in uniform.

Monument to a Secure, Confident Future

This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself."

The monument was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknote of 1937-1952[14] and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939-1946.[15]

Hatti Monument

Built in the 1970s on Sıhhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti gods and commemorates Anatolia's earliest known civilization. The symbol derived from this monument has been used as the logo of the city for a long time.

Parks

Göksu Park in Eryaman.
Gençlik Park in central Ankara.

Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Park (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical Garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi Park, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park.

Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1952-1976.[16]

Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery. It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature. There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki, Greece. Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream, fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası, Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm.

Shopping

Interior view of Karum Shopping & Business Center.
Armada Shopping Center in Ankara was selected as "Europe's Best Shopping Mall" by the ICSC in 2003, becoming the second mall in Turkey after Akmerkez in Istanbul (Europe's Best 1995, World's Best 1996) to win this prestigious award.

Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce.

Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies (Karum) that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in the Atakule Tower at Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city, which commands a magnificent view over the whole city and also has a revolving restaurant at the top where the complete panorama can be enjoyed in a more leisurely fashion. The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor, and there's a large anchor monument at its entrance, as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city, Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra), which means anchor. Likewise, the anchor is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada, which means naval fleet.

As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir Road. The Armada and CEPA malls on the highway, the Galleria in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.) There is also the newly expanded Ankamall at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region.

Culture and education

The historical Evkaf Apartmanı in which the Head Office of the Turkish State Theaters is situated. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro and Oda Tiyatrosu.

Turkish State Opera and Ballet, the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues:

  • Ankara Opera House (Opera Sahnesi, also known as Büyük Tiyatro)
  • Leyla Gencer Sahnesi (named after world-famous soprano Leyla Gencer)
  • Operet Sahnesi (also known as the Türkocağı Binası)

The Turkish State Theatres also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city:

In addition the city is served by several private theatre companies among which Ankara Sanat Tiyatrosu who have their own stage in the city centre is a notable example.

Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras:

There are four concert halls in the city:

The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals:

  • Ankara Film Festivali (Ankara Film Festival)
  • Ankara Uluslararası Müzik Festivali (International Ankara Music Festival)
  • Ankara Tiyatro Festivali (Ankara Theatre Festival)
  • Ankara Caz Festivali (Ankara Jazz Festival)

Universities

Part of the METU campus, as seen from its MM Building.

Ankara is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to. These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country:

Transportation

Ankara rapid transit network.

Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is the main airport of Ankara.

Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal (Turkish: Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi, AŞTİ) is an important part of the bus network which covers every neighbourhood in the city.

The central train station, "Ankara Garı" of the Turkish State Railways (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları, TCDD), is an important hub connecting the western and eastern parts of the country. High-speed rail services are to be operated between Ankara and Istanbul, beginning in 2009.

The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO)[18] operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation. Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway lines with about 300,000 total daily commuters, and three additional subway lines are under construction.

Sports

As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara. The city has four football clubs currently competing in the Turkcell Super League: Ankaragücü founded in 1910 is the oldest club in Ankara and associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Their rival is Gençlerbirliği founded in 1923 known as Ankara Wind or the Poppies because of their colours: red and black. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. Gençler's B team, Hacettepe SK (formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) has been allowed to ascend to the Super League along with its A team as long as they have 2 different chairmen. All these three teams have their home at the Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium in Ulus, which has a capacity of 21,250 (all-seater).[19] The fourth team is owned by the Municipality, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor who are nicknamed the Leopards. Their home is the Yenikent Asaş Stadium in the Sincan district of Yenikent, outside the city center.

Ankara has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels: Bugsaşspor in Sincan; Etimesgut Şekerspor in Etimesgut; Türk Telekom owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle; Demirspor in Çankaya; Keçiörengücü, Keçiörenspor, Pursaklarspor, Bağlumspor in Keçiören; and Petrol Ofisi Spor.

In the Turkish Basketball League, Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom, whose home is the ASKI Sport Hall, and CASA TED Kolejliler, whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall.

Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı is where the ice skating and ice hockey competitions take place in the city.

There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s. Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Fauna

Angora cat

Angora cat

Ankara is home to a world famous cat breed — the Turkish Angora, called Ankara kedisi (Ankara cat) in Turkish. It is a breed of domestic cat. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally-occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure. There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians, and the Turkish Angora is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van. Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, currently there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur. They come in tabby and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.)

Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green. The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. However, a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors.

Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back.

Angora rabbit

Angora rabbit

The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı) is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft hair. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 1700s, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century. They first appeared in the United States in the early 1900s. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, combing, or plucking (gently pulling loose wool.)

Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly.[20] Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat.

Angora goat

Angora goat

The Angora goat (Turkish: Ankara keçisi) is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses, roughly in 1500 BC.[21] The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton.

The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair. A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. The United States, Turkey, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair.

For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Now Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber.

Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938-1952.[22]

Ankara image gallery

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Ankara is twinned with:[23] of Ankara are listed below:

Notable people from Ankara

Religious figures

See also

References

Bibliography

  1. "Members of Staff of the Museum" (2006). Guide book to The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Ankara: "The association for the support and encouragement of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations." Dönmez offset (Printer). ISBN 978-9751721983. 

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Türkiye istatistik kurumu Address-based population survey 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-09.
  2. ^ Judy Turman: Early Christianity in Turkey
  3. ^ Saffet Emre Tonguç: Ankara (Hürriyet Seyahat)
  4. ^ Tore Kjeilen (2004-09-03). "Ankara". I-cias.com. http://i-cias.com/e.o/ankara.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  5. ^ Municipality of Ankara: Green areas per head
  6. ^ "LacusCurtius • Monumentum Ancyranum". Penelope.uchicago.edu. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Augustus/Res_Gestae/home.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  7. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.1., "Ancyra was actually older even than that."
  8. ^ Columbia Lippincott Gazeteer
  9. ^ World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15, No.3, 259-263 (June 2006)© Gebrüder Borntraeger 2006. http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pdf/metz_15_3_0259_0263_kottek_wm.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  10. ^ "Historical Weather for Ankara, Turkey". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=82171&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  11. ^ Ceremonial standard, bronze, Alacahöyük, second half of the third millenium BC. Height 24 cm (9 in). The Guide Book to the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 2006, p.71
  12. ^ The citadel was depicted in the following Turkish banknotes:
    • On the obverse of the 1 lira banknote of 1927-1939 (1. Emission Group - One Turkish Lira - I. Series).
    • On the obverse of the 5 lira banknote of 1927-1937 (1. Emission Group - Five Turkish Lira - I. Series).
    • On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1927-1938 (1. Emission Group - Ten Turkish Lira - I. Series).
    • On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1938-1952 (2. Emission Group - Ten Turkish Lira - I. Series).
    • On the reverse of the 100 lira banknotes of 1983-1989 (7. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - I. Series & II. Series).
    Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum. – Links retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  13. ^ SonTech Yazılım. ": Hacı Bayram-ı Veli :. hacıbayramveli, hacı bayramveli, haci bayrami veli, hacıbayram, nasihatleri, hacı bayram cami, hayatı, hacıbayram-ı veli". Hacibayramiveli.com. http://www.HaciBayramiVeli.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  14. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group - Five Turkish Lira - I. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  15. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group - One Thousand Turkish Lira - I. Series & II. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  16. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 5. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - I. Series, II. Series, III. Series, IV. Series, V. Series & VI. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  17. ^ "Index of /". Boorkestrasi.com. http://www.boorkestrasi.com/. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  18. ^ "EGO Genel Müdürlüğü". Ego.gov.tr. http://www.ego.gov.tr. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  19. ^ World Stadiums: Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium
  20. ^ "Angora Rabbit Breeds - How to Care for Your Angora Rabbit". http://www.joyofhandspinning.com/angora-care.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  21. ^ Angora Goats history
  22. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum:
    2. Emission Group - Fifty Turkish Lira - I. Series;
    3. Emission Group - Fifty Turkish Lira - I. Series & II. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  23. ^ "Ankara Metropolitan Municipality: Sister Cities of Ankara". © 2007 Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Kullanım Koşulları & Gizlilik.. http://www.ankara-bel.gov.tr/AbbSayfalari/hizmet_birimleri/dis_dairesi_baskanligi/avrupa_gunu_kutlamasi.aspx. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  24. ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  25. ^ "Twin towns of Minsk". © 2008 The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. http://minsk.gov.by/cgi-bin/org_ps.pl?k_org=3604&mode=doc&doc=3604_2_a&lang=eng. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  26. ^ daenet d.o.o.. "Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. http://www.sarajevo.ba/en/stream.php?kat=160. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  27. ^ "Tbilisi Municipal Portal - Sister Cities". © 2009 - Tbilisi City Hall. http://www.tbilisi.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG&sec_id=4571. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  28. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. http://www.tirana.gov.al/common/images/International%20Relations.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Ankara: Kizilay square
Ankara: Kizilay square

Ankara is the capital city of Turkey and the second largest city in the country after Istanbul. It is located at the heart of both Turkey and Central Anatolia. The population is around 3.5 million.

Understand

The locals are generally helpful to tourists, and many young people can communicate in English. Although most people will try to speak English with you, it's a good idea to bring a Turkish phrasebook or dictionary. Ankara is the administrative center of Turkey and a huge university town such that most of its inhabitants consist of civil servants, students and academics. Ankara, generally has hot summers (though the nights are cool enough to make someone who is wearing only a thin t-shirt uncomfortable outdoors) and cold and snowy winters. So don't forget to bring your pullover in the summer too!

Get in

By Plane

Ankara Esenboğa International Airport (ESB) is located some 28 km northeast of the city. International flights are rather low in frequency and scope - apart from Turkish Airlines (THY), only Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines and British Airways offer direct flights to their respective European hubs. Iran Air also has two weekly flights to Tehran. For other carriers flying into Turkey, a flight into Istanbul is necessary, followed by an air transfer to Ankara by Turkish Airlines.

EasyJet also offers discount flights to and from Istanbul and Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in the summer months (until October 25th) and to and from Istanbul and London Luton airport all year round for fares as low as £22.

The brand-new airport was opened in 2007. It features many more gates, a more orderly parking system, and in general, better traffic flow. The road connecting Ankara's airport to the ring road has also been fully renovated.

Airport buses are operated by HAVAŞ through the city center reaching Ulus (the historical center of the city, close to the museums and baths), and AŞTİ (where the intercity buses depart from to almost all the cities in Turkey). The price is 10 YTL.

By Train

Being in a central location in Turkey, Ankara is also the centre of the Turkish rail network and can be reached from many cities. The train trip from Istanbul to Ankara takes around 5 hours and 36 minutes and involved changing from one of the older express trains from Istanbul to Eskişehir onto the new high speed rail link to Ankara. Tickets are cheaper than the bus and the journey is more comfortable.

The overnight train to and from Istanbul is surprisingly affordable and saves the cost of a night's lodging. Reserve a cabin in advance if you prefer sleeping in a bed to sleeping in a seat.

If you are traveling from places other than Istanbul, you will find buses fast, inexpensive, and modern. Watch out for the drivers spraying your hands with lemon cologne if you do not like it.

By Bus

The buses reach AŞTİ (Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmeleri) standing for Ankara Intercity Terminal. Most of the cities in Turkey have direct buses to the capital of Turkey, and buses are much faster than trains in Turkey. From Istanbul to Ankara, the bus trip takes around 5 hours.

Get around

[1]

The city has a two-line subway and a dense public bus network.

Anıtkabir, Kemal Atatürk's mausoleum
Anıtkabir, Kemal Atatürk's mausoleum
Atakule Tower in Çankaya, Ankara.
Atakule Tower in Çankaya, Ankara.
Column of Julian the Apostate
Column of Julian the Apostate
Kocatepe
Kocatepe
  • Anıtkabir, open daily, museum open daily except Mondays - situated on an imposing hill in the Anittepe quarter of the city is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, completed in 1953. A museum nearby displays a large collection of Atatürk memorabilia and paraphernalia
  • Atakule Tower
  • Citadel
  • Roman Theatre
  • Temple of Augustus
  • Roman Bath
  • Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi), Gözcü Sokak 2, Ulus (on the way to the citadel from Ulus), +90 312 324 31 60 (, fax: +90 312 311 28 39), [2]. Display of artifacts remained from Asia Minor/Anatolian civilizations. Oldest artifacts in display date back to Paleolithic. This museum is one of the best in Turkey and it makes Ankara worthwile to visit  edit
  • Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi)
  • Painting and Sculpture Museum (Resim-Heykel Müzesi)
  • War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi)

Do

Ankara offers a good selection of cinemas both in Kavaklidere and Cankaya (including Atakule) and several concert halls for classical music and opera. Many universities promote concerts and spring festivals but these are sometimes open to their students only. Folk and traditional music is very alive, from small bars and restaurants to big concert halls where you can find local stars like Musa Eroglu. Depending on your interests, you can find trekking in local parks and in the surroundings, visiting the museums or hunting for the Ottoman or Selçuk remains in the ancient castle. Upscale shopping centers like Armada along the Eskisehir road also offer cinemas and quality restaurants.

Buy

Ankara's Castle (Kale) has been a trade center for centuries, and its sellers of carpets, leather and antiquities are slowly moving upwards hoping to attract the tourist trade. It's still a delicious place for walking and browsing, and there are family firms where you can buy, for a price, excellent carpets and kilims. Walking down from the Castle you can walk through the covered market, an iron structure reminiscent of places like Les Halles in Paris, where you can buy very cheap and excellent produce.

Eat

Ankara is best known with its "döner kebap". In order to pick a good döner restaurant (there are many) you should take a look at the döner round. it should be rectangular and the cuts must be flat and separated.

Like many other capitals, Ankara is where you can eat the best and the freshest fish of the country all around the year (not the cheapest, though). Around Sakarya str., there are various types of fish restaurants, from fast food to stylish ones and it can be a good opportunity to also try rakı, which is known as a companion of fish. But fish restaurants abound in the city; in Cankaya there are at least two excellent ones, "Akdeniz Akdeniz" and "Lazoli" featuring the first Mediterranean and the second Black Sea cuisine. "Ege", located close to Tunali street, is another excellent choice for fish and raki. The restaurant has also a variety of wines. If you want to listen good Turkish Classical Music while you eat and drink raki, then "Sudem" should be seen. It is located on Olgunlar Street.

Besides many classic iskender kebab restaurants there are also many restaurant featuring the traditional cuisine of a specific city, catering to the community of more affluent immigrants: from the spicy Urfa to the variety of vegetables coming with Adana kebab.

Drink

"Papsi" is a good choice to take a cold beer in a friendly atmosphere for years. It is located on Tunali Street. "Kitir" and newer "Random" are two other most popular bars, adjacent to Kugulu Park, also in Tunali. Corvus is on Bestekar Street offering Rock Music. There are many bars and places to drink on that street which is parallel to Bestekar. The Edge, Twister, Yer Fistigi (turkish music) are nice places. Locus Solus on Kennedy Street is a unique place with electronic, reggae or retro (offering different kinds of music) also for eating. On the same street Mono is pleasant place to drink. "If" is where you can drink and dance till 4 a.m. There normally are rock cover bands and a huge crowd, especially on Friday and Saturday nights.

"Sakarya" is full of the cheapest solutions. Do not go into SSK building, though. It is a huge and ugly building full of night club of a rather cheap taste. Among the best places in Sakarya, one should note "Net", which is a good choice not only take a glass of beer or raki, but also to eat. "Buyuk Ekspres" is also a nice old bar of the town. "Park Avenue" -in Konutkent district- is the new street for classy bars,cafes and night clubs. You can find Kitir also in "Park Avenue". Istanbul's fashionable night club Sortie has also opened in this avenue and is a nice place to drink any kind of drinks and listen to latest club mixes. Narquilla is a great place to have your nargile while drinking beer and enjoying nice food. Also, there are meyhanes (tavern) in which fixed menus are served with drinks and classic Turkish music played. There are bars and restaurants also in the historic core of Ankara, close to citadel. You definitely have to go and return by taxi though.

Sleep

The Sheraton Hotel, located in the Kavaklıdere district, is the most visible and glitzy hotel in Ankara (and has the prices to prove it). Around the corner from the Sheraton lies the Hilton, which is a bit past its prime but still a very acceptable place to stay.

The Radisson (located in Ulus, near the train station), the Swissotel (located on an obscure back alley in in Çankaya) and the Ramada (in Kavaklıdere, on fashionable Tunalı Hilmi street) are recent entrants, and offer very new-looking rooms that are nevertheless a tad smaller than those at the Sheraton or Hilton.

Independent hotels of note include the King Hotel (behind the Parliament, near the American Embassy), and Hotel Midas and Hotel Gold (both north of Kavaklidere on Tunus Caddesi).

Angora House in the Citadel district is a charming boutique hotel in an Ottoman era house.

In terms of budget accommodation, a number of cheap hotels can be found along Sanayi Caddesi, just north of Ulus Meydan: a double (en suite) at such hotels lists for 40-80YTL per night. Note that rates are usually negotiable and may or may not include breakfast.

  • Crowne Plaza Ankara Hotel, Mevlana Bulvarı No: 2, 06330, Akköprü, [3]. Located next door to the 300000 square meter shopping center Ankamall.  edit
  • Beypazarı is famous with its traditional houses, mineral water, Bazaar and of course bakery which is called Beypazari Kurusu. It is a quite a lot for a small Anatolian town which make them tourism attraction of the area. You must spare a weekend. You will not regret it.
  • Gordion is one of the most important ancient cities in Turkey and is 96 km west from Ankara in Yassihoyuk. The city had been home for Hittites,Phyrigians, Persians, Greeks and Romans since 3000 B.C. The remnants of the city are displayed in Gordion Museum and Anatolian Civilizations Museum in Ulus.
  • Ankara is a reasonably convenient place to base yourself if you want to travel Anatolia, Cappadocia or the Black Sea coast and a growing number of tour operators and related service industries are catering to tourists. There is accommodation here at all levels, with prices pegged below those of Istanbul or the south coast, and the new bus station (AŞTİ) is probably the most useful transport hub in Turkey with services to just about anywhere that's feasible (Lebanon is only 16 hours away, if you're feeling adventurous).
Routes through Ankara
BursaEskişehir  W noframe S  AksarayAdana
IstanbulBolu ← Merges with  N noframe S  ENDS
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

See also ankara

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

  • Angora (former English spelling)

Etymology

From Latin Ancyra (capital of ancient Galatia), from Ancient Greek Ἄγκυρα (Ankura), from ἄγκυρα (ankura), anchor).

Proper noun

Ankara

  1. The capital of Turkey.

Translations


Bosnian

Proper noun

Ankara f.

  1. Ankara, the capital city of Turkey

Lithuanian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Ankara

Wikipedia lt

Proper noun

Ankara f.

  1. Ankara, the capital city of Turkey

Declension


Polish

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Ankara f.

  1. Ankara

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Ankara
Genitive Ankary
Dative Ankarze
Accusative Ankarę
Instrumental Ankarą
Locative Ankarze
Vocative Ankaro

Derived terms

  • ankarczyk m., ankarka f.
  • adjective: ankarski

Serbian

Proper noun

Ankara f.

  1. Ankara, the capital city of Turkey

See also


Turkish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: ['ɑn.kɑ.ɾɑ]

Proper noun

Ankara

  1. Ankara

Declension

Derived terms


Simple English

Ankara is the capital city of the country of Turkey. It is located in the center of Anatolia. Ankara is the second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a population of 4,319,167 (2005) (Province 5,153,000), and an elevation of 938 meters (3080 feet).[1] It was formerly known as Angora or Engürü, and in Roman as Ancyra, and in classical and Hellenistic periods as Άγκυρα Ánkyra. The city is also the capital of Ankara Province.

References

  1. Ankara, Turkey: Latitude, Longitude and Altitude

bjn:Angkara


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