António de Oliveira Salazar: Wikis

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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar

101st Prime Minister of Portugal
(47th of the Republic)
(7th since the 1926 coup d'état)
(1st of the Estado Novo)
In office
July 5, 1932 – September 25, 1968
President António Óscar Carmona (July 5, 1932–April 18, 1951)
Himself (interim) (April 18, 1951–August 9, 1951)
Francisco Craveiro Lopes (August 9, 1951–August 9, 1958)
Américo Thomaz (August 9, 1958–September 25, 1968)
Preceded by Domingos Oliveira
Succeeded by Marcello Caetano

In office
June 3, 1926 – June 19, 1926
Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas
Preceded by Armando Manuel Marques Guedes
Succeeded by Filomeno da Câmara de Melo Cabral
In office
April 28, 1928 – August 28, 1940
Prime Minister José Vicente de Freitas (April 28, 1928–July 8, 1928)
Artur Ivens Ferraz (July 8, 1928–January 21, 1930)
Domingos Oliveira (January 21, 1930–July 5, 1932)
Himself (July 5, 1932–August 28, 1940)
Preceded by João José Sinel de Cordes
Succeeded by João Pinto da Costa Leite, 4th Conde de Lumbrales

Minister for the Colonies
(interim)
In office
January 21, 1930 – July 20, 1930
Prime Minister Domingos Oliveira
Preceded by José Bacelar Bebiano
Succeeded by Eduardo Augusto Marques

In office
July 5, 1932 – August 2, 1950
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Post created
Succeeded by Santos Costa
In office
April 13, 1961 – December 4, 1962
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Júlio Botelho Moniz
Succeeded by Gomes de Araújo

Minister for War
In office
May 11, 1936 – September 6, 1944
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Abílio Passos e Sousa
Succeeded by Santos Costa

Born April 28, 1889(1889-04-28)
Vimieiro, Santa Comba Dão, Portugal
Died July 27, 1970 (aged 81)
Lisbon, Portugal
Political party Academic Centre of Christian Democracy, later National Union
Spouse(s) Single; Never married
Profession Professor (economics and political economy)
Religion Roman Catholicism

António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE[1], GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu dɨ oliˈvɐiɾɐ sɐlɐˈzaɾ], April 28, 1889 – July 27, 1970) served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic for most of 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974. Salazar's program was opposed to communism, socialism, and liberalism. It was pro-catholic, conservative and nationalistic. Its policy envisaged the prepetuation of Portugal as a pluricontinental empire, financially autonomous and politically independent from the dominating superpowers, and a source of civilization and stability to the overseas societies in the African and Asian possessions.[2][3][4] Salazar's regime and its secret police repressed elemental civil liberties and political freedoms in order to remain sole ruler of Portugal, avoiding communist influences and the dissolution of its coveted empire.

Contents

Background

Salazar was born in Vimieiro near Santa Comba Dão to a family of modest income. His father, a small landowner, had started as an agricultural labourer and became the manager of a distinguished family of rural landowners of the region of Santa Comba Dão, the Perestrelos, who possessed lands and other assets scattered between Viseu and Coimbra. He had four older sisters, and was the only male child of two fifth cousins, António de Oliveira (17 January 1839 to 28 September 1932) and wife Maria do Resgate Salazar (23 October 1845 to 17 November 1926), whose paternal grandfather was a landowner and a nobleman; despite the knowledge of his ancestry Salazar always preferred to claim humble origins. His older sisters were Maria do Resgate Salazar de Oliveira, an Elementary School teacher, Elisa Salazar de Oliveira, Maria Leopoldina Salazar de Oliveira and Laura Salazar de Oliveira, who in 1887 married Abel Pais de Sousa, whose brother Mário Pais de Sousa was Salazar's Interior Minister, sons of a family of Santa Comba Dão, Santa Comba Dão.

Rise to power

He studied at the Viseu Seminary from 1900 to 1914 and considered becoming a priest, but changed his mind. He studied Law at Coimbra University during the first years of the Republican government.

As a young man, his involvement in politics stemmed from his [Catholic Church|Catholic]] views, which were aroused by the new anti-clerical Portuguese First Republic. Writing in Catholic newspapers and fighting in the streets for the rights and interests of the church and its followers were his first forays into public life.

During Sidónio Pais's brief dictatorship from 1917 to 1918, Salazar was invited to become a minister, but declined. He formally entered politics in the following years, joining the conservative Catholic Centre, and was elected to Parliament but left it after one session. He taught political economy at the University of Coimbra.

After the 28th May 1926 coup d'état, he briefly joined José Mendes Cabeçadas's government as the 71st Minister of Finance on June 3, 1926 but quickly resigned, explaining that since disputes and social disorder existed in the government, he could not do his work properly. Later again he became the 81st finance minister on April 26, 1928 after the Ditadura Nacional was consolidated, paving the way for him to be appointed the 101st prime minister in 1932. He remained finance minister until 1940, when World War II consumed his time.

His rise to power is due to the image he was able to build as an honest and effective finance minister, President Carmona's strong support, and political positioning. The authoritarian government consisted of a right-wing coalition, and Salazar was able to co-opt the moderates of each political current while fighting the extremists, using censorship and repression. The Catholics were his earliest and most loyal supporters, although some resented the continued separation of church and state. The conservative republicans who could not be co-opted became his most dangerous opponents during the early period. They attempted several coups, but never presented a united front, so these coups were easily repressed. Never a true monarchist, Salazar nevertheless gained most of the monarchists' support, as he had the support of the exiled deposed king, who was given a state funeral at the time of his death. The National Syndicalists were torn between supporting the regime and denouncing it as bourgeois. They were given enough symbolic concessions to win over the moderates, and the rest were repressed by the political police. They were to be silenced shortly after 1933, as Salazar attempted to prevent the rise of National Socialism in Portugal. Salazar also supported Francisco Franco and the Nationalists in their fight against the left-wing groups of the Spanish Republic. The Nationalists lacked ports early on, and Salazar's Portugal helped receive armaments shipments from abroad - including ammunition early on when certain Nationalist forces were virtually out. Because of this, "the Nationalists referred to Lisbon as 'the port of Castile.'"[5]

The prevailing view, at the time, of political parties as elements of division and parliamentarism as being in crisis led to general support, or at least tolerance, of an authoritarian regime.[citation needed]

In 1933, Salazar introduced a new constitution which gave him wide powers, establishing an anti-parliamentarian and authoritarian government that would last four decades.

Estado Novo

Required elements of primary schools during the Estado Novo: a portrait of Salazar, a crucifix and a portrait of Américo Thomaz.

Salazar developed the "Estado Novo" (literally, New State). The basis of his regime was a platform of stability.[citation needed] Salazar's early reforms allowed financial stability and therefore economic growth.[citation needed] This was then known as "A Lição de Salazar" - Salazar's Lesson.

Although an historically high level of illiteracy in the country, Salazar regime didn't consider education a high priority and for many years didn't spend much on it. Nevertheless, basic education was granted to all citizens, even if literacy levels were at a very low level for Western Europe (however, the final years of Salazar as ruler of Portugal and the 6 years from his death to the fall of the Estado Novo regime, the 1960s - 1974 period, were indeed of strong growth and development in all education-related issues). There was substantial investment in educational infrastructure. Many of the schools he created were still active many decades after the end of the regime in 1974.

Salazar's regime was rigidly authoritarian. He based his political philosophy around a close interpretation of Catholic social doctrine, much like the contemporary regime of Engelbert Dollfuß in Austria. The economic system, known as corporatism, was based on a similar interpretation of the papal encyclicals Rerum Novarum and Quadragesimo Anno, which was supposed to prevent class struggle and supremacy of economics. Salazar himself banned Portugal's National Syndicalists, a true Fascist party, for being, in his words, a "Pagan" and "Totalitarian" party. Salazar's own party, the National Union, was formed as a subservient umbrella organisation to support the regime itself, and was therefore lacking in any ideology independent of the regime. At the time many European countries feared the destructive potential of communism. Many neutral states in World War II, from the Baltic to the Atlantic, at least in principle, sympathized with any state that would wage war on the Soviet Union. Salazar not only forbade Marxist parties, but also revolutionary fascist-syndicalist parties.

Salazar relied on the secret police for fighting the communists and other political movements that opposed the regime. At first the secret police was called PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e Defesa do Estado). It had a Gestapo-modeled organization, and became better known by the name adopted from 1945 to 1969, Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado (PIDE). The secret police carried out the suppression and elimination of dissidents especially those related to the international communist movement or the USSR. A number of prisons were set up by Salazar's right-wing authoritarian regime after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936), where opponents of Estado Novo were sent. Anarchists, communists, African independence movements guerrillas and other opponents of Salazar's regime died there.

Salazar essentially ruled unopposed until the 1950s, when a new generation who had no memory of the near-chaos that prevailed before 1926 gained momentum. However, he was able to stay in power because the political structure was heavily rigged in favour of regime candidates.

Neutrality during World War II

During World War II, Salazar steered Portugal down a middle path, but nevertheless provided aid to the Allies: naval bases on Portuguese territory were granted to Britain, in keeping with the traditional Anglo-Portuguese alliance, and the United States, letting them use Terceira Island in the Azores as a military base; although he only agreed to this after the alternative of an American takeover by force of the islands was made clear to him by the British. Portugal, particularly Lisbon, was one of the last European exit points to the U.S., and a huge number of refugees found shelter in Portugal, many of them with the help from the Portuguese consul general in Bordeaux, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, who issued visas against Salazar's orders. Siding with the Axis would have meant that Portugal would have been at war with Britain, which would have threatened Portuguese colonies, while siding with the Allies might prove to be a threat to Portugal itself. Portugal continued to export tungsten and other goods to both the Axis (partly via Switzerland) and Allied countries.

Large numbers of Jews and political dissidents, including Abwehr personnel after the 20 July plot of 1944, sought refuge in Portugal, although until late 1942 immigration was very restricted.

Post-war Portugal

Portuguese soldiers on patrol in Angola.

The colonies were in disarray after the war. In 1945, Portugal had an extensive colonial Empire, including Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé e Principe, Angola (including Cabinda), Portuguese Guinea, and Mozambique in Africa; Goa, Damão (including Dadra and Nagar Haveli), and Diu in India (the Portuguese India); Macau in China; and Portuguese Timor in Southeast Asia. Salazar, a fierce integralist, was determined to retain control of Portugal's colonies.

The overseas provinces were a continual source of trouble and wealth for Portugal, especially during the Portuguese Colonial War. Portugal became increasingly isolated on the world stage as other European nations with African colonies gradually granted them independence.

Salazar wanted Portugal to be relevant internationally, and the country's overseas colonies made this possible, while Salazar himself refused to be overawed by the Americans. Portugal was the only non-democracy among the founding members of NATO in 1949, which reflected Portugal's role as an ally against communism during the Cold War. Portugal was offered help from the Marshall Plan because of the aid it gave to the Allies during the final stages of World War II; aid it initially refused but eventually accepted.

Throughout the 1950s, Salazar maintained the same import substitution approach to economic policy that had ensured Portugal's neutral status during World War II. The rise of the "new technocrats" in the early 1960s, however, led to a new period of economic opening up, with Portugal as an attractive country for international investment. Industrial development and economic growth would continue all throughout the 1960s. During Salazar's tenure, Portugal also participated in the founding of OECD and EFTA.

The Indian possessions were the first to be lost in 1961. After the Republic of India was formed upon independence on August 15, 1947, the British and the French vacated their colonial possessions in India. Indian nationalists in Goa launched a struggle for Portugal to leave, involving a series of strikes and civil disobedience movements by Indians against the Portugese administration, which were ruthlessly suppressed by Portugal. India made numerous offers to negotiate for the return of the colonies, but Salazar repeatedly rejected the offers. With an Indian military operation imminent, Salazar ordered Governor General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva to fight till the last man, and adopt a scorched earth policy.[6] Eventually, India launched Operation Vijay in Dec 1961 to evict Portugal from Goa, Daman and Diu. 31 Portuguese soldiers were killed in action and a Portuguese Navy frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque was destroyed, before General Vassalo e Silva surrendered. Salazar forced the General into exile for disobeying his order to fight to the last man and surrendering to the Indian Army.

In the 1960s, armed revolutionary movements and scattered guerrilla activity had reached Mozambique, Angola, and Portuguese Guinea. Except in Portuguese Guinea, the Portuguese army and naval forces were able to effectively suppress most of these insurgencies through a well-planned counter-insurgency campaign using light infantry, militia, and special operations forces. Most of the world ostracized the Portuguese government because of its colonial policy, especially the newly-independent African nations.

At home, Salazar's regime remained unmistakably authoritarian. He was able to hold onto power with reminders of the instability that had characterized Portuguese political life before 1926. However, these tactics were decreasingly successful, as a new generation emerged which had no collective memory of this instability. In the 1960s, Salazar's opposition to decolonization and gradual freedom of the press created friction with the Franco dictatorship.

Economic policies

Economically, the Salazar years were marked by immensely increased growth.[citation needed] From 1950 until Salazar's death, Portugal saw its GDP per capita rise at an average rate of 5.66% per year.[citation needed] This made it the fastest growing economy in Europe.[citation needed] Indeed, the Salazar era was marked by an economic program based on the policies of autarky and interventionism, which were popular in the 1930s as a response to the Great Depression. During his tenure, Portugal was co-founder of OECD and EFTA. Financial stability was Salazar's highest priority.[citation needed] In order to balance the Portuguese budget and pay off external debts, he instituted numerous taxes. Having adopted a policy of neutrality during World War II, Portugal could simultaneously loan the Base das Lages in the Azores to the Allies and export military equipment and metals to the Axis powers. In 1960, at the initiation of Salazar's more outward-looking economic policy, Portugal's per capita GDP was only 38 percent of the European Community (EC-12) average; by the end of the Salazar period, in 1968, it had risen to 48 percent; and in 1973, under the leadership of Marcelo Caetano, Portugal's per capita GDP had reached 56.4 percent of the EC-12 average.[7] On a long term analysis, after a long period of economic divergence before 1914, and a period of chaos during the Portuguese First Republic, the Portuguese economy recovered slightly until 1950, entering thereafter on a path of strong economic convergence until the Carnation Revolution in April 1974. Portuguese economic growth in the period 1950–1973 under the Estado Novo regime (and even with the effects of an expensive war effort in African territories against independence guerrilla groups), created an opportunity for real integration with the developed economies of Western Europe. Through emigration, trade, tourism and foreign investment, individuals and firms changed their patterns of production and consumption, bringing about a structural transformation. Simultaneously, the increasing complexity of a growing economy raised new technical and organizational challenges, stimulating the formation of modern professional and management teams.[8][9]

Colonialist ideology

Portuguese overseas territories in Africa during the Estado Novo regime (1933 - 1974): Angola and Mozambique were by far the two largest of those territories.

His reluctance to travel abroad, his increasing determination not to grant independence to the colonies and to stand against the "winds of change" announced by the British in their move to liberate their major colonies, and his refusal to grasp the impossibility of his regime outliving him, marked the final years of his tenure. "Proudly alone" was the motto of his final decade. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national identity.

In order to support his colonial policies, Salazar adopted Gilberto Freyre's notion of Lusotropicalism, maintaining that since Portugal had been a multicultural, multiracial and pluricontinental nation since the 15th century, if the country were to be dismembered by losing its overseas territories, that would spell the end for Portuguese independence. In geopolitical terms, no critical mass would then be available to guarantee self-sufficiency to the Portuguese State. Salazar had strongly resisted Freyre's ideas throughout the 1930s, partly because Freyre claimed the Portuguese were more prone than other European nations to miscegenation, and only adopted Lusotropicalism after sponsoring Freyre on a visit to Portugal and its colonies in 1951-2. Freyre's work "Aventura e Rotina" was a result of this trip.

Salazar was a close friend of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith: after Rhodesia proclaimed its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Britain, Portugal - though not officially recognizing the new Rhodesian state - supported Rhodesia economically and militarily through the neighbouring Portuguese colony of Mozambique until 1975, when FRELIMO took over Mozambique after negotiations with the new Portuguese regime which had taken over after the Carnation Revolution. Ian Smith later wrote in his The Great Betrayal that had Salazar lasted longer than he did, the Rhodesian government would have survived to the present day, ruled by a moderate black majority government under the name of 'Zimbabwe-Rhodesia'.

Salazar and the Catholic Church

Lateral view of Cristo-Rei, Almada.

Salazar's goal was to establish a Catholic Social Order, wherein the state, government and social institutions would base its laws of right and wrong on what the Gospels and the Catholic Church teach is right and wrong. In this process, Salazar even dissolved Freemasonry in Portugal in 1935. Salazar, a former seminary student, was keen to leave the Catholic Church complete and entire liberty of action. He permitted the Catholic religion to be taught in all schools, not just parochial schools. (Non-Catholic parents who did not wish their children to receive this instruction could have their children removed from these classes, as the Catholic Faith was never forced on anyone); but throughout Portugal, the Catholic education of the youth was greatly favored. Another policy at this time was Salazar's legislation on marriage which read “The Portuguese state recognizes the civil effects of marriages celebrated according to canonical laws.” He then initiated into this legislation articles which frowned upon divorce. Article 24 reads, “In harmony with the essential properties of Catholic marriages, it is understood that by the very fact of the celebration of a canonical marriage, the spouses renounce the legal right to ask for a divorce.” This was a law of the state that said, if Catholics engage in a valid marriage, there is no way that they can even ask for a divorce. The effect of this law was that the number of Catholic marriages did not go down, they went up. So that by 1960, nearly 91 percent of all marriages in the country were canonical marriages.[citation needed]

On July 4, 1937, Salazar was on his way to Mass at a private chapel in a friend's house in the Barbosa du Bocage Avenue in Lisbon. As he stepped out of the car, a Buick, a bomb exploded only 10 feet away (the bomb had been hidden in an iron case). The bomb-blast left Salazar untouched (his chauffeur was rendered deaf). The bishops argued in a collective letter in 1938, that it was an "act of God" that had preserved Salazar's life in this attempted assassination. Emídio Santana was the anarcho-syndicalist, founder of the Metallurgists National Union (Sindicato Nacional dos Metalúrgicos), behind the assassination attempt. The official car was replaced by an armoured Chrysler Imperial.[10]

On May 13, 1938, when the bishops of Portugal fulfilled their vow and renewed the National Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Cardinal Cerejeira acknowledged publicly that Our Lady of Fatima had "spared Portugal the scourge of Communism". After Portugal avoided the devastation of both the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War, Salazar's propaganda machine and the Catholic Church also connected this to a miraculous dimension which made them profit from the Catholic fervor of the masses. The Cristo-Rei, a Catholic monument in Almada, was inaugurated on 17 May 1959 by Salazar. Its construction was approved by a Portuguese Episcopate conference, held in Fátima on 20 April 1940, as a plea to God to prevent Portugal from entering World War II. However, the idea had originated on a visit by the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in 1934, soon after the inauguration of the statue of Christ the Redeemer in 1931.

Death

In 1968, Salazar suffered a brain haemorrhage. Most sources maintain that it occurred when he fell from a chair in his summer house. In February 2009 though, there were anonymous witnesses who confessed, after some research about Salazar's most well-kept secrets, that he had fallen in a bathtub instead of from a chair[11]. In any event, Salazar's incapacity forced President Américo Thomaz to replace him with Marcelo Caetano on September 27, 1968. It is believed that to his dying day Salazar thought that he was still Prime Minister of Portugal, although this has been disputed. He died in Lisbon on July 27, 1970.

Tens of thousands, possibly many more, paid their last respects at the funeral and the Requiem Mass and at the passage of the special train that carried the coffin to his hometown of Vimieiro near Santa Comba Dão, where he was buried according to his wishes in his native soil, next to his ancestors and the modest farmers of the region, in a plain ordinary grave. As a symbolic display of his views of Portugal and the Portuguese, there is well known footage of several members of the "Mocidade Portuguesa," of both African and European ethnicity, paying homage at his funeral.

Post-Salazar Portugal

After Salazar's death, his Estado Novo regime persisted under the direction of one of his longtime aides, Marcelo Caetano. Despite tentative overtures towards an opening of the regime, Caetano balked at ending the colonial war, notwithstanding the condemnation of most of the international community. Eventually the Estado Novo fell in April 25, 1974, after the Carnation Revolution.

See also

References

  1. ^ 367th Grand Cross in 1932
  2. ^ JAN PALMOWSKI. "Estado Novo." A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 2 Mar. 2010 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
  3. ^ Portugal in Africa: A Noneconomic Interpretation, by Thomas Henriksen, 1973 African Studies Association
  4. ^ Portugal's First Domino: 'Pluricontinentalism' and Colonial War in Guiné-Bissau, 1963-1974, by Norrie Macqueen, 1999 Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Spanish Civil War. p. 97. ISBN 0-911745-11-4
  6. ^ http://www.goacom.com/culture/history/church.html
  7. ^ [Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation, Juan José Linz http://books.google.com/books?id=TqRn1lAypsgC&pg=PA128&dq=Financial+crisis+1974+Portugal#PPA129,M1]
  8. ^ [1], Joaquim da Costa Leite (Aveiro University) - Instituições, Gestão e Crescimento Económico: Portugal, 1950–1973
  9. ^ (Portuguese) Fundação da SEDES - As primeiras motivações, "Nos anos 60 e até 1973 teve lugar, provavelmente, o mais rápido período de crescimento económico da nossa História, traduzido na industrialização, na expansão do turismo, no comércio com a EFTA, no desenvolvimento dos sectores financeiros, investimento estrangeiro e grandes projectos de infra-estruturas. Em consequência, os indicadores de rendimentos e consumo acompanham essa evolução, reforçados ainda pelas remessas de emigrantes.", SEDES
  10. ^ (Portuguese) Agência Lusa, Único atentado contra o ditador Oliveira Salazar foi há 70 anos, in Destak.pt
  11. ^ "Salazar fell in a bathtub, not from a chair" (portuguese language)

Further reading

  • Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Salazar: A Political Biography (Enigma Books: New York, 2009). ISBN 978-1-929631-90-2
  • Antonio Macieira Coelho, Salazar, o fim e a morte, Historia de uma mistificação, Editora D. Quixote, Lisboa. ISBN 972-20-1272-X
  • Michael Derrick, The Portugal of Salazar, 2nd edition, IHS Press, Norfolk, Virginia, 2009. ISBN 978-1932528589
  • Hugh Kay, Salazar and Modern Portugal
  • Franco Nogueira, Salazar, 6 vols., Coimbra, 1977-85.
  • George Wright, The Destruction of a Nation, ISBN 074531029X
Political offices
Preceded by
Domingos Oliveira
Prime Minister of Portugal
1932–1968
Succeeded by
Marcelo Caetano
Preceded by
António Óscar Carmona
President of Portugal
(interim)

1951
Succeeded by
Craveiro Lopes
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889July 27, 1970) served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He was the President of the Republic in 1951, as interim. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.

Sourced

  • God, Homeland, Family.
    • Slogan of the Salazar regime, Times, Narrativase fiction: The Invention of Si - Page 176; of Elizeu Clementino de Souza; EDIPUCRS Publisher, ISBN 857430591X, 9788574305912
  • Do not discuss God and virtue. Do not discuss the homeland and its history. Do not discuss the authority and prestige. Do not discuss the family and its moral. Not discuss the glory of work and their duty.
    • Quoted in Salazar: Biographical Study - page 368; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • In politics, what appears is.
    • Quoted in Salazar seen the Brazilian anthology of texts of Brazilian and Portuguese authors: anthology of texts of Brazilian and Portuguese authors of Armando Pinto - Published by Editor-Felman Rego, 1962 - 186 pages, Page 83
  • I know what I want, and where to go.
    • Quoted in Salazar: biographical study - page 339; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • Half a dozen slaps the time.
    • Quoted in The fascist Salazar: Salazar and national-syndicalism: the story of a conflict, 1932-1935 - page 90, of John Medina - Published by Livraria Bertrand, 1978 - 249 pages
  • To Angola, quickly and with strenght!
    • On April 13, 1961, quoted in Salazar: biographical study - page 154; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • Proudly alone!
    • Quoted in Salazar: biographical study - Page 8; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • Do not discuss God and his reason, does not discuss the motherland and the nation.
    • Quoted in From myth to romance: a reading of the Gospel according Saramago - Page 76, of Conception Flores - Published by Publisher of UFRN, 2000 - 239 pages
  • All for the nation, nothing against the nation.
    • Quoted in Salazar: biographical study - page 122; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • I have the grace of providence to be poor.
    • Quoted in Salazar and his time - Page 98; of César de Oliveira - The Official Publisher, 1991 ISBN 9726920876, 9789726920878 - 237 pages
  • Who is not patriotic can not be considered Portuguese.
    • Quoted in Political ideology of the state Salazar - Page 22, by Jorge Campinos - Published by Portugalia Editora, 1975 - 65 pages
  • The United Nations is useless...and also harmful. It is a land that flowers demagoguery with a bunch of newborn countries, devoid of any tradition.
    • Quoted in Memories of an unfinished war: Canada, the United States and the decolonization process in Angola, page 153; By Manuel Francisco Gomes; Collaborator Alberto João Jardim; Published by Edições Colibri, 2006, ISBN 9727725945, 9789727725946, 241 pages
  • Teach your children to work, teach your daughters modesty, teach all the virtue of economy. And if not make them saints, at least make them Christians.
    • Quoted in Salazar: biographical study - page 285; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • State is the nation socially organized.
    • Speeches, Volume 4 - Page 181; of António de Oliveira Salazar - Published by Coimbra Editora, 1935 - 391 pages
  • The discussions have revealed the mistake, but not explained the problem, since even if you know what you will understand it for democracy.
    • Speeches, Volume 4 - Page 250; of António de Oliveira Salazar - Published by Coimbra Editora, 1935 - 391 pages
  • Definitely, decisively, the Nation, for us...and even for them.
    • Speeches, Volume 4 - Page 278; of António de Oliveira Salazar - Published by Coimbra Editora, 1935 - 391 pages
  • The day I leave the power, inside my pockets will only be dust.
    • Quoted in Salazar: biographical study - page 383; of Franco Nogueira - Published by Atlantis Publishing, 1977
  • Portugal was born in the shadow of the Catholic Church and religion, from the beginning it was the formative element of the soul of the nation and the dominant trait of character of the Portuguese people.
    • Salazar: speeches, notes, reports, theses, articles and interviews, 1909-1955: Anthology - Page 212; of António de Oliveira Salazar - Published by Editorial Vanguarda, 1955 - 361 pages
  • Those who can, must obey.
    • Cited in My memories: things of times gone, Volume 3 - Page 13; of Cunha Leal - Published by C. Leal, 1966 Leal, 1966
  • No one has to thank me for accepting the burden, because it is so big sacrifice for me to please or I would not do for kindness to anyone. I do this to for my country, as a duty of conscience, coldly, calmly completed.
    • In the speech over as Finance Minister, Speeches, Volume 1 - Page 3; of António de Oliveira Salazar, Oliveira Salazar - Published by Coimbra Editora, 1945

About Salazar

  • Obviously, I'll dismiss him.

Simple English

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