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Anthony Salvin

Anthony Salvin
Born 17 October 1799 (1799-10-17)
Sunderland Bridge,
County Durham, England
Died 17 December 1881 (1881-12-18)
Fernhurst, Sussex, England
Nationality English
Occupation Architect
Known for Tudor style architecture
Restoration of castles, country houses and churches
New houses and churches
Children Osbert Salvin

Anthony Salvin (17 October 1799 – 17 December 1881) was an English architect. He gained a reputation as an expert on medieval buildings and applied this expertise to his new buildings and his restorations. He restored castles and country houses, and built a number of new houses and churches.[1]

Contents

Early life and training

He was born in Sunderland Bridge, County Durham, as the only child of General Anthony Salvin, a soldier, and his second wife Elizabeth (Eliza) Mills. He was educated at Durham School and then became a pupil of John Paterson of Edinburgh while he was working on the restoration of Brancepeth Castle in County Durham. In 1821 Salvin moved to London. He had an introduction to Sir John Sloan but did not enter his office. According to his nephew he entered the office of John Nash. In 1824 he was elected as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Soon after this he went on a sketching tour of Great Britain. On 26 July 1826 he married his cousin, Anne Andrews Nesfield. With her he had six children, two of whom died in infancy.[1]

Early career

Salvin's first major commission was Mamhead Park in Devon for Robert William Newman. This was designed in the Tudor style to a symmetrical plan. It was adapted from a plan by Charles Fowler and this placed restrictions on his design. His next design was for Moreby Hall in the East Riding of Yorkshire for Henry Preston where he was free to develop a complete design in the Tudor style, again on a symmetrical plan. At Scotney Castle in Kent he designed for Edward Hussey an asymmetrical design in the Tudor style. In 1831 Salvin embarked on what is considered to be his most important early domestic work at Harlaxton Manor in Lincolnshire for Gregory Gregory. Salvin's design combined elements from Montacute House in Somerset and Hengrave Hall in Suffolk. However before the building was complete, Salvin was replaced as architect by William Burn. In 1835 Salvin spent five weeks in Germany.[1]

In 1836 Salvin entered a design in Tudor style in the competition for the new Palace of Westminster which had possibly been inspired by his visit to Germany. However this was unsuccessful, as was his entry for the competition to design the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. He won the competition for the design of the Carlton Club in Pall Mall, London but the club decided not to proceed with his plan. After losing a further competition, this time to design the Army and Navy Club, Salvin did not enter any more competitions.[1]

Mature career

Most of Salvin's designs for major houses continued to be in the Tudor style. These include Keele Hall in Staffordshire for Ralph Sneyd, and Thoresby Hall in Nottinghamshire for Sydney Pierrepont, 3rd Earl Manvers. There were exceptions, including Penoyre in Brecon, an Italianate villa-style house for Colonel John Lloyd Vaughan Watkins and Oxon Hoath in West Peckham, Kent in the French empire style for Sir William Geary.[1]

A major part of Salvin's work was to restore, refit and create castles. In 1835 he refaced Norwich Castle, in 1844 he repaired the ruins of Newark Castle and in 1845 he repaired the ruins of Carisbrook Castle. In the early 1840s the Queen's Gate of Caernarvon Castle collapsed and in 1844 Salvin repaired it and rebuilt some of the other masonry of the castle. In 1851 he surveyed the Beauchamp Tower of the Tower of London and, after working on this he restored the Salt, the Wakefield and the White Towers and the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Following this he was instructed by Prince Albert to carry out work on Windsor Castle. This included replacing sash windows with lancets and mullioned windows and rebuilding the Clewer Tower. Salvin designed Peckforton Castle in Cheshire for John Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache as a re-creation of a castle of the time of Edward I. In 1852 he started work on the restoration of Alnwick Castle in Northumberland. This included replacing one of the towers with a larger tower, the Prudhoe Tower, creating a porte-cochère, replacing windows and replanning the interior.[1]

Salvin also restored and repaired 20 old churches and three cathedrals, and built 34 new churches. In the early 1840s he had worked on The Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge and following this he was made an honorary member of the Cambridge Camden Society. He arranged for the removal of buildings around the south transept of Norwich Cathedral and reordered its choir. He also made alterations to Durham and Wells Cathedrals.[1] In all he designed at least 34 new churches. Salvin's restorations were not to the liking of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, particularly his removal of "unwanted fabric" from churches.[1] Other work carried out by Salvin included rebuilding the keep of Durham Castle for student accommodation, and work on restoring Trinity College, Cambridge.[1]

Later life

In 1857 while working on Warwick Castle, Salvin suffered a stroke but recovered from it. In 1860 his wife died and he designed a new house for himself, Hawksfold at Fernhurst, Sussex. In 1863 he was awarded the royal gold medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects and in 1879 he retired from formal practice. He died at Hawksfold in 1881 and was buried at Fernhurst. His estate was valued at over £78,000.[1]

Major works

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Repairs and restorations

Castles and houses

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Brancepeth Castle Brancepeth,
County Durham
Alterations 1829, 1864–75 [2]
Margaret House Barley, Hertfordshire Additions; formerly a rectory 1831–33 [3][4]
Heath Hall Warmfield-cum-Heath,
West Yorkshire
Additions c. 1834 [5]
Norwich Castle Norwich Refaced 1835 [1][6]
Kimberley House Wymondham, Norfolk Added wings linked to house by quadrants 1835 [7]
Chalfont Park House Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire Remodelled in Gothic style. Now offices. 1836 [8]
Rufford Abbey Rufford, Nottinghamshire Alterations 1838–40 [9]
Greystoke Castle Greystoke, Cumbria Rebuilt after being derelict. Rebuilt again after a fire. 1838–48; 1866– [10]
Durham Castle Durham Rebuilt keep as student accommodation for Durham University 1839 [1]
Burwarton Hall Burwarton, Shropshire Gate lodge c. 1839 [11]
Helmingham Hall Suffolk Parts rebuilt for John Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache c. 1841 [12][13]
Newark Castle Newark, Nottinghamshire Repaired ruins 1844–48 [1][14]
Caernarvon Castle Caernarvon, Gwynedd, North Wales Repaired Queen's Gate and rebuilt Eagle and northeast towers. 1844 [1]
Kelham Hall Kelham, Nottinghamshire Added service range. House later became a home for a monastic order, then a local authority office.[15] 1844–46 [16]
Carisbrook Castle Isle of Wight Repaired ruins 1845 [1]
Patterdale Hall Patterdale, Cumbria Additions 1845–50 [17]
Derwent Island House Derwent Water, Cumbria For Henry Marshall. Added dining room and tower. ?late 1840s [18]
Marbury Hall Comberbach, Cheshire Remodelled. Since demolished. c. 1850 [19]
Tower of London London Work on the Beauchamp, Salt, Wakefield and White towers and the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula 1851–76 [1]
Warkworth Castle Warkworth, Northumberland Partial restoration for Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland 1853–58 [20]
Alnwick Castle Alnwick, Northumberland For Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland. Smaller tower replaced by Prudhoe Tower, replaced windows, replanned interior. 1854–65 [1][21]
Thornbury Castle Thornbury, Gloucestershire Restored for Henry Howard 1854 [22]
West Cowes Castle Cowes, Isle of Wight Adapted for the Royal Yacht Squadron 1856–58 [23]
Windsor Castle Windsor Replaced windows and rebuilt Clewer Tower 1856–67 [1]
Rockingham Castle Corby, Northamptonshire Remodelled c1856–78 [24][25]
Mears Ashby Hall Mears Ashby, Northamptonshire Additions 1859 [26]
Somerford Hall Somerford, Cheshire Altered and enlarged; now largely demolished 1859 [27]
Hutton-in-the-Forest Hall Skelton, Cumbria Added wings 1860–80 [28]
Warwick Castle Warwick Restored Watergate tower; restored Great Hall and West Wing after fire 1861–63; 1871– [29]
Capesthorne Hall Siddington, Cheshire Rebuilding following a fire 1861– [30][31]
Muncaster Castle Ravenglass, Cumbria Remodelled and enlarged for 4th Baron Muncaster 1862–66 [32]
Ryston Hall Ryston, Norfolk Altered 1867 [33]
Fawsley Hall Fawsley, Northamptonshire Wings remodelled. It is now a hotel.[34] 1867–68 [35][36]
Hodnet Hall Hodnet, Shropshire For Algernon Charles Heber-Percy 1867–71 [37]
Dunster Castle Dunster, Somerset Enlarged and remodelled for George Fownes Luttrell. 1869–72 [25][38]
Petworth House Petworth, West Sussex Remodelled rooms 1869–72 [39]
Worth Abbey (house) Turners Hill, West Sussex North wing 1869–72 [40]
Longford Castle Odstock, Wiltshire Restoration and additions for 4th Earl of Radnor 1870s [41]
Birdsall House Birdsall, North Yorkshire Right wing added 1872 [42]
Haughton Castle Humshaugh, Northumberland Added west wing 1876 [43]
Glassenbury Park House Cranbrook, Kent Remodelled 1877–79 [44]

Cathedrals and churches

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Norwich Cathedral Norwich Reordered choir 1830 [1][45]
St Oswald's Church Arncliffe, North Yorkshire Restored nave, rebuilt chancel 1841–43 [46]
The Holy Sepulchre Cambridge Restoration 1841–44 [1][47]
Durham Cathedral Durham Repaired south transept, altered choir stalls, removed organ screen. 1842 [1]
Wells Cathedral Wells, Somerset Redesigned the choir 1847 [1][48]
St Peter's Church Elford, Staffordshire Rebuilt 1848–49 [49]
St Lawrence's Church Castle Rising, Norfolk Restored at expense of Fulke Greville Howard c. 1849 [50]
St Oswald's Church Lower Peover, Cheshire Aisles altered and reroofed 1852 [51][52]
Church of St Mary the Virgin Walsall, West Midlands Restoration 1852–53 [53]
Holy Trinity Church Bollington, Cheshire New church 1854 [54]
St Mary's Church Weaverham, Cheshire Restored 1855 [55][56]
St Mary's Church Flixton, Suffolk Replaced tower 1856 [57]
Church of St Mary the Great Cambridge Restoration 1857 [58]
All Saints Church Sherburn-in-Elmet,
North Yorkshire
East end restored 1857 [59]
St Margaret's Church Fernhurst, West Sussex Restoration 1859 [60]
St Mary's Church Whickham,
Tyne and Wear
Restoration 1860–62 [61]
St Mary and St Michael's Church Alnwick, Northumberland Restoration c. 1863 [62]
St Mungo's Church Simonburn, Northumberland Rebuilt chancel 1863–64 [63]
St Swithin's Church Newnham, Hampshire Restoration 1865 [64]
St John the Baptist's Church Stanwick St John,
North Yorkshire
Restoration 1868 [65]
St Nicholas' Church Crawley, West Sussex Added tower and spire 1871 [66]
St Michael's Church Haselbech, Northamptonshire Added north chapel 1872 [67]
St Michael's Church Muncaster, Cumbria Restored and north transept added 1874 [68][69]
St Mary and All Saints Church Great Budworth, Cheshire Stone screen [70]

Other buildings

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Trinity College, Cambridge Cambridge Restored master's lodge, rebuilt façade, constructed master's courts. 1841–65 [1][71][72]
Red Lion Hotel Durham Made into accommodation for poor students of Durham University 1843 [1]
Gonville and Caius College Cambridge Alterations including new hall and library. 1853 [73]

New buildings

Houses

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Mamhead Park Devon For Robert William Newman. Now Dawlish College 1827–33 [1] I[74]
Moreby Hall Escrick, North Yorkshire For Henry Preston 1828–33 [1] II*[75]
Harlaxton Manor Harlaxton, Lincolnshire Designed for and with Gregory Gregory. Completed by William Burn and David Bryce. 1832–44 [1] I[76]
Scotney Castle Lamberhurst, Kent For Edward Hussey 1835–43 [1] I[77]
Skutterskelfe Hall and associated buildings Hambleton,
North Yorkshire
For Lucius Cary, 10th Viscount Falkland 1838 [78] II*[78]
Greyhound Lodge Belton, Lincolnshire New house incorporating window dated c. 1470 1839 [79] II[79]
Peckforton Castle Peckforton Hills, Cheshire For John Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache, mimicking the style of a castle of the time of Edward I 1844–52 [1][12]
[80]
I[81]
Penoyre Brecon For Col. J. L. V. Watkins in Italianate style. Now converted into apartments.[82] 1846–48 [1] II*[82]
Oxon Hoath West Peckham, Kent For Sir William Geary. French empire style 1846–48 [1] II*[83]
Keele Hall Keele, Staffordshire For Ralph Sneyd. Now part of Keele University. 1856–61 [1] II*[84]
Hawksfold Fernhurst, West Sussex Built as own residence. Now flats. 1862 [1] II[85]
Crossrigg Hall Bolton, Cumbria c. 1864 [86] II*[86]
Thoresby Hall Nottinghamshire For Sydney Pierrepont, 3rd Earl Manvers 1864–71 [1] I[87]
Verdley Place Fernhurst, West Sussex For Charles Savile Roundell 1873–75 [88] II[88]

Churches

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Holy Trinity Church Ulverston, Cumbria (now converted into flats) 1829–32 [89][90] II[91]
St John's Church Shildon, County Durham Nave 1833–34 [92] II[92]
St Pauls' Church North Sunderland, Northumberland 1834 [93] II[93]
St John's Church Keswick, Cumbria 1838 [94] II*[95]
Christ Church Goudhurst, Kent 1839–41 [96] I[96]
St John the Evangelist's Church Grantham, Lincolnshire 1840–41 [97] II*[97]
St Mary's Church Sand Hutton,
North Yorkshire
1840–42 [98] II[98]
Holy Trinity Church Buckminster, Leicestershire Originally chapel of ease, now parish church 1842 [99] II[99]
Church of St Mary Magdalene Torquay, Devon 1843–49 [100] II*[100]
St Stephen's Church South Shields,
Tyne and Wear
1844–46 [101] II[101]
St Mary's Chapel Arley Hall, Arley, Cheshire 1845 [102] II*[103]
St John the Evangelist's Church Cowesby,
North Yorkshire
1846 [104] II[104]
St John the Evangelist's Church Standon, Hertfordshire For Dame Louisa Giles Puller of Youngsbury. 1846 [105] II[106]
St Paul's Church Alnwick, Northumberland For Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland 1846 [107] II*[107]
St Andrew's Church South Otterington,
North Yorkshire
1847 [108] II[108]
All Saints Church Runcorn, Cheshire Replaced medieval church 1849 [109][110] II*[111]
Holy Trinity Church Finchley, Greater London c1849 [112] [112]
Church of St Stephen the Martyr and St Thomas Hammersmith, London 1849–50 [113] II[113]
All Saints Church North Wootton, Norfolk Replacing medieval church 1852 [114] II[114]
St Mary's Church Northbourne, Kent 1853–54 [115] II[115]
St Patrick's Church Patterdale, Cumbria Replaced 14th century chapel 1854 [116]
All Saints Church Scotby, Cumbria for George Head 1854 [117] II[118]
Holy Trinity Church Tooting, London 1854–55 [119] II[119]
Church of St Mary the Virgin Headley, Surrey Nave and chancel 1855 [120] II[120]
St Paul's Church Over Tabley, Cheshire 1855–56 [121]
Holy Trinity Church Darlington, County Durham 1856 [122] II*[122]
St Mark's Church Torquay, Devon (now converted into theatre) 1856–57 [123] II*[123]
St Matthew's Church Torquay, Devon 1858 [124] II*[124]
Church of St Thomas a Becket Farlam, Carlisle, Cumbria New church, near site of medieval church 1860 [125] II[126]
St John the Evangelist's Church Tynemouth
Tyne and Wear
For George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland 1862 [127] II[127]
St Nicholas' Church Lazonby, Cumbria For Eleanor Maclean on site of medieval church 1863 [128] II[129]
St Paul's Church Whitley Bay,
Tyne and Wear
For George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland 1864 [130] II[130]
St John's Church Perlethorpe, Nottinghamshire For Sydney Pierrepont, 3rd Earl Manvers 1876 [131] II*[131]
St Laurence's Church Burwarton, Shropshire 1876 [132] II[132]
St Michael's Church Northchapel,
West Sussex
Except pre-existing tower 1877 [133] II[133]

Other buildings

Works Location Comments Dates Ref.
Village Cross Belton, Lincolnshire 1838 [134] II[134]
Durham University Observatory Durham For Durham University 1839–40 [135] II[135]
York County Savings Bank Grantham, Lincolnshire 1841 [136] II[136]
County and Station Hotel Carlisle, Cumbria Built as a railway hotel for the visit of Queen Victoria in 1853. Now the Lakes Court Hotel. 1852 [137] II[138]
Dover Castle Dover, Kent Officers' Barracks 1856–58 [139] II[139]
Pump house Stepney, London Now a shop 1863 [140] II[140]
Norwich Castle

Newark Castle

Carisbrooke Castle

Warkworth Castle

Thornbury Castle

Capesthorne Hall

Muncaster Castle

Upper sections of castle walls and towers showing above trees.
Dunster Castle

Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge

St Lawrence's Church, Castle Rising

St Oswald's Church, Lower Peover

St Mary's Church, Flixton

St Mungo's Church, Simonsburn

St Swithin's Church, Newnham

Peckforton Castle

Keele Hall

Christ Church, Goudhurst

St John the Evangelistf's Church, Standon

St Andrew's Church, South Otterington

All Saints Church, Runcorn

St Patrick's Church, Patterdale

Church of St Thomas a Becket, Farlam

St Michael's Church, Northchapel

References

Notes

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  3. ^ Pevsner 1977, p. 89.
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