Anne of Austria: Wikis

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For the queen consort of Sigismund III of Poland, see Anna of Austria (1573-1598)
For the queen consort of Philip II of Spain, see Anna of Austria (1549-1580)
For other women named Anne of Austria, see Anna of Austria (disambiguation)
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1625
Queen consort of France and Navarre
Tenure 24 November 1615 – 14 May 1643
Spouse Louis XIII of France
Issue
Louis XIV of France
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
House House of Habsburg
House of Bourbon
Father Philip III of Spain
Mother Margaret of Austria
Born 22 September 1601(1601-09-22)
Benavente Palace, Valladolid, Spain
Died 20 January 1666 (aged 64)
Paris, France

Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666) was Queen consort of France and Navarre and regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. During her regency (1643–1651) Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister.

Contents

Early life

Ana and her brother, the future Philip IV of Spain by Bartolomé González y Serrano (1612)

Born at Benavente Palace in Valladolid, Spain, and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the daughter of Habsburg parents, Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. She was styled Infanta of Spain and of Portugal, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Burgundy and of the Low Countries.

Anne was betrothed at age 10 to Louis XIII. On 24 November 1615, they were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elizabeth, and Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux. These marriages followed the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants, between Hendaye and Fuenterrabía.

Life in France

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Marriage

Anne was a noted equestrian.She was also lively and beautiful.
Anne in her later years.

Anne and Louis, both 14 years old, were pressured to consummate the marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as Queen of France, without any deference to her daughter-in-law. Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French.

In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year. During the years he was in the ascendancy, the duc de Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen. He sent away the Spanish ladies and replaced them with French ones, notably the princesse de Conti and Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, his wife, and organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances. Anne began to dress in the French manner, and in 1619 Luynes pressed the King to bed his Queen: some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during a serious illness of the Queen.

A series of miscarriages disenchanted the King and served to chill their relations. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second miscarriage, for which Louis blamed her and was angry with Mme de Luynes for having encouraged the Queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the King had less tolerance for the influence the duchesse de Luynes had over Anne, and the situation deteriorated after the death of Luynes (December 1621). The King's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the Queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion, center of all court intrigue, to her lover, the duc de Chevreuse, in 1622.

House of Habsburg
Spanish line
Escudo de Armas de Felipe II de España.svg
Emperor Charles V
(King Charles I)
Children
Philip II of Spain
Maria, Holy Roman Empress
Joan of Spain
Don John (illegitimate)
Margaret of Parma (illegitimate)
Philip II
Children include
Carlos, Prince of Asturias
Isabella of Spain
Catherine, Duchess of Savoy
Philip III of Spain
Maria of Spain
Philip III
Children include
Anne, Queen of France
Philip IV of Spain
Maria Ana, Holy Roman Empress
Infante Carlos
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Philip IV
Children include
Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias
Maria Theresa, Queen of France
Margaret, Holy Roman Empress
Charles II of Spain
Charles II

Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor; Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on two fronts, inevitably created tension between himself and Anne, who remained childless for another sixteen years, while Louis depended ever more on Richelieu, who was his first minister from 1624.

Under the influence of la Chevreuse, the Queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies. Vague rumors of betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement with the conspiracies of the comte de Chalais that La Chevreuse organized in 1626, then of the king's treacherous lover, Cinq-Mars, who had been introduced by Richelieu.

In 1635, France declared war on Spain, placing the Queen in an untenable position. Her secret correspondence with her brother Philip IV of Spain passed beyond the requirements of sisterly affection. In August 1637, Anne was suspected, with enough cause that Richelieu forced her to sign covenants regarding her correspondence, which was henceforth open to inspection. The duchesse de Chevreuse was exiled and close watch was kept on the Queen.

Birth of an heir

Anne with her sons: the future King Louis XIV of France, and Philippe I, Duke of Orléans.

Surprisingly, in such a climate of distrust, the Queen was soon pregnant once more, a circumstance that contemporary gossip attributed to a single stormy night that prevented Louis from travelling to Saint-Maur and obliged him to spend the night with the queen[1]. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638, securing the Bourbon line.

The birth soon afterwards of a second son failed to reestablish confidence between the royal couple. It was at Saint-Germain-en-Laye that Anne gave birth to her second son; Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou and later the founder of the modern House of Orléans.

Richelieu made Louis a gift of his palatial hôtel, the Palais Cardinal, north of the Louvre in 1636, but the King never took possession: Anne fled the Louvre to install herself there with her two small sons, and remained as Regent (hence the name Palais-Royal the structure still carries) Louis tried to prevent Anne from obtaining the regency after his death, which came in 1643, not long after that of Richelieu.

Regent of France

Anne was named regent upon her husband's death. With the aid of Pierre Séguier, she had the Parlement de Paris revoke the will of the late king, which would have limited her powers. Their four-year-old son was crowned King Louis XIV of France. Anne assumed the regency but to general surprise entrusted the government to the chief minister, Jules Cardinal Mazarin, who was a protegé of Richelieu and figured among the council of the regency. Mazarin left the hôtel Tuboeuf to take up residence at the Palais Royal near Queen Anne. Before long he was believed to be her lover, and, it was hinted, even her husband.

Anne with her niece and daughter-in-law, Maria Theresa of Spain, and grandson, Louis.

With Mazarin's support, Anne overcame the revolt of aristocrats, led by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, that became known as the Fronde. In 1651, when her son Louis XIV officially came of age, her regency legally ended. However, she kept much power and influence over her son until the death of Mazarin.

Later life

In 1659, the war with Spain ended with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. The following year, peace was cemented by the marriage of the young King to Anne's niece, the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Theresa of Spain.

In 1661, on the death of Mazarin, Anne, always a principal patron of the Compagnie du Saint-Sacrament. It was in that year that an heir to the throne was born, her first grandchild Louis de France. Many children would follow but all would die apart from Louis. Some time after, Anne retired to the Compagnie's convent of Val-de-Grâce where she later died of breast cancer. Her lady-in-waiting, Madame de Motteville wrote the story of the queen's life in her Mémoires d'Anne d'Autriche. Many view her as a brilliant and cunning woman and she is one of the central figures in Alexandre Dumas, père's novel, The Three Musketeers.

Ancestors

Gallery

In arts

She is one of the central figures in Alexandre Dumas's novel, The Three Musketeers.

References

  1. ^ In fact the couple spent the week of 23 to 30 November 1637 together at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the presumed time of the conception of the Dauphin Louis Dieudonné
Anne of Austria
Born: 22 September 1601 Died: 20 January 1666
French royalty
Preceded by
Marie de' Medici
Queen consort of France
24 May 1615–14 May 1643
Succeeded by
Maria Theresa of Spain
Queen consort of Navarre
24 November 1615–1620
Unification
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Infante Philip
Princess of Portugal
1601–1605
Succeeded by
Infante Philip

Simple English

Anne of Austria
Queen consort of France

File:Anned'
Reign November 24, 1615 - May 14, 1643
Spouse Louis XIII of France
Issue
Louis XIV
Philippe, Duke of Orléans
House House of Habsburg
House of Bourbon
Father Philip III of Spain
Mother Margaret of Austria
Born 22 September 1601(1601-09-22)[1]
Benavente Palace, Valladolid, Spain
Died January 20, 1666 (aged 64)[1]
Louvre, Paris, France

Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), Anne d’Autriche in French, was Queen consort of France and Navarre. She also acted as a regent for her son, Louis XIV of France.[2] During her regency (1643–1651) Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister.

Contents

Life

Early life

The birth of Anne of Austria was at Benavente Palace in Valladolid, Spain. She came into the world just five days before her future husband, Louis XIII.[3] She was baptized Ana María Mauricia. She was the oldest daughter of Habsburg parents, Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria.[1] She was called the Infanta of Spain and of Portugal, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Burgundy and of the Low Countries. Anne's mother died early at the Valladolid.[3] She died after giving birth to a third daughter, Marguerite.[3] Anne was 11 years old when she was betrothed to Louis XIII.[3] Her father, Philip, gave her a dowry of 500,000 crowns. He also gave her a great number of beautiful jewels.[3] They had some fears that Louis XIII would die early.[3] Anne's father said that if this happened, Anne must return to Spain with her dowry, jewels, and wardrobe.[3] Shortly after, on November 1615, Anne and Louis were married separately, but to one another. This is called a proxy marriage. They were both 14 years old.

Marriage life

Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to be the Queen of France. She did not discuss things with her daughter-in-law. Anne, with her Spanish ladies-in-waiting, continued to live according to Spanish custom. She failed to improve her French.

The duc de Luynes tried to make the queen and king closer. He sent away the Spanish ladies and hired French ones instead. Some of the more famous ones are the princesse de Conti and Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the duchesse de Chevreuse. She was his wife. He also organized court events that would bring the queen and king together more happily. Anne began to dress in the French manner.

However, a number of 'wretched miscarriages' again made their relations cold. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on the stairs. She suffered her second miscarriage. Louis angrily blamed her. He was also upset with Mme de Luynes for not being careful enough. After this, the King grew to dislike the influence the duchesse de Luynes had over Anne. He disliked the duchesse even more when Luynes died (December 1621). Anne remained without a child for 16 more years.

Through his life Louis had a cool behavior towards Anne.[1] He was always fearful that his wife "had a great passion for the interests of Spain".[2] In 1625 the English George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, shocked the French court by admitting his passion for Anne.[1] Madame de Motteville said that, "if a respectable woman could love a man other than her husband, it would have been Buckingham".[2]

Birth of an heir

They saw in the arms of this princess whom they had watched suffer great persecutions with so much staunchness, their child-King, like a gift given by Heaven in answer to their prayers.
Madame de Motteville, Memoires[2]

, and Philippe I, Duke of Orléans.]]

Surprisingly, while there was such a strain between Anne and Louis at this time, Anne suddenly had a baby.[2] Suspicious people suggested that Cardinal Richelieu was the child's parent.[2] Another, more likely suggestion, was that there was one night with a storm that stopped Louis from going to Saint-Maur and made him sleep with the queen instead. This was the night of 5 December 1637.[2] However, the official newspaper, the Gazette de France, does not mention if they slept in the same room.[2]

A royal birthing-bed was made ready. It was three feet wide, and had two long sticks made of wood for Anne to hold while she was giving birth to her baby.[2] On 4 Saturday September, Anne finally went into labor.[2] She gave birth in the sight of the court.[2] This was so that if her child was a boy, it would not be changed for a girl, or a living baby to a dead one.[2] The child was safely delivered. The Gazette de France called it "a marvel when it was least expected", and Anne had a son for the first time in 22 years.[2]

The queen's joy in Louis was very great. One of her servants said, "She takes great joy in playing with him ... it is her great pleasure in life."[2] There are a great number of suggestions as why she did not show such a great love for Monsieur, her second son.[2]

Almost exactly two years after Louis, Anne had another son, Philippe. He was born on 22 September 1640.[2] He was known as 'Monsieur'. This was the official title for the king's second son.[2]

It is said that Anne of Austria died from breast cancer in a convent. Her lady-in-waiting, Madame de Motteville, wrote the story of the queen's life in her Mémoires d'Anne d'Autriche.

References

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