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Antarctica
Location Antarctica.svg
This map uses an orthographic projection, near-polar aspect. The South Pole is near the center, where longitudinal lines converge.
Area (Overall)

(ice-free)

(ice-covered)
14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[1]
280,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi)
13,720,000 km2 (5,300,000 sq mi)
Population
(permanent)
(non-permanent)
7th
0
approx. 1,000
Dependencies
Official Territorial lands Antarctic Treaty System
Unofficial Territorial claims
Reserved the right to make claims
Time Zones None
UTC-3 (Graham Land only)
Internet Top-level domain .aq
Calling Code Dependent on the parent country of each base
Adelie Penguin chicks in Antarctica, with MS Explorer and an iceberg in the background.
.Antarctica (pronounced /ænˈtɑrktɪkə/ ( listen)) is Earth's southernmost continent, underlying the South Pole.^ Orbiting from north to south, NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites pass over Antarctica many times a day, and with each pass they image a slice of the frozen continent.

.It is situated in the Antarctic region of the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.^ During his stay at what was almost certainly South Georgia Island, he also sighted what he thought to be the southern continent to the south and east.

^ By doing so, they have been able to exploit a lifestyle in the food-rich waters of the oceans of the southern hemisphere.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ On February 9, 1839, just south of the Antarctic Circle and sailing west as Biscoe had recommended, he sighted islands.

.At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America.^ Africa Antarctic Arctic Asia Australia birds Bookshelf conservation Europe North America South America Among the most popular books published by the National Geographic Society are its books about birds.

^ Orbiting from north to south, NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites pass over Antarctica many times a day, and with each pass they image a slice of the frozen continent.

^ It became obvious that Magellan's "continent" was merely a series of islands at the tip of South America.

.About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, which averages at least 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) in thickness.^ The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with an average elevation of about 6,000 feet above sea level, is substantially lower than East Antarctica, which has an average elevation of more than 10,000 feet.

.Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.^ The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with an average elevation of about 6,000 feet above sea level, is substantially lower than East Antarctica, which has an average elevation of more than 10,000 feet.

^ In essence, this treaty (ratified by all parties in 1961) set the continent of Antarctica aside for peaceful, scientific purposes and placed all territorial claims on hold.

[2] Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland.[3] .There are no permanent human residents but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent.^ Mawson Station was the first large, permanent base built specifically for scientific research.

^ Though they had been forced down by weather several times, they had nonetheless succeeded in being the first people to fly across the continent.

^ Shackleton and two others then climbed across the island (with no food, water, or shelter) to reach the whaling station at Stromness Bay.

.Only cold-adapted plants and animals survive there, including penguins, seals, nematodes, Tardigrades, mites, many types of algae and other microorganisms, and tundra vegetation.^ This year we have again added a large number of them to the IUCN Red List and are confirming the high levels of threat to many freshwater animals and plants.

^ It would not be a good idea to try and do this again as we have learned that there are other birds (Auks) in the arctic that fill the niche that penguins do in the southern seas.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ Although the leopard seals are pretty fast, a lot of their hunting of penguins and other seals involves taking the other animals by surprise.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

.Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Mikhail Lazarev and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.^ The first recorded landing on the Antarctic continent took place on February 7, 1821.

^ He had raised the funds for and was in command of the first scientific expedition intending to spend a winter on the continent of Antarctica: the British Antarctic Expedition, 1898-1900.

^ This was the Finibul Ice Shelf, and the occasion marked the first sighting of the continent of Antarctica by human eyes.

The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. .The first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew.^ Most notably, as a harbinger of what was to come, Mawson brought the first airplane to Antarctica (even though it never flew) and was the first to use a radio.

^ Highjump also marked the first time an icebreaker was used in Antarctica.

The name Antarctica is the romanized version of the Greek compound word ανταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ανταρκτικός (antarktikos),[4] meaning "opposite to the north".[5]
.The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by twelve countries; to date, forty-six countries have signed the treaty.^ The success of the effort, and the need to defuse competing territorial claims also led to the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959.

.The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone.^ In essence, this treaty (ratified by all parties in 1961) set the continent of Antarctica aside for peaceful, scientific purposes and placed all territorial claims on hold.

^ That situation may change as new technologies develop, though the Madrid Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty prohibits mining activity until at least the year 2041.

^ World War II interrupted any further research efforts in Antarctica, but the continent was not immune to wartime activity.

.Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists of many nationalities and with different research interests.^ Based in Switzerland, it is a democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries.

^ The Scottish Expedition conducted more science and collected more unknown specimens than any previous expedition.

^ More than 1,460 issues of National Geographic have been published--well over 200,000 pages in all, including many thousands of photographs and hundreds of supplement maps.

[1]

Contents

History

The snow surface at Dome C Station is typical of most of the continent's surface.
An iceberg dwarfs a ship in this 1920s English magazine illustration of a whaler in the Antarctic.
.Belief in the existence of a Terra Australis — a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa — had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world.^ They proceeded south to make several landings--at Possession Island, Coulman Island, on the continent at the foot of Mount Melbourne, and on Ross Island.

^ After exploring its northern shore for a few days, Cook headed south to investigate the other land that de la Roche had seen (and that Alexander Dalrymple had thought to be part of a continent), the Clerke Rocks.

^ All world times are automatically adjusted based upon time zones and daylight saving time when necessary.

.Depictions of a large southern landmass were common in maps such as the early 16th century Turkish Piri Reis map.^ Yet even before they laid eyes on it, most early explorers were convinced a large, southern continent existed.

.Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size.^ The most likely route of origin by which penguins got to Antarctica is from South America, across the Drake Passage, a relatively short distance.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ They are unpredictable and include seals that are the same size as divers (or larger) as part of their diet.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ In February, the Resolution and Adventure passed south of the position reported by Kergulen, making it clear to Cook that whatever the Frenchman had found was not part of any southern continent.

.European maps continued to show this hypothetical land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774.[6] Cook in fact came within about 75 miles (121 km) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[7] The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals.^ In early December, 1772, Cook crossed the convergence and came upon his first iceberg.

^ On January 17, 1773, at about 40°E longitude, he made the first crossing of the Antarctic Circle in history.

^ Brief as it was, this was the first landing below the Antarctic Circle.

.According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation,[8] NASA,[9] the University of California, San Diego,[10] and other sources),[11][12] ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut).^ The American sealer Hersilia (with Nathaniel Palmer as second mate) sighted Smith Island on January 18, 1820 and arrived at Rugged Island to join the British a few days later.

^ Meanwhile, the British Royal Navy had sent Edward Bransfield to determine if the new land was part of a continent or a string of islands.

^ Geologist Otto Nordenskjld's Swedish Expedition, with former whaling captain C.A. Larsen commanding the ship Antarctic, arrived in the South Shetlands on January 11, 1902.

.Von Bellingshausen saw Antarctica on 27 January 1820, three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the two-ship expedition led by Von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev reached a point within 32 kilometers (20 mi) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there.^ It was two days before weather permitted a close approach and landing.

^ At the same time that Bransfield was charting the South Shetlands, Captain Thaddeus von Bellingshausen was commanding Russia's first government-sponsored Antarctic expedition (and the last one until those of the International Geophysical Year, 135 years later).

^ On November 15, 1820 he observed the mountains of "Trinity Land," the second known sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula.

.The first documented landing on mainland Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821, although some historians dispute this claim.^ The first recorded landing on the Antarctic continent took place on February 7, 1821.

^ Men from the American sealer Cecilia, under Captain John Davis, landed at Hughes Bay (64°01'S) looking for seals.

^ On January 24 they were able to land at Cape Adare, the first landing on the continent since Davis, and the first ever on the continental mainland.

.In December, 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex.^ His United States Exploring Expedition comprised six ships and 433 men, making it the largest expedition ever dispatched to explore the southern ocean.

^ In 1946 the United States launched the U.S. Navy's Antarctic Developments Project (also known as Operation Highjump).

.Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands". That part of Antarctica was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it maintains to this day.^ On November 15, 1820 he observed the mountains of "Trinity Land," the second known sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula.

^ They proceeded south to make several landings--at Possession Island, Coulman Island, on the continent at the foot of Mount Melbourne, and on Ross Island.

^ After exploring its northern shore for a few days, Cook headed south to investigate the other land that de la Roche had seen (and that Alexander Dalrymple had thought to be part of a continent), the Clerke Rocks.

.Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named for him) in 1841. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf (also named for him).^ On January 9, 1841, Ross pushed through the pack ice and into the Ross Sea.

^ Sailing southwest, Bransfield discovered Deception Island, Tower Island, and the Bransfield Strait.

^ On January 18, 1958 he reached the south pole and was greeted by Hillary, who had traversed south from Ross Island to meet him.

.Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror.^ The next day, he discovered and named Mounts Erebus and Terror on Ross Island.

[13] Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853.[14]
Nimrod Expedition South Pole Party (left to right): Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams
.During the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole.^ He, Edgeworth David, and four others made the first ascent of Mount Erebus.

^ One of the main goals of this expedition was to reach the geographic south pole.

^ On January 18, 1958 he reached the south pole and was greeted by Hillary, who had traversed south from Ross Island to meet him.

.Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931.[15] In addition, Shackleton himself and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountain Range (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau.^ Mawson's expedition is notable for several firsts.

^ Richard Byrd's first Antarctic expedition reached the Ross Ice Shelf on December 25, 1928.

^ On January 9, 1909 Shackleton and his pole party made it to a furthest south of 88°23'S on the polar plateau, a mere 97 miles from the pole, before being forced to turn around.

.An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier.^ One of the main goals of this expedition was to reach the geographic south pole.

^ He passed Shackleton's furthest south on December 8, and on December 14, 1911, Amundsen and his team reached the geographic south pole.

^ The final assault on the south pole began in January 1911 with the arrival of Roald Amundsen and his ship, the Fram, at the Bay of Whales and Robert Scott in the Terra Nova at Cape Evans, Ross Island.

[16] .One month later, the ill-fated Scott Expedition reached the pole.^ One of the main goals of this expedition was to reach the geographic south pole.

^ Between 1910 and 1912, a Japanese Expedition under Lt. Nobu Shirase surveyed parts of the Ross Sea, reaching Coulman Island in 1911 and the Ross Ice Shelf on January 16, 1912, just one day before Scott reached the pole.

^ Roald Amundsen, who fourteen years later would be the first person to reach the south pole, had signed on as the mate.

.Richard Evelyn Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s.^ Richard Byrd's first Antarctic expedition reached the Ross Ice Shelf on December 25, 1928.

^ The U.S. Antarctic Service Expedition, commanded by Richard Byrd, arrived at the Bay of Whales in November of 1939.

.He is credited with implementing mechanized land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research.^ Between February 1950 and January 1952, a Swedish-British- Norwegian international scientific expedition conducted glaciological and geological research from a temporary base (Maudheim) in Dronning Maud Land.

^ To complement their work on whales, Discovery scientists also conducted extensive hydrographic and biological work in the southern ocean.

[17] .However, it was not until 31 October 1956 that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there.^ On October 31, 1956, U.S. Navy Rear Admiral George Dufek stepped out of an airplane to become the eleventh person in history to set foot at the south pole, and the first since Robert Scott's pole party left there in 1912.

^ They proceeded south to make several landings--at Possession Island, Coulman Island, on the continent at the foot of Mount Melbourne, and on Ross Island.

^ On October 20, Amundsen and four others set out with sledges and dog teams to make the pole.

[18]
.The first person to sail single-handed to Antarctica was the New Zealander David Henry Lewis, in a 10-meter steel sloop Ice Bird.^ Ernest Shackleton's first expedition left New Zealand on New Year's Day, 1908 in the ship Nimrod.

^ In 1923 Britain handed over part of their claim, the Ross Dependencies, to New Zealand.

^ This joint British-New Zealand project, led by Sir Vivian Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary, intended to make the first over land crossing of Antarctica.


Geography

A satellite composite image of Antarctica
Elevation colorized relief
Speed of ice streams
Size comparison Europe-Antarctica
.Centered asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean.^ For many years Antarctica Records founder John Trevethan has had an ongoing fascination with the mysterious continent at the bottom of the world.

^ He encountered severe weather on the Pacific side and was blown to the south of Tierra del Fuego, then east around Cape Horn.

^ The industry was re-established in Antarctic waters in 1904, when the first shore station was built at Grytviken on South Georgia Island by Captain C.A. Larsen.

.It covers more than 14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi), making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times as large as Europe.^ During the summer of 1956-57, 42 bases and supporting ships accommodated 6,167 people in Antarctica, more than at any other time in history.

The coastline measures 17,968 km (11,165 mi) and is mostly characterized by ice formations, as the following table shows:
Coastal types around Antarctica (Drewry, 1983)
Type Frequency
Ice shelf (floating ice front) 44%
Ice walls (resting on ground) 38%
Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall) 13%
Rock 5%
Total 100%
Maritime Antarctica
.Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea.^ Then, in 1892, the Dundee Expedition headed south to search for the whales that Ross had reported seeing in the Weddell Sea.

^ Filchner's plan was to make the first overland traverse to determine if a channel connected the Weddell and Ross Seas.

^ On his third excursion, in March of 1843, Ross managed to reach 71°30'S in the Weddell Sea before the ice pack forced him north.

.The portion west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called West Antarctica and the remainder East Antarctica, because they roughly correspond to the Western and Eastern Hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian.^ Then, in 1892, the Dundee Expedition headed south to search for the whales that Ross had reported seeing in the Weddell Sea.

^ Filchner's plan was to make the first overland traverse to determine if a channel connected the Weddell and Ross Seas.

^ On his third excursion, in March of 1843, Ross managed to reach 71°30'S in the Weddell Sea before the ice pack forced him north.

About 98% of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a sheet of ice averaging at least 1.6 km (1.0 mi) thick. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thereby about 70% of the world's fresh water). .If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 m (200 ft).^ If the poles melted, I thought the seas would rise up to 50 feet [19:44] I was under the impression that Virginia will be entirely underwater in one day.

^ For many years the U.S. program piled unwanted metal waste on the sea ice and waited for it to melt through or be carried away.

^ I think [19:44] the seas rise for 2 years as the poles melt [19:44] after the sloshing [19:44] Okay, I'm confused..

[19] .In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 mm (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation and so the local mass balance is negative.^ There must be a great continent to the south, they postulated, to balance the great land masses in the northern hemisphere.

^ Early Exploration For the first 200 years or so of European exploration, most voyages were concerned either with commerce or with the investigation of the newly discovered American continents.

^ (The Soviets had wintered in the interior of the continent the previous year, at Pionerskaya Station, 230 miles inland from Mirny Station.

In the dry valleys the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape.
West Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the real, if small, possibility of its collapse. .If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several metres in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries.^ Short of food and pinned in their tent several times by storms, all five of the pole party members died on the return trip.

^ I would wait some time to build it..until things die down.

^ At the same time Operation Highjump was winding down, what would be the last privately organized expedition to Antarctica for many years was sailing into the waters of the Peninsula.

Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves.
.East Antarctica lies on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac Robertson Land, Wilkes Land and Victoria Land.^ On February 28, he sighted a headland he called Cape Ann (now Mount Biscoe) and the mountain tops of what he called Enderby Land.

^ Their goal was to conduct air explorations of the Mac-Robertson, Princess Elizabeth, Wilhelm II, Queen Mary, Wilkes, Adlie, George V, and Oates Land Coasts.

^ Between 1927 and 1937, Christensen's men discovered and surveyed substantial new land on the Queen Maud Land and Mac- Robertson Land coasts.

All but a small portion of this region lies within the Eastern Hemisphere. .East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.^ When a vessel was beset and crushed by the pack ice, such as the Antarctic in 1903 and the Endurance in 1915, a comparatively large amount of anthropogenic debris was deposited into the environment.

Mount Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island.
Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 m (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. .Antarctica contains many other mountains, both on the main continent and the surrounding islands.^ For many years Antarctica Records founder John Trevethan has had an ongoing fascination with the mysterious continent at the bottom of the world.

^ It is likely that this pattern has been repeated at other stations around the continent and on the Antarctic and sub- Antarctic islands.

.Located on Ross Island, Mount Erebus is the world's southernmost active volcano.^ They proceeded south to make several landings--at Possession Island, Coulman Island, on the continent at the foot of Mount Melbourne, and on Ross Island.

^ The next day, he discovered and named Mounts Erebus and Terror on Ross Island.

Another well-known volcano is found on Deception Island, which is famous for a giant eruption in 1970. Minor eruptions are frequent and lava flow has been observed in recent years. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active.[20] In 2004, an underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. Recent evidence shows this unnamed volcano may be active.[21]
.Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet.^ During the course of the next three weeks, Bellingshausen crossed the Antarctic Circle twice more, each time sighting a barrier of continental ice.

^ During the summer of 1956-57, 42 bases and supporting ships accommodated 6,167 people in Antarctica, more than at any other time in history.

.Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes.^ The largest of these was the United States Operation Deepfreeze I, which was responsible for setting up three stations: Little America V, Byrd Station, and the McMurdo Sound Air Operating Facility.

.It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another.^ Once stations became permanently inhabited, waste began to accumulate in one spot over a period of many years.

^ Between 1790 and 1822 over 1,200,000 skins were taken from South Georgia alone, virtually exterminating the seals there.

^ In recent years, however, there have been some positive changes.

[22]
.There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about 400 m (1,300 ft) above the water line, that Lake Vostok's waters may contain microbial life.^ I'm trying to learn things would you please relax [20:01] try to be near a creek and hope it is still there post PS [20:01] You still may be able to find some way to retrieve water from underground aquifers though.

The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, this would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa.[23] On 7 February 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly alkaline waters. .If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments.^ In the cold and dry Antarctic environment, where unpainted wood can last for centuries, these synthetic products can be expected to persist essentially forever.

[24]

Geology

Geological history and paleontology

.More than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana.^ During the summer of 1956-57, 42 bases and supporting ships accommodated 6,167 people in Antarctica, more than at any other time in history.

.Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago.^ The last time it happend was 3600 years ago......

Paleozoic era (540–250 Ma)

Survey route
During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. .West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited.^ A northern party was deposited at Cape Adare in February 1911, where they repaired Borchgrevink's two huts and built a third winter hut of their own.

^ During the course of the next year, the western party mapped large areas of Queen Mary Land and discovered new penguin rookeries.

^ After hunkering in for the winter of 1940, scientific parties were sent out during the summer of 1940-41 for what amounted to a major research effort.

.East Antarctica was at the equator, where sea floor invertebrates and trilobites flourished in the tropical seas.^ Other scientists have collected fish and invertebrate samples from the water column and sea floor, and these collections constitute a disturbance of the local ecology.

.By the start of the Devonian period (416 Ma), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time.^ Though they were on shore for less than an hour, these men were the first humans to set foot on this new southern land.

^ After spending the austral winter exploring the Pacific's more temperate and tropical latitudes (and further disproving Dalrymple's theory of a southern land between 28°S and 40°S), Cook headed south again in late November 1773.

^ At close to 60xS latitude, they were at that time the southernmost land ever sighted.

Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. .Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 Ma), as Gondwana became centered around the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained.^ Once stations became permanently inhabited, waste began to accumulate in one spot over a period of many years.

^ After a harrowing climb over the Transantarctic Mountains, Byrd and his crew became the first to fly over the south pole, at 1:14 in the morning on November 29, 1929.

^ The McMurdo Sound facility was to provide air support for the other bases and serve as the logistics center for establishing a base at south pole the following season.

During the Permian period, the plant life became dominated by fern-like plants such as Glossopteris, which grew in swamps. .Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains.^ After a harrowing climb over the Transantarctic Mountains, Byrd and his crew became the first to fly over the south pole, at 1:14 in the morning on November 29, 1929.

Towards the end of the Permian period, continued warming led to a dry, hot climate over much of Gondwana.[25]

Mesozoic era (250–65 Ma)

As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. .In Eastern Antarctica, the seed fern became established, and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time.^ At the same time Operation Highjump was winding down, what would be the last privately organized expedition to Antarctica for many years was sailing into the waters of the Peninsula.

.Synapsids, commonly known as "mammal-like reptiles", were common in Antarctica during the Late Permian and Early Triassic and included forms such as Lystrosaurus.^ During late February to early March 1838, d'Urville charted parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.

.The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 Ma), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean.^ During late February to early March 1838, d'Urville charted parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.

^ The German Navy subsequently used the waters of the Peninsula and the sub- Antarctic islands as a haven from which they could venture forth to attack allied shipping.

^ This history of occupancy forms a key element of the Argentinean claim to the Peninsula, but the first formal claim over Antarctic territory was made by Britain in 1908.

Ginkgo trees and cycads were plentiful during this period. .In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–65 Ma), though Southern beech began to take over at the end of this period.^ After 1937, Japan began to dominate the southern whaling industry, with the Soviet Union entering the scene in 1951.

^ Though their primary business was the capture of whales, whalers (most of them Norwegian) began to spend considerable time exploring and mapping the coast and waters of Antarctica.

Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[26] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date.[27] It was during this period that Gondwana began to break up.

Gondwanaland breakup (160–23 Ma)

The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalizing currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences.
Africa separated from Antarctica around 160 Ma, followed by the Indian subcontinent, in the early Cretaceous (about 125 Ma). About 65 Ma, Antarctica (then connected to Australia) still had a tropical to subtropical climate, complete with a marsupial fauna. .About 40 Ma Australia-New Guinea separated from Antarctica, so that latitudinal currents could isolate Antarctica from Australia, and the first ice began to appear.^ Thus began the first major scientific study in Antarctica.

^ This was the Finibul Ice Shelf, and the occasion marked the first sighting of the continent of Antarctica by human eyes.

^ On January 17, 1773, at about 40°E longitude, he made the first crossing of the Antarctic Circle in history.

During the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago; CO2 levels have been found to be about 760 ppm[28] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. .Around 23 Ma, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, resulting in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that completely isolated the continent.^ The radio was particularly important; for the first time, Antarctic explorers were not completely isolated from the rest of the world.

^ It became obvious that Magellan's "continent" was merely a series of islands at the tip of South America.

^ On the other side of the continent, the second German Antarctic Expedition was steaming south in the Deutschland, under the command of Wilhelm Filchner.

Models of the changes suggest that declining CO2 levels became more important.[29] The ice began to spread, replacing the forests that then covered the continent. .Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice,[30] with the Antarctic ice cap reaching its present extension around 6 Ma.^ On his third excursion, in March of 1843, Ross managed to reach 71°30'S in the Weddell Sea before the ice pack forced him north.

^ He crossed the Antarctic Circle for the second time in December, reaching 67°31'S. Once again, however, the pack ice forced him north.

^ Richard Byrd's first Antarctic expedition reached the Ross Ice Shelf on December 25, 1928.

Geology of present-day Antarctica

Subglacial topography and bathymetry of bedrock underlying Antarctica ice sheet.
.The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by the fact that nearly all of the continent is permanently covered with a thick layer of ice.^ In all, Highjump pilots flew a total of nearly 23,000 miles exploring the continent.

^ It was so successful, however, that all participating nations soon formed permanent research programs to continue their presence and activities in Antarctica.

^ In essence, this treaty (ratified by all parties in 1961) set the continent of Antarctica aside for peaceful, scientific purposes and placed all territorial claims on hold.

.However, new techniques such as remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar and satellite imagery have begun to reveal the structures beneath the ice.^ Sub-Antarctic islands, such as Kergulen, Crozet, Marion, Prince Edward, and Macquarie, were denuded as well, leaving the sealers hungry for new hunting grounds.

Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America.[25] .The Antarctic Peninsula was formed by uplift and metamorphism of sea bed sediments during the late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic eras.^ During late February to early March 1838, d'Urville charted parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.

^ His plan was to map previously uncharted territory at the southern ends of the Antarctic Peninsula and in the southwestern Weddell Sea.

^ This pattern was particularly prevalent during the heroic era and up until the late 1930s (though in many cases a little government backing was thrown in).

This sediment uplift was accompanied by igneous intrusions and volcanism. The most common rocks in West Antarctica are andesite and rhyolite volcanics formed during the Jurassic period. .There is also evidence of volcanic activity, even after the ice sheet had formed, in Marie Byrd Land and Alexander Island.^ There was an abundance of elephant seals on the island and by 1855 whalers (turned sealer) had landed and begun harvesting the crop.

^ Soon they had discovered the South Orkney Islands, but since there were no fur seals to be found there, Palmer left it to Powell to make an exploratory landing.

^ Pack ice prevented him from landing, so he set a course to Kergulen Island and there hunted elephant seals for their oil.

.The only anomalous area of West Antarctica is the Ellsworth Mountains region, where the stratigraphy is more similar to the eastern part of the continent.^ On March 2, at 64°58'S and 121°08'E, Balleny caught his one and only glimpse of the Antarctic continent, an area now called the Sabrina Coast.

East Antarctica is geologically varied, dating from the Precambrian era, with some rocks formed more than 3 billion years ago. It is composed of a metamorphic and igneous platform which is the basis of the continental shield. On top of this base are various modern rocks, such as sandstones, limestones, coal and shales laid down during the Devonian and Jurassic periods to form the Transantarctic Mountains. .In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred.^ (There were several inaccuracies in Wilkes' positions, however, such that James Clark Ross later sailed over some areas where Wilkes had drawn land on his charts.

The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal.[30] .It was first recorded near the Beardmore Glacier by Frank Wild on the Nimrod Expedition, and now low-grade coal is known across many parts of the Transantarctic Mountains.^ After a harrowing climb over the Transantarctic Mountains, Byrd and his crew became the first to fly over the south pole, at 1:14 in the morning on November 29, 1929.

^ Ernest Shackleton's first expedition left New Zealand on New Year's Day, 1908 in the ship Nimrod.

^ One was the British Imperial Expedition, under John Cope, and the other was Ernest Shackleton's final expedition, led by Frank Wild after Shackleton died on South Georgia.

The Prince Charles Mountains contain significant deposits of iron ore. .The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea in 1973. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until the year 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.^ Most of Antarctica's biological resources are now protected to some degree.

^ Exploitation: To date, all human exploitation of Antarctica has been for biological resources.

^ After taking seals in the sub- Antarctic islands, the crew of the Antarctic made for the Ross Sea.

Climate

The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers.
Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. .The coldest natural temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983.[31] For comparison, this is 11 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry ice.^ By 1912, there were six shore stations, 21 factory ships, and 62 catchers in Antarctica.

.Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole itself receives less than 10 cm (4 in) per year, on average.^ I bet less than 10% are aware of the shift now.

^ Roald Amundsen, who fourteen years later would be the first person to reach the south pole, had signed on as the mate.

.Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C (−112 °F) and −90 °C (−130 °F) in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C (41 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F) near the coast in summer.^ Drygalski planned to winter near the coast to carry out his scientific studies.

Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it.[32]
East Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, leaving the center cold and dry. .Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended time periods.^ ZT says, very little sunshine for quite a while [20:03] I dont think there will be lack of water in the after shift times [20:03] thanks inkpen, I'm fine.

Heavy snowfalls are not uncommon on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 metres (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded.
At the edge of the continent, strong katabatic winds off the polar plateau often blow at storm force. In the interior, however, wind speeds are typically moderate. .During summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface during clear days at the South Pole than at the equator because of the 24 hours of sunlight each day at the Pole.^ On February 19, he sighted previously unknown land and the next day, after the weather had cleared a little, he fixed its position at 62°17'S and 60°12'W, further south even than Cook's South Sandwich Islands.

^ James Weddell noted that more than 100,000 South Shetland fur seal pups died of starvation during 1821-1822, after their mothers were killed and skinned.

^ During the summer of 1956-57, 42 bases and supporting ships accommodated 6,167 people in Antarctica, more than at any other time in history.

[1]
Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for two reasons. First, much of the continent is more than 3 kilometres (2 mi) above sea level, and temperature decreases with elevation. .Second, the Arctic Ocean covers the north polar zone: the ocean's relative warmth is transferred through the icepack and prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica.^ As with d'Urville, ice prevented Wilkes from reaching the magnetic pole, but much of the area he charted is now known as Wilkes Land.

Mountain glaciation
Given the latitude, long periods of constant darkness or constant sunlight create climates unfamiliar to human beings in much of the rest of the world. .The aurora australis, commonly known as the southern lights, is a glow observed in the night sky near the South Pole created by the plasma-full solar winds that pass by the Earth.^ Finally, on January 26, the Resolution came upon the southern end of what are now known as the South Sandwich Islands.

^ He passed Shackleton's furthest south on December 8, and on December 14, 1911, Amundsen and his team reached the geographic south pole.

Another unique spectacle is diamond dust, a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. It generally forms under otherwise clear or nearly clear skies, so people sometimes also refer to it as clear-sky precipitation. A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun.[32]

Population

Antarctica has no permanent residents, but a number of governments maintain permanent manned research stations throughout the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1,000 in winter to about 5,000 in the summer. Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment. An Orthodox church opened in 2004 at the Russian Bellingshausen Station is also manned year-round by one or two priests, who are similarly rotated every year.[33][34]
Two researchers studying plankton through microscopes
The first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica (areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence) were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia, from 1786 onward. .During the whaling era, which lasted until 1966, the population of that island varied from over 1,000 in the summer (over 2,000 in some years) to some 200 in the winter.^ A spokesman for Sunrise said that this deterioration is due to the progressive nature of farsightedness and that some of the effect from LTK may last 10 years.

^ Very accurate [18:18] I plan on laying in about 10,000 pellets, could last 10 years.

Most of the whalers were Norwegian, with an increasing proportion of Britons. The settlements included Grytviken, Leith Harbour, King Edward Point, Stromness, Husvik, Prince Olav Harbour, Ocean Harbour and Godthul. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen, a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in 1910.
Field work being carried out on Melnik Peak, Livingston Island
The first child born in the southern polar region was Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen, born in Grytviken on 8 October 1913, and her birth was registered by the resident British Magistrate of South Georgia. She was a daughter of Fridthjof Jacobsen, the assistant manager of the whaling station, and of Klara Olette Jacobsen. Jacobsen arrived on the island in 1904 to become the manager of Grytviken, serving from 1914 to 1921; two of his children were born on the island.[35]
Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born south of the 60th parallel south (the continental limit according to the Antarctic Treaty[36]), as well as the first one born on the Antarctic mainland, in 1978 at Base Esperanza, on the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula[37][38]; his parents were sent there along with seven other families by the Argentine government to determine if family life was suitable on the continent. In 1984, Juan Pablo Camacho was born at the Frei Montalva Station, becoming the first Chilean born in Antarctica. Several bases are now home to families with children attending schools at the station.[39] As of 2009, eleven children were born in Antarctica (south of the 60th parallel south): eight at the Argentinean Esperanza Base[40] and three at the Chilean Frei Montalva Station.[41]

Flora and fauna

Flora

The climate of Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation. A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit plant growth. As a result, plant life is limited to mostly mosses and liverworts. The autotrophic community is made up of mostly protists. The flora of the continent largely consists of lichens, bryophytes, algae, and fungi. Growth generally occurs in the summer, and only for a few weeks at most.
More than 200 species of lichens are known to exist in Antarctica.
There are more than 200 species of lichens and about 50 species of bryophytes, such as mosses. Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. Multicolored snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer. There are two species of flowering plants found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) and Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort).[42]

Fauna

Few terrestrial vertebrates live in Antarctica.[43] Invertebrate life includes microscopic mites like the Alaskozetes antarcticus, lice, nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, krill and springtails. Recently ancient ecosystems consisting of several types of bacteria have been found living trapped deep beneath glaciers.[44] The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, just 12 millimeters (0.5 in) in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica. The Snow Petrel is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica.[45]
Emperor Penguins in Ross Sea, Antarctica.
A variety of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids and fur seals. The Emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica, while the Adélie Penguin breeds farther south than any other penguin. The Rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the appearance of elaborate eyelashes. King penguins, Chinstrap penguins, and Gentoo Penguins also breed in the Antarctic.
The Antarctic fur seal was very heavily hunted in the 18th and 19th centuries for its pelt by sealers from the United States and the United Kingdom. The Weddell Seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. Antarctic krill, which congregates in large schools, is the keystone species of the ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales, seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and many other birds.[46]
The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act in the U.S. brought several restrictions to U.S. activity on the continent. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. The overfishing of krill, which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.[1] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of 32,000 tonnes (35,300 short tons) in 2000.[47][48]
A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers is due for release in 2010. The research is part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) and has disclosed some remarkable findings. More than 235 marine organisms live in both polar regions, having bridged the gap of 12,000 km. Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. More surprising are small forms of life such as mudworms, sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Various factors may aid in their distribution - fairly uniform temperatures of the deep ocean at the poles and the equator which differ by no more than 5 °C, and the major current systems or marine conveyor belt which transport egg and larvae stages.[49]

Politics

Designed by Graham Bartram, this is the most popular unofficial flag of Antarctica, symbolizing the continent's neutrality.
Antarctica has no government, although various countries claim sovereignty in certain regions. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,[50] the validity of these claims are generally not recognised universally.[1]
New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since 1959 and the continent is considered politically neutral. Its status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S for the purposes of the Treaty System. The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and the United States.[51] It set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and environmental protection, and banned military activity on the continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
In 1983, the Antarctic Treaty Parties began negotiations on a convention to regulate mining in Antarctica.[52] A coalition of international organisations[53] launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International[54] which established its own scientific station–World Park Base–in the Ross Sea region[55] and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental effects of humans on the continent.[56] In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted.[57] The following year, however, Australia and France announced that they would not ratify the convention, rendering it dead for all intents and purposes. They proposed instead that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place.[58] The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the ‘Madrid Protocol’) was negotiated as other countries followed suit and on 14 January 1998 it entered into force.[59] The Madrid Protocol bans all mining in Antarctica, designating the continent as a ‘natural reserve devoted to peace and science’.
The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica, including the establishment of military bases and fortifications, military manoeuvers, and weapons testing. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or other peaceful purposes.[60] The only documented military land manoeuvre was Operation NINETY by the Argentine military.[61]
The United States military issues the Antarctica Service Medal to military members or civilians who perform research duty in Antarctica. The medal includes a "wintered over" bar issued to those who remain on the continent for 2 six-month seasons.[62]

Antarctic territories

Antarctica, Argentina territorial claim.svg Antarctica, Australia territorial claim.svg Antarctica, Chile territorial claim.svg Antarctica, France territorial claim.svg Antarctica, New Zealand territorial claim.svg Antarctica, Norway territorial claim.svg Antarctica, United Kingdom territorial claim.svg
Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway United Kingdom
Date Country Territory Claim limits
1908  United Kingdom  British Antarctic Territory 20°W to 80°W
1923  New Zealand Ross Dependency 150°W to 160°E
1924  France French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land 142°2'E to 136°11'E
1929  Norway  Peter I Island 68°50′S 90°35′W / 68.833°S 90.583°W / -68.833; -90.583 (Peter I Island)
1933  Australia Australia Australian Antarctic Territory 160°E to 142°2'E and
136°11'E to 44°38'E
1939  Norway  Queen Maud Land 44°38'E to 20°W
1940  Chile Antártica Chilena Province Antártica 53°W to 90°W
1943  Argentina  Argentine Antarctica 25°W to 74°W
None Unclaimed territory
(Marie Byrd Land)
90°W to 150°W
(except the Peter I Island)
The Argentine, British, and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence. Australia currently claims the largest area. Australia and New Zealand both recognise the British claim, and vice-versa.

Countries interested in participating in a possible territorial division of Antarctica

This group of countries participating as members of Antarctica Treaty have a territorial interest in the Antarctic continent but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force.[63][64]
  •  Brazil has a designated 'zone of interest' that is not an actual claim.
  •  Peru has formally reserved its right to make a claim.[63][64]
  •  Russia has reserved its right to claim "territories discovered by Russians", which potentially may refer to the entire continent.[citation needed]
  •  South Africa has formally reserved its right to make a claim.[63][64]
  •  Spain has formally reserved its right to make a claim.
  •  United States has formally reserved its right to make a claim.

Economy

The illegal capture and sale of the Patagonian toothfish has led to several arrests. Pictured here is the Antarctic toothfish, a sister species.
Antarctic postal services.
Although coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, copper, chromium, nickel, gold and other minerals have been found, they have not been in large enough quantities to exploit. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. In 1998, a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in 2048, further limiting economic development and exploitation. The primary economic activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes.
Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Not all vessels associated with Antarctic tourism are members of IAATO, but IAATO members account for 95% of the tourist activity. Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife. A total of 37,506 tourists visited during the 2006–07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships. The number is predicted to increase to over 80,000 by 2010.[65][66]
There has been some recent concern over the potential adverse environmental and ecosystem effects caused by the influx of visitors. A call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota has been made by some environmentalists and scientists.[67] The primary response by Antarctic Treaty Parties has been to develop, through their Committee for Environmental Protection and in partnership with IAATO, "site use guidelines" setting landing limits and closed or restricted zones on the more frequently visited sites. .Antarctic sight seeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard.^ LOL [18:16] I've been trying out my new air rifle (Xmas present) ...

Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s.

Transport

Transport on the continent has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica on foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport by land and predominantly by air and water. The use of dogs to pull researchers and sledges has been banned on objections that dogs are an alien species to Antarctica and menaces to wildlife as superpredators.

Research

A full moon and 25-second exposure allowed sufficient light for this photo to be taken at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the long Antarctic night. The station can be seen at far left, the power plant in the center and the mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the background is the Aurora Australis.
Each year, scientists from 27 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. In the summer more than 4,000 scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to nearly 1,000 in the winter.[1] McMurdo Station is capable of housing more than 1,000 scientists, visitors, and tourists.
Researchers include biologists, geologists, oceanographers, physicists, astronomers, glaciologists, and meteorologists. Geologists tend to study plate tectonics, meteorites from outer space, and resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Glaciologists in Antarctica are concerned with the study of the history and dynamics of floating ice, seasonal snow, glaciers, and ice sheets. .Biologists, in addition to examining the wildlife, are interested in how harsh temperatures and the presence of people affect adaptation and survival strategies in a wide variety of organisms.^ I am skeptical [16:20] me too [16:20] i''m interested in all this but have my doubts at this whole thing [16:23] how many people are working on the whole thing?

Medical physicians have made discoveries concerning the spreading of viruses and the body's response to extreme seasonal temperatures. Astrophysicists at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of the high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere, low temperature, which minimizes the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, and absence of light pollution, thus allowing for a view of space clearer than anywhere else on Earth. Antarctic ice serves as both the shield and the detection medium for the largest neutrino telescope in the world, built 2 kilometers below Amundsen-Scott station.[68]
Since the 1970s, an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. .In 1985, three British Scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer.^ I heard that, Scooby [22:17] why is n.korea really doing what they are doing or is this a bush lie [22:17] they landed on hailies comet and discovered there was no ice.

In 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million km2 (10 million sq mi). It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons emitted by human products. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, it is believed that the ozone hole will close up over the next fifty years.

Princess Elisabeth Polar Science Station

On 6 September 2007, Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Costing $16.3 million, the prefabricated station, which is part of International Polar Year, was shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of 2008 to monitor the health of the polar regions. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." Johan Berte is the leader of the station design team and manager of the project which conducts research in climatology, glaciology and microbiology.[69]

Meteorites

Antarctic meteorite, named ALH84001, from Mars.
Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. The first meteorites were found in 1912. In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved.[70]
This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. These specimens, particularly ALH84001 discovered by ANSMET, are at the center of the controversy about possible evidence of microbial life on Mars. .Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies.^ Magnetos [20:17] ok, i haven't had a tv since 85 [20:17] Too much time studying human psychology.

.The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets.^ Magnetos [20:17] ok, i haven't had a tv since 85 [20:17] Too much time studying human psychology.

[70]
In 2006, a team of researchers from Ohio State University used gravity measurements by NASA's GRACE satellites to discover the 300-mile (480 km)-wide Wilkes Land crater, which probably formed about 250 million years ago.[71]

Volcanic eruption

In January 2008, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). .The biggest eruption in Antarctica in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.^ A spokesman for Sunrise said that this deterioration is due to the progressive nature of farsightedness and that some of the effect from LTK may last 10 years.

^ Very accurate [18:18] I plan on laying in about 10,000 pellets, could last 10 years.

[72]

Ice mass and global sea level

Due to its location at the South Pole, Antarctica receives relatively little solar radiation. This means that it is a very cold continent where water is mostly in the form of ice. Precipitation is low (most of Antarctica is a desert) and almost always in the form of snow, which accumulates and forms a giant ice sheet which covers the land. Parts of this ice sheet form moving glaciers known as ice streams, which flow towards the edges of the continent. Next to the continental shore are many ice shelves. These are floating extensions of outflowing glaciers from the continental ice mass. Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. It is important to understand the various types of Antarctic ice to understand possible effects on sea levels and the implications of global warming.
Sea ice extent expands annually in the Antarctic winter and most of this ice melts in the summer. .This ice is formed from the ocean water and floats in the same water and thus does not contribute to rise in sea level.^ Because, again, the rise in water level in VA will be gradual.

The extent of sea ice around Antarctica has remained roughly constant in recent decades, although the thickness changes are unclear.[73][74]
.Melting of floating ice shelves (ice that originated on the land) does not in itself contribute much to sea-level rise (since the ice displaces only its own mass of water).^ If the poles melted, I thought the seas would rise up to 50 feet [19:44] I was under the impression that Virginia will be entirely underwater in one day.

^ Because, again, the rise in water level in VA will be gradual.

^ I think [19:44] the seas rise for 2 years as the poles melt [19:44] after the sloshing [19:44] Okay, I'm confused..

However it is the outflow of the ice from the land to form the ice shelf which causes a rise in global sea level. This effect is offset by snow falling back onto the continent. Recent decades have witnessed several dramatic collapses of large ice shelves around the coast of Antarctica, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. Concerns have been raised that disruption of ice shelves may result in increased glacial outflow from the continental ice mass.[75]
On the continent itself, the large volume of ice present stores around 70% of the world's fresh water.[19] This ice sheet is constantly gaining ice from snowfall and losing ice through outflow to the sea. West Antarctica is currently experiencing a net outflow of glacial ice, which will increase global sea level over time. .A review of the scientific studies looking at data from 1992 to 2006 suggested that a net loss of around 50 gigatonnes of ice per year was a reasonable estimate (around 0.14 mm of sea level rise).^ If the poles melted, I thought the seas would rise up to 50 feet [19:44] I was under the impression that Virginia will be entirely underwater in one day.

^ I think [19:44] the seas rise for 2 years as the poles melt [19:44] after the sloshing [19:44] Okay, I'm confused..

[76] Significant acceleration of outflow glaciers in the Amundsen Sea Embayment may have more than doubled this figure for the year 2006.[77]
East Antarctica is a cold region with a ground base above sea level and occupies most of the continent. This area is dominated by small accumulations of snowfall which becomes ice and thus eventually seaward glacial flows. The mass balance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet as a whole is thought to be slightly positive (lowering sea level) or near to balance.[76][77] However, increased ice outflow has been suggested in some regions.[77][78]

Effects of global warming

Antarctican Temperature
Warming trend from 1957 through 2006
Legend
Some of Antarctica has been warming up, particularly strong warming has been noted on the Antarctic Peninsula. A study by Eric Steig published in 2009 noted for the first time that the continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is slightly positive at >0.05 °C (0.09 °F) per decade from 1957 to 2006. This study also noted that West Antarctica has warmed by more than 0.1 °C (0.2 °F) per decade in the last 50 years, and this warming is strongest in winter and spring. This is partly offset by fall cooling in East Antarctica.[79] There is evidence from one study that Antarctica is warming as a result of human carbon dioxide emissions.[80] However, the small amount of surface warming in West Antarctica is not believed to be directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf.[81][82] The net contribution to sea level from the Antarctic Peninsula is more likely to be a direct result of the much greater atmospheric warming there.[83]
In 2003 the Antarctic Peninsula's Larsen-B ice shelf collapsed.[84] Between 28 February and 8 March 2008, about 570 square kilometres (220 sq mi) of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the southwest part of the peninsula collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) of the ice shelf at risk. The ice was being held back by a "thread" of ice about 6 km wide,[85][86] prior to its collapse on 5 April 2009.[87][88] According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F).[89]

Ozone depletion

Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded due to CFC accumulation (September 2006).
Each year a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" grows over Antarctica. This hole covers the whole continent and is at its largest in September. The year 2008 saw the longest lasting hole on record, which remained until the end of December.[90] The hole was detected by scientists in 1985[91] and has tended to increase over the years of observation. The ozone hole is attributed to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs into the atmosphere, which decompose the ozone into other gases.[92]
Some scientific studies suggest that ozone depletion may have a dominant role in the recent climate changes in Antarctica (and a wider area of the Southern Hemisphere).[91] Ozone absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere. Ozone depletion over Antarctica can cause a cooling of around 6 °C in the local stratosphere. This cooling has the effect of intensifying the westerly winds which flow around the continent (the polar vortex) and thus prevents outflow of the cold air near the South Pole. As a result, the continental mass of the East Antarctic ice sheet is held at lower temperatures, and the peripheral areas of Antarctica, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, are subject to higher temperatures, which promote accelerated melting.[91] Recent models also suggest that the ozone depletion/enhanced polar vortex effect also accounts for the recent increase in sea-ice just offshore of the continent.[93]

See also

References

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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Flag
N/A
Quick Facts
Capital N/A
Government Antarctic Treaty
Currency varies by station
Area 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free) (est.)
Population no permanent inhabitants, seasonally staffed research stations vary from 1000-4000
Language varies by station
Electricity varies by station
Internet TLD .aq
Time Zone varies by station
.Antarctica is a land of extremes: it is the coldest and driest continent on Earth and has the highest average elevation.^ By any measure, it's a land of extremes, being the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth.

^ Temperature/Weather Antarctica is the coldest continent.

^ Few have experienced Antarctica, truly the last pristine region on earth and land like no other in the geography and history of the world.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

.As the fifth largest continent in the world, Antartica is also the most Southern, overlying the "South Pole". Scarcely touched by humans, the frozen land boasts breathtaking scenery, broken by only handful of scientific bases and a "permanent" population of scientists numbering only a few thousand.^ On what continent is the South Pole located?
  • WikiAnswers - South Pole Questions including "What is the distance between the North Pole and the South Pole" 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the land around the south pole is called?
  • WikiAnswers - South Pole Questions including "What is the distance between the North Pole and the South Pole" 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which has no land - the North Pole or South Pole?
  • WikiAnswers - South Pole Questions including "What is the distance between the North Pole and the South Pole" 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visitors to Antarctica generally must brave rough sea crossings aboard ice-strengthened vessels, but those who do are rewarded with amazing scenery and tremendous and unique wildlife.^ This immense wilderness is a fabulous place & a virtually pristine paradise for wildlife with incomparable scenery of mountains, snow and ice.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ I am the forgotten soul of the dead sailors who crossed Cape Horn from all the seas of the world.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ We have the voices of GAs (General Assistants) and scientists, of writers and those who have never written for publication.
  • Antarctica - Travelers' Tales 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.travelerstales.com [Source type: Original source]

Understand

.Although several countries have laid claim to various portions of Antarctica, it is governed by the 1958 Antarctic Treaty, which establishes the continent as a peaceful and cooperative international research zone.^ In December, the twelve leading nations participating in the IGY sign the "Antarctic Treaty" in Washington, DC. The treaty was framed as an agreement so the continent "shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes".
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Antarctica 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Antarctica 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are no cities per se, just some two dozen research stations with a total population ranging from 1000-4000 depending on the time of year.^ A few small red buildings to our left mark some abandoned research station just off the Antarctic shelf.
  • Antarctica 2001 with Topher 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.clubcruceros.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We spent some time alongside the expedition yacht 'Spirit of Sydney' which is on a six week whale research project with an international group of five whale scientists.

^ A second encounter occurred right in front of the station, where two divers had only just plunged in to the water when a very large leopard surfaced almost in their midst.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

.These are maintained for scientific purposes only, and do not provide any official support for tourism.^ Yevgeniy Morozov , who is heading the expedition to the south, said the church would provide extra support for workers there, who usually have only themselves to rely on.
  • WAPONLINE > Church in Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.waponline.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The laws of the nation operating each research station apply there.^ The research station is in operation during the summer only but with economic issues in Argentina many bases are not being fully staffed.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ The hour-long dedication ceremony attracted an overflow crowd from McMurdo Station and Scott Base, the nearby research station operated by New Zealand .
  • WAPONLINE > Church in Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.waponline.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McMurdo Station is the base of operations for many Antarctic research projects and the home of the National Science Foundation Antarctic Field Office.

.Private travel to Antarctica generally takes one of three forms: 1) commercial sea voyages with shore visits (by far the most popular), 2) specially mounted land expeditions, or 3) sightseeing by air.^ Weddell Sea & Antarctic Peninsula 12 days / 11 nights Home to massive ice shelves, an under-water volcano and wildlife-rich islands, this voyage will take us to one of Antarcticas most dynamic regions and places where few humans have ever been .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Falkland Islands South Georgia & Antarctic Peninsula This longer voyage will take you to many of the most popular destinations in Antarctica including the surrounding islands and the Antarctic Peninsula itself .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was in the UK buying an ex-Challenge yacht to take down to Antarctica on sailing expeditions.

.Approximately 80 companies belong to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators [1], a membership organization which regulates non-research travel to the region.^ We only sell companies that are a part of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Antarctic Tourism is created with the creation of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO).
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A total of 45,652 tourists visited the Antarctic Treaty area in the 2007-08 Antarctic summer, up from the 36,460 visitors in 2006-2007, and the 30,877 visitors in 2005-2006 (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO); this does not include passengers on overflights).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Antarctica 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 2005-2006 summer season, an estimated 26,250 people visited Antarctica or the surrounding waters.^ A total of 45,652 tourists visited the Antarctic Treaty area in the 2007-08 Antarctic summer, up from the 36,460 visitors in 2006-2007, and the 30,877 visitors in 2005-2006 (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO); this does not include passengers on overflights).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Antarctica 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember also that some vessels visit Antarctica 10 or more times in a single season and the staff members and lecturers on these ships can become jaded and burnt out well before the end of the summer.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ While no records exist, it is reasonable to presume that the quantity of garbage discarded into the environment that summer season was commensurate with the large number of people involved.

Flora and fauna

.Antarctica is notable for being the only continent with no significant land plant life and no native land mammals, reptiles, or amphibians.^ Few have experienced Antarctica, truly the last pristine region on earth and land like no other in the geography and history of the world.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a plot so there are no significance details, but only 5 of 47 not in West Antacrtic show negative trend.
  • RealClimate: Antarctic warming is robust 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there something indigenous ONLY to Antarctica that visitors like to bring home as a memento of their visit to the continent?
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

.(There are no polar bears; they are only at the North Pole.^ As nations jockey for the North Pole, London starts a race for the South, just in case there are minerals to exploit .
  • Antarctica: News & Videos about Antarctica - CNN.com 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ There is no story here of neat ideas that fit into a cohesive whole, only images as you walk upon the rocks.
  • Antarctica 2001 with Topher 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.clubcruceros.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I heard that, Scooby [22:17] why is n.korea really doing what they are doing or is this a bush lie [22:17] they landed on hailies comet and discovered there was no ice.

) .However its shoreline serves as nesting ground for many species of migratory birds and penguins, and the Southern Ocean surrounding it is home to many fish and marine mammals, including whales.^ Captain Edouard Dallman sails the 'Grönland' into the southern oceans under the auspices of the German Polar Navigation Company to the Antarctic Peninsula in search of whales.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To complement their work on whales, Discovery scientists also conducted extensive hydrographic and biological work in the southern ocean.

^ However, I do not believe they have the intelligence level of a seal, dolphin or whale, marine animals more commonly used in marine animal parks to entertain tourists.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

Landscape

Don't be fooled by all the ice: Antarctica is a desert. .The region's moisture is all tied up in frigid seawater and the huge sheets, shelves, and packs of ice which cover nearly all of the continent plus surrounding waters.^ Antarctica is a huge continent, the size of the U.S.A. and more or less totally covered in thick ice even in these days of climate change.

^ At this time of year, as summer approaches the southern hemisphere, many of the ice sheets beginning to break up and melt.

^ In 1987 and 1989-95 it covered the entire Antarctic continent and part of the surrounding ocean.
  • Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is little snowfall here, and even less rain.^ Photolysis of active chlorine compounds The Cl2 and HOCl produced by the heterogeneous reactions are easily photolyzed, even in the antarctic winter when there is little UV present.
  • Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So, if the clumps are there even in the early universe, then we should see clumpy parts that look a little hotter than less clumpy parts; remember the denser the hotter so clumpy parts will be hotter.

Climate

.For tourists, Antarctica is accessible only during the austral summer season from November to March, during which sea ice melts enough to allow access, coastal temperatures can rise up to highs of 14ºC (57ºF) and there are twenty four hours of daylight.^ Preparations continued during the 1956-57 austral summer season.

^ March - Four Seasons in one day .

^ In the summer of 1958-1959 there were only 3,887 people in Antarctica.

.During the winter the sea is impassable.^ "Because emperor penguins breed on sea-ice during the Antarctic winter little is known about their colonies.

.Temperatures can fall to -40ºC and there are twenty four hours of darkness.^ These are lands of extremes in the North Pole and South Pole - nowhere else on the planet do temperatures fall this low, or is there such stark reality.
  • Antarctica Cruise Expeditions, Arctic Cruises, Tours, Travel, Antarctic Expedition, Vacation, Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Ship, Holiday Expeditions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The above temperatures apply to the islands and coastal regions that tourists ordinarily visit. .Temperatures in the interior, such as the South Pole, are far harsher, with summer highs of around -15ºC (5ºF) and winter lows plummeting to -80ºC (-112ºF).^ "The South Pole apparently is the next best place to space in which to site an observatory or telescope, because of its high elevation, cold air and lack of pollution.
  • South Pole online in 2009 | ITworld 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: News]

^ South Pole LOW RISE CORDUROYS (7-16) $25.00 .
  • South Pole Clothing - Buy South Pole Clothes, Jeans, Jackets, Tees, Wear Online 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC www.hip-hop-clothing-now.com [Source type: News]

^ Michele Eilen Raney, the station physician becomes the first woman to winter-over at South Pole.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Read

.For most people, reading about Antarctica is the only affordable means of experiencing the continent.^ Is there something indigenous ONLY to Antarctica that visitors like to bring home as a memento of their visit to the continent?
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps the most interesting thing about the weather in Antarctica and at the South Pole is the precipitation.

^ McClintock, We enjoyed reading your journal entry about teamwork and how so many people play an important role in making your research trips possible.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

.Books range from wild works of fiction to non-fiction accounts of the extraordinary early missions of adventurers looking to conquer Earth's last land frontier.^ Few have experienced Antarctica, truly the last pristine region on earth and land like no other in the geography and history of the world.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Susan Fox Rogers is the editor of ten book anthologies including Solo: On Her Own Adventure and Going Alone: Womens Adventures in the Wild .
  • Antarctica - Travelers' Tales 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.travelerstales.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He landed in Australia in the early 1970s with no job and no intention of looking for one.
  • The Strange Lives of Polar Dinosaurs | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

  • At the Mountains of Madness — the earliest science fiction/horror story to take place on the continent, written by H.P. Lovecraft, detailing the adventures of a geological expedition to Antarctic Mountains, where the researchers discover something so inconceivable that they lose their minds
  • Endurance : Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing
  • Endurance, by Caroline Alexander
  • A First-Rate Tragedy: Robert Falcon Scott & the Race to the South Pole, by Diana Preston
  • Mawson's Will, by Lennard Bickel
  • North Pole, South Pole: Journeys to the Ends of the Earth, by Bertrand Imbert
  • Scott's Last Expedition: The Journals, by Robert F. Scott and Beryl Bainbridge
  • Shackleton, by Roland Huntford
  • South Pole: 900 Miles on Foot, by Gareth Wood and Eric Jamieson
  • The Worst Journey in the World, by Apsley Cherry-Garrard
  • Terra Incognita, by Sara Wheeler
Antarctica regions
Antarctica regions
Antarctic Peninsula
Antarctica's principal destination, nearest to Tierra del Fuego, with the impressive topography of the Antarctic Andes, island hot springs, the continent's densest concentration of research stations
East Antarctica
the Eastern Hemisphere's vast icy desert wasteland that makes up most of the continent is probably the least well known to tourists, but there are a few interesting destinations, including Mawson's Huts, and the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility
Ross Sea
the principal destination for cruise ships leaving Australia and New Zealand has some of Antarctica's most impressive sights around volcanic Ross Island and the huge Transantarctic Mountain Chain
South Pole
Unlike its northern cousin, the South Pole sits upon stationary ground, and therefore supports a permanent research station and a ceremonial "pole"
West Antarctica
With the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica is barren and empty, even of research stations (except for the Brunt Ice Shelf), but it does contain the continent's highest & lowest points, the former of which you can climb on a guided expedition
Note: All dots on map represent inhabited research stations.
The remote, breathtaking Transantarctic mountains
The remote, breathtaking Transantarctic mountains
.The primary destinations for those visiting Antarctica will either be a research base (for those working on the frozen continent) or the Antarctic Peninsula or Ross Sea area (for those visiting by ship).^ This fitted in nicely with N.Z.’s anticipated base somewhere in the Ross Sea area.

^ By Pauline Askin- CAPE DENISON, Antarctica (Reuters) – An Antarctic expedition has found what it believes to be remains of the first aeroplane brought to the frozen continent, on an icy shore near where it was abandoned almost a century ago.
  • Antarctica // Current 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Catholic Church in Antarctica It was 5 years ago when WAP did launch the idea to build a Catholic Church in the area of the Italian Base MZS , at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica .
  • WAPONLINE > Church in Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.waponline.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other destinations are reachable only by those blessed with extreme motivation and (most importantly) funding.^ The colonies generally only exist in the most inaccessible of locations and access during the harshest weather conditions is extremely difficult.

  • South Pole — needs no introduction
  • Southern pole of inaccessibility — the furthest place in Antarctica from the Southern Sea (in other words the hardest place to get to in the world), home to an abandoned Soviet station, which although covered by snow, still bears a visible gold Lenin bust sprouting from the snow and facing Moscow (if you can find a way inside the building, there's a golden visitor book to sign)
  • Mount Erebus — world's southernmost active volcano, on Ross Island right next to ~Mount Terror!~
  • Anver Island / Anvord Bay — if any part of Antarctica is "touristy," this is it, home to Palmer Station (U.S.), the museum at Port Lockroy, Cuverville Island, and the only two cruise ship stops on the continent: Paradise Bay and Neko Harbor
  • South Shetland Islands — another set of major attractions on the Antarctic Peninsula cruise ship circuit, including: penguins and hot springs at Deception Island, Hannah Point, Half Moon Island, Aitcho Islands, Artigas Base (Uruguay), and the ever friendly Polish researchers at Arctowski Station
  • McMurdo Sound — McMurdo Station (USA) and Scott Base (New Zealand) on the mainland near Ross Island
  • Mawson's Huts — the small encampment of Sir Douglas Mawson's ill-fated Australian Antarctic Expedition, of which he was the sole survivor, at Cape Denison, Commonwealth Bay

Talk

.The native languages of the nations operating bases are used.^ McMurdo Station is the base of operations for many Antarctic research projects and the home of the National Science Foundation Antarctic Field Office.

English is the lingua franca used between different stations.

Get in

By plane

.Aircraft and pilots need to be capable of landing on ice, snow, or gravel runways, as there are no paved runways.^ This is a view of the Ice runway where we landed.

^ You might think that since there is so much ice and snow at the South Pole, it must be snowing all the time.

^ Sure there is plenty of ice and snow, but to melt it all so you can use it and drink it is hard and time consuming.

.Landings are generally restricted to the daylight season (Summer months from October to March).^ In the late summer months of February and March there are terrific whale-watching opportunities and the adult penguins are ashore moulting.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

.Winter landings have been performed at Williams Field but low temperatures mean that aircraft cannot stay on the ice longer than an hour or so as their skis may freeze to the ice runway.^ This is a view of the Ice runway where we landed.

^ These are lands of extremes in the North Pole and South Pole - nowhere else on the planet do temperatures fall this low, or is there such stark reality.
  • Antarctica Cruise Expeditions, Arctic Cruises, Tours, Travel, Antarctic Expedition, Vacation, Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Ship, Holiday Expeditions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 20: The first aircraft land at McMurdo Ice Runway {2 Neptunes (P2V's),and 2 Skymasters R5D's}.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Travel is normally by military aircraft, as part of the cargo. .Passengers should anticipate carrying all their own luggage and may need to assist with freight as well.^ ABOUT THE Antarctica Records MP3 DOWNLOAD STORE The links below provide all the information you may need to use our download store.

^ "We need an assessment of all reptiles to understand the severity of the situation, but we don't have the U.S.$2-3 million to carry it out."

^ Texas hi all [09:16] or should I say tex [09:16] Oh yeah you asked me that as well.......

Major landing fields include:
  • Williams Field - Serves McMurdo Station and Scott Base.
  • Pegasus Blue-Ice Runway - Serves McMurdo Station and Scott Base.
  • Annual Sea-Ice Runway - Serves McMurdo Station and Scott Base.
.Commercial overflights to Antarctica are limited - a handful of operators offer flights from Sydney, Melbourne, and Punta Arenas.^ He crosses the South Pole from Punta Arenas and lands at McMurdo en route to Sydney, Australia.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These flights typically visit Antarctica and spend several hours flying over the ice.^ I share their excitement, especially since we have all now been traveling for several days: 36 hours of flying as well as 2 days crossing the Drake Passage.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

.Passengers in most seating classes rotate their position in the row halfway into the flight, to give everyone a window or one-over-from-window seat for half of the time.^ Over long periods of time penguins evolved into birds that used their wings for swimming rather than flight.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

Rates range from $5199 for first class, to $1399 for partially-obstructed-view economy class, or $899 for non-rotating center-section seats with window access depending on the courtesy of better-seated travelers. .Keep in mind that these flights involve substantial risk: a successful search-and-rescue mission would be all but impossible in the event of a crash, which is what happened to one Air New Zealand flight in 1979. Due to a combination of low flying altitude and a navigational error, they hit Mount Erebus on Ross Island and all 257 people aboard were killed.^ He is the first New Zealander to be killed in Antarctica.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the early editors of National Geographic magazine, the official journal of the National Geographic Society, defined the Society's mission as covering "the world and all that's in it."

^ If enhancements observed on satellites as short duration events are spatially confined to the trapping boundary they would not appear bursty in ground-based VLF data.
  • VLF Beacon Transmitter at South Pole 6 February 2010 13:25 UTC www-star.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

The icebreaker M/V Polar Star (capacity 100 passengers) in the Grandidier Channel
The icebreaker M/V Polar Star (capacity 100 passengers) in the Grandidier Channel
Boat is the most common method of visiting the Antarctic. .In the Antarctic summer, several companies offer excursions on ice strengthened vessels to Antarctica.^ Climate scientists have long believed that while most of the rest of the globe has been getting steadily warmer, a large part of Antarctica -- the East Antarctic Ice Sheet -- has been getting colder.

^ The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with an average elevation of about 6,000 feet above sea level, is substantially lower than East Antarctica, which has an average elevation of more than 10,000 feet.

^ When a vessel was beset and crushed by the pack ice, such as the Antarctic in 1903 and the Endurance in 1915, a comparatively large amount of anthropogenic debris was deposited into the environment.

.Ice strengthened (not quite as tough as icebreakers) boats are preferred since icebreakers are round on the bottom -- a configuration that amplifies the already massive wave action in the Drake passage.^ Most of what we have experienced has been Drake Passage- rough water enough to make anyone sick, but not quite horrific.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Already being in the rough seas of the Drake Passage has us wondering how he and his men could have survived.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ I share their excitement, especially since we have all now been traveling for several days: 36 hours of flying as well as 2 days crossing the Drake Passage.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

.The ships typically offer a couple of excursions to the continent (usually the Antarctic peninsula) or Antarctic islands (e.g., Deception Island, Aitcho Island) each day over the course of a week.^ Falkland Islands - South Georgia - South Sandwich Islands - Antarctic Peninsula 22 days / 21 nights In this fantastic three week cruise to the Antarctic, you'll visit some of the most exciting destinations: the Falkland Islands with their pristine wildlife and friendly people, South Georgia, where you'll see fur seals, Penguins and albatross, the rarely visited South Sandwich Islands, that offer Penguins and Giant Petrels .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antarctic Peninsula for climbers and kayakers 12 days / 11 nights The Antarctic Peninsula offers energetic explorers ascents of hundreds of unclimbed peaks rising several thousand meters and paddling on protected waterways .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shackleton Odyssey 20 days / 19 nights This special variation on our South Georgia and Antarctic Peninsula voyage retraces Shackletons odyssey from the northern tip of the Peninsula, past Elephant Island and across the Scotia Sea to the south-western side of South Georgia .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The views are phenomenal, the penguins are friendly (well, some of them are), and the experience is one that is unparalleled!^ We were also able to experience the joy of climbing several of the hills along the coast for the stunning views of monstrous glaciers as well as to enjoy sliding down the snow fields .
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

.When traveling by boat, be aware that smaller ships (typically carrying 50-100 passengers) can go where the big ships can't, getting you up closer to Antarctica's nature and wildlife.^ Jalen asks, "Did you see any wildlife while waiting on the ship?"
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ While 3,730 tourists visited Antarctica on cruise ships in 1989-1990, during the 1995-1996 summer season there were 113 cruises carrying 9,212 passengers, a nearly 300% increase in traffic in only six years.

^ You will need visas for any countries that your ship visits en route to Antarctica.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

.Larger vessels (carrying as many as 1200 people) are less prone to rough seas but have more limited landing options.^ Rough seas delayed their landing for two days.

^ For many years the U.S. program piled unwanted metal waste on the sea ice and waited for it to melt through or be carried away.

.Many vessels include naturalist guided hikes, zodiac excursions and sea kayaking right from the ship, perfect for active, casual travelers.^ Travel with expert naturalists and guides aboard MV 'Le Boreal' to observe the wildlife and marine life of the South Atlantic.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

.You'll need warm clothing: boots, hoods, glove, water repellent pants, parka and warm underwear.^ What kind of training do you need in order to do cold water diving as opposed to regular diving?
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ My boots, ski pants, parka, sweater, socks, jeans, and all the rest of the items I had worn on the continent just plain stunk.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Tara also asks, "What kind of training do you need in order to do cold water diving as opposed to regular diving?
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

Most of these items can be bought or hired in Ushaia, but sometimes - in the high season - it is not always easy to get the right sizes. .So bring whatever you can from your own stock.^ In fact it had led to me disobeying Ed’s firm instruction that in the polar winter you didn’t go on your own between the two bases.

.It must also be remembered that cruise operators typically only allow 100 people on land at any one time in order to comply with IAATO agreements.^ Any one of the issues is a time capsule packed with glorious images of people, cultures, places, and history.

^ The object was to get all five people from one side to the other by only stepping in the space and only passing someone of the other team.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Since he was only a few miles from the coast of Antarctica each time, the ice shelf was undoubtedly the one that rims the Princess Astrid Coast.

.Consequently if you are in a boat with more than 200 people the chances are you will only spend a couple of hours at most per day off ship.^ New Year Antarctic Air-Cruise 8 days / 7 nights Have you ever wanted to spend New Year's in Antarctica?
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the IGY, 414 people paid to be taken to Antarctica by ship, and 47 more flew over it.

^ "Only through the co-operation of 500 people from more than 25 countries could the daunting environmental challenges be overcome to produce research of such unprecedented scale and importance.

.Generally the smaller ships will try to ensure 2 different locations per day around Antarctica, although this is of course dependent on the weather and you may expect a 60% success rate on landing people for any given visit.^ Tomorrow we may finally see Antarctica, but that will depend on the weather.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ When To Go Tourists cannot visit Antarctica during the winter; pack ice extends 1000km (620mi) around the continent making ship access impossible and the darkness (almost 24 hours a day) does not lift until summer time.
  • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

^ The six colonies not found in this study were at a similar latitude suggesting that emperor penguins may be at risk all around Antarctica, BAS said.

Companies offering cruises to Antarctica include:
  • Abercrombie & Kent, USA, [2]. .Full member of International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) with 20 years of Antarctica operating experience, providing enrichment and educational programs.
  • Adventure Life, [3].^ We only sell companies that are a part of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators.
    • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Antarctic Tourism is created with the creation of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO).
    • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All information presented is based on promotional material provided by tour operators and cruise lines.
    • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

    .Members of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO), their small-ship Antarctica expeditions have been featured in ForbesLife and the New York Times.
  • AdventureSmith Antarctica Cruises, [4].^ We only sell companies that are a part of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators.
    • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Antarctic Tourism is created with the creation of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO).
    • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Remember also that some vessels visit Antarctica 10 or more times in a single season and the staff members and lecturers on these ships can become jaded and burnt out well before the end of the summer.
    • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

    .Award winning small ship cruise specialists, they work only with ships carrying 100 passengers or less.
  • Bark Europa, [5].^ While 3,730 tourists visited Antarctica on cruise ships in 1989-1990, during the 1995-1996 summer season there were 113 cruises carrying 9,212 passengers, a nearly 300% increase in traffic in only six years.

    ^ Cruise ship passenger levels have increased more or less steadily since 1986 (when only 995 tourists were carried to Antarctica).

    ^ They are fairly small and head quickly away from the ship so good views of them are tough to get.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

    .A square rigged sailing ship offering 22 day trips to Antarctica and other Sub Antarctic destinations like South Georgia and Tristan da Cunha.
  • Cheesemans Ecology Safaris, [6].^ Falkland Islands-south Georgia-antarctica .
    • Antarctica Cruises, Vacations, Travel and Tours 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atlastravelweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Responses to desiccation in four Coleopterans from sub-Antarctic South Georgia .
    • References 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Government of Tristan da Cunha, Edinburgh , Tristan da Cunha .
    • References 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Offers a trip nearly every year that includes three days in the Falklands, a week on South Georgia, and eight days on the Antarctic Peninsula.^ A conspectus of the mosses of Antarctica, South Georgia, the Falkland Islands and southern South America .
    • References 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The industry was re-established in Antarctic waters in 1904, when the first shore station was built at Grytviken on South Georgia Island by Captain C.A. Larsen.

    ^ After that, base building escalated for the three nations laying claim to the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Their trips are expensive but are some of the best for maximizing onshore time. .They have also done Ross Sea trips in past years.
  • Gap Adventures, [7].^ They also depended on seal blubber to keep them warm, as did the men of Shackleton's marooned Ross Sea party in 1916.

    .Operates trips on their ship: the 'M/S Expedition' The maximum number of passengers is 120 and the there are by lectures by staff and naturalists on board.
  • Haka Expeditions, [8].Cruises and Air Cruises to Antarctica and South Georgia.
  • Hapag-Lloyd Cruises, [9].Members of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO), their small expedition ships have the highest ice class ranking for cruise ships, and each vessel offers 4-5 cruises to Antarctica between December and March every year, including Antarctic peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the Weddell Sea.
  • Journeys International, [10].^ (Thought to be a description of South Shetland Island).
    • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first ship to arrive in the South Shetlands was an chartered Argentine vessel.

    ^ Antarctic Tourism is created with the creation of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO).
    • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Provides small ship exploration cruises to the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetlands, the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Circle and the Weddell and Ross Seas.
  • Lindblad Expeditions, [11].^ (Thought to be a description of South Shetland Island).
    • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Weddell Sea & The Antarctic Peninsula - Walking Expedition 11 days/10 nights Get ready to set sail through the South Shetland Islands, and into the Weddell Sea along the Antarctic Peninsula .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Falklands South Georgia and Antarctica The Antarctic Peninsula itself boasts a profusion of wildlife including five species of seal, massive penguin rookeries with gentoos, Adelies and chinstraps as well as a variety of whale species and seabirds including albatross, petrels, shearwaters and skuas .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Offers multiple trips to the Antarctic Peninsula and longer trips which include the Falklands, South Georgia, and the South Orkneys aboard the National Geographic Endeavour.
  • Quark Expeditions, [12].^ Falklands South Georgia & Antarctic An incredible diversity of experiences waits as we explore the necklace of islands stretching from Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn to the Antarctic Peninsula, including unforgettable visits to the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, among the most precious wildlife oases on Earth .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Shackleton Odyssey 20 days / 19 nights This special variation on our South Georgia and Antarctic Peninsula voyage retraces Shackletons odyssey from the northern tip of the Peninsula, past Elephant Island and across the Scotia Sea to the south-western side of South Georgia .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Falkland Islands - South Georgia - South Sandwich Islands - Antarctic Peninsula 22 days / 21 nights In this fantastic three week cruise to the Antarctic, you'll visit some of the most exciting destinations: the Falkland Islands with their pristine wildlife and friendly people, South Georgia, where you'll see fur seals, Penguins and albatross, the rarely visited South Sandwich Islands, that offer Penguins and Giant Petrels .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Offers everything from month-long semi-circumnavigation trips to week-long explorations of the Antarctic peninsula, on former Russian ice-breakers and expedition ships.
  • Rockjumper Birding tours, [13] operates out of South Africa and is aimed at those interested in birding.
  • Geographic Expeditions, [14].^ Antarctic Circle Quest 14 days / 13 nights On this exciting expedition, we have the opportunity to thoroughly explore the South Shetland region and Antarctic Peninsula searching out breathtaking bays and islands, and marveling at extraordinary natural wonders .
    • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Climate scientists have long believed that while most of the rest of the globe has been getting steadily warmer, a large part of Antarctica -- the East Antarctic Ice Sheet -- has been getting colder.

    ^ In an expedition supported by publisher Randolph Hearst and the American Geographical Society, Wilkins made the first Antarctic flight on November 16, 1928.

    GeoEx specializes in small group adventure travel. Tours offer a variety of destinations such as Ross Sea, South Georgia Islands an penguin rookeries.
Most cruise ships depart from the following ports:
About a dozen charter yachts regularly offer voyages to Antarctica
About a dozen charter yachts regularly offer voyages to Antarctica
.About a dozen charter sailboats, many of them members of IAATO, offer three to six week voyages to the Antarctic Peninsula from South America.^ On the northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula, located just below the tip of South America, one might expect summertime temperatures that are well above freezing, perhaps as high as 60 degrees farenheit or slightly warmer.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ Falkland Islands - South Georgia - South Sandwich Islands - Antarctic Peninsula 22 days / 21 nights In this fantastic three week cruise to the Antarctic, you'll visit some of the most exciting destinations: the Falkland Islands with their pristine wildlife and friendly people, South Georgia, where you'll see fur seals, Penguins and albatross, the rarely visited South Sandwich Islands, that offer Penguins and Giant Petrels .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shackleton Odyssey 20 days / 19 nights This special variation on our South Georgia and Antarctic Peninsula voyage retraces Shackletons odyssey from the northern tip of the Peninsula, past Elephant Island and across the Scotia Sea to the south-western side of South Georgia .
  • Antarctic Cruises, Antarctic Tours, Travel, Antarctic Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Expeditions, Penguins, Antarctic Peninsula, South Pole Excursions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most offer "expedition style" trips where guests are invited to help out, although usually no prior sailing experience is required. .Yachts take individuals on a "by the bunk" basis and also support private expeditions such as scientific research, mountaineering, kayaking, and film-making.^ We offer various types of expedition cruises such as Icebreakers, Luxury Ships, Research Ships, Hurtigruten, and Sailing Ships to the most exciting regions in the world.
  • Antarctica Cruise Expeditions, Arctic Cruises, Tours, Travel, Antarctic Expedition, Vacation, Voyages, Polar Cruise Packages, Ship, Holiday Expeditions 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.arcticantarcticcollection.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard Byrd returned to Antarctica with another expedition on January 17, 1934, this time with scientific research as his primary goal.

^ The Norwegian expedition had been organized by whaler and ship owner Lars Christensen, who had directed Riiser-Larsen to circumnavigate the continent, make surveys (some by air), and take scientific samples.

.Compared to the more popular cruse ships, a small yacht can be more work and significantly less comfortable, but typically allows more freedom and flexibility.^ Cruise ship passenger levels have increased more or less steadily since 1986 (when only 995 tourists were carried to Antarctica).

For the right people this can be a far more rewarding experience.
.
  • Ocean Expeditions , [15] Sailing yacht ‘Australis’ offers an intimate experience of Antarctica.
  • Expedition Sail , [16] Sailing yacht ‘SEAL’ is a purpose-built expedition sailboat offering private expeditions, support for research, filming, or climbing projects, and also offers "by the bunk" trips for individuals.
  • Spirit of Sydney, [17] Australians, Darrel and Cath, own and operate Spirit of Sydney, an expedition support yacht perfectly suited to meet and exceed the requirements of Film Crews, Mountaineers, Skiers and Snowboarders, Sea Kayakers, Dry suit Divers, Scientists, Sailors of all experience levels, Whale Watchers and Adventurers of all kinds.^ However, I do not believe they have the intelligence level of a seal, dolphin or whale, marine animals more commonly used in marine animal parks to entertain tourists.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In an expedition supported by publisher Randolph Hearst and the American Geographical Society, Wilkins made the first Antarctic flight on November 16, 1928.

    ^ Pollution: The first negative effect visited on Antarctica by human presence was pollution; early expeditions simply tossed all of their garbage and sewage overboard.

    They typically carry kayaks on board, and offer both private charters and group trips for individuals.

Antarctic Stations

Coastal stations include
  • McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E) (USA)
  • Palmer (64 42 S, 64 00 W) (USA)
  • Arctowski (Poland)
  • St. Kliment Ohridski, [18] (Livingston Island) (62 38 29 S, 60 21 53 W) (Bulgaria)
  • Port Lockroy (UK)
  • Baia Terranova (I)
  • Mawson (67 36 S, 62 52 E) (Australia)
  • Davis (68 35 S, 77 58 E) (Australia)
  • Casey (66 17 S, 110 32 E) (Australia)
  • Aboa (73°03'S, 13°25'W) (Finland)
Zodiac cruising in Paradise Harbour
Zodiac cruising in Paradise Harbour
.Ponies, sledges and dogs, skis, tractors, snow cats (and similar tracked vehicles) and aircraft including helicopters and ski planes have all been used to get around Antarctica.^ The six colonies not found in this study were at a similar latitude suggesting that emperor penguins may be at risk all around Antarctica, BAS said.

^ Where Amundsen had used sled dogs, Scott's party manhauled their sledges over rough snow and treacherous glaciers.

^ The first use of ski-equipped C-130 Hercules in Antarctica.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cruise ships use zodiac boats to ferry tourists from ship to shore in small groups.^ Cruise ship passenger levels have increased more or less steadily since 1986 (when only 995 tourists were carried to Antarctica).

^ As the Zodiac boats chugged towards the beach, groups of the penguins swam around us, shooting in and out of the water like dolphins.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

.Bring your own fuel and food, or arrange supplies in advance.^ Y2K had disrupted the supply chains of trucks and fuel and food, pole shift will definitely be catastrophic [20:27] Hi Magnetos [20:27] Hello.

You cannot purchase fuel or food on the continent. Cruise ships come fully prepared with landing transport, food, etc. .Some (but not all) even provide cold-weather clothing.^ Overnight the winds accelerated and we are facing some rough seas; indeed, even as I type this letter, the computer keyboard is sliding all over the table.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ But that keeps us all warm, keeps our food cold, runs our scientific instruments, and even our large screen TV! In the future it may be possible to develop solar power and wind power here to help provide electricity.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

  • Big Five Tours [19] - Offers customized tours to Antarctica.
  • Quark Expeditions [20] - Antarctica expeditions

Sleep

.Antarctica has 24-hour sunshine during the southern hemisphere summer.^ A major reason most of Antarctica was thought to be cooling is because of a hole in the Earth's protective ozone layer that appears during the spring months in the Southern Hemisphere's polar region.

^ Please note that answers on the bulletin board may be delayed 24 to 48 hours, due to the nature of satellite-based communications with Palmer Station in Antarctica.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ Suffice it to say that with almost 24 hours of daylight each day we took full advantage to explore and to learn more about Antarctica.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

Visitors should ensure that they take steps to keep regular sleeping hours as continuous daylight disturbs the body clock. .There are no hotels or lodges on the continent, and research bases will not generally house guests.^ Whether the dinosaurs on the North Slope of Alaska were alive is uncertain, he says; researchers have found no fossil layers there from the very end of the Cretaceous period.
  • The Strange Lives of Polar Dinosaurs | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1957-58 there were 44 continental bases, 21 island bases, and 5,362 people involved in the largest multinational scientific research effort in history.

.Most visitors sleep on board their boat, although land expeditions will use tents for shelter.^ Eckerd student and expedition team member Brett Buckingham uses a satellite phone to call his Mom during the landing at Paulet Island, Antarctica.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, the twenty-two men left on Elephant Island survived by using upturned boats as shelters.

Work

.It is possible to obtain employment with scientific expeditions in Antarctica.^ He had raised the funds for and was in command of the first scientific expedition intending to spend a winter on the continent of Antarctica: the British Antarctic Expedition, 1898-1900.

^ After visiting Antarctica to help plan the logistics of a scientific expedition, she also fell in love with this pole, later pursuing a PhD in Wildlife and Tourist Attractions in Antarctica.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Richard Byrd returned to Antarctica with another expedition on January 17, 1934, this time with scientific research as his primary goal.

Induction and training need to be undertaken prior to departure for Antarctica.
The following agencies are responsible for staffing bases in Antarctica:
  • Raytheon Polar Services, [21]. .Agency responsible for staffing all United States Antarctic bases.^ The United States House of Representatives adopted House Concurrent Resolution 51 (Recognizing the 50th Anniversary of the Signing of the Antarctic Treaty) on September 30, 2009.

    ^ Although the United States pursued no claims of its own, the flurry of international land grabbing may have encouraged the U.S. Congress to establish the U.S. Antarctic Service in 1939.

    ^ All lab and other hazardous waste is stored in barrels on station until it can be taken away to be disposed of properly in the United States.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

    .Applicants can apply through the web site or at one of the Antarctic job fairs held around the country.  edit
  • British Antarctic Survey, [22].^ Image courtesy British Antarctic Survey .

    ^ Registration and other information can be found on the Antarctic Treaty Summit Web site.

    ^ Emperor penguin colony at Halley Research Station Photo courtesy British Antarctic Survey .

    The British Antarctic Survey staffs bases in the Antarctic and surround region including the Falklands and South Georgia.  edit

Stay safe

As most visitors to Antarctica will arrive by boat, the greatest dangers occur due to storms at sea. .The weather in the Southern Ocean is nature at its most extreme, with the potential for hurricane force winds and waves as high as 60-70 feet (18-23 meters).^ The colonies generally only exist in the most inaccessible of locations and access during the harshest weather conditions is extremely difficult.

^ It seems ironic that the severe weather that makes the southern ocean so dangerous, particularly in the south Atlantic, was a key factor in the discovery of Antarctica.

^ Storms and high winds would spread some of the trash across a wider area, but most of it remained (or remains) localized.

With modern safety and ship design the odds of sinking are low, but the odds of being thrown about by a wave are high. .Every year numerous people die or are seriously injured during the crossing to and from the continent.^ The good news is that to date nobody has ever been seriously injured by a leopard seal, and they are likely just very curious about people.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ The discoveries are the result of a series of voyages conducted during International Polar Year , 2007-2008.

^ During the animals' heyday in the early Cretaceous period, the sun didn't rise in southern Australia for one and a half to four and a half months every year.
  • The Strange Lives of Polar Dinosaurs | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 15 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.When on a boat in rough weather always make sure that you have at least one secure handhold, and avoid opening doors during storms as a sudden shift in the waves can easily bring a heavy door crashing back onto a body part.^ Plastic pikes might be okay..just make sure you have an escape route in case SOMEHOW..you get trapped.

^ They build a cairn over the bodies of these explorers, and bring back all the parties diaries, personal papers and scientific records.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have only been two subtle challenges to us so far: one is to avoid plates, silverware, and glasses flying off the tables at mealtime during the rough seas; another challenge has been to walk on this ship.
  • Winter Term 2005 | Antarctica 10 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eckerd.edu [Source type: General]

In severe weather stay in your cabin and wait for the storm to subside.
.Weather on the continent is equally extreme, although most visitors pack appropriate gear.^ The colonies generally only exist in the most inaccessible of locations and access during the harshest weather conditions is extremely difficult.

For expeditions there are limited search-and-rescue options, so expeditions must plan for all contingencies. .There is no formal government or legal system in Antarctica, but the laws of the country of origin or departure as well as those of a claimant government may apply.^ LOL [17:07] * Buente was kicked by inkpen (Buente ) [17:07] well...i gave him ample oportunity [17:07] some people there is no arguing with [17:07] I agree Ink..

^ These may have been the first shots fired between competing claimants in Antarctica.

Rules regarding protection of the environment and of historical sites will be strictly enforced, and fines can be extreme.
Also note that when visiting Antarctica that a hospital is usually days away. .Most ships and research stations have a doctor, but facilities are limited.^ In all things on the ship and on station, safety is the first and most important consideration.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

In cases where evacuation is required (if even possible), costs can run into the tens of thousands of dollars. .Those with pre-existing conditions should strongly consider the risks of venturing into a land where medical help may not be available prior to embarking on an Antarctic journey.^ Although the United States pursued no claims of its own, the flurry of international land grabbing may have encouraged the U.S. Congress to establish the U.S. Antarctic Service in 1939.

^ Under pressure from environmentalists, a new clause was incorporated into the Antarctic Treaty and it is decreed that "Dogs shall not be introduced onto land or ice shelves and dogs currently in those areas shall be removed by April 1 1994".
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stay healthy

Antarctica has an extreme environment. The cold is a major health hazard. Visitors should be properly prepared and equipped for any visit. Waterproof and windproof gloves, coat, pants, and boots are an absolute necessity. Other necessities that are often overlooked include sunscreen and sunglasses - summertime visitors will be exposed to the sun's rays from above and from reflections off of snow, ice, and water. .Additionally, for those arriving by boat seasickness medicine is strongly encouraged - even the most seaworthy individual will feel queasy in a severe storm; check with your doctor before visiting to determine what medicine is appropriate.^ Yet even before they laid eyes on it, most early explorers were convinced a large, southern continent existed.

Respect

Antarctica has a very fragile environment. Pollution should be avoided if at all possible. .Expeditions should anticipate the need to remove all waste from the continent when they leave.^ Until that time, waste was spread out as ships and ground-based expeditions dumped their refuse wherever they happened to be.

^ It was agreed by all interested nations that the world should co-operate in its' endeavours for scientific understanding of the Antarctic continent and cease all territorial claims.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Antarctic Program, for instance, no longer dumps or burns garbage but removes all waste (except sewage) from the continent.

.Waste disposal and sewage facilities on the continent are severely limited and restricted to permanent installations.^ The U.S. Antarctic Program, for instance, no longer dumps or burns garbage but removes all waste (except sewage) from the continent.

.Of particular concern to tourists is the danger of introducing foreign organisms into the fragile Antarctic environment.^ When a vessel was beset and crushed by the pack ice, such as the Antarctic in 1903 and the Endurance in 1915, a comparatively large amount of anthropogenic debris was deposited into the environment.

^ The impact of human activity on the Antarctic environment can be roughly divided into three broad categories: exploitation, pollution, and disturbance.

^ As human activity in the Antarctic continued to increase, through the IGY and beyond, so too did the amount of trash, sewage, and hazardous chemicals introduced to the environment.

.Many tour operators will require visitors to do a boot wash after every landing to avoid carrying seeds or other items from one location to another.^ It features every one of the 193 bird families on the planet and profiles another 500 "representative" species.

.In addition, visitors should examine all clothing prior to embarking to avoid bringing any plant or animal material to the Antarctic; invasive species have devastated many regions of the planet, so it is particularly important to protect Antarctica from this danger.^ Actually the Antarctic Treaty is pretty firm on this issue, and prohibits visitors from removing any animal, plant, and yes, even rock, materials from Antarctica.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ Dear Erica, Yes, we have found some species of marine plants and animals that we had not found here before.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : Antarctica 2001 Bulletin Board 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: General]

^ It was agreed by all interested nations that the world should co-operate in its' endeavours for scientific understanding of the Antarctic continent and cease all territorial claims.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) is a voluntary organization of tour operators which promotes safe and environmentally responsible tourism in Antarctica.^ Antarctic Tourism is created with the creation of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO).
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, many chicks could starve, says Antarctica New Zealand, the government organization that oversees New Zealand's Antarctic research, in the Associated Press.
  • New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association 2 February 2010 13:29 UTC antarctic.homestead.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time Operation Highjump was winding down, what would be the last privately organized expedition to Antarctica for many years was sailing into the waters of the Peninsula.

.It publishes standards for member tour operators on responsible practices for private visitors to Antarctica.^ At the same time Operation Highjump was winding down, what would be the last privately organized expedition to Antarctica for many years was sailing into the waters of the Peninsula.

[23]
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Antarctica in a satellite photo

Etymology

From New Latin Antarctica < Ancient Greek ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikos) < ἀντ- (ant-), ant-, against, opposed) + ἀρκτικός (arktikos), Arctic) < Ancient Greek ἄρκτος (arktos), bear)

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Antarctica
Plural
-
Antarctica
  1. The southernmost continent, south of the Southern Ocean, containing the South Pole.
  2. The wider South Polar region comprising the Antarctic Continent as well as the adjacent Antarctic and Subantarctic islands, and the Southern Ocean waters situated south of the Antarctic Convergence.

Related terms

Translations

See also


Dutch

Wikipedia-logo.png
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Antarctica
Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ɑn.ˈtɑrk.ti.kaː/

Proper noun

Antarctica n.
  1. Antarctica

Romanian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Romanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Antarctica
Wikipedia ro

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [an'tark.tika]

Proper noun

Antarctica f.
  1. Antarctica

Declension

gender f. uncountable
Nom/Acc Antarctica
Gen/Dat Antarcticii

Simple English

Antarctica

File:Location
In this map, the South Pole is near the center.

Area (Overall)


(ice-free)

(ice-covered)

14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[1]
280,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi)
13,720,000 km2 (5,300,000 sq mi)
Population
(permanent)
(non-permanent)
7th
0
approx. 1,000
Dependencies
Time Zones None
Internet Top-level domain .aq
Calling Code Dependent on the parent country of each base (one such is +672).
File:Adelie chicks in antarctica and Ms
Adelie Penguin chicks in Antarctica, with MS Explorer and an iceberg in the background.

Antarctica (pronounced /ænˈtɑrktɪkə/) is the Earth's southernmost continent. It lies under the South Pole. It is placed in the Antarctic region of the southern hemisphere. It is almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle. Around Antarctica is the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice. This ice averages at least 1.6 kilometers (1.0 mi) in thickness.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent. It is also the highest of all the continents.[2] Antarctica is considered a desert.[3] It has yearly precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) near the sea and far less inland.[4] No humans live in Antarctica permanently. However, about 1,000 to 5,000 people live through the year at the research stations in Antarctica. Only plants that can bear cold and animals live there. These animals include penguins, seals, nematodes, Tardigrades, mites, different types of algae and other microorganisms, and tundra vegetation.

There were a great number of stories and guesses about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") from long ago. However, the first real sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have happened in 1820. This was the Russian expedition of Mikhail Lazarev and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. Antarctica, however, was mostly forgotten for the rest of the 19th century. This was because of its hostile environment, few resources, and isolation. The first official use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is said to have been used by Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The name Antarctica is the Greek compound word ανταρκτική (antarktiké). This is a feminine of ανταρκτικός (antarktikos),[5] meaning "opposite to the north".[6]

The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries. Until today, forty-six countries have signed the treaty. The treaty declares that military activities and mineral mining are against the law. However, it supports scientific research. It also helps the continent's ecozone. More than 4,000 scientists from different nations and different interests experiment together.[1]

Contents

History

[[File:|thumb|right|This snow surface is what most of Antarctica's surface looks like.]]

For a long time, people had believed that there was a great continent in the far south of Earth. They thought this Terra Australis would "balance" the lands in the north like Europe, Asia and North Africa. People have believed this from the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD). He suggested this idea to keep the balance of all known lands in the world. Pictures of a large land in the south were common in maps. In the late 17th century, people discovered that South America and Australia were not part of the mythical "Antarctica". However, geographers still believed that Antarctica was much bigger than it really was.

European maps continued to show this unknown land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773.[7] They crossed it again in January 1774.[7] In fact, Cook did come within about 75 miles (121 km) of the Antarctic coast. However, he was forced to go back because of ice in January 1773.[8][9] The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica were by three different men. According to different organizations (the National Science Foundation,[10] NASA,[11] the University of California, San Diego,[12] and other sources),[13][14] ships captained by three men saw Antarctica in 1820. Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American seal hunter out of Stonington, Connecticut). Von Bellingshausen saw Antarctica on 27 January 1820. This was three days before Bransfield saw land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the two-ship journey led by Von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev reached a point within 32 kilometers (20 mi) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there. The first recorded landing on mainland Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis. He landed in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821. However, some historians are not sure about this claim.

People began discovering different parts of Antarctica and mapping them. This was slow work because they could only work in the summer.[9] At last a map was made, and people began to talk about exploring the land, not only the sea.[9] However, this would have been very hard work. They would have to break through the ice that was around Antarctica. Then they would have to land on it and bring in enough things to live on while they explored the land.

The first man to begin more serious exploration of the Antarctic land was a person named Robert Falcon Scott, the most well known from all of the explorers.[9]He wanted to be the very first man to reach the South Pole. At the same time, another team from Norway lead by Roald Amundsen had started. They both raced each other to the North Pole, but in the end Amundsen won because he had made a good use of the animals, by using using sleigh dogs. Scott had used ponies and motor sleds, but he had not succeeded and when he got to the North Pole he was greeted by the message from Amundsen that he had beaten Scott.

Scott was greatly disappointed, and on his way back, he met a blizzard and froze to death while waiting for it to finish. The people who found him eight months later also found his records and diary there, which he had written to the day he died.

Life in Antarctica

Plants

The only plants that grow on the land in Antarctica are moss and lichen. The most important plant in Antarctica is the plankton that grows in the ocean.[9] It grows well when the water is still and the sun shines all day and night.

Animals

There are no land animals at all in Antarctica, but lots of animals that live in the sea may sometimes visit land. The most important creature in the Arctic is the Krill, because every animal eats it, including whales, penguins, seals, and even some of the birds that live in the Antarctic.

Whales are the largest animals in the ocean, and in Antarctica. They are mammals, not fish. That means that they breathe air and do not lay eggs. Many different kinds of whales live in the oceans around Antarctica. The whales that eat krill do not have teeth. Instead they have baleen in their mouths. Baleen is long, hard strips that act like a strainer. The whale takes in a mouthful of water, and it goes through the baleen. Any krill in the water is trapped and swallowed, while the water goes back out.[9]

Men have hunted whales for hundreds of years. Whale meat is used for food. Whales have a thick layer of fat, or blubber, that can be melted down to make oil. The oils are used to light lamps.

Penguins only live south of the equator. Several different kinds live in and around Antarctica. The biggest ones can stand nearly 4 feet tall and can weigh almost 100 pounds. The smallest kinds are only about one foot tall. Penguins are large birds that swim very well but cannot fly. They have black backs and wings with white fronts. They look rather like fat, little men in suits as they waddle over the ice. The penguins have a thick layer of blubber that keeps them warm. Their feathers are very tightly packed and they are on top of each other to make another thick cover. They also have a layer of woolly down under the feathers. The feathers themselves are coated with a type of oil that makes them waterproof. [9]The penguins eat krill or fish and are at home in the ocean. They come up on the land or ice to lay their eggs and raise the chicks. The animals nest together in a huge group that is called a rookery. They usually make shallow nests on the ground out of rocks or mud.

People

People of the Antarctic live in there for a short time to learn more about Antarctica, so most of the people who live there are scientists. They study the weather, animals, glaciers, and the air around our earth.[9]Some scientists drill into the ice to find out about the weather long ago. People who work in the Antarctic must be very careful, because a blizzard can start any time and any where. When they go far away from their shelter, they must always take lots of food just in case.

Today people explore Antarctica using snowmobiles, which are faster than dogs and can pull heavier loads. Many come to Antarctica just for a short visit, as a trip. There are companies in South America that have vacations to Antartica, so people pay to take a ship down there. Some people may just take their own boats.[9]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Antarctica - The World Factbook". United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-03-08. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ay.html#People. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  2. "National Geophysical Data Center". National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html. Retrieved 9 June 2006. 
  3. Campbell, I. B. and Claridge, G. G. C. (1987) Antarctia:Soils, Weathering, Processes, and Environment p. 4. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ISBN 0-444-42784-8
  4. C. Alan Joyce (2007-01-18). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. http://www.worldalmanac.com/blog/2007/01/the_world_at_a_glance_surprisi.html. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  5. Antarktikos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  6. Hince, Bernadette (2000). The Antarctic Dictionary. CSIRO Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9780957747111. http://books.google.com/books?id=lJd8_owUxFEC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=antarctica+opposite+of+north+greek&source=web&ots=ACmVhnUkbo&sig=IbN0OK9FBy29RPzGdDqZevrlylk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Mariners' Museum. "Age of Exploration: John Cook". http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/cook.php. Retrieved 12 February 2006. 
  8. James Cook, The Journals, edited by Philip Edwards. Penguin Books, 2003, p. 250.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Buskey, Theresa. Alan Christopherson, M.S.. ed (in English). History and Geography. L.I.F.E.P.A.C.. Alpha Omega Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58095-156-2. 
  10. U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel of the National Science Foundation. "Antarctica—Past and Present" (PDF). http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/antpanel/antpan05.pdf. Retrieved 6 February 2006. 
  11. Guy G. Guthridge. "Nathaniel Brown Palmer, 1799-1877". NASA, U.S. Government. http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/background/NSF/palmer.html. Retrieved 2006-02-06. 
  12. "Palmer Station". Archived from the original on 2006-02-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20060210005949/http://arcane.ucsd.edu/pstat.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  13. "An Antarctic Time Line: 1519–1959". south-pole.com. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm. Retrieved 2006-02-12. 
  14. "Antarctic Explorers Timeline: Early 1800s". http://ku-prism.org/polarscientist/timeline/antarcticexplorers1800.html. Retrieved 2006-02-12. 

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Antarctica, which are similar to those in the above article.








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