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The Boston Manufacturing Company was organized in 1813 by Francis Cabot Lowell, a wealthy Boston merchant, in partnership a group of investors known as The Boston Associates, for the manufacture of cotton textiles.[1]

The antebellum period (from the Latin ante, "before," and bellum, "war") was the time period in America from after the birth of the United States to the start of the American Civil War.[2] The Antebellum Age was a time of great transition because of the industrial revolution in America. It also was a time of growth in slavery in the American South. It was a phase in American history when America spread towards the west coast which among historians is generally referred to as "Westward Expansion".

Contents

Economic expansion

In the Antebellum Age the United States rapidly expanded economically from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. Industrialization in America involved two important developments. First, transportation was expanded. Second, improvements were made to industrial processes such as the use of interchangeable parts and railroads to ship goods more quickly. The government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff.[3]

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The American System

The American System, developed by Henry Clay, proposed a national bank that would stabilize the currency and rein in risky state and local banks, federally supported internal improvements like canals and roads, high prices for the public land sold under the Northwest Ordinance to generate revenue, and a high tariff to protect industry so that it could develop without foreign competition and generate revenue for the federal government.[4] This system became the backbone of federal economic policy during the Antebellum Age.

A National Bank

After the Revolutionary War, the United States had a large war debt to France and others. The national banking system was also in disarray. State banks printed their own currency and the plethora of different notes made commerce difficult and time consuming. To solve the debt problem and to unify the nation under one currency, Alexander Hamilton proposed creating a Bank of the United States. In 1791, the United States Congress passed the bank's charter and George Washington signed it.[5] To avoid any appearance of impropriety, the Bank of the United States was forbidden from buying government bonds, had a mandatory rotation of directors (very much like today's Federal Reserve), and could neither issue notes nor incur debts beyond its actual capitalization. The BUS, as the Bank of the United States is commonly referred to, was a private company. It was given a twenty year charter in 1791 that was due to expire in 1811. At that time, Congress had the option to renew the charter. This need for renewal made the bank more vulnerable to political pressure.

Westward Expansion

Internal improvements

The tariff

The growth of slavery

While the slave population grew steadily during the Antebellum Age, cotton production soared because of productivity improvements made possible by Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin.

Religious revival

Charles G. Finney and the Second Great Awakening

During the Second Great Awakening, church membership rose sharply.[2]

The Second Great Awakening was a reprise of the First Great Awakening [6] Led by the spellbinding Charles G. Finney, revivalism shifted to upstate New York and the Old Northwest. An example of the how the Second Great Awakening changed communities is the Rochester Revival of 1830. After prominent citizens became concerned with the city's poverty and absenteeism, they invited Finney to the city. For six months, the preacher, with the great help of his wife, Lydia, converted or reconverted with citywide prayer meetings.[2] The wave of religious revival contributed to tremendous growth of the Methodist, Baptist, and other denominations.

Perfectionist reform and Utopianism

During the Antebellum Age, many utopian communities were founded upon the ideals of the Second Great Awakening. Most of these communities, like most utopias, failed. But some of them, most famously the Mormons, survive to this day.

Oneida

In 1848, John Humphrey Noyes and fifty-one devoted followers founded a utopian community in Oneida, New York. Noyes believed that the act of final conversion led to absolute and complete release from sin. Though their sexual practices were unorthodox, the community prospered because Noyes opted for modern manufacturing. Eventually abandoning religion to become a joint-stock company, Oneida thrived for many years and continues today as a silverware company.[7]

The Shakers

Founded by Mother Ann Lee,[8] the Shakers peaked at around 6,000 in 1850 in communities from Maine to Kentucky. The Shakers condemned sexuality and demanded absolute celibacy. New members could only come from conversions, not children of current members.[9]

The Mormons

The Transcendentalists

Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century.

Transcendentalism began as a protest against the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions.

Political changes

Jackson's Presidency

Andrew Jackson was one of the most controversial presidents of the first half of the nineteenth century.

The Second American Party System

Social reform

Along with the Religious revival, the America awakened to the rising social vices in the society. Religious revival encouraged many social reforms also.

Temperance

During the Antebellum Age, cartoons like this pushed the agenda of temprerance reformers.

Health and sexuality

Humanizing the asylum

Abolition and womens' rights

The Abolition Movement

Womens' Rights

Architecture

The term antebellum is also used to describe the architecture of the pre-war South. Many Southern plantation houses use this style, including:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Boston Manufacturing Company Collection". Library.hbs.edu. http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes/collections/labor/textiles/content/1001956083.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  2. ^ a b c The American People, Sixth Edition, published by Pearson Education Incorporated, copyright 2004
  3. ^ "Industrial Revolution in 19th Century America - Industrial Revolution". Americanhistory.about.com. 2009-10-30. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/industrialrev/a/indrevoverview.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  4. ^ "American System". U-s-history.com. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h278.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  5. ^ ushistory.org. "First Bank of the United States". Ushistory.org. http://www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_1bank.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  6. ^ "The Second Great Awakening". U-s-history.com. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1091.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  7. ^ Edward H. Knoblauch (2008-02-20). "The Oneida Community - New York History Net". Nyhistory.com. http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  8. ^ "IHAS: Artist/Movement/Ideas". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/ihas/icon/shakers.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  9. ^ "The Shaker religion". Essortment.com. http://www.essortment.com/all/theshakersreli_rggy.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  10. ^ Welcome To Monmouth Plantation
  11. ^ "Untitled-1" (PDF). http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/2462_AnteBellSouthPlanSerK.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  12. ^ Old Governor’s Mansion
  13. ^ http://www.tusculum.sbc.edu/Teaching/sbplantation/sbplantation_print_lesson.pdf

The Antebellum Age was the time period in America from after the birth of the United States to the start of the American Civil War [1] The Antebellum Age was a time of great transition because of the industrial revolution in America. It also was a time of growth in slavery in the American South.

Contents

Economic expansion

In the Antebellum Age the United States rapidly expanded economically from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. Industrialization in America involved two important developments. First, transportation was expanded. Second, improvements were made to industrial processes such as the use of interchangeable parts and railroads to ship goods more quickly. The government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff.[2]

The American System

The American System, developed by Henry Clay, proposed a national bank that would stabilize the currency and rein in risky state and local banks, federally supported internal improvements like canals and roads, high prices for the public land sold under the Northwest Ordinance to generate revenue, and a high tariff to protect industry so that it could develop without foreign competition and generate revenue for the federal government.[3] This system became the backbone of federal economic policy during the Antebellum Age.

A National Bank

After the Revolutionary War, the United States had a large war debt to France and others. The national banking system was also in disarray. State banks printed their own currency and the plethora of different notes made commerce difficult and time consuming. To solve the debt problem and to unify the nation under one currency, Alexander Hamilton proposed creating a Bank of the United States. In 1791, the United States Congress passed the bank's charter and George Washington signed it.[4] To avoid any appearance of impropriety, the Bank of the United States was forbidden from buying government bonds, had a mandatory rotation of directors (very much like today's Federal Reserve), and could neither issue notes nor incur debts beyond its actual capitalization. The BUS, as the Bank of the United States is commonly referred to, was a private company. It was given a twenty year charter in 1791 that was due to expire in 1811. At that time, Congress had the option to renew the charter. This need for renewal made the bank more vulnerable to political pressure.

Internal improvements

The tariff

The growth of slavery

Religious revival

Charles G. Finney and the Second Great Awakening

The Second Great Awakening was a reprise of the First Great Awakening [5] Led by the spellbinding Charles G. Finney, revivalism shifted to upstate New York and the Old Northwest. An example of the how the Second Great Awakening changed communities is the Rochester Revival of 1830. After prominent citizens became concerned with the city's poverty and absenteeism, they invited Finney to the city. For six months, the preacher, with the great help of his wife, Lydia, converted or reconverted with citywide prayer meetings.[6] The wave of religious revival contributed to tremendous growth of the Methodist, Baptist, and other denominations.

The Trancendentalists

Political changes

Jackson's Presidency

The Second American Party System

Perfectionist reform and Utopiansim

During the Antebellum Age, many utopian communities were founded upon the ideals of the Second Great Awakening. Most of these communities, like most utopias, failed. But some of them, most famously the Mormons, survive to this day.

Oneida

In 1848, John Humphrey Noyes and fifty-one devoted followers founded a utopian community in Oneida, New York. Noyes believed that the act of final conversion led to absolute and complete release from sin. Though their sexual practices were unorthodox, the community prospered because Noyes opted for modern manufacturing. Eventually abandoning religion to become a joint-stock company, Oneida thrived for many years and continues today as a silverware company.[7]

The Shakers

Founded by Mother Ann Lee,[8] the Shakers peaked at around 6,000 in 1850 in communities from Maine to Kentucky. The Shakers condemned sexuality and demanded absolute celibacy. New members could only come from conversions, not children of current members.[9]

The Mormons

Societal reform

Temperance

Heath and sexuality

Humanizing the asylum

Abolition and womens' rights

The Abolition Movement

Womens' Rights

References


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