The Full Wiki

Anson Burlingame: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anson Burlingame


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 5th district
In office
March 4, 1855 – March 3, 1861
Preceded by William Appleton
Succeeded by William Appleton

Born November 14, 1820(1820-11-14)
New Berlin, Chenango County, New York
Died February 23, 1870
Saint Petersburg
Alma mater University of Michigan, and Harvard Law School

Anson Burlingame (November 14, 1820 – February 23, 1870) was an American lawyer, legislator, and diplomat, born in New Berlin, Chenango County, New York. In 1823 his parents (Joel Burlingame and Freelove Angell) took him to Ohio, and about ten years afterwards to Michigan. Between 1838 and 1841 he studied at the Detroit branch of the University of Michigan, and in 1846 graduated from Harvard Law School. On June 3, 1847 he married Jane Cornelia Livermore. They had sons Edward Livermore Burlingame (born 1848) and Walter Angell Burlingame (b. 1852), as well as a daughter Gertrude Burlingame (b. 1856).

Contents

Early career

He practiced law in Boston, and won a wide reputation by his speeches for the Free Soil Party in 1848. He was a member of the Massachusetts constitutional convention in 1853, of the state senate from 1853 to 1854, and of the United States House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861, being elected for the first term as a Know Nothing and afterwards as a member of the new Republican Party, which he helped to organize in Massachusetts. He is a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Sigma chapter).

Burlingame vs. Preston Brooks

On May 22, 1856, Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina viciously assaulted Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts in the Senate chamber with his metal-tipped cane; three days previously, Sumner had delivered a vituperative oratory criticizing President Franklin Pierce and Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas (Bleeding Kansas). In particular, Sumner acidly lambasted Brooks' uncle, Senator Andrew Butler, who was not in attendance when the speech was read, describing slavery as a harlot, comparing Butler with Don Quixote for embracing it, and mocking Butler for a physical handicap. Three days later, Brooks advanced upon Sumner while he worked at his desk in the Senate chamber and beat him into unconsciousness, ripping his desk from the floor in the process. Brooks continued to strike Sumner's prone and unconscious form until he snapped his heavy gutta percha cane in two. He received no official censure from his colleagues in the House of Representatives, and was indeed hailed as a hero in much of the South.

Shortly afterwards, Burlingame delivered what The New York Times referred to as "the most celebrated speech"[1] of his career: a scathing denunciation of Brooks' assault on Sumner, branding him as "the vilest sort of coward" on the floor of the Senate. In response, Brooks challenged Burlingame to a duel, stating he would gladly face him "in any Yankee mudsill of his choosing". Burlingame, a well-known marksman, eagerly accepted, choosing rifles as the weapons and the Navy Yards on the Canadian side of the US-Canada border in Niagara Falls, NY as the location (in order to circumvent the US ban on dueling). Brooks, reportedly dismayed by both Burlingame's unexpectedly enthusiastic acceptance and his reputation as a crack shot, neglected to show up, instead citing unspecified risks to his safety if he was to cross "hostile country" (the Northern states) in order to reach Canada.[2] Burlingame's solid defense of a fellow Bostonian colleague greatly raised his stature in his home state of Massachusetts.[3]

Minister to the Austrian Empire, and to China

Burlingame was given this Daimyo Oak bonsai when he passed through Japan during his return to the U.S.

On March 22, 1861 President Abraham Lincoln appointed Burlingame as Minister to the Austrian Empire, but Burlingame did not serve.[4]

On June 14, 1861 Lincoln appointed Burlingame as minister to China. On November 16, 1867 he was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to head a Chinese diplomatic mission to the United States and the principal European nations. The mission, which included two Chinese ministers, an English and a French secretary, six students from Peking, and a considerable retinue, arrived in the United States in March 1868. On July 28, 1868 it concluded at Washington, D.C. a series of articles, supplementary to the Reed Treaty of 1858, and later known as the Burlingame Treaty.

Burlingame's speeches did much to awaken interest in, and engender a more intelligent appreciation of, China's attitude toward the outside world.

Burlingame died suddenly at Saint Petersburg on the February 23, 1870.

Legacy

Burlingame, California, and Burlingame, Kansas, are both named after Anson Burlingame. The Kansas Free-State party rewarded his anti-slavery efforts by renaming a small railroad town after him.[5] The ranch which Burlingame purchased in San Mateo on the San Francisco Bay retained his name and was eventually developed after his death.[6]

References

  1. ^ The New York Times, February 24, 1870, pg.5
  2. ^ "The Beginnings of the Burlingame Mission", Walsh, Warren B., The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3 (May, 1945), pp. 274-277
  3. ^ Harper’s Weekly, May 30, 1868, pg. 344-346
  4. ^ "FORMER U.S. AMBASSADORS TO AUSTRIA". U.S. Embassy in Vienna. http://vienna.usembassy.gov/en/embassy/former_amb.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-31.  
  5. ^ John Rydjord, Kansas Place Names (University of Oklahoma Press, 1981), 357.
  6. ^ Burlingame Family Papers, Library of Congress
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
J. Glancy Jones
U.S. Minister to the Austrian Empire
1861
Succeeded by
J. Lothrop Motley
Preceded by
John E. Ward
U.S. Minister to China
1861-67
Succeeded by
Ross Browne

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANSON BURLINGAME (1820-1870), American legislator and diplomat, was born in New Berlin, Chenango county, New York, on the 14th of November 1820. In 1823 his parents took him to Ohio, and about ten years afterwards to Michigan. In 1838-1841 he studied in one of the "branches" of the university of Michigan, and in 1846 graduated at the Harvard law school. He practised law in Boston, and won a wide reputation by his speeches for the Free Soil party in 1848. He was a member of the Massachusetts constitutional convention in 1853, of the state senate in 1853-1854, and of the national House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861, being elected for the first term as a "Know Nothing" and afterwards as a member of the new Republican party, which he helped to organize in Massachusetts. He was an effective debater in the House, and for his impassioned denunciation (June 21, 1856) of Preston S. Brooks (1819-1857), for his assault upon Senator Charles Sumner, was challenged by Brooks. Burlingame accepted the challenge and specified rifles as the weapons to be used; his second chose Navy Island, above the Niagara Falls, and in Canada, as the place for the meeting. Brooks, however, refused these conditions, saying that he could not reach the place designated "without running the gauntlet of mobs and assassins, prisons and penitentiaries, bailiffs and constables." To Burlingame's appointment as minister to Austria (March 22, 1861) the Austrian authorities objected because in Congress he had advocated the recognition of Sardinia as a first-class power and had championed Hungarian independence. President Lincoln thereupon appointed him (June 14, 1861) minister to China. This office he held until November 1867, when he resigned and was I immediately appointed (November 26) envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to head a Chinese diplomatic mission to the United States and the principal European nations. The embassy, which included two Chinese ministers, an English and a French secretary, six students from the Tung-wan Kwang at Peking, and a considerable retinue, arrived in the United States in March 1868, and concluded at Washington (28th of July 1868) a series of articles, supplementary to the Reed Treaty of 1858, and later known as "The Burlingame Treaty." Ratifications of the treaty were not exchanged at Peking until November 23, 1869. The "Burlingame Treaty" recognizes China's right of eminent domain over all her territory, gives China the right to appoint at ports in the United States consuls, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia"; provides that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and grants certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld. After leaving the United States, the embassy visited several continental capitals, but made no definite treaties. Burlingame's speeches did much to awaken interest in, and a more intelligent appreciation of, China's attitude toward the outside world. He died suddenly at St Petersburg, on the 23rd of February 1870.

His son Edward Livermore Burlingame (b. 1848) was educated at Harvard and at Heidelberg, was a member of the editorial staff of the New York Tribune in 1871-1872 and of the American Cyclopaedia in 1872-1876, and in 1886 became the editor of Scribner's Magazine.


<< Burlesque

Burlington, Iowa >>


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message