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Annona
Pond-apple (Annona glabra)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
L.[1]
Species

Some 100-150, see text.

Synonyms

Guanabanus Mill.
Raimondia Saff.
Rollinia A. St.-Hil.
Rolliniopsis Saff.[2]

Annona squamosa flower & leaves in Hyderabad, India.
For other meanings, see Annona (disambiguation).

Annona is the second largest genus, after Guatteria, in the plant family Annonaceae[3], containing approximately 110 species of mostly Neotropical and Afrotropical trees and shrubs.[4] The name derives from the Taíno annon[4]. Paleoethnobotanical studies have dated Annona exploitation and cultivation in the Yautepec River region of Mexico to approximately 1000 BC.[5]

Currently, seven Annona species and one hybrid are grown for domestic or commercial use mostly for the edible and nutritious fruits; several others also produce edible fruits.[6] Many of the species are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Several annonacaeous species have been found to contain acetogenins, a class of natural compounds with a wide variety of biological activities.[7][8]

Contents

Description

Taprooted evergreen or semi-deciduous tropical trees or shrubs.[4]

Trunks
Thin bark that has broad and shallow depression or fissures which join together and are scaly. Slender, stiff, cylindrical and tapering shoots with raised pores and naked buds.[4]
Leaves
Leaf blades can be leathery or thin and rather soft or pliable, bald or hairy.[4]
Flowers
The flowering stalks rise from an axil, or occasionally from axillary buds on main stem or older stems, or as solitary flowers or small bundle of flowers. Usually three or four deciduous sepals that are smaller than the outer petals that do not overlap while in bud. Six to eight fleshy petals in two whorls—the petals of the outer whorl are larger and do not overlap; inner petals are ascending, distinctively smaller and nectar glands are darker pigmented. Numerous stamens that are ball, club-shaped, or curved and hooded or pointed beyond anther sac. Numerous pistils, attached directly to the base, partially united to various degrees with distinct stigmas. One or two ovules per pistil; style and stigma club-shaped or narrowly conic.[4]
Fruits
One fleshy, ovate to spherical fruit per flower. Each fruit consisting of many individual small fruits or syncarps; one syncarp and seed per pistil. Seeds are beanlike with tough coats; the seed kernels are toxic.[4]
Pollination
Dynastid scarab beetles appears basic within the genus Annona. Those species of Annona which are more morphologically derived, as well as all Rollinia spp. possess reduced floral chambers and attract small beetles like Nitidulidae or Staphylinidae.[9]

Images

Selected species

The following is a list of some of the more important species. Many of them have significant agricultural, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and other uses. Synonyms appear in the sub-list.[10]

Insects and diseases

Annona are generally disease free. They are susceptible to some fungus and wilt. Ants are a problem since they promote mealy bugs on the fruit.[11]

Insects
  • Braephratiloides cubense (Annona seed borer)
  • Bepratelloides cubense (Annona seed borer)[12][13]
  • Morganella longispina (Plumose scale)
  • Philephedra n.sp. (Philephedra scale)
  • Pseudococcus sp. (Mealy bugs)
  • Xyleborus sp. (Ambrosia beetles)[12]
  • Ammiscus polygrophoides
  • Anastrepha atrox
  • Anastrepha barandianae
  • Anastrepha bistrigata
  • Anastrepha chiclayae
  • Anastrepha disticta
  • Anastrepha extensa
  • Anastrepha fraterculus
  • Anastrepha oblicua
  • Anastrepha serpentina
  • Anastrepha striata
  • Anastrepha suspensa
  • Apate monachus
  • Bactrocera spp.
  • Bephrata maculicollis
  • Brevipalpus spp.
  • Ceratitis capitata
  • Cerconota anonella
  • Coccoidea spp.
  • Emanadia flavipennis
  • Gelwchiidae spp.
  • Heliothrips haemorphoidalis
  • Leosynodes elegantales
  • Lyonetia spp.
  • Oiketicus kirby
  • Orthezia olivicola
  • Phyllocnistis spp.
  • Pinnaspis aspidistrae
  • Pseudococcus citri
  • Saissetia nigra
  • Talponia spp.
  • Tenuipalpidae
  • Tetranynchus spp.
  • Thrips[14]

Fungi

Nematodes
  • Cephalobidae spp.
  • Dorylaimidae spp.
  • Gracilacus spp.
  • Helicotylenchus spp.
  • Hemicycliophora spp.

Algae

Diseases
  • Diplodia natalensis (Dry fruit rot)
  • Fruit rot[12]

References

  1. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona L.". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ANNON. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  2. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1996-09-17). "Genus: Annona L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?720. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  3. ^ Annona (TSN 18095). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 2008-04-16 1999.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Flora of North America. 1. Annona Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 536. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 241, 1754. 3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=101891. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  5. ^ Warrington, Ian J. Warrington (2003). "Annonaceae". Apples: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0851995926. http://books.google.com/books?id=AxbUJntXepEC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&source=web&ots=huvTs57P4I&sig=1AECuDjdwZa8qHmb-hEY-69PwzE&hl=en#PPA74,M1. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  6. ^ University of Southampton (March 2002). "Factsheet No. 5. Annona" (PDF). Fruits for the Future. Department for International Development, International Centre for Underutilised Crops. http://www.icuc-iwmi.org/files/News/Resources/Factsheets/annona.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  7. ^ Pilar Rauter, Amélia; A. F. Dos Santos and A. E. G. Santana (2002). "Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New Millennium: Prospects and Industrial Application. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 540 pages. ISBN 1402010478. http://books.google.com/books?id=4rrC7c_6OUoC&pg=PA264&lpg=PA264&source=web&ots=GVwQsxA_oK&sig=9U5mL2oGo14l_K6XnC8wb8k1a_M&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  8. ^ Esposti, M Degli; A Ghelli, M Ratta, D Cortes, and E Estornell (1994-07-01). "Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)". The Biochemical Journal (The Biochemical Society) 301 (Pt 1): 161–7. PMID 8037664. 
  9. ^ Gottsberger, Gerhard (28 April 1988). "Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia (Annonaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution (Springer Science+Business Media) 167 (3-4): 189–194. doi:10.1007/BF00936405. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u03w164g12876313/. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  10. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "GRIN Species Records of Annona". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?720. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  11. ^ a b Robert Vieth, Master Gardener. "Cherimoya". Minor subtropicals. Ventura County Cooperative Extension. http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/counties/ceventura/Agriculture265/Cherimoya.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  12. ^ a b c Jorge Pena and Freddie Johnson (October 1993). "Insect Pests of Annona Crops" (PDF). Other Fruits With Insecticides Known to Have Labels for Use. Department of Entomology, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IG/IG07900.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  13. ^ Jonathan H. Crane, Carlos F. Balerdi, and Ian Maguire (April 1994). "Sugar Apple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". Fact Sheet HS38. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG330. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  14. ^ a b c d Bridg, Hannia (2001-05-03). "Micropropagation and Determination of the in vitro Stability of Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona muricata L.". Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/bridg-hannia-2000-03-24/HTML/brigd-ch1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANNONA (from Lat. annul, year), in Roman mythology, the personification of the produce of the year. She is represented in works of art, often together with Ceres, with a cornucopia (horn of plenty) in her arm, and a ship's prow in the background, indicating the transport of grain over the sea. She frequently occurs on coins of the empire, standing between a modius (corn-measure) and the prow of a galley, with ears of corn in one hand and a cornucopia in the other; sometimes she holds a rudder or an anchor. The Latin word itself has various meanings: (1) the produce of the year's harvest; (2) all means of subsistence, especially grain stored in the public granaries for provisioning the city; (3) the market-price of commodities, especially corn; (4) a direct tax in kind, levied in republican times in several provinces, chiefly employed in imperial times for distribution amongst officials and the support of the soldiery.

In order to ensure a supply of corn sufficient to enable it to be sold at a very low price, it was procured in large quantities from Umbria, Etruria and Sicily. Almost down to the times of the empire, the care of the corn-supply formed part of the aedile's duties, although in 440 B.C. (if the statement in Livy iv. 12, 13 is correct, which is doubtful) the senate appointed a special officer, called praefectus annonae, with greatly extended powers. As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman agriculture was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily and Sardinia (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the supply of corn; a tax of one-tenth was imposed on it, and its export to any country except Italy forbidden. The price at which the corn was sold was always moderate; the corn law of Gracchus (123 B.C.) made it absurdly low, and Clodius (58 B.C.) bestowed it gratuitously. The number of the recipients of this free gift grew so enormously, that both Caesar and Augustus were obliged to reduce it. From the time of Augustus to the end of the empire the number of those who were entitled to receive a monthly allowance of corn on presenting a ticket was 200,000. In the 3rd century, bread formed the dole. A praefectus annonae was appointed by Augustus to superintend the corn-supply; he was assisted by a large staff in Rome and the provinces, and had jurisdiction in all matters connected with the corn-market. The office lasted till the latest times of the empire.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also annona

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Annona

Plural
-

Annona

  1. A settlement in Red River County, Texas.

Latin

Proper noun

Annona (genitive Annonae); f, first declension

  1. The goddess who is the personification of the yearly harvest.

Translingual

Proper noun

Annona

  1. A genus of flowering plant in the Annonaceae, consisting of tropical shrubs and small trees.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Annona may mean:



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