The Full Wiki

Anthropology: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Anthropology

Include this on your site/blog:































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anthropology is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences.[1] The term "anthropology", pronounced /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/, is from the Greek ἄνθρωπος, anthrōpos, "human", and -λογία, -logia, "discourse" or "study", and was first used by François Péron when discussing his encounters with Tasmanian Aborigines.[2]
Anthropology's basic concerns are "What defines Homo sapiens?", "Who are the ancestors of modern Homo sapiens?", "What are humans' physical traits?", "How do humans behave?", "Why are there variations and differences among different groups of humans?", "How has the evolutionary past of Homo sapiens influenced its social organization and culture?" and so forth.
In the United States, contemporary anthropology is typically divided into four sub-fields: cultural anthropology (also called "social anthropology"), archaeology, linguistic anthropology and biological/physical anthropology.[3] The so-called "four-field" approach to anthropology is reflected in many undergraduate textbooks[4] as well as anthropology programs (e.g. Michigan, Berkeley, Penn, etc.). At universities in the United Kingdom, and much of Europe, these "sub-fields" are frequently housed in separate departments and are seen as distinct disciplines.[5]
The social and cultural sub-field has been heavily influenced by post-modern theories. During the 1970s and 1980s there was an epistemological shift away from the positivist traditions that had largely informed the discipline.[6] During this shift, enduring questions about the nature and production of knowledge came to occupy a central place in Cultural and Social Anthropology. In contrast, Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, and linguistic anthropology remained largely positivist. Due to this difference in epistemology, anthropology as a discipline has lacked cohesion over the last several decades. This has even led to departments diverging, for example in the 1998-9 academic year at Stanford University, where the "scientists" and "non-scientists" divided into two departments: Anthropology, and Cultural and Social Anthropology.[7] (Anthropology at Stanford later reunified in the 2008-9 academic year)[8]

Contents

Overview

Anthropology is traditionally divided into four sub-fields, each with its own further branches: biological or physical anthropology, social anthropology or cultural anthropology, archaeology and anthropological linguistics.[3] These fields frequently overlap, but tend to use different methodologies and techniques.
Biological anthropology or Physical anthropology, focuses on the study of human populations using an evolutionary framework. Biological anthropologists have theorized about how the globe has become populated with humans (e.g. the "Out of Africa" and "multi-regional evolution" debate), as well as tried to explain geographical human variation and race. Many biological anthropologists studying modern human populations identify their field as human ecology - itself linked to sociobiology. Human ecology uses evolutionary theory to understand phenomena among contemporary human populations. Another large sector of biological anthropology is primatology, where anthropologists focus on understanding other primate populations. Methodologically, primatologists borrow heavily from field biology and ecology in their research.
Cultural anthropology is also called socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology (especially in Great Britain). It is the study of culture, and is often based on ethnography. Ethnography can refer to both a methodology and a product of research, namely a monograph or book. Ethnography is a grounded, inductive method, that heavily relies on participant-observation. Ethnology involves the systematic comparison of different cultures. In some European countries, all cultural anthropology is known as ethnology (a term coined and defined by Adam F. Kollár in 1783).[9]
The study of kinship and social organization is a central focus of cultural anthropology, as kinship is a human universal. Cultural anthropology also covers economic and political organization, law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, material culture, technology, infrastructure, gender relations, ethnicity, childrearing and socialization, religion, myth, symbols, values, etiquette, worldview, sports, music, nutrition, recreation, games, food, festivals, and language (which is also the object of study in linguistic anthropology).
Archaeology is the study of human material culture, including both artifacts (older pieces of human culture) carefully gathered in situ, museum pieces and modern garbage.[10] Archaeologists work closely with biological anthropologists, art historians, physics laboratories (for dating), and museums. They are charged with preserving the results of their excavations and are often found in museums. Typically, archaeologists are associated with "digs," or excavation of layers of ancient sites.
Archaeologists subdivide time into cultural periods based on long-lasting artifacts: the Paleolithic, the Neolithic, the Bronze Age, which are further subdivided according to artifact traditions and culture region, such as the Oldowan or the Gravettian. In this way, archaeologists provide a vast frame of reference for the places human beings have traveled, their ways of making a living, and their demographics. Archaeologists also investigate nutrition, symbolization, art, systems of writing, and other physical remnants of human cultural activity.
Linguistic anthropology (also called anthropological linguistics) seeks to understand the processes of human communications, verbal and non-verbal, variation in language across time and space, the social uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture. .It is the branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of linguistic forms and processes to the interpretation of sociocultural processes.^ POPULATION IN ANTHROPOLOGY Population composition and processes, their relationship to problems of anthropological interest.

^ Because of its vast subject matter, Anthropology is traditionally divided into four sub-fields: Social-Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, Physical Anthropology and Anthropological Linguistics.

^ STRATEGIES IN SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY II: RESEARCH DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Design of field research projects, including problems of operationalization and validity as well as methods of quantitative and non-quantitative data collection and analysis.

Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.[11]
Linguistic anthropology is divided into its own sub-fields: descriptive linguistics the construction of grammars and lexicons for unstudied languages; historical linguistics, including the reconstruction of past languages, from which our current languages have descended; ethnolinguistics, the study of the relationship between language and culture, and sociolinguistics, the study of the social functions of language. Anthropological linguistics is also concerned with the evolution of the parts of the brain that deal with language.[12]
Because anthropology developed from so many different enterprises (see History of Anthropology), including but not limited to fossil-hunting, exploring, documentary film-making, paleontology, primatology, antiquity dealings and curatorship, philology, etymology, genetics, regional analysis, ethnology, history, philosophy and religious studies,[13][14] it is difficult to characterize the entire field in a brief article, although attempts to write histories of the entire field have been made.[15]
On the one hand this has led to instability in many American anthropology departments, resulting in the division or reorganization of sub-fields (e.g. at Stanford, Duke, and most recently at Harvard).[16] However, seen in a positive light, anthropology is one of the few place in many American universities where humanities, social, and natural sciences are forced to confront one another. As such, anthropology has also been central in the development of several new (late 20th century) interdisciplinary fields such as cognitive science, global studies, human-computer interaction, and various ethnic studies.

Basic trends

There are several characteristics that tend to unite anthropological work. One of the central characteristics is that anthropology tends to provide a comparatively more holistic account of phenomena and tends to be highly empirical.[citation needed] The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a particular place or thing in detail, using a variety of methods, over a more extensive period than normal in many parts of academia.
The specific focus of social and cultural anthropology has significantly changed. Initially the sub-field was focused on the study of cultures around the world.
In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.[17]
Biological anthropologists are interested in both human variation[18] and in the possibility of human universals (behaviors, ideas or concepts shared by virtually all human cultures)[19] They use many different methods of study, but modern population genetics, participant observation and other techniques often take anthropologists "into the field" which means traveling to a community in its own setting, to do something called "fieldwork." On the biological or physical side, human measurements, genetic samples, nutritional data may be gathered and published as articles or monographs. Due to the interest in variation, anthropologists are drawn to the study of human extremes, aberrations and other unusual circumstances, such as headhunting, whirling dervishes, whether there were real Hobbit people, snake handling, and glossolalia (speaking in tongues), just to list a few.
At the same time, anthropologists urge, as part of their quest for scientific objectivity, cultural relativism, which has an influence on all the sub-fields of anthropology. This is the notion that particular cultures should not be judged by one culture's values or viewpoints, but that all cultures should be viewed as relative to each other. There should be no notions, in good anthropology, of one culture being better or worse than another culture.[20]
Ethical commitments in anthropology include noticing and documenting genocide, infanticide, racism, mutilation including circumcision and subincision, and torture. Topics like racism, slavery or human sacrifice, therefore, attract anthropological attention and theories ranging from nutritional deficiencies[21] to genes[22] to acculturation have been proposed, not to mention theories of colonialism and many others as root causes of Man's inhumanity to man. To illustrate the depth of an anthropological approach, one can take just one of these topics, such as "racism" and find thousands of anthropological references, stretching across all the major and minor sub-fields.[23]
Along with dividing up their project by theoretical emphasis, anthropologists typically divide the world up into relevant time periods and geographic regions. Human time on Earth is divided up into relevant cultural traditions based on material, such as the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, of particular use in archaeology. Further cultural subdivisions according to tool types, such as Olduwan or Mousterian or Levallois help archaeologists and other anthropologists in understanding major trends in the human past. Anthropologists and geographers share approaches to Culture regions as well, since mapping cultures is central to both sciences. By making comparisons across cultural traditions (time-based) and cultural regions (space-based), anthropologists have developed various kinds of comparative method, a central part of their science.
Contemporary anthropology is an established science with academic departments at most universities and colleges. The single largest organization of Anthropologists is the American Anthropological Association, which was founded in 1903.[24] Membership is made up of Anthropologists from around the globe.[25] Hundreds of other organizations exist in the various sub-fields of anthropology, sometimes divided up by nation or region, and many anthropologists work with collaborators in other disciplines, such as geology, physics, zoology, paleontology, anatomy, music theory, art history, sociology and so on, belonging to professional societies in those disciplines as well.[26]

History

The first use of the term "anthropology" in English to refer to a natural science of humankind was apparently in 1593, the first of the "logies" to be coined.[27] It took Immanuel Kant 25 years to write one of the first major treatises on anthropology, his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View.[28] Kant is not generally considered to be a modern anthropologist, however, as he never left his region of Germany nor did he study any cultures besides his own, and in fact, describes the need for anthropology as a corollary field to his own primary field of philosophy.[29] He did, however, begin teaching an annual course in anthropology in 1772. Anthropology is thus primarily an Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment endeavor.
Historians of anthropology, like Marvin Harris,[30] indicate two major frameworks within which empirical anthropology has arisen: interest in comparisons of people over space and interest in longterm human processes or humans as viewed through time. .Harris dates both to Classical Greece and Classical Rome, specifically Herodotus, often called the "father of history" and the Roman historian Tacitus, who wrote many of our only surviving contemporary accounts of several ancient Celtic and Germanic peoples.^ Ancient Greece and Rome MINOR REVISION .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

Herodotus first formulated some of the persisting problems of anthropology.[31]
Medieval scholars may be considered forerunners of modern anthropology as well, insofar as they conducted or wrote detailed studies of the customs of peoples considered "different" from themselves in terms of geography. John of Plano Carpini reported of his stay among the Mongols. His report was unusual in its detailed depiction of a non-European culture![32]
Marco Polo's systematic observations of nature, anthropology, and geography are another example of studying human variation across space.[33] Polo's travels took him across such a diverse human landscape and his accounts of the peoples he met as he journeyed were so detailed that they earned for Polo the name "the father of modern anthropology."[34]
Another candidate for one of the first scholars to carry out comparative ethnographic-type studies in person was the medieval Persian scholar Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī in the 11th century, who wrote about the peoples, customs, and religions of the Indian subcontinent. Like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, and presented his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons.[35] .He wrote detailed comparative studies on the religions and cultures in the Middle East, Mediterranean and especially South Asia.^ Department of South Asia Regional Studies .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

[36][37] Biruni's tradition of comparative cross-cultural study continued in the Muslim world through to Ibn Khaldun's work in the 14th century.[35][38]
Most scholars[citation needed] consider modern anthropology as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment, a period when Europeans attempted systematically to study human behavior, the known varieties of which had been increasing since the 15th century as a result of the first European colonization wave. .The traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology, and sociology then evolved into something more closely resembling the modern views of these disciplines and informed the development of the social sciences, of which anthropology was a part.^ Earthwatch supports labor intensive research that spans many of the social sciences and humanities, including (but not limited to) cultural, economic, medical and physical anthropology, archaeology, architecture, ethnomusicology, textiles and costume, folklore and oral history, public health, sustainable development, agriculture, and alternative energy.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Anthropology Grants 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultural anthropology ; in social science: Developmentalism ) ethics ( in ethics (philosophy): Anthropology and ethics ) Human Genome Project ( in Human Genome Project (scientific project): Impact on law and the social sciences ) science and race ( in race (human): The influence of Franz Boas ) People .
  • anthropology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropology and the Bushman covers early travellers and settlers, classic nineteenth and twentieth-century ethnographers, North American and Japanese ecological traditions, the approaches of African ethnographers, and recent work on advocacy and social development.

.Developments in the systematic study of ancient civilizations through the disciplines of Classics and Egyptology informed both archaeology and eventually social anthropology, as did the study of East and South Asian languages and cultures.^ Associate Professor of East Asian Languages & Cultures, .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ South Asian Languages VERY MINOR REVISION .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ South Asian Regional Studies .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

At the same time, the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers, such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey, whose work formed the basis for the "culture concept," which is central to the discipline.
Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia
Institutionally, anthropology emerged from the development of natural history (expounded by authors such as Buffon) that occurred during the European colonization of the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. .Programs of ethnographic study originated in this era as the study of the "human primitives" overseen by colonial administrations.^ Becky Sigmon has dedicated her career to the study of human evolution, in particular the origin of erect bipedal posture and locomotion in hominids.
  • Nelson Education - Human Evolution and Prehistory, Second Canadian Edition 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.humanevolution2e.nelson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reports and memoranda from the files of the British colonial administration in Nigeria, used in an ethnographic survey of Africa south of the Sahara for the International African Institute.

^ The program's curriculum includes archaeological explorations of past cultures, human biocultural development, and studies of diverse lifeways of the world's populations.

There was a tendency in late 18th century Enlightenment thought to understand human society as natural phenomena that behaved according to certain principles and that could be observed empirically. .In some ways, studying the language, culture, physiology, and artifacts of European colonies was not unlike studying the flora and fauna of those places.^ These expeditions performed extensive archaeological, geological and topographical exploration, and conducted important studies of Peruvian flora, fauna, and native inhabitants.

^ Those are some of the eye-opening conclusions released today in a report on an in-depth study of eight flagship journals in the humanities and social sciences.
  • Open Access Anthropology — Promoting Open Access in Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC blog.openaccessanthropology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Study of basic linguistic concepts in cultural contexts; an examination of language diversity and socio-cultural factors of language use.
  • Anthropology 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: Academic]

Early anthropology was divided between proponents of unilinealism, who argued that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process, from the most primitive to the most advanced, and various forms of non-lineal theorists, who tended to subscribe to ideas such as diffusionism.[39] .Most 19th-century social theorists, including anthropologists, viewed non-European societies as windows onto the pre-industrial human past.^ Always based on case studies, it aspires to shed light on the most diverse aspects of contemporary European societies through its thematically oriented issues.
  • SocioSite: CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Foundations of Social Theory (4) Important early social theorists (Marx, Engels, Freud, Durkheim, Weber) and the historical conditions in which the study of society emerged in Western thought.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The truth is until the Europeans came most "tribes" were not tribes – at least not from the Indians point of view.
  • Basic cultural anthroplogy, Texas Indians 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.texasindians.com [Source type: Original source]

As academic disciplines began to differentiate over the course of the 19th century, anthropology grew increasingly distinct from the biological approach of natural history, on the one hand, and from purely historical or literary fields such as Classics, on the other. A common criticism has been that many social science scholars (such as economists, sociologists, and psychologists) in Western countries focus disproportionately on Western subjects, while anthropology focuses disproportionately on the "Other";[40] this has changed over the last part of the 20th century as anthropologists increasingly also study Western subjects, particularly variation across class, region, or ethnicity within Western societies, and other social scientists increasingly take a global view of their fields.

20th century

.In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains.^ HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THOUGHT Anthropological thought in West from earliest times to present: 19th and 20th centuries, corresponding to period of emergence of anthropology as academic discipline.

^ As more anthropologists became full-time academics in the twentieth century, concern for making knowledge public sometimes lapsed.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The science of anthropology is divided into two major disciplines, physical anthropology and cultural anthropology.

The natural and biological sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. .The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras.^ Traditional Technologies (4) Explores 2.5 million years of human technologies through analysis and replication of stone, bone, shell, and wood tools as well as basketry and ceramics.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These four fields are archaeology , the exploration of past human cultures through their material remains; linguistics , the study of language; physical anthropology, the study of human biology and evolution; and, cultural anthropology, the study of the customs and traditions of human social groups.
  • Online Preview - Margaret Mead: Human Nature and the Power of Culture (Library of Congress Exhibition) 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this seminar we shall study the warp and weft of human existence by crisscrossing between the anthropology of art and the art of anthropology.

The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. In particular, social sciences often develop statistical descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains.[41]
Anthropology as it emerged amongst the Western colonial powers (mentioned above) has generally taken a different path than that in the countries of southern and central Europe (Italy, Greece, and the successors to the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires). In the former, the encounter with multiple, distinct cultures, often very different in organization and language from those of Europe, has led to a continuing emphasis on cross-cultural comparison and a receptiveness to certain kinds of cultural relativism.[42]
In the successor states of continental Europe, on the other hand, anthropologists often joined with folklorists and linguists in building nationalist perspectives. Ethnologists in these countries tended to focus on differentiating among local ethnolinguistic groups, documenting local folk culture, and representing the prehistory of what has become a nation through various forms of public education (eg, museums of several kinds).[43]
In this scheme, Russia occupied a middle position. On the one hand, it had a large region (largely east of the Urals) of highly distinct, pre-industrial, often non-literate peoples, similar to the situation in the Americas. On the other hand, Russia also participated to some degree in the nationalist (cultural and political) movements of Central and Eastern Europe. After the Revolution of 1917, anthropology in the USSR, and later the Soviet Bloc countries, were highly shaped by the requirement to conform to Marxist theories of social evolution.[44]

Countries

Britain

E. B. Tylor, 19th-century British anthropologist.
E. B. Tylor ( 2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) and James George Frazer ( 1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) are generally considered the antecedents to modern social anthropology in Britain. Though Tylor undertook a field trip to Mexico, both he and Frazer derived most of the material for their comparative studies through extensive reading, not fieldwork, mainly the Classics (literature and history of Greece and Rome), the work of the early European folklorists, and reports from missionaries, travelers, and contemporaneous ethnologists.
Tylor advocated strongly for unilinealism and a form of "uniformity of mankind".[45] Tylor in particular laid the groundwork for theories of cultural diffusionism, stating that there are three ways that different groups can have similar cultural forms or technologies: "independent invention, inheritance from ancestors in a distant region, transmission from one race [sic] to another."[46]
Tylor formulated one of the early and influential anthropological conceptions of culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."[47] .However, as Stocking notes, Tylor mainly concerned himself with describing and mapping the distribution of particular elements of culture, rather than with the larger function, and generally seemed to assume a Victorian idea of progress rather than the idea of non-directional, multilineal cultural development proposed by later anthropologists.^ But while anthropologists have long rejected the notion that cultures are discrete, bounded, and rule-drive entities, medical anthropology has been slower to develop alternative approaches to understanding cultures of health.

^ Initially, feminist anthropology focused on analysis and development of theory to explain the subordination of women, which seemed to be universal and cross-cultural.
  • Feminist Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention is centered on cultural differences, particulars, and peculiarities, and culture is often treated as if it developed quixotically, without determinable causes, or else appeared full-blown.” ( Theory of Culture Change , p.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tylor also theorized about the origins of religious feelings in human beings, proposing a theory of animism as the earliest stage, and noting that "religion" has many components, of which he believed the most important to be belief in supernatural beings (as opposed to moral systems, cosmology, etc.). Frazer, a Scottish scholar with a broad knowledge of Classics, also concerned himself with religion, myth, and magic. His comparative studies, most influentially in the numerous editions of The Golden Bough, analyzed similarities in religious belief and symbolism globally.
Neither Tylor nor Frazer, however, were particularly interested in fieldwork, nor were they interested in examining how the cultural elements and institutions fit together. Toward the turn of the twentieth century, a number of anthropologists became dissatisfied with this categorization of cultural elements; historical reconstructions also came to seem increasingly speculative.
.Under the influence of several younger scholars, a new approach came to predominate among British anthropologists, concerned with analyzing how societies held together in the present (synchronic analysis, rather than diachronic or historical analysis), and emphasizing long-term (one to several years) immersion fieldwork.^ Their writings have little more theoretical foundation or historical framework than a Boy Scout manual on how to make Indian objects and imitate their dances.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While some anthropologists studied the “folk” traditions in Europe and America, most were concerned with documenting how people lived in nonindustrial settings outside these areas.
  • anthropology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Application for graduation with honors must be made through the student’s departmental adviser no later than winter term of the senior year.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

Cambridge University financed a multidisciplinary expedition to the Torres Strait Islands in 1898, organized by Alfred Court Haddon and including a physician-anthropologist, William Rivers, as well as a linguist, a botanist, other specialists. .The findings of the expedition set new standards for ethnographic description.^ He sets the standards for ecological description with detailed maps of topography, land use, and village boundaries (Netting 1996:268).
  • Ecological Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

A decade and a half later, Polish anthropology student Bronisław Malinowski (1884–1942) was beginning what he expected to be a brief period of fieldwork in the old model, collecting lists of cultural items, when the outbreak of the First World War stranded him in New Guinea. .As a subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire resident on a British colonial possession, he was effectively confined to New Guinea for several years.^ England's enigmatic Stonehenge served as a burial ground from its earliest beginnings and for several hundred years thereafter, new research indicates .
  • Anthropology: News & Videos about Anthropology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Galdikas currently teaches human origins and primate behaviour at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia for several months of the year.
  • Nelson Education - Human Evolution and Prehistory, Second Canadian Edition 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.humanevolution2e.nelson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The course focuses on the colonies, dominions, and protectorates of the former British Empire in the Pacific, but comparative readings will draw also on Africa and India.
  • COURSES-Anthropology Program at Bard 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC anthropology.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

[48]
He made use of the time by undertaking far more intensive fieldwork than had been done by British anthropologists, and his classic ethnography, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922) advocated an approach to fieldwork that became standard in the field: getting "the native's point of view" through participant observation. Theoretically, he advocated a functionalist interpretation, which examined how social institutions functioned to satisfy individual needs.
British social anthropology had an expansive moment in the Interwar period, with key contributions coming from the Polish-British Bronisław Malinowski and Meyer Fortes[49]
A. R. Radcliffe-Brown also published a seminal work in 1922. He had carried out his initial fieldwork in the Andaman Islands in the old style of historical reconstruction. However, after reading the work of French sociologists Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss, Radcliffe-Brown published an account of his research (entitled simply The Andaman Islanders) that paid close attention to the meaning and purpose of rituals and myths. .Over time, he developed an approach known as structural-functionalism, which focused on how institutions in societies worked to balance out or create an equilibrium in the social system to keep it functioning harmoniously.^ This course is an introduction to the development of social and cultural theory from its foundation in the Enlightenment in Europe, the evolutionism of the 19th century, the foundational work of Marx, Weber and Durkheim to the three main schools of anthropology in its formative years: the development of American cultural anthropology under Boas, British structural-functionalism, and the Année Sociologique of Durkheim and his students in France.
  • Anthro87.html 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.macalester.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her fieldwork with Native Americans and other groups led her to develop the "configurational approach" to culture, seeing cultural systems as working to favor certain personality types among different societies (Buckner 1997: 34).
  • Feminist Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropology and the Bushman covers early travellers and settlers, classic nineteenth and twentieth-century ethnographers, North American and Japanese ecological traditions, the approaches of African ethnographers, and recent work on advocacy and social development.

.(This contrasted with Malinowski's functionalism, and was quite different from the later French structuralism, which examined the conceptual structures in language and symbolism.^ However, Levi-Strausss application of the principles of structural linguistics produced quite a different picture of the underlying laws that govern kinship relations.
  • anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is, moreover, extreme difference in the grammatical structure both of words and sentences in various languages.

)
.Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown's influence stemmed from the fact that they, like Boas, actively trained students and aggressively built up institutions that furthered their programmatic ambitions.^ Evolutionary, diffusionist, psychological, cross-cultural, functionalist, structuralist, and hermeneutical approaches will be considered through selected writings from such major figures as Tylor, Durkheim, Boas, Kroeber, Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown, and Lévi-Strauss.

^ For instance A. R. Radcliffe-Brown in the 1930s had said that the unit of structure from which social relations are built up is the "elementary family" consisting of "a man and his wife and their child or children."
  • anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to the excavation and lab sessions, students participate in an ongoing project in the local schools, in which they train young students in archaeological techniques at the excavation and in their classrooms.
  • COURSES-Anthropology Program at Bard 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC anthropology.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

This was particularly the case with Radcliffe-Brown, who spread his agenda for "Social Anthropology" by teaching at universities across the British Commonwealth. .From the late 1930s until the postwar period appeared a string of monographs and edited volumes that cemented the paradigm of British Social Anthropology (BSA).^ Until the science of anthropology likewise discovers the secrets of the social cradle of humanity, it lacks such a solid foundation.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, in the 1920s, Montagu studied under the founders of British social anthropology at the London School of Economics.
  • Nelson Education - Human Evolution and Prehistory, Second Canadian Edition 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.humanevolution2e.nelson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Relevant Web Sites   The Association of Female Anthropologists Webpage at the American Anthropology Association Three Generations of Women Anthropologists :  Celebration of Women Anthropologists British and Commonwealth Women Anthropologists in the Late Colonial Period   .
  • Feminist Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

Famous ethnographies include The Nuer, by Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, and The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensi, by Meyer Fortes; well-known edited volumes include African Systems of Kinship and Marriage and African Political Systems.
Max Gluckman, together with many of his colleagues at the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute and students at Manchester University, collectively known as the Manchester School, took BSA in new directions through their introduction of explicitly Marxist-informed theory, their emphasis on conflicts and conflict resolution, and their attention to the ways in which individuals negotiate and make use of the social structural possibilities.
In Britain, anthropology had a great intellectual impact, it "contributed to the erosion of Christianity, the growth of cultural relativism, an awareness of the survival of the primitive in modern life, and the replacement of diachronic modes of analysis with synchronic, all of which are central to modern culture."[50]
Later in the 1960s and 1970s, Edmund Leach and his students Mary Douglas and Nur Yalman, among others, introduced French structuralism in the style of Lévi-Strauss; while British anthropology has continued to emphasize social organization and economics over purely symbolic or literary topics, differences among British, French, and American sociocultural anthropologies have diminished with increasing dialogue and borrowing of both theory and methods. .Today, social anthropology in Britain engages internationally with many other social theories and has branched in many directions.^ Darwin argued that man is an animal and has many of the same instincts and needs as do other social animals.

^ Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Oxford Information on post graduate study and research; abstracts of theses of anthropological research, and links to other anthropological sites.
  • SocioSite: CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Recuperates valuable legacies from classic anthropology and conjoins them with insights from social and literary theory for analyzing contemporary formations of belief, practice, and power.

In countries of the British Commonwealth, social anthropology has often been institutionally separate from physical anthropology and primatology, which may be connected with departments of biology or zoology; and from archaeology, which may be connected with departments of Classics, Egyptology, and the like. In other countries (and in some, particularly smaller, British and North American universities), anthropologists have also found themselves institutionally linked with scholars of folklore, museum studies, human geography, sociology, social relations, ethnic studies, cultural studies, and social work.

United States

19th Century to 1940s

From its beginnings in the early 19th century through the early 20th century, anthropology in the United States was influenced by the presence of Native American societies.
Franz Boas, one of the pioneers of modern anthropology, often called the "Father of American Anthropology"
.Cultural anthropology in the United States was influenced greatly by the ready availability of Native American societies as ethnographic subjects.^ Cultural anthropology - - American cultural anthropology .
  • anthropology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultural anthropology ; in social science: Developmentalism ) ethics ( in ethics (philosophy): Anthropology and ethics ) Human Genome Project ( in Human Genome Project (scientific project): Impact on law and the social sciences ) science and race ( in race (human): The influence of Franz Boas ) People .
  • anthropology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A very ethnocentric way of referring to other cultures because it ranks cultures below those of the "First World" like Europe, Japan, Canada, and the United States.
  • Definitions of Anthropological Terms 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The field was pioneered by staff of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, men such as John Wesley Powell and Frank Hamilton Cushing.
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881), a lawyer from Rochester, New York, became an advocate for and ethnological scholar of the Iroquois. .His comparative analyses of religion, government, material culture, and especially kinship patterns proved to be influential contributions to the field of anthropology.^ Because of its vast subject matter, Anthropology is traditionally divided into four sub-fields: Social-Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, Physical Anthropology and Anthropological Linguistics.

^ Anthropology, especially when it has an environmental focus, also demonstrates the importance of preserving cultural diversity.
  • Ecological Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Specialist Program in Medical Anthropology integrates the fields of Social-Cultural Anthropology, Physical Anthropology, and Archaeology by taking health, medicine, and disease as a focus for anthropological studies.

Like other scholars of his day (such as Edward Tylor), Morgan argued that human societies could be classified into categories of cultural evolution on a scale of progression that ranged from savagery, to barbarism, to civilization. .Generally, Morgan used technology (such as bowmaking or pottery) as an indicator of position on this scale.^ Our strategy -- as defined by this very positive transaction -- is to use distribution, customer service, marketing and technology to become the casino company of choice for our target players.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing.

^ Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that behaviours such as tool-use are much more widespread across the animal kingdom, as this recent article on stingrays indicates.
  • Anthropology.net 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC anthropology.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]

Boasian anthropology

.Franz Boas established academic anthropology in the United States in opposition to this sort of evolutionary perspective.^ Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was once termed the "dean of American anthropology" and as L.A. White (1900-1975) has written: "Morgan fell into disrepute in the United States when Franz Boas and his students rose to ascendency in anthropological science.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Webster University, founded in 1915, is a private, multi-campus and international institution with academic programs in 106 locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
  • Applied Anthropology and Social Science Employment 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.sfaa.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropology of the United States (4) Explores the culture and the political economy of the contemporary United States, with a particular focus on race, class, and gender relations.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

His approach was empirical, skeptical of overgeneralizations, and eschewed attempts to establish universal laws. For example, .Boas studied immigrant children to demonstrate that biological race was not immutable, and that human conduct and behavior resulted from nurture, rather than nature.^ Introduction to medical anthropology, the study of the interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors in human promotion of health and adaptation to disease.
  • Anthropology 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention will be on behavioral, material, affective, symbolic, and ideological aspects of human-animal relationships, as well as both the animalic nature of humanity and humanity’s inclination to anthropomorphize animality.

^ Morphological, genetic, and physiological aspects of human biological variability; the concept and description of race; the interaction of cultural and environmental factors in human biological adaptation.
  • Anthropology 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Influenced by the German tradition, Boas argued that the world was full of distinct cultures, rather than societies whose evolution could be measured by how much or how little "civilization" they had.^ Arabian Women / Overcoming Traditional Barriers : A 5 page discussion of how women in the Middle East are finally beginning to transcend cultural restrictions and acquire rights that they never had before.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their writings have little more theoretical foundation or historical framework than a Boy Scout manual on how to make Indian objects and imitate their dances.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boas and his students (representing historical particularism) argue that cultures are unique and cannot be compared (Barfield 1997:491).
  • Ecological Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He believed that each culture has to be studied in its particularity, and argued that cross-cultural generalizations, like those made in the natural sciences, were not possible.^ Boas and his students (representing historical particularism) argue that cultures are unique and cannot be compared (Barfield 1997:491).
  • Ecological Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical CAT scans like those done in hospitals show a cross-section of a patient’s body with 1-2 mm resolution.
  • Anthropology | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having rejected any general view of social evolution, they limit themselves to the study of the cultures and customs of separate peoples and groups.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In doing so, he fought discrimination against immigrants, blacks, and indigenous peoples of the Americas.[52] Many American anthropologists adopted his agenda for social reform, and theories of race continue to be popular subjects for anthropologists today. The so-called "Four Field Approach" has its origins in Boasian Anthropology, dividing the discipline in the four crucial and interrelated fields of sociocultural, biological, linguistic, and archaic anthropology (e.g. archaeology). Anthropology in the United States continues to be deeply influenced by the Boasian tradition, especially its emphasis on culture.
Ruth Benedict in 1937
Boas used his positions at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History to train and develop multiple generations of students. His first generation of students included Alfred Kroeber, Robert Lowie, Edward Sapir and Ruth Benedict, who each produced richly detailed studies of indigenous North American cultures. .They provided a wealth of details used to attack the theory of a single evolutionary process.^ They provide no unifying thread, no guiding line, no definitive acquisitions and advances from one stage to the next in a progressive process of evolution.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolutionary Theory (4) Provides a theoretical framework in evolutionary biology with which to explore human evolutionary history and aspects of modern human biology.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Kroeber and Sapir's focus on Native American languages helped establish linguistics as a truly general science and free it from its historical focus on Indo-European languages.^ However, his strongest evidence to support his belief in an Asian origin ( via the Bering Strait) of the Native Americans was from his study of Indian languages.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In examining how the science of language bears on the general problems of anthropology, it is not necessary to discuss at length the critical questions which arise, the principal.

^ Areas of specialization : The history and culture of Native American communities as well as the European and American exploration, settlement, and development of the Trans-Mississippi West from Mexico to the Arctic Circle.

The publication of Alfred Kroeber's textbook, Anthropology, marked a turning point in American anthropology. After three decades of amassing material, Boasians felt a growing urge to generalize. .This was most obvious in the 'Culture and Personality' studies carried out by younger Boasians such as Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict.^ Anthropologists are the persons who study cultures.
  • Basic cultural anthroplogy, Texas Indians 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.texasindians.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Frazer’s Golden Bough, Margaret Mead’s Coming of Age in Samoa, and Ruth Benedict’s Patterns of Culture sold thousands upon thousands of copies.

^ Margaret Mead, E. Sapir, Ruth Benedict and other students of Boas are the principal representatives of this new current.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Influenced by psychoanalytic psychologists including Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, these authors sought to understand the way that individual personalities were shaped by the wider cultural and social forces in which they grew up.
Though such works as Coming of Age in Samoa and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword remain popular with the American public, Mead and Benedict never had the impact on the discipline of anthropology that some expected. Boas had planned for Ruth Benedict to succeed him as chair of Columbia's anthropology department, but she was sidelined by Ralph Linton, and Mead was limited to her offices at the AMNH.

Canada

.Canadian anthropology began, as in other parts of the Colonial world, as ethnological data in the records of travellers and missionaries.^ Missionaries often lived among the peoples they served and were ideally suite d to observe and record anthropologically interesting data.

^ A publicly engaged anthropology is more necessary now than ever before—not in spite of, but because of, what some call corporate colonialism and what others call free trade.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twin stars of anthropology in the English-speaking world in the latter part of the nineteenth century were Morgan in the United States and Tyler in England.
  • Anthropology Today: The Flight from Materialism and Evolutionism by Evelyn Reed 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Canada, Jesuit missionaries such as Fathers LeClercq, Le Jeune and Sagard, in the 1600s, provide the oldest ethnographic records of native tribes in what was then the Domain of Canada.
True anthropology began with a Government department: the Geological Survey of Canada, and George Mercer Dawson (director in 1895). Dawson's support for anthropology created impetus for the profession in Canada. .This was expanded upon by Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, who established a Division of Anthropology within the Geological Survey in 1910. Anthropologists were recruited from England and the USA, setting the foundation for the unique Canadian style of anthropology.^ The Major Program in Anthropology provides a course structure for those students desiring to expand upon or supplement other areas of academic interest by taking advantage of Anthropology's unique global, chronological and biological perspective on humankind.

^ It is directed toward students who require formal scientific training within the major to prepare them for careers or advanced studies with a scientific focus in anthropology or other disciplines.

^ The survey said that by the year 2000, some 90% of the U.S. population will be within 200 miles of casino-style gambling.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Scholars include the linguist and Boasian Edward Sapir.

France

.Anthropology in France has a less clear genealogy than the British and American traditions, in part because many French writers influential in anthropology have been trained or held faculty positions in sociology, philosophy, or other fields rather than in anthropology.^ Because of its vast subject matter, Anthropology is traditionally divided into four sub-fields: Social-Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, Physical Anthropology and Anthropological Linguistics.

^ Other panelists have maintained that because of the American tradition of infant male circumcision, as well as the genital cosmetic surgery that some American women voluntarily undergo, those who argue against FGC speak from glass houses.
  • Concurring Opinions » Anthropologists Debate Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.concurringopinions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It means moving beyond disciplinary defined problems to the problems of the world – the problems that interest others, rather than the problems that interest us as anthropologists.

Most commentators consider Marcel Mauss (1872–1950), nephew of the influential sociologist Émile Durkheim to be the founder of the French anthropological tradition. Mauss belonged to Durkheim's Année Sociologique group; and while Durkheim and others examined the state of modern societies, Mauss and his collaborators (such as Henri Hubert and Robert Hertz) drew on ethnography and philology to analyze societies which were not as 'differentiated' as European nation states.
Two works by Mauss in particular proved to have enduring relevance: Essay on the Gift a seminal analysis of exchange and reciprocity, and his Huxley lecture on the notion of the person, the first comparative study of notions of person and selfhood cross-culturally.[53]
Throughout the interwar years, French interest in anthropology often dovetailed with wider cultural movements such as surrealism and primitivism which drew on ethnography for inspiration. Marcel Griaule and Michel Leiris are examples of people who combined anthropology with the French avant-garde. During this time most of what is known as ethnologie was restricted to museums, such as the Musée de l'Homme founded by Paul Rivet, and anthropology had a close relationship with studies of folklore.
.Above all, however, it was Claude Lévi-Strauss who helped institutionalize anthropology in France.^ In France, Claude Lévi-Strauss and Pierre Bourdieu published frequently in Le Monde and other periodicals.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Limited to graduate students, who will also be expected to attend all Anthropology 1630 lectures.

^ Limited to graduate students, who will also be expected to attend all Anthropology 1640 lectures.

Along with the enormous influence his structuralism exerted across multiple disciplines, Lévi-Strauss established ties with American and British anthropologists. At the same time he established centers and laboratories within France to provide an institutional context within anthropology while training influential students such as Maurice Godelier and Françoise Héritier who would prove influential in the world of French anthropology. Much of the distinct character of France's anthropology today is a result of the fact that most anthropology is carried out in nationally funded research laboratories (CNRS) rather than academic departments in universities.
Other influential writers in the 1970s include Pierre Clastres, who explains in his books on the Guayaki tribe in Paraguay that "primitive societies" actively oppose the institution of the state. .Therefore, these stateless societies are not less evolved than societies with states, but took the active choice of conjuring the institution of authority as a separate function from society.^ Just seven years later, more than 80 of these floating casinos ply the waterways of six states, from Illinois to Mississippi [ stress added]."
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For public anthropology objectivity lies less in the pronouncements of authorities than in conversations among concerned parties.

.The leader is only a spokesperson for the group when it has to deal with other groups ("international relations") but has no inside authority, and may be violently removed if he attempts to abuse this position.^ The obvious conclusion from this, that no group was inferior to any other, motivated her to register in the honours anthropology program.
  • Nelson Education - Human Evolution and Prehistory, Second Canadian Edition 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.humanevolution2e.nelson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A respected and older person may be looked to for leadership, but the person has no formalized authority.
  • Definitions of Anthropological Terms 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some pathological lesions produced by or related to human activities, including dietary aspects, can be treated, and social support can be provided by relatives or other members of the social group.
  • Anthropology.net 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC anthropology.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
.The most important French social theorist since Foucault and Lévi-Strauss is Pierre Bourdieu, who trained formally in philosophy and sociology and eventually held the Chair of Sociology at the Collège de France.^ In France, Claude Lévi-Strauss and Pierre Bourdieu published frequently in Le Monde and other periodicals.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foundations of Social Theory (4) Important early social theorists (Marx, Engels, Freud, Durkheim, Weber) and the historical conditions in which the study of society emerged in Western thought.
  • Anthropology | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1839, in Volume IV of Cours de Philosophie Positive (or System of Positive Polity), Comte coined the term sociologie to serve as an equivalent to "social physics" (which came from Comte and St. Simon).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Mauss and others before him, however, he worked on topics both in sociology and anthropology.^ A publicly engaged anthropology is more necessary now than ever before—not in spite of, but because of, what some call corporate colonialism and what others call free trade.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.

.His fieldwork among the Kabyles of Algeria places him solidly in anthropology, while his analysis of the function and reproduction of fashion and cultural capital in European societies places him as solidly in sociology.^ Exclusion: ANT100Y, ANT101H ANTA02H3 Introduction to Anthropology: Society, Culture and Language An introduction to socio-cultural anthropology.

^ The over-arching theme for this year’s scholars is Sustainable Societies: Building social, cultural, and environmental capital in a globalized world.
  • Applied Anthropology and Social Science Employment 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.sfaa.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Linguistic Pragmatics and Cultural Analysis in Anthropology] Catalog Number: 4411 Steven C. Caton Half course (fall term).

Other countries

Anthropology in Greece and Portugal is much influenced by British anthropology.[citation needed] In Greece, there was since the 19th century a science of the folklore called laographia (laography), in the form of "a science of the interior", although theoretically weak; but the connotation of the field deeply changed after World War II, when a wave of Anglo-American anthropologists introduced a science "of the outside".[55] In Italy, the development of ethnology and related studies did not receive as much attention as other branches of learning.[56]
.Germany and Norway are the countries that showed the most division and conflict between scholars focusing on domestic socio-cultural issues and scholars focusing on "other" societies.^ Exclusion: ANT100Y, ANT101H ANTA02H3 Introduction to Anthropology: Society, Culture and Language An introduction to socio-cultural anthropology.

^ ANTC06H3 African Cultures and Societies II: Case Studies Complements ANTB05H by giving closer examination to selected issues in African ethnography.

^ The over-arching theme for this year’s scholars is Sustainable Societies: Building social, cultural, and environmental capital in a globalized world.
  • Applied Anthropology and Social Science Employment 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.sfaa.net [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Post-World War II

.Before WWII British 'social anthropology' and American 'cultural anthropology' were still distinct traditions.^ Both affinities and differences between art-making and anthropology will be considered, as well as alternative means of apprehending and expressing aesthetic and social experience cross-culturally.

^ (Imagine explaining the meaning of cultural relativism or social solidarity or the significance of clans to a person who has never taken an anthropology course or read a book on the topic.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in Kenya : 6 pages worth of compiled research and information on the social role of women in Kenya, their high fertility rates, culture, and tradition.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the war, enough British and American anthropologists borrowed ideas and methodological approaches from one another that some began to speak of them collectively as 'sociocultural' anthropology.
.In the 1950s and mid-1960s anthropology tended increasingly to model itself after the natural sciences.^ Anthropology Drug interactions Protein homology modeling Protein Science Targeted Drug Delivery .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Anthropology as a research interest (2,837) 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems clear that by the mid-1960s, a new kind of anthropology was emerging that for some redefined civic responsibility.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, González, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anthropology courses that apply toward this track also emphasize natural science methodolo gies and theories.

Some anthropologists, such as Lloyd Fallers and Clifford Geertz, focused on processes of modernization by which newly independent states could develop. Others, such as Julian Steward and Leslie White, focused on how societies evolve and fit their ecological niche—an approach popularized by Marvin Harris.
Economic anthropology as influenced by Karl Polanyi and practiced by Marshall Sahlins and George Dalton challenged standard neoclassical economics to take account of cultural and social factors, and employed Marxian analysis into anthropological study. In England, British Social Anthropology's paradigm began to fragment as Max Gluckman and Peter Worsley experimented with Marxism and authors such as Rodney Needham and Edmund Leach incorporated Lévi-Strauss's structuralism into their work.
.Structuralism also influenced a number of developments in 1960s and 1970s, including cognitive anthropology and componential analysis.^ Kiste observes, for example, “that anthropology had little influence on the development of health care and legal systems in the trust territory” (1999:449).

^ Linguistic Pragmatics and Cultural Analysis in Anthropology] Catalog Number: 4411 Steven C. Caton Half course (fall term).

^ The Anthropology of Development and Globalization] Catalog Number: 5053 Yuson Jung Half course (spring term).

Authors such as David Schneider, Clifford Geertz, and Marshall Sahlins developed a more fleshed-out concept of culture as a web of meaning or signification, which proved very popular within and beyond the discipline. In keeping with the times, much of anthropology became politicized through the Algerian War of Independence and opposition to the Vietnam War;[57] Marxism became an increasingly popular theoretical approach in the discipline.[58] By the 1970s the authors of volumes such as Reinventing Anthropology worried about anthropology's relevance.
Since the 1980s issues of power, such as those examined in Eric Wolf's Europe and the People Without History, have been central to the discipline. In the 80s books like Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter pondered anthropology's ties to colonial inequality, while the immense popularity of theorists such as Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault moved issues of power and hegemony into the spotlight. Gender and sexuality became popular topics, as did the relationship between history and anthropology, influenced by Marshall Sahlins (again), who drew on Lévi-Strauss and Fernand Braudel to examine the relationship between social structure and individual agency. Also influential in these issues were Nietzsche, Heidegger, the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, Derrida and Lacan.[59]
In the late 1980s and 1990s authors such as George Marcus and James Clifford pondered ethnographic authority, particularly how and why anthropological knowledge was possible and authoritative. .They were reflecting trends in research and discourse initiated by Feminists in the academy, although they excused themselves from commenting specifically on those pioneering critics.^ The mystification of the discipline has allowed anthropologists to keep in tact their autonomy – their freedom to frequently do as they wish – while marginalizing themselves from public discourses beyond the academy.

^ While public anthropologists need start with the problems as people themselves define them (or as the hiring organization defines them), they should NEVER stay with those framings.

^ Although anthropology and anthropologists are used as anti-structural grist for a host of intellectual mills, they are not themselves active participants in these discussions.

[60] Nevertheless, key aspects of feminist theorizing and methods became de rigueur as part of the 'post-modern moment' in anthropology: Ethnographies became more reflexive, explicitly addressing the author's methodology, cultural, gender and racial positioning, and their influence on his or her ethnographic analysis. .This was part of a more general trend of postmodernism that was popular contemporaneously.^ To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.

[61] Currently anthropologists pay attention to a wide variety of issues pertaining to the contemporary world, including globalization, medicine and biotechnology, indigenous rights, virtual communities, and the anthropology of industrialized societies.

Controversies about its history

Anthropologists, like other researchers (especially historians and scientists engaged in field research), have over time assisted state policies and projects, especially colonialism.[62][63]
Some commentators have contended:
  • That the discipline grew out of colonialism, perhaps was in league with it, and derived some of its key notions from it, consciously or not. (See, for example, Gough, Pels and Salemink, but cf. Lewis 2004).[64]
  • That anthropologists typically have more power than the people they study and hence their knowledge-making is a form of theft in which the anthropologist gains something for him or herself at the expense of informants.
  • That ethnographic work was often ahistorical, writing about people as if they were "out of time" in an "ethnographic present" (Johannes Fabian, Time and Its Other).

Military

Anthropologists' involvement with the U.S. government, in particular, has caused bitter controversy within the discipline. Franz Boas publicly objected to US participation in World War I, and after the war he published a brief expose and condemnation of the participation of several American archaeologists in espionage in Mexico under their cover as scientists.
.But by the 1940s, many of Boas' anthropologist contemporaries were active in the allied war effort against the "Axis" (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan).^ Public anthropology, I believe, became part of an effort to regain something many anthropologists felt they had lost – a sense of status and respect from the broader public.

Many served in the armed forces but others worked in intelligence (for example, Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the Office of War Information). At the same time, David H. Price's work on American anthropology during the Cold War provides detailed accounts of the pursuit and dismissal of several anthropologists from their jobs for communist sympathies.
Attempts to accuse anthropologists of complicity with the CIA and government intelligence activities during the Vietnam War years have turned up surprisingly little (although anthropologist Hugo Nutini was active in the stillborn Project Camelot).[65] Many anthropologists (students and teachers) were active in the antiwar movement and a great many resolutions condemning the war in all its aspects were passed overwhelmingly at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association (AAA).
.In the decades since the Vietnam war the tone of cultural and social anthropology, at least, has been increasingly politicized, with the dominant liberal tone of earlier generations replaced with one more radical, a mix of, and varying degrees of, Marxist, feminist, anarchist, post-colonial, post-modern, Saidian, Foucauldian, identity-based, and more.^ As a branch of cultural anthropology, ethnography is devoted to the scientific description of one particular culture or group of people [ stress added]."
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way to move toward a more cumulative knowledge base beyond the trends, fads, and fragmentation of recent decades, is to use a transparent, comparative standard for evaluating one set of results against another.

^ The theoretical and empirical bases of cultural and social anthropology have been under attack since the Marxist and New Left critiques of the 1960s to those coming more recently from poststructuralism, postmodernism and literate theory, and postcolonial and cultural studies.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
Professional anthropological bodies often object to the use of anthropology for the benefit of the state. Their codes of ethics or statements may proscribe anthropologists from giving secret briefings. The Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth (ASA ) has called certain scholarships ethically dangerous. The AAA's current 'Statement of Professional Responsibility' clearly states that "in relation with their own government and with host governments ... no secret research, no secret reports or debriefings of any kind should be agreed to or given."
However, anthropologists, along with other social scientists, are again being used in warfare as part of the US Army's strategy in Afghanistan. The Christian Science Monitor reports that "Counterinsurgency efforts focus on better grasping and meeting local needs" in Afghanistan, under the rubric of Human Terrain Team (HTT).[67]

Major discussions

Focus on other cultures

Some authors argue that anthropology originated and developed as the study of "other cultures", both in terms of time (past societies) and space (non-European/non-Western societies). For example, the classic of urban anthropology, Ulf Hannerz in the introduction to his seminal Exploring the City: Inquiries Toward an Urban Anthropology mentions that the "Third World" had habitually received most of attention; anthropologists who traditionally specialized in "other cultures" looked for them far away and started to look "across the tracks" only in late 1960s.[68]
Now there exist many works focusing on peoples and topics very close to the author's "home".[59] It is also argued that other fields of study, like History and Sociology, on the contrary focus disproportionately on the West.[69]
In France, the study of existing contemporary society has been traditionally left to sociologists, but this is increasingly changing,[70] starting in the 1970s from scholars like Isac Chiva and journals like Terrain ("fieldwork"), and developing with the center founded by Marc Augé (Le Centre d'anthropologie des mondes contemporains, the Anthropological Research Center of Contemporary Societies). The same approach of focusing on "modern world" topics by Terrain, was also present in the British Manchester School of the 1950s.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Wolf, Eric (1994) Perilous Ideas: Race, Culture, People. Current Anthropology 35: 1-7. p.227
  2. ^ Flannery, T.F. (1994) The Future Eaters: An ecological history of the Australasian lands and people Chatswood: New South Wales ISBN 0802139434
  3. ^ a b http://www.aaanet.org/profdev/careers/Careers.cfm
  4. ^ (Kottak, C)
  5. ^ Layton, Robert (1998) An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Geertz, Behar, Clifford & James
  7. ^ Stanford University Bulletin 1998-1999 pg. 213 http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?CSNID=00002257&mediaType=application/pdf
  8. ^ Stanford University Bulletin 2007-2008 pg. 269
  9. ^ Han F. Vermeulen, "The German Invention of Völkerkunde: Ethnological Discourse in Europe and Asia, 1740-1798." In: Sara Eigen and Mark Larrimore, eds. The German Invention of Race. 2006.
  10. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,913924,00.html
  11. ^ Salzmann, Zdeněk. .(1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology.^ Cultural anthropology is the study of extant human cultures and societies around the world.
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY Language, culture, cognition.

    ^ LANGUAGE IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Introduction to interdisciplinary study of language; psychological, social, cultural aspects of language use.

    Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  12. ^ http://anthropology.net/2007/08/15/new-york-times-reviews-kenneallys-the-first-word/
  13. ^ Erickson, Paul A. and Liam D. Murphy. A History of Anthropological Theory. Broadview Press. 2003. p. 11-12
  14. ^ George Stocking, "Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology." In George Stocking, The Ethnographer's Magic and Other Essays in the History of Anthropology (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992):342-361.
  15. ^ Leaf, Murray. Man, Mind and Science: A History of Anthropology. Columbia University Press. 1979
  16. ^ http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2009/05.28/newdept.html
  17. ^ Rosaldo, Renato. Culture and Truth: The remaking of social analysis. Beacon Press. 1993; Inda, John Xavier and Renato Rosaldo. The Anthropology of Globalization. Wiley-Blackwell. 2007
  18. ^ Robert Jurmaiine, Lynn Kiilgore, Wenda Treavathan, and Russell L. Ciochon. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 11th Edition. Wadsworth. 2007, chapters I, III and IV.; Wompack, Mari. Being Human. Prentice Hall. 2001, pp. 11-20.
  19. ^ Brown, Donald. Human Universals. McGraw Hill. 1991; Roughley, Neil. Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transciplinary Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter Publishing. 2000
  20. ^ Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Savage Mind. 1962; Womack, Mari. Being Human. 2001
  21. ^ Harris, Marvin. Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches.
  22. ^ http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=209831&sectioncode=26
  23. ^ http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/282/5389/654?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=DNA+challenges+race&searchid=QID_NOT_SET&FIRSTINDEX=; Shanklin, Eugenia. 1994. Anthropology & Race; Faye V. Harrison. 1995. "The Persistent Power of 'Race' in the Cultural and Political Economy of Racism." Annual Review of Anthropology. 24:47-74. Allan Goodman. 1995. "The Problematics of "Race" in Contemporary Biological Anthropology." In Biological Anthropology: The State of the Science.; Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 1945-. "Melanin, Afrocentricity...," 36(1993):33-58.; see Stanford's recent collection of overarching bibliographies on race and racism here: http://library.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/misc/race.html
  24. ^ http://www.aaanet.org/about/
  25. ^ http://www.aaanet.org/membership/upload/MAY-08-AAA.pdf
  26. ^ Johanson, Donald and Kate Wong. Lucy's Legacy. Kindle Books. 2007; Netti, Bruno. The study of ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 2005. Chapter One
  27. ^ Urbanowicz, Charles. In the Newsletter of the American Anthropological Association, reprinted online: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/Pub_Papers/4field.html
  28. ^ Foucault, Michel. "Introduction" to his 1961 translation of Kant's work, reprinted: http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault1.htm
  29. ^ Jacobs, Brian, and Kain, Patrick (eds.), Essays on Kant's Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 278pp., ISBN 0521790387.
  30. ^ Harris, Marvin. The Rise of Anthropological Theory. Alta Mira Press. 2000 (revised from 1968); Harris, Marvin. Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times. Altamira. 1998
  31. ^ Harris, 1968, op cit. pp. 8-52; Leaf 1970, op cit. pp. 1-13; Erickson and Murph, 2003, pp. 21-25
  32. ^ Resources for a History of Anthropology
  33. ^ Marco Polo's Asia
  34. ^ The Renaissance Foundations of Anthropology
  35. ^ a b Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  36. ^ J. T. Walbridge (1998). "Explaining Away the Greek Gods in Islam", Journal of the History of Ideas 59 (3), p. 389-403.
  37. ^ Richard Tapper (1995). "Islamic Anthropology" and the "Anthropology of Islam", Anthropological Quarterly 68 (3), Anthropological Analysis and Islamic Texts, p. 185-193.
  38. ^ West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era
  39. ^ Stocking, George W. (1968) Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the history of anthropology. London: The Free Press.
  40. ^ Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (1986) Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  41. ^ Wallerstein, Immanuel. (2003) "Anthropology, sociology, and other dubious disciplines." Current Anthropology 44:453-466.
  42. ^ On varieties of cultural relativism in anthropology, see Spiro, Melford E. (1987) "Some Reflections on Cultural Determinism and Relativism with Special Reference to Emotion and Reason," in Culture and Human Nature: theoretical papers of Melford E. Spiro. Edited by B. Kilborne and L. L. Langness, pp. 32-58. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  43. ^ Gellner, Ernest. (1998) Language and solitude: Wittgenstein, Malinowski, and the Habsburg dilemma. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  44. ^ Gellner, Ernest, ed. (1980) Soviet and Western anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  45. ^ Stocking, George Jr. (1963) "Matthew Arnold, E. B. Tylor, and the Uses of Invention," American Anthropologist, 65:783-799, 1963
  46. ^ Tylor, E. B. (1865) Researches into the early history of mankind the development of civilization. London: John Murray.
  47. ^ Tylor, E. B. (1871) Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. 2 vols. London, John Murray.
  48. ^ Malinowski, Bronisław (1967) A diary in the strict sense of the term. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1967]
  49. ^ Jack Goody (1995) The Expansive Moment: The Rise of Social Anthropology in Britain and Africa, 1918-1970 review: [1]
  50. ^ Thomas William Heyck [2] The American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 5 (Dec., 1997), pp. 1486-1488 doi:10.2307/2171126
  51. ^ This would be influential on the ideas of Karl Marx, who dedicated Das Kapital to Morgan.
  52. ^ Stocking, George W. (1968) Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the history of anthropology. London: The Free Press.
  53. ^ Mauss, Marcel (1938) "A category of the human mind: the notion of person; the notion of self.," in M. Carrithers, S. Collins, and S. Lukes, eds. The Category of the Person: anthropology, philosophy, history. Pp. 1-25. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. Originally given as "Une categorie de l'Esprit Humain: La Notion de Personne, Celle de 'Moi'," for the Huxley Memorial Lecture and appeared in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 68.
  54. ^ Bartholomew Dean “Critical Re-vision: Clastres' Chronicle and the optic of primitivism”, 2002 In Best of Anthropology Today, 1974-2000, ed. J. Benthall, with a preface by M. Sahlins. London: Routledge. [3]
  55. ^ Geneviève Zoïa, « L'anthropologie en Grèce », Terrain, Numéro 14—L'incroyable et ses preuves (mars 1990) , [En ligne], mis en ligne le 7 octobre 2005. URL: http://terrain.revues.org/document3641.html. Consulté le 15 juin 2007. (French)
  56. ^ Grottanelli, Vinigi Ethnology and/or Cultural Anthropology in Italy: Traditions and Developments (and Comments and Reply). Other authors: Giorgio Ausenda, Bernardo Bernardi, Ugo Bianchi, Y. Michal Bodemann, Jack Goody, Allison Jablonko, David I. Kertzer, Vittorio Lanternari, Antonio Marazzi, Roy A. Miller, Jr., Laura Laurencich Minelli, David M. Moss, Leonard W. Moss, H. R. H. Prince Peter of Greece and Denmark, Diana Pinto, Pietro Scotti, Tullio Tentori. Current Anthropology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Dec., 1977), pp. 593-614
  57. ^ Fanon, Frantz. (1963) The Wretched of the Earth, transl. Constance Farrington. New York, Grove Weidenfeld.
  58. ^ Nugent, Stephen Some reflections on anthropological structural Marxism The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Volume 13, Number 2, June 2007, pp. 419-431(13)
  59. ^ a b Lewis, Herbert S. (1998) The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and its Consequences American Anthropologist 100:" 716-731
  60. ^ Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (1986) Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  61. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1992) Postmodernism, Reason, and Religion. London/New York: Routledge. Pp: 26-50
  62. ^ Asad, Talal, ed. (1973) Anthropology & the Colonial Encounter. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
  63. ^ van Breman, Jan, and Akitoshi Shimizu (1999) Anthropology and Colonialism in Asia and Oceania. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.
  64. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1992) Postmodernism, Reason, and Religion. London/New York: Routledge. Pp: 26-29.
  65. ^ Horowitz, Lewis ed.(1967) The Rise and Fall of Project Camelot.
  66. ^ D'Andrade, Roy (1995) "Moral Models in Anthropology." Current Anthropology 36: 399-408.
  67. ^ [4]
  68. ^ Ulf Hannerz (1980) "Exploring the City: Inquiries Toward an Urban Anthropology", ISBN 0231083769, p. 1
  69. ^ Jack Goody (2007) The Theft of History Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521870690
  70. ^ *Marc Abélès, How the Anthropology of France Has Changed Anthropology in France: Assessing New Directions in the Field Cultural Anthropology 1999 p. 407

Further reading

Dictionaries and encyclopedias

  • Barfield, Thomas (1997). The dictionary of anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
  • Levinson, David and Melvin Ember. eds. (1996) Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. (4 vols.) New York: Henry Holt.

Fieldnotes and memoirs of anthropologists

  • Barley, Nigel (1983) The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut. .London: British Museum Publications.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1995) After the fact: two countries, four decades, one anthropologist.^ By 1995, Mississippi had become the number two or number three casino gambling state in America, depending upon one's standard of measure."
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1967) Tristes tropiques. Translated from the French by John Russell. New York: Atheneum.
  • Malinowski, Bronisław (1967) A diary in the strict sense of the term. Translated by Norbert Guterman. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.
  • Mead, Margaret (1972) Blackberry winter: my earlier years. New York: William Marrow.
  • Mead, Margaret, (1977) Letters from the field, 1925 - 1975. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Rabinow, Paul. (1977) Reflections on fieldwork in Morocco.

Histories

  • Asad, Talal, ed. (1973) Anthropology & the Colonial Encounter. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
  • Barth, Fredrik, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin, One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American anthropology. .Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • D'Andrade, R. "The Sad Story of Anthropology: 1950-1999." In E. L. Cerroni-Long, ed.^ Smith, Valene [Editor], 1977, Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology Of Tourism (University of Pennsylvania Press).
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Smith, Valene [Editor], 1989, Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology Of Tourism (2md edition, University of Pennsylvania Press).
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ His next book, Weaponizing Anthropology: American Anthropologists in the Second World War will be published by Duke University Press.
    • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Anthropological Theory in North America. Westport: Berin & Garvey 1999. download
  • Darnell, Regna. (2001) Invisible Genealogies: A History of Americanist Anthropology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Deeb, Benjamin. .(2007) Anthropology and Social Problems: A Manual of Change.
  • Harris, Marvin.^ Requirements for Socio-cultural Anthropology Minor The sociocultural anthropology minor introduces students to a range of problems in the study of social and cultural systems.

    ^ ANTHROPOLOGY OF DEVELOPING NATIONS Social, political, and economic change in the Third World.

    .(2001[1968]) The rise of anthropological theory: a history of theories of culture.^ DESCRIPTION of ANTH 296: Investigation of the history of the development of theory and method in anthropological thought and practice from the nineteenth century to the present.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The course considers the relationship between the political and the economic through readings of classical texts in social theory, histories of capitalist transformation, and anthropological approaches to the economy as a culturally embedded phenomenon.

    ^ Jerry D. Moore (1997) Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    AltaMira Press. .Walnut Creek, CA.
  • Kehoe, Alice B. (1998) The Land of Prehistory: A Critical History of American Archaeology.
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (1998) "The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and its Consequences."^ Robert L. Welsch, 1998, An American Anthropologist in Melanesia: A.B. Lewis and the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition 1909-1913 , pages 558-559.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Herbert Lewis, 1998, The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and Its Consequences.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .American Anthropologist, 100: 716-731.
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (2004) "Imagining Anthropology's History."^ Robert L. Welsch, 1998, An American Anthropologist in Melanesia: A.B. Lewis and the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition 1909-1913 , pages 558-559.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Herbert Lewis, 1998, The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and Its Consequences.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ His next book, Weaponizing Anthropology: American Anthropologists in the Second World War will be published by Duke University Press.
    • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Reviews in Anthropology, v. .33.
  • Lewis, Herbert S. (2005) "Anthropology, the Cold War, and Intellectual History.^ Herbert Lewis, 1998, The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and Its Consequences.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Anthropology Anthropology of Science Anthropology of Technology Anthrozoology Biological Anthropology Biopolitics Genomics Collections Management Science Communication History History of Anthropology History of Biology Cold War History of Technology Cryopreservation Literature And Science Nanobiotechnology ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
    • Academia.edu | People | People who have Biological Anthropology as a research interest (207) 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    In R. Darnell & F.W. Gleach, eds. .Histories of Anthropology Annual, Vol.^ Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I.
  • Pels, Peter & Oscar Salemink, eds. .(2000) Colonial Subjects: Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology.
  • Price, David.^ David Price is author of Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists (Duke, 2004).
    • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2004) Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists.
  • Stocking, George, Jr. (1968) Race, Culture and Evolution. New York: Free Press.
  • Trencher, Susan. (2000) Mirrored Images: American Anthropology and American Culture, 1960-1980.
  • Gisi, Lucas Marco. (2007) Einbildungskraft und Mythologie. Die Verschränkung von Anthropologie und Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.

Textbooks and key theoretical works

.
  • Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (1986) Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography.^ Middle East Ethnography: Discourse, Politics, and Culture] Catalog Number: 8056 Enrollment: Limited to 18.

    .Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures.^ University of California at Berkeley .
    • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ University of California, Berkeley .
    • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Isbell, William H., Professor , PhD, 1973, University of Illinois: Archaeology, space and place, architecture and built environment, cultural evolution, ceramic analysis, symbolic and structural interpretation; Andean South America, nuclear America.

    .New York: Basic Books.
  • Harris, Marvin (1997) Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology (7th Edition).^ William A. Haviland, 1999, Cultural Anthropology, 9th edition, page 7.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As a branch of cultural anthropology, ethnography is devoted to the scientific description of one particular culture or group of people [ stress added]."
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Texas at Austin---This is a good introduction to how evolution works; introduction to DNA and genetics; how variation is generated; and discussion of Darwin and natural selection.
    • ANTHROPOLOGY WEB HAWG 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC rock.uwc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Boston: Allyn & Bacon
  • Salzmann, Zdeněk. .(1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology.^ Cultural anthropology is the study of extant human cultures and societies around the world.
    • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY Language, culture, cognition.

    ^ LANGUAGE IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Introduction to interdisciplinary study of language; psychological, social, cultural aspects of language use.

    Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Shweder, Richard A., and Robert A. LeVine, eds. (1984) Culture Theory: essays on mind, self, and emotion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

External links

At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Anthropology at:

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Anthropology is the study of human beings.

Sourced

  • Both social and biosocial factors are necessary to interpret crosscultural studies, with the general proviso that one's research interest determines which elements, in what combinations, are significant for the provision of understanding.
    • Gilbert Herdt, "Bisexuality and the Causes of Homosexuality: The Case of the Sambia"
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up anthropology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Welcome to the Wikiversity Anthropology Textbook Improvement Project, part of the School of Anthropology.

Contents

Content summary

The Anthropology Textbook Improvement Project is a Wikiversity learning project where participants improve anthropology-related textbooks at Wikibooks.
Anthropology is the study of humankind throughout all time. Its four main sub-fields includes archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology and cultural anthropology. Anthropology departments in different countries sometimes teach archaeology separately from the other sub-fields and in other countries all four sub-fields are taught in the same department.

Learning materials

Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace. Simply make a link to the name of the lesson (lessons are independent pages in the main namespace) and start writing!
You should also read about the Wikiversity:Learning model. Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants. Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple projects. Cooperate with other departments that use the same learning resource.
  • ...

Texts

Assignments

Read and learn about anthropology and use what you learn to help improve a textbook.

Readings

Each activity has a suggested associated background reading selection.

References

Additional helpful readings include:
[[Category:]] <---include subject name

Active participants

Active participants in this Learning Group
  • Stilite
  • ...

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ANTHROPOLOGY (Gr. .ivOpcwiros man, and X6yos, theory or science), the science which, in its strictest sense, has as its object the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom.^ Opcwiros man, and X6yos, theory or science), the science which, in its strictest sense, has as its object the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom.

^ ANTHROPOLOGICAL GENETICS Problem-oriented study of theory and methods of population genetics of man.

^ It is distinguished from ethnology , which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such units.

.It is distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such units.^ It is distinguished from ethnology , which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such units.

^ SEMINAR IN ETHNOGRAPHIC AREA STUDIES Reading and discussion of ethnography, research on problems in ethnology of a specified geographic area.

^ To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.

.To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.^ To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.

^ And as man under a genealogical point of view belongs to the Catarhine or Old World stock, we must conclude, however much the conclusion may revolt our pride, that our early progenitors would have been properly thus designated.

^ In 1843 Dr J. C. Prichard, who perhaps of all others merits the title of founder of modern anthropology, wrote in his Natural History of Man:- " The organized world presents no contrasts and resemblances more remarkable than those which we discover on comparing mankind with the inferior tribes.

.Various other sciences, in conformity with the above definition, must be regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold their own independent places in the field of knowledge.^ Various other sciences, in conformity with the above definition, must be regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold their own independent places in the field of knowledge.

^ "The eagerness and energy of the [19th century] amateurs gradually won a place for their subject as an independent science.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also explores intellectual stakes regarding "the human" shared between anthropology and the life sciences today.

Thus anatomy and physiology display the structure and functions of the human body, while psychology investigates the operations of the human mind. .Philology deals with the general principles of language, as well as with the relations between the languages of particular races and nations.^ Comparison of policy and anthropological approaches to language and to relations between languages; examination of "pragmatic" and "expressive" roles of language in development, both at national and local levels.

^ Case studies of range of processes/institutions and their relations to ethnicity, including transnational migration, nationalism, tribal custom, language, dress, law, religion, race.

Ethics or moral science treats of man's duty or rules of conduct toward his fellow-men. .Sociology and the science of culture are concerned with the origin and development of arts and sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs, laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic time; while beyond the historical limit the study is continued by inferences from relics of early ages and remote districts, to interpret which is the task of pre-historic archaeology and geology.^ Sociology and the science of culture are concerned with the origin and development of arts and sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs, laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic time; while beyond the historical limit the study is continued by inferences from relics of early ages and remote districts, to interpret which is the task of pre-historic archaeology and geology .

^ The Stone Age represents the early condition of mankind in general, and has remained in savage districts up to modern times, while the introduction of metals need not at once supersede the use of the old stone hatchets and arrows, which have often long continued in dwindling survival by the side of the new bronze and even iron ones.

^ The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.

I. Man's Place in Nature. - .In 1843 Dr J. C. Prichard, who perhaps of all others merits the title of founder of modern anthropology, wrote in his Natural History of Man:- " The organized world presents no contrasts and resemblances more remarkable than those which we discover on comparing mankind with the inferior tribes.^ I am also a Pacific Anthropologist (with 1970 and 1971 Ph.D. fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga ) and in many respects my fieldwork experiences of more than a quarter-of-a-century ago contributed to this presentation today; I am also interested in the history of the anthropology and all of my on-going research interests are a piece of whole cloth.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THOUGHT Anthropological thought in West from earliest times to present: 19th and 20th centuries, corresponding to period of emergence of anthropology as academic discipline.

^ Note: Limited to graduate students, who will also be expected to attend all Anthropology 1630 lectures.

That creatures should exist so nearly approaching to each other in all the particulars of their physical structure, and yet differing so immeasurably in their endowments and capabilities, would be a fact hard to believe, if it were not manifest to our observation. .The differences are everywhere striking: the resemblances are less obvious in the fulness of their extent, and they are never contemplated without wonder by those who, in the study of anatomy and physiology, are first made aware how near is man in his physical constitution to the brutes.^ The differences are everywhere striking: the resemblances are less obvious in the fulness of their extent, and they are never contemplated without wonder by those who, in the study of anatomy and physiology, are first made aware how near is man in his physical constitution to the brutes.

^ The first (fig.3) is the famous Neanderthal skull from near Dusseldorf , described by Schaafhausen in Miller's Archiv, 1858; Huxley in Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p.

^ Franz Boas was "educated in physics, was not the first to teach anthropology in the United States, but it was her and his students, with their insistence on scientific rigor, who made such courses a common part of college and university curricula."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all the principles of his internal structure, in the composition and functions of his parts, man is but an animal.^ In all the principles of his internal structure, in the composition and functions of his parts, man is but an animal.

^ According to this view, not only life but thought are functions of the animal system, in which man excels all other animals as to height of organization: but beyond this, man embodies an immaterial and immortal spiritual principle which no lower creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes to him but a mocking simulance.

^ Man is the end towards which all the animal creation has tended from the first appearance of the first Palaeozoic fishes."

.The lord of the earth, who contemplates the eternal order of the universe, and aspires to communion with its invisible Maker, is a being composed of the same materials, and framed on the same principles, as the creatures which he has tamed to be the servile instruments of his will, or slays for his daily food.^ The lord of the earth, who contemplates the eternal order of the universe, and aspires to communion with its invisible Maker, is a being composed of the same materials, and framed on the same principles, as the creatures which he has tamed to be the servile instruments of his will, or slays for his daily food.

.The points of resemblance are innumerable; they extend to the most recondite arrangements of that mechanism which maintains instrumentally the physical life of the bod y, which brings forward its early development and admits, after a given period, its decay, and by means of which is prepared a succession of similar beings destined to perpetuate the race."^ The points of resemblance are innumerable; they extend to the most recondite arrangements of that mechanism which maintains instrumentally the physical life of the bod y, which brings forward its early development and admits, after a given period, its decay, and by means of which is prepared a succession of similar beings destined to perpetuate the race."

^ Many of these points are of so unimportant, or of so singular a nature, that it is extremely improbable that they should have been independently acquired by aboriginally distinct species or races.

^ A. de Quatrefages brings forward ( Unite de l'espece humaine ) his strongest arguments for the variability of races under change of climate, &c.

.The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus, who in his Systema Naturae (1735) grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to which he gave the name of Primates.^ The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or anthropoid apes , had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus , who in his Systema Naturae (1735) grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia , to which he gave the name of Primates .

^ The present drawing, which under the authority of Linnaeus shows an anthropomorphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into view without suggesting kinship to account for it.

^ Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes in the same order.

.The Amoenitates Academicae (vol.^ The Amoenitates Academicae (vol.

vi., Leiden, 1764), published under the auspices of Linnaeus, contains a remarkable picture which illustrates a discourse by his disciple Hoppius, and is here reproduced (see Plate, fig. i). .In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.^ It provides background in each of the four subfields of anthropology, yet requires more training in quantitative methods and laboratory settings.

^ Students who have completed appropriate graduate courses at another university may be exempted from up to 32 credits including one or more of the four required subfield courses, but not usually from ANTH 589.

The great Swedish naturalist was possibly justified in treating the two latter creatures as quasihuman, for they seem to be grotesque exaggerations of such tailed and hairy human beings as really, though rarely, occur, and are apt to be exhibited as monstrosities (see Bastian and Hartmann, Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie, Index, " Geschwanzte Menschen "; Gould and Pile, Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine, 1897). To Linnaeus, however, they represented normal .anthropomorpha or man-like creatures, vouched for by visitors to remote parts of the world. .This opinion of the Swedish naturalist seems to have been little noticed in Great Britain till it was taken up by the learned but credulous Scottish judge, Lord Monboddo (see his Origin and Progress of Language, 1774, &c.; Antient Metaphysics, 1778).^ Jefferson's words summarize my own anthropological research: go, see, learn, judge, have convictions, and have trust.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He had not heard of the tailed men till he met with them in the work of Linnaeus, with whom he entered into correspondence, with the result that he enlarged his range of mankind with races of sub-human type. One was founded on the description by the Swedish sailor Niklas KBping of the ferocious men with long tails inhabiting the Nicobar Islands. Another comprised the orang-utans of Sumatra, who were said to take men captive and set them to work as slaves. One of these apes, it was related, served as a sailor on board a Jamaica ship, and used to wait on the captain. These are stories which seem to carry their own explanation. .When the Nicobar Islands were taken over by the British government two centuries later, the native warriors were still wearing their peculiar loin-cloth hanging behind in a most taillike manner (E. H. Man, Journal Anthropological Institute, vol.^ CULTURES IN COLLISION Anthropological perspective on colonial encounters be tween natives and newcomers during the European oceanic explorations of the 15th century and thereafter.

xv. p. 442). .As for the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this may even be verbally true, it being borne in mind that in the Malay languages the term orang-utan, " man of the forest," was originally used for inland forest natives and other rude men, rather than for the miyas apes to which it has come to be generally applied by Europeans.^ In response to the identity crisis, the paper posits the call of some Indo-American leaders for the true formation of an American melting pot rather than strict ethnocism.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How should the mind that can contemplate God relate to our fellow beings, the other life-forms of the world?
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, that level of success is not universal and it may not even apply to most tribes.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The speculations as to primitive man connected with these stories diverted the British public, headed by Dr Johnson, who said that Monboddo was " as jealous of his tail as a squirrel." Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification of man did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the time, which responded more readily to the systems represented by Buffon, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to metaphysics and theology. .It has to be borne in mind that Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained the thought of accounting for this similarity by common descent.^ As soon as we contemplate societies different from that in which everything seems clear to us because everything is familiar, we meet at every step problems which we are incapable of resolving by common sense, aided only by thought and by current knowledge of 'human nature'.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It satisfied his mind to consider it as belonging to the system of nature, as indeed remained the case with a greater anatomist of the following century, Richard Owen. The present drawing, which under the authority of Linnaeus shows an anthropomorphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into view without suggesting kinship to account for it. .There are few ideas more ingrained in ancient and low civilization than that of relationship by descent between the lower animals and man.^ There are far more similarities between the two cultures than one would expect given their respective political backgrounds.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There will be some lectures (and videos), but hopefully there will be more discussion than either lectures or videos!
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology of the world has hardly a more universal theme. .But in educated Europe such ideas had long been superseded by the influence of theology and philosophy, with which they seemed too incompatible.^ The writer demonstrates how the political philosophies of such composers as Bob Dylan were expressed in their music and how this, in turn, influenced the political environment of that time.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 19th century, however, Lamarck's theory of the development of new species by habit and circumstance led through Wallace and Darwin to the doctrines of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the fittest, and natural selection. Thenceforward it was impossible to exclude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom zoological similarity connects also, though by lines of descent not at all clearly defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic apes. .In one form or another such a theory of human descent has in our time become part of an accepted framework of zoology, if not as a demonstrable truth, at any rate as a working hypothesis which has no effective rival.^ The League of Women Voters of Hawai'i has come out against legalized gambling in that state, but I still predict that legalized gambling will occur, in one form or another.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test Machiavell's discomforting perspective on human existence we examine a variety of theories and a wide range of cases, across time and around the world.

^ Examines how social transformations such as sedentism, animal and plant domestication, and urbanism have produced novel forms of human/disease interactions.

The new development from Linnaeus's zoological scheme which has thus ensued appears in Huxley's diagram of simian and human skeletons (fig. 2, (a) gibbon; (b) orang; (c) chimpanzee; (d) gorilla; (e) man). Evidently suggested by the Linnean picture, this is brought up to the modern level of zoology, and continued on to man, forming an introduction to his zoological history hardly to be surpassed. .Some of the main points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader being referred for further information to Huxley's Essays. In tracing the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, the general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence in number and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in the teeth, go far towards justifying the opinion of hereditary connexion.^ Indeed, this is the point made by some who follow Native American gaming very closely: .
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What will happen in the near future (and far future) is not predictable; as an anthropologist I shall continue to follow this lucrative (for some) ever-changing industry and am delighted that some of the "winnings" of Native Americans are being applied directly to interests that concern the general public as well as anthropologists!
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, the comparison brings into view differences in human structure adapted to man's pre-eminent mode of life, though hardly to be accounted its chief causes.^ Japanese students have little time for sports activities of any kind, and the structures between the two countries are very different.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for going on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes.^ THE READER MAY WELL ASK: why place this syllabus on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz go through all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not an interactive course?
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two modes of progression overlap in human life, but the child's tendency when learning is to rest on the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands, unlike the apes, which support themselves on the sides of the feet and the bent knuckles of the hands. With regard to climbing, the long stretch of arm and the grasp with both hands and feet contribute to the arboreal life of the apes, contrasting with what seem the mere remains of the climbing habit to be found even among forest savages. On the whole, man's locomotive limbs are not so much specialized to particular purposes, as generalized into adaptation to many ends. As to the mechanical conditions of the human body, the upright posture has always been recognized as the chief. To it contributes the balance of the skull on the cervical vertebrae, while the human form of the pelvis provides the necessary support to the intestines in the standing attitude. The marked curvature of the vertebral column, by breaking the shock to the neck and head in running and leaping, likewise favours the erect position. The lowest coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail. .While it is evident that high importance must be attached to the adaptation of the human body to the life of diversified intelligence and occupation he has to lead, this must not be treated as though it were the principal element of the superiority of man, whose comparison with all lower genera of mammals must be mainly directed to the intellectual organ, the brain.^ Finally , "human nature" (as well as "culture") plays a part in all that we do and I end this presentation with the words of Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) : "We must believe in luck.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also explores intellectual stakes regarding "the human" shared between anthropology and the life sciences today.

^ General processes of cultural change contribute to understanding how and why current cultural adaptations exist, leading to consideration of the ways humans have organized them selves in societies.

Comparison of the brains of vertebrate animals (see Brain) brings into view the immense difference between the small, smooth brain of a fish or bird and the large and convoluted organ in man. .In man, both size and complexity contribute to the increased area of the cortex or outer layer of the brain, which has been fully ascertained to be the seat of the mysterious processes by which sensation furnishes the groundwork of thought.^ Developmen tal processes leading to increased complexity and new social institutions.

^ EXAM GROUP: 15, 16 Contemporary life in Chinese urban areas is shaped by political and economic processes in the PRC, resulting in complex and ever-changing urban landscapes.

Schafer (Textbook of Physiology, vol. ii. p. 697) thus defines it: " The cerebral cortex is the seat of the intellectual functions, of intelligent sensation or consciousness, of ideation, of volition, and of memory." .The relations between man and ape are most readily stated in comparison with the gorilla, as on the whole the most anthropomorphous ape.^ Comparison of policy and anthropological approaches to language and to relations between languages; examination of "pragmatic" and "expressive" roles of language in development, both at national and local levels.

^ Some cross-cultural comparisons are also made between perceptions of situational smiling in the United States and Europe.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the general proportions of the body and limbs there is a marked difference between the gorilla and man.^ Although distinct differences are present, there is a remarkable similarity between and among the three regions in both arenas.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gorilla's brain-case is smaller, its trunk larger, its lower limbs shorter, its upper limbs longer in proportion than those of man.^ I also add that for more than a decade I have been providing students (in various lower-and-upper-division courses) with Guidebooks that have "video notes" and "lecture outlines" for the appropriate courses that semester.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The differences between a gorilla's skull and a man's are truly immense. In the gorilla, the face, formed largely by the massive jaw-bones, predominates over the brain-case or cranium; in the man these proportions are reversed. .In man the occipital foramen, through which passes the spinal cord, is placed just behind the centre of the base of the skull, which is thus evenly balanced in the erect posture, whereas the gorilla, which goes habitually on all fours, and whose skull is inclined forward, in accordance with this posture has the foramen farther back.^ Subfields requirement : Four courses (16 credits) from the following list, all passed with grade of B- or better.

In man the surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla these ridges overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs. .The absolute capacity of the cranium of the gorilla is far less than that of man; the smallest adult human cranium hardly measuring less than 63 cub.^ How we humans came to be the way we are is far less important than how we should act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in., while the largest gorilla cranium measured had a content of only 342 cub. in. The largest proportional size of the facial bones, and the great projection of the jaws, confer on the gorilla's skull its small facial angle and brutal character,while its teeth differ from man's in relative size and number of fangs. .Comparing the lengths of the extremities, it is seen that the gorilla's arm is of enormous length, in fact about one-sixth longer than the spine, whereas a man's arm is one-fifth shorter than the spine; both hand and foot are proportionally much longer in the gorilla than in man; the leg does not so much differ.^ Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of particular interest, is the difference between genders : men are often ridiculed if they smile "too much" whereas women are expected to smile constantly.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The vertebral column of the gorilla differs from that of man in its curvature and other characters, as also does the conformation of its narrow pelvis. .The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to bones and muscles with that of man, but is clumsier and heavier; its thumb is " opposable " like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet with its extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus possessing a character which does much to make the human hand so admirable an instrument; but the gorilla's thumb is proportionately shorter than man's.^ The anthropologist is a human instrument studying other human beings and their societies.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The foot of the higher apes, though often spoken of as a hand, is anatomically not such, but a prehensile foot. It has been argued by Sir Richard Owen and others that the position of the great toe converts the foot of the higher apes into a hand, an extremely important distinction from man; but against this Professor T. H. Huxley maintained that it has the characteristic structure of a foot with a very movable great toe. .The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends much on their hairiness, but this and some other characteristics have no great zoological value.^ Please see below for some appropriate URLs that might be of value to you for this course, as well as others courses.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No doubt the difference between man and the apes depends, of all things, on the relative size and organization of the brain. .While similar as to their general arrangement to the human brain, those of the higher apes, such as the chimpanzee, are much less complex in their convolutions, as well as much less in both absolute and relative weight - the weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding 20 oz., and a man's brain hardly weighing less than 32 oz., although the gorilla is considerably the larger animal of the two.^ Attention will be on behavioral, material, affective, symbolic, and ideological aspects of human-animal relationships, as well as both the animalic nature of humanity and humanity’s inclination to anthropomorphize animality.

^ General processes of cultural change contribute to understanding how and why current cultural adaptations exist, leading to consideration of the ways humans have organized them selves in societies.

^ Sociology of Humans & Animals : Using 3 relevant sources, this 5 page essay discusses how similar apes and humans are from a socio-psychological perspective.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These anatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, and it is an interesting question whether they suffice to place man in a zoological order by himself. .It is plain that some eminent zoologists, regarding man as absolutely differing as to mind and spirit from any other animal, have had their discrimination of mere bodily differences unconsciously sharpened, and have been led to give differences, such as in the brain or even the foot of the apes and man, somewhat more importance than if they had merely distinguished two species of apes.^ 'The fact is Las Vegas will change more in the next two years than it ever has,' said Manny Cortez, the president of the visitors authority.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was more than any other gambling interest, according to Common Cause and the Center for Responsive Politics.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many naturalists hold the opinion that the anatomical differences which separate the gorilla or chimpanzee from man are in some respects less than those which separate these man-like apes from apes lower in the scale. Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes in the same order. .This is Huxley's argument, some prominent points of which are the following: As regards the proportion of limbs, the hylobates or gibbon is as much longer in the arms than the gorilla as the gorilla is than the man, while on the other hand, it is as much longer in the legs than the man as the man is than the gorilla.^ Indeed, this is the point made by some who follow Native American gaming very closely: .
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among other things, it is concluded that men are generally more expressive with their hands than their female counterparts !
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As to the vertebral column and pelvis, the lower apes differ from the gorilla as much as, or more than, it differs from man.^ I also add that for more than a decade I have been providing students (in various lower-and-upper-division courses) with Guidebooks that have "video notes" and "lecture outlines" for the appropriate courses that semester.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global communications, universal trends, and common aspirations are making us more alike than we are different.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As to the capacity of the cranium, men differ from one another so extremely that the largest known human skull holds nearly twice the measure of the smallest, a larger proportion than that in which man surpasses the gorilla; while, with proper allowance for difference of size of the various species, it appears that some of the lower apes fall nearly as much below the higher apes. The projection of the muzzle, which gives the character of brutality to the gorilla as distinguished from the man, is yet further exaggerated in the lemurs, as is also the backward position. of the occipital foramen. .In characters of such importance as the structure of the hand and foot, the lower apes diverge extremely from the gorilla; thus the thumb ceases to be opposable in the American monkeys, and in the marmosets is directed forwards, and armed with a curved claw like the other digits, the great toe in these latter being insignificant in proportion.^ It is no accident that a great novelist like Balzac [1799-1850], who could penetrate and portray with impartial accuracy the character of bankers, prostitutes, and artists, was a relativist of psychopathic proportions.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The same argument can be extended to other points of anatomical structure, and, what is of more consequence, it appears true of the brain.
A series of the apes, arranged from lower to higher orders, shows gradations from a brain little higher that that of a rat, to a brain like a small and imperfect imitation of a man's; and the greatest structural break in the series lies not between man and the manlike apes, but between the apes and monkeys on one side, and the lemurs on the other. .On these grounds Huxley, restoring in principle the Linnean classification, desired to include man in the order of Primates. This order he divided into seven families:.^ Classification, ecology, functional and comparative anatomy of living primates; evolution of the primate order.

first, the .Anthropini, consisting of man only; second, the Catarhini or Old World apes; third, the Platyrhini, all New World apes, except the marmosets; fourth, the Arctopithecini, or marmosets; fifth, the Lemurini, or lemurs; sixth and seventh, the Cheiromyini and Galeopithecini. It is in assigning to man his place in nature on psychological grounds that the greater difficulty arises.^ Case studies will be drawn from a range of New and Old World societies of varying scales of sociopolitical complexity.

^ [United Press], 1998f, "Out With Old, In With All-New Aladdin Hotel."
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ORIGINS OF URBANISM Emergence of urban societies in Old and New Worlds.

Huxley acknowledged an immeasurable and practically infinite divergence, ending in the present enormous psychological gulf between ape and man. It is difficult to account for this intellectual chasm as due to some minor structural difference. .The opinion is deeply rooted in modern as in ancient thought, that only a distinctively human element of the highest import can account for the severance between man and the highest animal below him.^ Requirements for Biological Anthropology Minor The biological anthropology minor provides students with a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts of human biology, evolution, and the relationships between humans as biological and cultural animals.

^ Seminar on cultural and political ecology, concentrating on the spectrum of relationships between humans and animals, both wild and domesticated, that exist across cultures and throughout history.

.Differences in the mechanical organs, such as the perfection of the human hand as an instrument, or the adaptability of the human voice to the expression of human thought, are indeed of great value.^ "Science is systematized positive knowledge, or what has been taken as such at different ages and in different places" and "The acquisition and systematization of positive knowledge are the only human activities which are truly cumulative and progressive."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But they have not of themselves such value, that to endow an ape with the hand and vocal organs of a man would be likely to raise it through any large part of the interval that now separates it from humanity.^ They thus availed themselves of the scientific cachet now enjoyed by Darwinism, and could assert or suggest that social evolution is 'the continuation of biological evolution by other means.'
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were inhabited by large populations, powerful kings, and the gods themselves.

^ His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much more is to be said for the view that man's larger and more highly organized brain accounts for those mental powers in which he so absolutely surpasses the brutes.^ Attention is a simple response to a stimulus--either to a loud bang or (much more powerful) to a feeling of interest.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The distinction does not seem to lie principally in the range and delicacy of direct sensation, as may be judged from such well-known facts as man's inferiority to the eagle in sight, or to the dog in scent. At the same time, it seems that the human. sensory organs may have in various respects acuteness beyond those of other creatures. .But, beyond a doubt, man possesses, and in some way possesses by virtue of his superior brain, a power of co-ordinating the impressions of his senses, which enables him to understand the world he lives in, and by understanding to use, resist, and even in a measure rule it.^ Ethnic identity and conflict are among the most powerful processes and relations shaping the world we live in today.

^ On Clarence Darrow (1857-1938): "He had a tremendous lust for life, yet he came about as close to living according to the Sermon on the Mount as could any man trying to earn his way in a competetive world.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer describes the concept of culture, the fact that experience is the only way to understand one another, and the use of nonverbal cues and situational frameworks help us to understand one another.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No human art shows the nature of this human attribute more clearly than does language.^ May be repeated for a total of no more than 8 credits.

^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the courses taken for the minor, no more than two may be at the 100 level.

.Man shares with the mammalia and birds the direct expression of the feelings by emotional tones and interjectional cries; the parrot's power of articulate utterance almost equals his own; and, by association of ideas in some measure, some of the lower animals have even learnt to recognize words he utters.^ I trust that you are not reading pages of "dull data" but pages of ideas (with some data) that will provide you with background information for your own ideas!
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But, to use words in themselves unmeaning, as symbols by which to conduct and convey the complex intellectual processes in which mental conceptions are suggested, compared, combined, and even analysed, and new ones created - this is a faculty which is scarcely to be traced in any lower animal.
.'The view that this, with other mental processes, is a function of the brain, is remarkably corroborated by modern investigation of the disease of aphasia, where the power of thinking remains, but the power is lost of recalling the word corresponding to the thought, and this mental defect is found to accompany a diseased state of a particular locality of the brain (see Aphasia).^ EXAM GROUP: 8, 9 Secularism, understood as the normative arrangement for modern societies, has remained immune from anthropological investigation.

^ LANGUAGE AND DEVELOPMENT Role of language in development, with particular attention to impact of language decisions on identity of the state and society and on patterns of access to power, wealth and prestige.

This may stand among the most perfect of the many evidences that, in Professor Bain's words, " the brain is the principal, though not the sole organ of mind." .As the brains of the vertebrate animals form an ascending scale, more and more approaching man's in their arrangement, the fact here finds its explanation, that lower animals perform mental processes corresponding in their nature to our own, though of generally less power and complexity.^ One aspect of Westernization the Japanese people feared was imperialistic power and, in fact, the Meiji government did find itself in the midst of what they feared.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biology & Behavior / Nature vs. Nurture : 9 pages on biologically determined behaviors and the nature vs. Writer finds that many of our more common behaviors do indeed find their roots in biology.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The full evidence of this correspondence will be found in such works as Brehm's Thierleben; and some of the salient points are set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter on " Mental Powers," in his Descent of Man. Such are the similar effects of terror on man and the lower animals, causing the muscles to tremble, the heart to palpitate, the sphincters to be relaxed, and the hair to stand on end.^ The AAA's statement stands in stark contrast with the American Psychological Association's ambivalent policies which provides psychologists working in military and intelligence settings with some cover should they wish to assist in extreme interrogations or torture.
  • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex , 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 3, page 101).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex , 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The phenomena of memory, as to both persons and places, is strong in animals, as is manifest by their recognition of their masters, and their returning at once to habits of which, though disused for many years, their brain has not lost the stored-up impressions. .Such facts as that dogs " hunt in dreams," make it likely that their minds are not only sensible to actual events, present and past, but can, like our minds, combine revived sensations into ideal scenes in which they are actors, - that is to say, they have the faculty of imagination.^ They present things just as they are but twist and disguise them to conform to the point of view from which they have seen them; and to grain credence for their opinion and make it attractive, they do not mind adding something of their own, or extending and amplifying."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "All across America, the landscape suffers from amnesia, not about everything, but about many crucial events and issues of our past.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.^ A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To do this, we must learn established ways of organizing and presenting data and information as well as develop new ones [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer describes the concept of culture, the fact that experience is the only way to understand one another, and the use of nonverbal cues and situational frameworks help us to understand one another.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The employment of mechanical instruments, of which instances of monkeys using sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary traces among the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted distinctive powers of man. .With this comes the whole vast and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where the uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to those of the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of improvement and new invention into ever higher stages.^ If we wish to build a new world, we will have to understand the way that worlds are made and how ideas can freeze into dogma."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

" From the moment," writes A. R. Wallace (Natural Selection), " when the first skin was used as a covering, when the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase, when fire was first used to cook his food, when the first seed was sown or shoot planted, a grand revolution was effected in nature, a revolution which in all the previous ages of the earth's history had had no parallel; for a being had arisen who was no longer necessarily subject to change with the changing universe, - a being who was in some degree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control and regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony with her, not by a change in body, but by an advance of mind." As to the lower instincts tending directly to self-preservation, it is acknowledged on all hands that man has them in a less developed state than other animals; in fact, the natural defencelessness of the human being, and the long-continued care and teaching of the young by the elders, are among the commonest themes of moral discourse. Parental tenderness and care for the young are strongly marked among the lower animals, though so inferior in scope and duration to the human qualities; and the same may be said of the mutual forbearance and defence which bind together in a rudimentary social bond the families and herds of animals. .Philosophy seeking knowledge for its own sake; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with superhuman powers ruling and pervading the universe, are human characters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but which can there show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous development in mankind.^ Power, Belief, and Practice: Topics in the Anthropology of Religion Catalog Number: 1620 Smita Lahiri Half course (spring term).

^ "There is, nevertheless, a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That the tracing of physical and even intellectual continuity between the lower animals and our own race, does not necessarily lead the anthropologist to lower the rank of man in the scale of nature, may be shown by citing A. R. Wallace.^ Note: May be taken by graduate students for academic credit, but since it is tuition-free, does not count for residence credit leading to reduced tuition.

.Man, he considers, is to be placed " apart, as not only the head and culminating point of the grand series of organic nature, but as in some degree a new and distinct order of being."^ In order to acquire and remember new knowledge, it must stimulate your curiosity in some way."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To place the dollar amounts from the American state of Connecticut into some perspective, please consider the following: .
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To regard the intellectual functions of the brain and nervous system as alone to be considered in the psychological comparison of man with the lower animals, is a view satisfactory to those thinkers who hold materialistic views. .According to this school, man is a machine, no doubt the most complex and wonderfully adapted of all known machines, but still neither more nor less than an instrument whose energy is provided by force from without, and which, when set in action, performs the various operations for which its structure fits it, namely, to live, move, feel, and think.^ The field of Morals [NOTE: ANTHROPOLOGY] is at once more special, more complex, and more noble than that of Sociology strictly so called, the exact rank of which has been determined....Morals is the most eminent of the sciences, both because of the superior dignity of its object, Man, from which we get our type of true nobleness, and because, as I am about to explain, of its theoretic plentitudes [ALL STRESS ADDED].
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the courses taken for the minor, no more than two may be at the 100 level.

^ It provides background in each of the four subfields of anthropology, yet requires more training in quantitative methods and laboratory settings.

.This view, however, always has been strongly opposed by those who accept on theological grounds a spiritualistic doctrine, or what is, perhaps, more usual, a theory which combines spiritualism and materialism in the doctrine of a composite nature in man, animal as to the body and in some measure as to the mind, spiritual as to the soul.^ Attention will be on behavioral, material, affective, symbolic, and ideological aspects of human-animal relationships, as well as both the animalic nature of humanity and humanity’s inclination to anthropomorphize animality.

^ Of course there are always some strong-minded individuals who have the courage of their convicions, who stand out against the group's accepted norms of behavior.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of those who correctly identified England as our adversary in the Revolutionary War did so only after some thought.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be useful, as an illustration of one opinion on this subject, to continue here the citation of Dr Prichard's comparison between man and the lower animals: " If it be inquired in what the still more remarkable difference consists, it is by no means easy to reply.^ Food Fusion / Comparison Of Common Cuisine Across Two Cultures : Vietnamese and Turkish cuisine is discussed in the context of food fusion, a term used to describe the trend of combining foods from more than one culture.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upper-or lower-division anthropology courses may be used.

By some it will be said that man, while similar in the organization of his body to the lower tribes, is distinguished from them by the possession of an immaterial soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and thought. To many persons it will appear paradoxical to ascribe the endowment of a soul to the inferior tribes in the creation, yet it is difficult to discover a valid argument that limits the possession of an immaterial principle to man. .The phenomena of feeling, of desire and aversion, of love and hatred, of fear and revenge, and the perception of external relations manifested in the life of brutes, imply, not only through the analogy which they display to the human faculties, but likewise from all that we can learn or conjecture of their particular nature, the superadded existence of a principle distinct from the mere mechanism of material bodies.^ Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is, nevertheless, a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally , "human nature" (as well as "culture") plays a part in all that we do and I end this presentation with the words of Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) : "We must believe in luck.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That such a principle must exist in all beings capable of sensation, or of anything analogous to human passions and feelings, will hardly be denied by those who perceive the force of arguments which metaphysically demonstrate the immaterial nature of the mind.^ This paper demonstrates the way in which the independent perspectives of these three authors, though all based in ancient philosophy, create different concepts of the origin of human nature.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally , "human nature" (as well as "culture") plays a part in all that we do and I end this presentation with the words of Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) : "We must believe in luck.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer shows how each reveals something dark about human nature rather then the innocence which modern man would like to fantasize exists in such societies.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There may be no rational grounds for the ancient dogma that the souls of the lower animals were imperishable, like the soul of man: this is, however, a problem which we are not called upon to discuss; and we may venture to conjecture that there may be immaterial essences of divers kinds, and endowed with various attributes and capabilities.^ There is no scientific theory today, not even a law, that may not be modified or discarded tomorrow [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer discusses why this is no longer true; that while America may still house the greatest variety of peoples, it is no longer an educational or cultural melting pot.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the real nature of these unseen principles eludes our research: they are only known to us by their external manifestations. These manifestations are the various powers and capabilities, or rather the habitudes of action, which characterize the different orders of being, diversified according to their several destinations." Dr Prichard here puts forward distinctly the time-honoured doctrine which refers the mental faculties to the operation of the soul. The view maintained by a distinguished comparative anatomist, Professor St George Mivart, in his Genesis of Species, ch. xii., may fairly follow. " Man, according to the old scholastic definition, is ` a rational animal ' (animal rationale), and his animality is distinct in nature from his rationality, though inseparably joined, during life, in one common personality. Man's animal body must have had a different source from that of the spiritual soul which informs it, owing to the distinctness of the two orders to which those two existences severally belong." .The two extracts just given, however, significant in themselves, fail to render an account of the view of the human constitution which would probably, among the theological and scholastic leaders of public opinion, count the largest weight of adherence.^ Cultural ecology as an approach to understanding; contrasting world views held by different societies; depictions of the environment and of the people in it; human impacts on the environment; and environmentalism and public policy.

^ There are far more similarities between the two cultures than one would expect given their respective political backgrounds.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this view, not only life but thought are functions of the animal system, in which man excels all other animals as to height of organization: but beyond this, man embodies an immaterial and immortal spiritual principle which no lower creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes to him but a mocking simulance.^ His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To pronounce any absolute decision on these conflicting doctrines is foreign to our present purpose, which is to show that all of them count among their adherents men of high rank in science.
II. Origin of Man. - Opinion as to the genesis of man is divided between the theories of creation and evolution. .In both schools, the ancient doctrine of the contemporaneous appearance on earth of all species of animals having been abandoned under the positive evidence of geology, it is admitted that the animal kingdom, past and present, includes a vast series of successive forms, whose appearances and disappearances have taken place at intervals during an immense lapse of ages.^ The curriculum promotes understanding the variety both of past and of present human groups, the processes that underlie human biological and cultural development and change, and how human society and culture are maintained.

^ Evolution, the development of one form from an antecedent form or series of forms, acquired obvious relevance for an understanding of the past and present condition of animal and plant species [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Science is systematized positive knowledge, or what has been taken as such at different ages and in different places" and "The acquisition and systematization of positive knowledge are the only human activities which are truly cumulative and progressive."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The line of inquiry has thus been directed to ascertaining what formative relation subsists among these species and genera, the last link of the argument reaching to the relation between man and the lower creatures preceding him in time. On both the theories here concerned it would be admitted, in the words of Agassiz (Principles of Zoology, pp. 205-206), that " there is a manifest progress in the succession of beings on the surface of the earth. This progress consists in an increasing similarity of the living fauna, and, among the vertebrates especially, in their increasing resemblance to man." Agassiz continues, however, in terms characteristic of the creationist school: " But this connexion is not the consequence of a direct lineage between the faunas of different ages. There is nothing like parental descent connecting them. The fishes of the Palaeozoic age are in no respect the ancestors of the reptiles of the Secondary age, nor does man descend from the mammals which preceded him in the Tertiary age. .The link by which they are connected is of a higher and immaterial nature; and their connexion is to be sought in the view of the Creator himself, whose aim in forming the earth, in allowing it to undergo the successive changes which geology has pointed out, and in creating successively all the different types of animals which have passed away, was to introduce man upon the surface of our globe.^ We sent reporters all over the world, but rarely were they out of reach of a telephone.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper demonstrates the way in which the independent perspectives of these three authors, though all based in ancient philosophy, create different concepts of the origin of human nature.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet and the World Wide Web and Cyberspace are changing the very environment " we " all interact in and the "web" points to new resources for all of us (if we make the time to "dig" them out).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Man is the end towards which all the animal creation has tended from the first appearance of the first Palaeozoic fishes." .The evolutionist, on the contrary (see Evolution), maintains that different successive species of animals are in fact connected by parental descent, having become modified in the course of successive generations.^ Requirements for General Anthropology Minor This minor in general anthropology gives the student a broad background in the field of anthropology, and encourages selection of courses from all the subdisciplines of anthropology, without specializing in any one.

^ Evolution, the development of one form from an antecedent form or series of forms, acquired obvious relevance for an understanding of the past and present condition of animal and plant species [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result of Charles Darwin's application of this theory to man may be given in his own words (Descent of Man, part i.^ "Whatever the controversies that surround him, Charles Darwin was certainly the most important natural scientist of the past century; he may become the most important social scientist of the next.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex , 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex , 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 3, page 101).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ch. 6): " The Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys agree in a multitude of characters, as is shown by their unquestionably belonging to one and the same order. The many characters which they possess in common can hardly have been independently acquired by so many distinct species; so that these characters must have been inherited. .But an ancient form which possessed many characters common to the Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys, and others in an intermediate condition, and some few perhaps distinct from those now present in either group, would undoubtedly have been ranked, if seen by a naturalist, as an ape or a monkey.^ Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of these resolutions must now be presented to the full membership of the American Anthropological Association in a mail ballot in the next few months.
  • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And as man under a genealogical point of view belongs to the Catarhine or Old World stock, we must conclude, however much the conclusion may revolt our pride, that our early progenitors would have been properly thus designated.^ An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But we must not fall into the error of supposing that the early progenitor of the whole Simian stock, including man, was identical with, or even closely resembled, any existing ape or monkey."^ "This great world, which some still reckon to be but one example of a whole genus, is the mirror into which we must look if we are to behold ourselves from the proper standpoint."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The problem of the origin of man cannot be properly discussed apart from the full problem of the origin of species. .The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.^ What these extreme feminist authors have failed to consider, however, is that patriarchy as a cultural norm seems perfectly natural in the cultures in which it is practiced, and that it is only those of other parts of the world who have any complaints.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requirements for Biological Anthropology Minor The biological anthropology minor provides students with a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts of human biology, evolution, and the relationships between humans as biological and cultural animals.

.The philosophical principles which underlie the two theories stand for the most part in strong contrast, the theory of evolution tending toward the supposition of ordinary causes, such as "natural selection," producing modifications in species, whether by gradual accumula tion or more sudden leaps, while the theory of creation has recourse to acts of supernatural intervention (see the duke of Argyll, Reign of Law, ch.^ Anthropology courses that apply toward this track also emphasize natural science methodolo gies and theories.

^ Evaluations of such topics as Marxism, feminist theory, and evolution in archaeological research.

^ The junior tutorial provides a background in archaeological method and theory through critical analysis of selected issues and debates particularly focusing on more complex societies.

v.). .St George Mivart (Genesis of Species) propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as to his body, combined with a supernatural creation as to his soul; but this attempt to meet the difficulties on both sides seems to have satisfied neither.^ Both Lin and González were quite pleased by the direction the meeting had taken and they seemed to have a good perspective of what the passage of these measures had and hadn't accomplished.
  • David H. Price: American Anthropologists Stand Up Against Torture 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wide acceptance of the Darwinian theory, as applied to, the descent of man, has naturally roused anticipation that geological research, which provides evidence of the animal life of incalculably greater antiquity, would furnish fossil remains of some comparatively recent being intermediate between the anthropomorphic and the anthropic types.^ Anthropology courses that apply toward this track also emphasize natural science methodolo gies and theories.

^ Requirements for Biological Anthropology Minor The biological anthropology minor provides students with a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts of human biology, evolution, and the relationships between humans as biological and cultural animals.

.This expectation has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion of a variety of the human race, geologically ancient, differing from any known in historic times, and with characters approaching the simian, has been supported by further discoveries.^ To test Machiavell's discomforting perspective on human existence we examine a variety of theories and a wide range of cases, across time and around the world.

^ SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Structural, ecological, historical approaches to account for variability in human social organization.

^ HUMAN VIOLENCE Considers the many forms taken by violence; different historical periods, different cultures.

.To bring this to the reader's notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed together in the human development series in the Oxford University Museum, are represented in the plate, for the purpose of showing the great size of the orbital ridges, which the reader may contrast with his own by a touch with his fingers on his forehead.^ This three-pronged environmentalism was the accepted wisdom that was taught in all universities and that informed serious writing on human behavior--social problems, psychological problems, mental illness--or normal child development.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dyson-Hudson, Neville, Professor , DPhil, 1960, Oxford University: Social anthropology, human ecology, nomads; Africa, Middle East.

^ THE READER MAY WELL ASK: why place this syllabus on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz go through all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not an interactive course?
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first (fig.3) is the famous Neanderthal skull from near Dusseldorf, described by Schaafhausen in Miller's Archiv, 1858; Huxley in Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. 86, and in Man's Place in Nature. The second (fig. 4) is the skull from the cavern of Spy in Belgium (de Puydt and Lohest, Compte rendu du Congres de Namur, 1886). The foreheads of these two skulls have an ape-like form, obvious on comparison with the simian skulls of the gorilla and other apes, and visible even in the smallscale figures in the Plate, fig. .2. Among modern tribes of mankind the forehead of the Australian aborigines makes the nearest approach to this type, as was pointed out by Huxley.^ The Internet and the World Wide Web and Cyberspace are changing the very environment " we " all interact in and the "web" points to new resources for all of us (if we make the time to "dig" them out).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As The Wall Street Journal on July 20, 1998 pointed out: "It Isn't Entertainment That Makes The Web Shine: It's Dull Data" (Page 1 and page A8).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This brief description will serve to show the importance of a later discovery. At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if anywhere, a. being intermediate between the higher apes and man would seem likely to' be found, Dr Eugene Dubois in 1891-1892 excavated from a bed, considered by him to be of Sivalik formation (Pliocene), a thighbone which competent anatomists decide to be human, and a remarkably depressed calvaria or skull-cap (fig. 5), bearing a certain resemblance in its proportions to the corresponding part of the simian skull. These remains were,referred by their discoverer to an animal intermediate between man and ape, to which he gave the name of Pithecanthropus erectus, but the interesting discussions on the subject have shown divergence of opinion among anatomists. .At any rate, classing the Trinil skull as human, it may be described as tending towards the simian type more than any other known.^ The human past extends back more than 2.5 million years, farming is at least 10,000 years old, and the Maya are known to have been an aggressive, blood-thirsty people.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May be taken more than once if topic varies.

^ That was more than any other gambling interest, according to Common Cause and the Center for Responsive Politics.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

III. Races of Mankind. - The classification of mankind into a number of permanent varieties or races, rests on grounds which are within limits not only obvious but definite. .Whether from a popular or a scientific point of view, it would be admitted that a Negro, a Chinese, and an Australian belong to three such permanent varieties of men, all plainly distinguishable from one another and from any European.^ AND PLEASE PONDER THIS: "If by some fiat I had to restrict all this writing to one sentence, this is the one I would choose: The summit of Mt.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three native cultures and their traditional rituals are compared (Okiek, Okrika, Tukuna) with one another and then with those of today’s modern teenager in America.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Taino Indians -- One Of The First Cultures Destroyed By Europeans : An 8 page research paper on The Taino Indians -- a tribe that belonged to the Arawak culture of South America's tropical region.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, such a division takes for granted the idea which is involved in the word race, that each of these varieties is due to special ancestry, each race thus representing an ancient breed or stock, however these breeds.^ The word Latino involves many different cultures such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, Central/South American, and others.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

or stocks may have had their origin. The anthropological classification of mankind is thus zoological in its nature, like that of the varieties or species of any other animal group, and the characters on which it is based are in great measure physical, though intellectual and traditional peculiarities, such as moral habit and language, furnish important aid. Among the bestmarked race-characters are the colour of the skin, eyes and hair;. and the structure and arrangement of the latter. .Stature is by no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for instance, be difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and North American Indians, whose mean height should hardly differ.^ The paper provides an historical perspective on how diversity within the Indian community was created and what that means to the Indo-American community.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet in many cases it is a valuable means of distinction, as between the tall Patagonians and the stunted Fuegians, and even as a help in minuter problems, such as separating the Teutonic and Celtic ancestry in the population of England (see Beddoe, " Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles," in Mem.^ This applies not only to provinces as vast as biology and to large fields such as evolutionary theory, but even to small and familiar corners such as the species problem.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anthrop. Soc. London, vol. iii.). Proportions of the limbs, compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as constituting peculiarities of African and American races; and other anatomical points, such as the conformation of the pelvis, have speciality. But inferences of this class have hardly attained to sufficient certainty and generality to be set down in the form of rules. .The conformation of the skull is second only to the colour of the skin as a criterion for the distinction of race; and the position of the jaws is recognized as important, races being described as prognathous when the jaws project far, as in the Australian or Negro, in contradistinction to the orthognathous type, which is that of the ordinary well-shaped European skull.^ The Xhosa People / Culture & Clash With Europeans : The Xhosa speaking nation in South Africa is second only to the Zulus in numbers.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On this distinction in great measure depends the celebrated " facial angle," measured by Camper as a test of low and high races; but this angle is objectionable as resulting partly from the development of the forehead and partly from the position of the jaws. The capacity of the cranium is estimated in cubic measure by filling it with sand, &c., with the general result that the civilized white man is found to have a larger brain than the barbarian or savage. Classification of races on cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements. Thus the skulls of an Australian and a Negro would be generally distinguished by their narrowness and the projection of the jaw from that of any Englishman; but the Australian skull would usually differ perceptibly from the Negroid in its upright sides and strong orbital ridges. .The relation of height to breadth may also furnish a valuable test; but it is acknowledged by all experienced craniologists, that the shape of the skull may vary so much within the same tribe, and even the same family, that it must be used with extreme caution, and if possible only in conjunction with other criteria of race.^ However, that level of success is not universal and it may not even apply to most tribes.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The general contour of the face, in part dependent on the form of the skull, varies much in different races, among whom it is loosely defined as oval, lozenge-shaped, pentagonal, &c. Of particular features, some of the most marked contrasts to European types are seen in the oblique Chinese eyes, the broad-set Kamchadale cheeks, the pointed Arab chin, the snub Kirghiz nose, the fleshy protuberant Negro lips, and the broad Kalmuck ear. Taken altogether, the features have a typical character which popular observation seizes with some degree of correctness, as in the recognition of the Jewish countenance in a European city.
Were the race-characters constant in degree or even in kind, the classification of races would be easy; but this is not so. Every division of mankind presents in every character wide deviations from a standard. .Thus the Negro race, well marked as it may seem at the first glance, proves on closer examination to include several shades of complexion and features, in some districts varying far from the accepted Negro type; while the examination of a series of native American tribes shows that, notwithstanding their asserted uniformity of type, they differ in stature, colour, features and proportions of skull.^ Includes details regarding the ritualistic use of the pipe and of the care that goes into making it as well as the logistics of the repatriation movement and the obstacles Native Americans typically face in regaining one of their most cherished possessions.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, this is the point made by some who follow Native American gaming very closely: .
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They thus availed themselves of the scientific cachet now enjoyed by Darwinism, and could assert or suggest that social evolution is 'the continuation of biological evolution by other means.'
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Prichard, Nat. Hist. of Man; Waitz, Anthropology, part i. sec. .5.) Detailed anthropological research, indeed, more and more justifies Blumenbach's words, that " innumerable varieties of mankind run into one another by insensible degrees."^ Jefferson's words summarize my own anthropological research: go, see, learn, judge, have convictions, and have trust.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This state of things, due partly to mixture and crossing of races, and partly to independent variation of types, makes the attempt to arrange the whole human species within exactly bounded divisions an apparently hopeless task. .It does not follow, however, that the attempt to distinguish special races should be given up, for there at least exist several definable types, each of which so far prevails in a certain population as to be taken as its standard.^ It is clear, however , there are checks and balances as the following Nevada legal decision pointed out: .
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.L. A. J. Quetelet's plan of defining such types will probably meet with general acceptance as the scientific method proper to this branch of anthropology.^ As a branch of cultural anthropology, ethnography is devoted to the scientific description of one particular culture or group of people [ stress added]."
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It consists in the determination of the standard or typical " mean man " (homme moyen) of a population, with reference to any particular quality, such as stature, weight, complexion, &c. .In the case of stature, this would be done by measuring a sufficient number of men, and counting how many of them belong to each height on the scale.^ Repatriation of the Native American Sacred Pipe : A 10 page overview of the Sacred Pipe, how it came to be, how in many cases it has been taken from the people.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If it be thus ascertained, as it might be in an English district, that the 5 ft. 7 in. men form the most numerous group, while the 5 ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. 8 in. men are less in number, and the 5 ft. 5 in. and 5 ft. 9 in. still fewer, and so on until the extremely small number of extremely short or tall individuals of 5 ft. or 7 ft. is reached, it will thus be ascertained that the stature of the mean or typical man is to be taken as 5 ft. 7 in. The method is thus that of selecting as the standard the most numerous group, on both sides of which the groups decrease in number as they vary in type. .Such classification may show the existence of two or more types, in a community, as, for instance, the population of a Californian settlement made up of Whites and Chinese might show two predominant groups (one of 5 ft.^ There are far more similarities between the two cultures than one would expect given their respective political backgrounds.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

8 in., the other of 5 ft. 4 in.) corresponding to these two racial types. .It need hardly be said that this method of determining the mean type of a race, as being that of its really existing and most numerous class, is altogether superior to the mere calculation of an average, which may actually be represented by comparatively few individuals, and those the exceptional ones.^ Three native cultures and their traditional rituals are compared (Okiek, Okrika, Tukuna) with one another and then with those of today’s modern teenager in America.
  • Term Papers and more term papers on Anthropology 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For instance, the average stature of the mixed European and Chinese population just referred to might be 5 ft. 6 in. - a worthless and indeed misleading result. (For particulars of Quetelet's method, see his Physique sociale (1869), and Anthropometrie (1871).) Classifications of man have been numerous, and though, regarded as systems, most of them are unsatisfactory, yet they have been of great value in systematizing knowledge, and are all more or less based on indisputable distinctions. J. F. Blumenbach's division, though published as long ago as 1781, has had the greatest influence. He reckons five races, viz. Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay. .The ill-chosen name of Caucasian, invented by Blumenbach in allusion to a South Caucasian skull of specially typical proportions, and applied by him to the so-called white races, is still current; it brings into one race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these are scarcely less different than the Americans and Malays, who are set down as two distinct races.^ At the same time, we will seek some fair-minded insights into the collective lives of people who work, play, fight, speak, eat and pray in ways different from our own.

^ "Boas' name, work, philosophy, and personality dominated American anthropology during the first two decades of the 20th century, only to be replaced in the next three decades by the dozens of his students who became illustrious scholars in the field.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This great world, which some still reckon to be but one example of a whole genus, is the mirror into which we must look if we are to behold ourselves from the proper standpoint."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Again, two of the bestmarked varieties of mankind are the Australians and the Bushmen, neither of whom, however, seems to have a natural place in Blumenbach's series. The yet simpler classification by Cuvier into Caucasian, Mongol and Negro corresponds in some measure with a division by mere complexion into white, yellow and black races; but neither this threefold division, nor the ancient classification into Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic nations can be regarded as separating the human types either justly or sufficiently (see Prichard, Natural History of Man, sec. z5; Waitz, Anthropology, vol. i. part i. sec. 5). .Schemes which set up a larger number of distinct races, such as the eleven of Pickering, the fifteen of Bory de St Vincent and the sixteen of Desmoulins, have the advantage of finding niches for most well-defined human varieties; but no modern naturalist would be likely to adopt any one of these as it stands.^ I would like to take this opportunity to thank my wife Sadie, who has always been most supportive of all of my research.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurdles and issues like these were problematic in the Malinowskian era as well; we just weren't aware of it.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In criticism of Pickering's system, it is sufficient to point out that he divides the white nations into two races, entitled the Arab and the Abyssinian (Pickering, Races of Man, ch.^ Hayward, Richard A., n.d., Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation (Connecticut: PO Box 3060, Two Man's Path, Mashantucket, CT 06339).
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

i.). Agassiz, Nott, Crawfurd and others who have assumed a much larger number of races o species of man, are not considered to have satisfactorily defined a corresponding number of distinguishable types. .On the whole, Huxley's division probably approaches more nearly than any other to such a tentative classification as may be accepted in definition of the principal varieties of mankind, regarded from a zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be disposed to erect into separate races several of his widely-differing sub-races.^ But it is probably the case that inappropriate or morally wrong behaviors are more often changed by the influence of outsiders, looking with different eyes, from different backgrounds [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He distinguishes four principal types of mankind, the Australioid, Negroid, Mongoloid and Xanthochroic (" fair whites "), adding a fifth variety, the Melanochroic (" dark whites ").
In determining whether the races of mankind are to be classed as varieties of one species, it is important to decide whether every two races can unite to produce fertile offspring. .It is settled by experience that the most numerous and well-known crossed races, such as the Mulattos, descended from Europeans and Negroes - the Mestizos, from Europeans and American indigenes - the Zambos, from these American indigenes and Negroes, &c., are permanently fertile.^ Both affinities and differences between art-making and anthropology will be considered, as well as alternative means of apprehending and expressing aesthetic and social experience cross-culturally.

.They practically constitute sub-races, with a general blending of the characters of the two parents, and only differing from fully-established races in more or less tendency to revert to one or other of the original types.^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Scientific explanation consists not in moving from the complex to the simple but in the replacement of a less intelligible complexity by one which is more so."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has been argued, on the other hand, that not all such mixed breeds are permanent, and especially that the cross between Europeans and Australian indigenes is almost sterile; but this assertion, when examined with the care demanded by its bearing on the general question of hybridity, has distinctly broken down. On the whole, the general evidence favours the opinion that any two races may combine to produce a new sub-race, which again may combine with any other variety. Thus, if the existence of a small number of distinct races of mankind be taken as a starting-point, it is obvious that their crossing would produce an indefinite number of secondary varieties, such as the population of the world actually presents. .The working out in detail of the problem, how far the differences among complex nations, such as those of Europe, may have been brought about by hybridity, is still, however, a task of almost hopeless intricacy.^ How do ways of speaking, such as border talk and code switching, link face to face communities to the national and transnational spheres?

^ How we humans came to be the way we are is far less important than how we should act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among the boldest attempts to account for distinctly-marked populations as resulting from the intermixture of two races, are Huxley's view that the Hottentots are hybrid between the Bushmen and the Negroes, and his more important suggestion, that the Melanochroic peoples of southern Europe are of mixed Xanthochroic and Australioid stock.
.The problem of ascertaining how the small number of races, distinct enough to be called primary, can have assumed their different types, has been for years the most disputed field of anthropology, the battle-ground of the rival schools of monogenists and polygenists.^ This applies not only to provinces as vast as biology and to large fields such as evolutionary theory, but even to small and familiar corners such as the species problem.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The one has claimed all mankind to be descended from one original stock, and generally from a single pair; the other has contended for the several primary races being separate species of independent origin. The great problem of the monogenist theory is to explain by what course of variation the so different races of man have arisen from a single stock. In ancient times little difficulty was felt in this, authorities such as Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance the natural cause of racial differences, the Ethiopian having been blackened by the tropical sun, &c. Later and closer observations, however, have shown such influences to be, at any rate, far slighter in amount and slower in operation than was once supposed. A. de Quatrefages brings forward (Unite de l'espece humaine) his strongest arguments for the variability of races under change of climate, &c. (action du milieu), instancing the asserted alteration in complexion, constitution and character of Negroes in America, and Englishmen in America and Australia. But although the reality of some such modification is not disputed, especially as to stature and constitution, its amount is not enough to upset the counter-proposition of the remarkable permanence of type displayed by races ages after they have been transported to climates extremely different from that of their former home. .Moreover, physically different peoples, such as the Bushmen and Negroes in Africa, show no signs of approximation under the influence of the same climate; while, on the other hand, the coast tribes of Tierra del Fuego and forest tribes of tropical Brazil continue to resemble one another, in spite of extreme differences of climate and food.^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Darwin is moderate in his estimation of the changes produced on races of man by climate and mode of life within the range of history (Descent of Man, part i.^ There is also a track in biological anthropology that is supervised, along with the concentration in Human Evolutionary Biology, within the newly formed Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, as part of the Life Sciences cluster of concentrations.

ch. 4 and 7). .The slightness and slowness of variation in human races having become known, a great difficulty of the monogenist theory was seen to lie in the apparent shortness of the Biblical chronology.^ His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inasmuch as several well-marked races of mankind, such as the Egyptian, Phoenician, Ethiopian, &c., were much the same three or four thousand years ago as now, their variation from a single stock in the course of any like period could hardly be accounted for without a miracle.^ The Chico Enterprise-Record , July 13, page 3A) "A few years ago, American Indian tribes could only dream of having the political clout that the Mississippi Band of Choctaw now enjoys.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Four hundred years ago, my ancestors fished, farmed and hunted on traditional Pequot lands.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This difficulty the polygenist theory escaped, and in consequence it gained ground. Modern views have however tended to restore, though under a new aspect, the doctrine of a single human stock. .The fact that man has existed during a vast period of time makes it more easy to assume the continuance of very slow natural variation as having differentiated even the white man and the Negro among the descendants of a common progenitor.^ The Internet and the World Wide Web and Cyberspace are changing the very environment " we " all interact in and the "web" points to new resources for all of us (if we make the time to "dig" them out).
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "With the casino making more than $[US]1 million a day even during slow periods, the Mashantucket Pequots are using their economic muscle to reach well beyond their 1,238-acre [12.38 hectare] reservation in southeastern Connecticut to create a major tourist center.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global communications, universal trends, and common aspirations are making us more alike than we are different.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand it does not follow necessarily from a theory of evolution of species that mankind must have descended from a single stock, for the hypothesis of development admits of the argument, that several simian species may have culminated in several races of man.^ Evolution, the development of one form from an antecedent form or series of forms, acquired obvious relevance for an understanding of the past and present condition of animal and plant species [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following an intensive introduction to the grammar and vocabulary of the Classic Mayan script, we chart its historical development and genetic relationships with other Mayan languages.

The general tendency of the development theory, however, is against constituting separate species where the differences are moderate enough to be 'accounted for as due to variation from a single type. .Darwin's summing-up of the evidence as to unity of type throughout the races of mankind is as distinctly a monogenist argument as those of Blumenbach, Prichard or Quatrefages " Although the existing races of man differ in many respects, as in colour, hair, shape of skull, proportions of the body, &c., yet, if their whole organization be taken into consideration, they are found to resemble each other closely in a multitude of points.^ Old (and closed and/or depressing areas) can only attract "players" so many times and gradually (or perhaps not so gradually), Las Vegas turns into a true vacation destination for the California resident (and for residents of other states as well).
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They thus availed themselves of the scientific cachet now enjoyed by Darwinism, and could assert or suggest that social evolution is 'the continuation of biological evolution by other means.'
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of these points are of so unimportant, or of so singular a nature, that it is extremely improbable that they should have been independently acquired by aboriginally distinct species or races. The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.. .. .Now, when naturalists observe a close agreement in numerous small details of habits, tastes and dispositions between two or more domestic races, or between nearly allied natural forms, they use this fact as an argument that all are descended from a common progenitor who was thus endowed; and, consequently, that all should be classed under the same species.^ 'The fact is Las Vegas will change more in the next two years than it ever has,' said Manny Cortez, the president of the visitors authority.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Limited to graduate students, who must also attend all VES 157a classes.

^ Note: Limited to graduate students, who must also attend all VES 158 classes.

The same argument may be applied with much force to the races of man." - (Darwin, Descent of Man, part i. ch. .7.) The main difficulty of the monogenist school has ever been to explain how races which have remained comparatively fixed in type during the long period of history, such as the white man and the Negro, should, in even a far longer period, have passed by variation from a common original.^ How we humans came to be the way we are is far less important than how we should act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To meet this A. R. Wallace suggests that the remotely ancient representatives of the human species, being as yet animals too low in mind to have developed those arts of maintenance and social ordinances by which man holds his own against influences from climate and circumstance, were in their then wild state much more plastic than now to external nature; so that " natural selection " and other causes met with but feeble resistance in forming the permanent varieties or races of man, whose complexion and structure still remained fixed in their descendants (see Wallace, Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, p.^ The theoretical and empirical bases of cultural and social anthropology have been under attack since the Marxist and New Left critiques of the 1960s to those coming more recently from poststructuralism, postmodernism and literate theory, and postcolonial and cultural studies.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern New England provides the archaeologist and environmental scientist with a natural experiment in land clearing that was caused by the agricultural practices of humans and the subsequent reforestation of the ecosystem.

319). On the whole, it may be asserted that the doctrine of the unity of mankind stands on a firmer basis than in previous ages. It would be premature to judge how far the problem of the origin of races may be capable of exact solution; but the experience gained since 1871 countenances Darwin's prophecy that before long the dispute between the monogenists and the polygenists would die a silent and unobserved death.
IV. Antiquity of Man. - Until the 10th century man's first appearance on earth was treated on a historical basis as matter of record. It is true that the schemes drawn up by chronologists differed widely, as was natural, considering the variety and inconsistency of their documentary data. On the whole, the scheme of Archbishop Usher, who computed that the earth and man were created in 4004 B.C., was the most popular (see Chronology). It is no longer necessary, however, to discuss these chronologies. .Geology has made it manifest that our earth must have been the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period of time; while the first appearance of man, though comparatively recent, is positively so remote, that an estimate between twenty and a hundred thousand years may fairly be taken as a minimum.^ "There are two times in a man's life when he should not speculate: when he can't afford it and when he can."
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years later, the Bureau of American Ethnology hired her, making her one of the first women in the United States to receive a full-time position in science [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXAM GROUP: 12, 13 Archaeology and culture history of Native North America, from the first appearance of humans over 12,000 years ago to the arrival of Europeans.

.This geological claim for a vast antiquity of the human race is supported by the similar claims of prehistoric archaeology and the science of culture, the evidence of all three departments of inquiry being intimately connected, and in perfect harmony.^ Finally , "human nature" (as well as "culture") plays a part in all that we do and I end this presentation with the words of Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) : "We must believe in luck.
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On dozens of field trips to study the ways of primitive [ sic ] societies, she found evidence to support her strong belief that cultural conditioning, not genetics, molded human behavior.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Human bones and objects of human manufacture have been found in such geological relation to the remains of fossil species of elephant, rhinoceros, hyena, bear, &c., as to lead to the distinct inference that man already existed at a remote period in localities where these mammalia are now and have long been extinct. .The not quite conclusive researches of Tournal and Christol in limestone caverns of the south of France date back to 1828. About the same time P. C. Schmerling of Liege was exploring the ossiferous caverns of the valley of the Meuse, and satisfied himself that the men whose bones he found beneath the stalagmite floors, together with bones cut and flints shaped by human workmanship, had inhabited this Belgian district at the same time with the cave-bear and several other extinct animals whose bones were imbedded with them (Recherches sur les ossements fossiles decouverts dans les cavernes de la province de Liege (Liege, 1833-1834)).^ His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This evidence, however, met with little acceptance among scientific men. .Nor, at first, was more credit given to the discovery by M. Boucher de Perthes, about 1841, of rude flint hatchets in a sand-bed containing remains of mammoth and rhinoceros at Menchecourt near Abbeville, which first find was followed by others in the same district (see Boucher de Perthes, De l'Industrie primitive, ou les arts a leur origine (1846); Antiquites celtiques et antediluviennes (Paris, 1847), &c.^ (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist); or , in another translation: "I only quote others to make myself more explicit."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She knows that Las Vegas "is always growing and changing" so why go to Reno (or "the Lake") and see more of the same closed establishments?
  • 14th ICAES 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). Between 1850 and 1860 French and English geologists were induced to examine into the facts, and found irresistible the evidence that man existed and used rude implements of chipped flint during the Quaternary or Drift period. Further investigations were then made, and overlooked results of older ones reviewed. In describing Kent's Cavern near Torquay, R. A. C. Godwin-Austen had maintained, as early as 1840 (Proc. Geo. Soc. London, vol. iii. p. 286), that the human bones and worked flints had been deposited indiscriminately together with the remains of fossil elephant, rhinoceros, &c. Certain caves and rock-shelters in the province of Dordogne, in central France, were examined by a French and an English archaeologist, Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy, the remains discovered showing the former prevalence of the reindeer in this region, at that time inhabited by savages, whose bone and stone implements indicate a habit of life similar to that of the Eskimos. .Moreover, the co-existence of man with a fauna now extinct or confined to other districts was brought to yet clearer demonstration by the discovery in these caves of certain drawings and carvings of the animals done by the ancient inhabitants themselves, such as a group of reindeer on a piece of reindeer horn, and a sketch of a mammoth, showing the elephant's long hair, on a piece of a mammoth's tusk from La Madeleine (Lartet and Christy, Reliquiae Aquitanicae, ed.^ They thus availed themselves of the scientific cachet now enjoyed by Darwinism, and could assert or suggest that social evolution is 'the continuation of biological evolution by other means.'
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXAM GROUP: 9 Archaeologists often draw on ethnographic studies of Western and non-Western societies as sources of explanation for ancient cultural practices.

^ It demonstrates how inaccurate and easily falsifiable such claims are and recommends a critical reevaluation of these unexamined and destructuve cliches [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

by T. R. Jones (London, 1865), &c.).
.This and other evidence (which is considered in more detail in the article Archaeology) is now generally accepted by geologists as carrying back the existence of man into the period of the post-glacial drift, in what is now called the Quaternary period, an antiquity at least of tens of thousands of years.^ But whether we today display more wisdom or common humanity is an open question, and as we look back to discover how people coped with the daily difficulties of existence a thousand [or less!
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The human past extends back more than 2.5 million years, farming is at least 10,000 years old, and the Maya are known to have been an aggressive, blood-thirsty people.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Again, certain inferences have been tentatively made from the depth of mud, earth, peat, &c., which has accumulated above relics of human art imbedded in ancient times. Among these is the argument from the numerous borings made in the alluvium of the Nile valley to a depth of 60 ft., where down to the lowest level fragments of burnt brick and pottery were always found, showing that people advanced enough in the arts to bake brick and pottery have inhabited the valley during the long period required for the Nile inundations to deposit 60 ft. of mud, at a rate probably not averaging more than a few inches in a century. Another argument is that of Professor von Morlot, based on a railway section through a conical accumulation of gravel and alluvium, which the torrent of the Tiniere has gradually built up where it enters the Lake of Geneva near Villeneuve. Here three layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman period, but now lying 4, io and 1q ft. underground. On this it is computed that if 4 ft. of soil were formed in the 1500 years since the Roman period, we must go 5000 years farther back for the date of the earliest human inhabitants. Calculations of this kind, loose as they are, deserve attention.
.The interval between the Quaternary or Drift period and the period of historical antiquity is to some extent bridged over by relics of various intermediate civilizations, e.g. the Lake-dwellings of Switzerland, mostly of the lower grades, and in some cases reaching back to remote dates.^ We will also study Aztec hieroglyphic writing and the extensive philological sources for Nahuatl, some dating back to the early 15th century.

And further evidence of man's antiquity is afforded by the kitchen-middens or shell-heaps, especially those in Denmark. Danish peat-mosses again show the existence of man at a time when the Scotch fir was abundant; at a later period the firs were succeeded by oaks, which have again been almost superseded by beeches, a succession of changes which indicate a considerable lapse of time.
.Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in connexion with archaeological relics of the historical period, carry back into distant ages the starting-point of actual history, behind which lies the evidently vast period only known by inferences from the relations of languages and the stages of development of civilization.^ Questions addressed include: What can we understand about ethnic identity and relations in the prehistoric world on the basis of the archaeological record?

^ EXAM GROUP: 4 An intensive introduction to the grammar, vocabulary and historical development of the Yucatec Maya language, still spoken by millions of speakers in Mexico and Belize, and with an extensive philological tradition stretching back to the early seventeenth century.

^ Specific topics include the origins of agriculture and the domestication of animals, the development of complexity and “civilization," post-colonial and historical archaeology, and related ethical and theoretical issues.

The most recent work of Egyptologists proves a systematic civilization to have existed in the valley of the Nile at least 6000 to 7000 years ago (see Chronology).
.It was formerly held that the early state of society was one of comparatively high culture, and thus there was no hesitation in assigning the origin of man to a time but little beyond the range of historical records and monuments.^ Culture” is one of anthropology’s key concepts, but there has never been agreement as to the term’s meaning.

^ BCE), with an emphasis on the origins of agriculture and the emergence of complex society during the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.

^ Urban Revolutions: Archaeology and the Investigation of Early States Societies of the World 30.

.But the researches of anthropologists in recent years have proved that the civilization of man has been gradually developed from an original stone-age culture, such as characterizes modern savage life.^ "Formal anthropology in the first half of the nineteenth century was defined by the research project of Prichardian 'ethnology' (the tracing of prehistoric origins of peoples), and in its next major phase would be preoccupied with theories of the evolutionary development of civilization.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stone Age some 2.5 million years ago through the transition through Neolithic farming and herding communities to complex polities.

^ Readings in the primary, interpretative, and popular literature and from the press and Internet form the foundation for discussion of such topics as: agricultural origins, the Indus Civilization and its relations to later cultures, the Aryan invasion theory, and the Ayodhya affair.

.To the b000 years to which ancient civilization dates back must be added a vast period during which the knowledge, arts and institutions of such a civilization as that of ancient Egypt attained the high level evidenced by the earliest records.^ If the dramatic discoveries and scientific achievements of the past 50 years are any guide, the answer must be a resounding yes [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The evidence of comparative philology supports the necessity for an enormous time allowance. .Thus, Hebrew and Arabic are closely related languages, neither of them the original of the other, but both sprung from some parent language more ancient than either.^ There will be some lectures (and videos), but hopefully there will be more discussion than either lectures or videos!
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other topics include the origins, development, and sociopolitical uses of writing in the ancient world.

When, therefore, the Hebrew records have carried back to the most ancient admissible date the existence of the Hebrew language, this date must have been long preceded by that of the extinct parent language of the whole Semitic family; while this again was no doubt the descendant of languages slowly shaping themselves through ages into this peculiar type. Yet more striking is the evidence of the Indo-European (formerly called Aryan) family of languages. The Hindus, Medes,Persians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Sla y s make their appearance at more or less remote dates as nations separate in language as in history. .Nevertheless, it is now acknowledged that at some far remoter time, before these nations were divided from the parent stock, and distributed over Asia and Europe, a single barbaric people stood as physical and political representative of the nascent Aryan race, speaking a now extinct Aryan language, from which, by a series of modifications not to be estimated as possible within many thousands of years, there arose languages which have been mutually unintelligible since the dawn of history, and between which it was only possible for an age of advanced philology to trace the fundamental relationship.^ He cited the diversity of these languages as proof that they had been here a long time."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archaeologists, meanwhile numbered in the hundreds, many of them amateurs or self-trained excavators, and most worked within the narrow confines of Europe, Southwestern Asia, and North America.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seminar on cultural and political ecology, concentrating on the spectrum of relationships between humans and animals, both wild and domesticated, that exist across cultures and throughout history.

From the combination of these considerations, it will be seen that the farthest date to which documentary or other records extend is now generally regarded by anthropologists as but the earliest distinctly visible point of the historic period, beyond which stretches back a vast indefinite series of prehistoric ages.
V. Language. - .In examining how the science of language bears on the general problems of anthropology, it is not necessary to discuss at length the critical questions which arise, the principal.^ Examines how the multiplicity and contention of language ideologies play out in the everyday practices.

of which are considered elsewhere (see Language). Philology is especially appealed to by anthropologists as contributing to the following lines of argument. .A primary mental similarity of all branches of the human race is evidenced by their common faculty of speech, while at the same time secondary diversities of race-character and history are marked by difference of grammatical structure and of vocabularies.^ Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The existence of groups or families of allied languages, each group being evidently descended from a single language, affords one of the principal aids in classifying nations and races. The adoption by one language of words originally belonging to another, proving as it does the fact of intercourse between two races, and even to some extent indicating the results of such intercourse, affords a valuable clue through obscure regions of the history of civilization.
Communication by gesture-signs, between persons unable to converse in vocal language, is an effective system of expression common to all mankind. .Thus, the signs used to ask a deaf and dumb child about his meals and lessons, or to communicate with a savage met in the desert about game or enemies, belong to codes of gesture-signals identical in principle, and to a great extent independent both of nationality and education; there is even a natural syntax, or order of succession, in such gesturesigns.^ When asked to name the country from which we gained our independence, 76 percent correctly named Great Britain or England.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXAM GROUP: 17, 18 For sociocultural anthropologists, ethnography is both a way of studying human communities and a way of writing about them.

To these gestures let there be added the use of the interjectional cries, such as oh! ugh! hey! and imitative sounds to represent the cat's mew, the click of a trigger, the clap or thud of a blow, &c. The total result of this combination of gesture and significant sound will be a general system of expression, imperfect but serviceable, and naturally intelligible to all mankind without distinction of race. .Nor is such a system of communication only theoretically conceivable; it is, and always has been, in practical operation between people ignorant of one another's language, and as such is largely used in the intercourse of savage tribes.^ This applies not only to provinces as vast as biology and to large fields such as evolutionary theory, but even to small and familiar corners such as the species problem.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is true that to some extent these means of utterance are common to the lower animals, the power of expressing emotion by cries and tones extending far down in the scale of animal life, while rudimentary gesture-signs are made by various mammals and birds. .Still, the lower animals make no approach to the human system of natural utterance by gesturesigns and emotional-imitative sounds, while the practical identity of this human system among races physically so unlike as the Englishman and the native of the Australian bush indicates extreme closeness of mental similarity throughout the human species.^ Attention will be on behavioral, material, affective, symbolic, and ideological aspects of human-animal relationships, as well as both the animalic nature of humanity and humanity’s inclination to anthropomorphize animality.

^ Northern New England provides the archaeologist and environmental scientist with a natural experiment in land clearing that was caused by the agricultural practices of humans and the subsequent reforestation of the ecosystem.

^ Seminar on cultural and political ecology, concentrating on the spectrum of relationships between humans and animals, both wild and domesticated, that exist across cultures and throughout history.

When, however, the Englishman and the Australian speak each in his native tongue, only such words as belong to the interjectional and imitative classes will be naturally intelligible, and as it were instinctive to both. Thus the savage, uttering the sound waow! as an explanation of surprise and warning, might be answered by the white man with the not less evidently significant sh! of silence, and the two speakers would be on common ground when the native indicated by the name bwirri his cudgel, flung whirring through the air at a flock of birds, or when the native described as a jakkal-yakkal the bird called by the foreigner a cockatoo. With these, and other very limited classes of natural words, however, resemblance in vocabulary practically ceases. .The Australian and English languages each consist mainly of a series of words having no apparent connexion with the ideas they signify, and differing utterly; of course, accidental coincidences and borrowed words must be excluded from such comparisons.^ This course examines the place of English in this postcolonial setting, particularly its use alongside other Indian languages in the public realm.

It would be easy to enumerate other languages of the world, such as Basque, Turkish, Hebrew, Malay, Mexican, all devoid of traceable resemblance to Australian and English, and to one another. There is, moreover, extreme difference in the grammatical structure both of words and sentences in various languages. The question then arises, how far the employment of different vocabularies, and that to a great extent on different grammatical principles, is compatible with similarity of the speakers' minds, or how far does diversity of speech indicate diversity of mental nature? .The obvious answer is, that the power of using words as signs to express thoughts with which their sound does not directly connect them, in fact as arbitrary symbols, is the highest grade of the special human faculty in language, the presence of which binds together all races of mankind in substantial mental unity.^ Special (individual) study of Peabody Museum collections directly supervised by a faculty member and a member of the curatorial staff.

The measure of this unity is, that any child of any race can be brought up to speak the language of any other race.
.Under the present standard of evidence in comparing languages and tracing allied groups to a common origin, the crude speculations as to a single primeval language of mankind, which formerly occupied so much attention, are acknowledged to be worthless.^ However, his strongest evidence to support his belief in an Asian origin ( via the Bering Strait) of the Native Americans was from his study of Indian languages.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased knowledge and accuracy of method have as yet only left the way open to the most widely divergent suppositions.^ For me, quotes do with precision what reading does in general: they confirm the astuteness of my perceptions, they open the way to ideas, and they console me with the knowledge that I'm not alone [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For all that known dialects prove to the contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language, from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin.
The language spoken by any tribe or nation is not of itself absolute evidence as to its race-affinities. This is clearly shown in extreme cases. Thus the Jews in Europe have almost lost the use of Hebrew, but speak as their vernacular the language of their adopted nation, whatever it may be; even the JewishGerman dialect, though consisting so largely of Hebrew words, is philologically German, as any sentence shows: " Ich hab noch hoiom to geachelt, " I have not yet eaten to-day." The mixture of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is probably much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on the whole, the race has been preserved with extraordinary strictness, as its physical characteristics sufficiently show. Language thus here fails conspicuously as a test of race and even of national history. Not much less conclusive is the case of the predominantly Negro populations of the West India Islands, who, nevertheless, speak as their native tongues dialects of English or French, in which the number of intermingled native African words is very scanty: " Dem hitti netti na ini watra bikasi dem de fisiman," " They cast a net into the water, because they were fishermen." (Surinam Negro-Eng.) "Bef pas ca jamain lasse poter cones li," " Le boeuf n'est jamais las de porter ses comes." (Haitian Negro-Fr.) .If it be objected that the linguistic conditions of these two races are more artificial than has been usual in the history of the world, less extreme cases may be seen in countries where the ordinary results of conquestcolonization have taken place.^ While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, it takes less than twenty-four hours to travel between virtually any two points in the world."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Mestizos, who form so large a fraction of the population of modern Mexico, numbering several millions, afford a convenient test in this respect, inasmuch as their intermediate complexion separates them from both their ancestral races, the Spaniard, and the chocolate-brown indigenous Aztec or other Mexican. The mother-tongue of this mixed race is Spanish, with an infusion of Mexican words; and a large proportion cannot speak any native dialect. .In most or all nations of mankind, crossing or intermarriage of races has thus taken place between the conquering invader and the conquered native, so that the language spoken by the nation may represent the results of conquest as much or more than of ancestry.^ Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The supersession of the Celtic Cornish by English, and of the Slavonic Old-Prussian by German, are but examples of a process which has for untold ages been supplanting native dialects, whose very names have mostly disappeared. On the other hand, the language of the warlike invader or peaceful immigrant may yield, in a few generations, to the tongue of the mass of the population, as the Northman's was replaced by French, and modern German gives way to English in the United States. Judging, then, by the extirpation and adoption of languages within the range of history, it is obvious that to classify mankind into races, Aryan, Semitic, Turanian, Polynesian, Kaffir, &c., on the mere evidence of language, is intrinsically unsound.
VI. Development of Civilization. - .The conditions of man at the lowest and highest known levels of culture are separated by a vast interval; but this interval is so nearly filled by known intermediate stages, that the line of continuity between the lowest savagery and the highest civilization is unbroken at any critical point.^ "The highest stage in moral culture at which we can arrive, is when we recognise that we ought to control our thoughts...."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An examination of the details of savage life shows not only that there is an immeasurable difference between the rudest man and the highest lower animal, but also that the least cultured savages have themselves advanced far beyond the lowest intellectual and moral state at which human tribes can be conceived as capable of existing, when placed under favourable circumstances of warm climate, abundant food, and security from too severe destructive influences.^ "There is, nevertheless, a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist) or in another translation: "...there is a certain consideration, and a general duty of humanity, that binds us not only to the animals, which have life and feeling, but even to the trees and plants."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Science is systematized positive knowledge, or what has been taken as such at different ages and in different places" and "The acquisition and systematization of positive knowledge are the only human activities which are truly cumulative and progressive."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Australian black-fellow or the forest Indian of Brazil, who may be taken as examples of the lowest modern savage, had, before contact with whites, attained to rudimentary stages in many of the characteristic functions of civilized life. His language, expressing thoughts by conventional articulate sounds, is the same in essential principle as the most cultivated philosophic dialect, only less exact and copious. His weapons, tools and other appliances such as the hammer, hatchet, spear, knife, awl, thread, net, canoe, &c., are the evident rudimentary analogues of what still remains in use among Europeans. His structures, such as the hut, fence, stockade, earthwork, &c., may be poor and clumsy, but they are of the same nature as our own. In the simple arts of broiling and roasting meat, the use of hides and furs for covering, the plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of hunting, trapping and fishing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament, the touches of artistic decoration on objects of daily use, the savage differs in degree but not in kind from the civilized man. .The domestic and social affections, the kindly care of the young and the old, some acknowledgment of marital and parental obligation, the duty of mutual defence in the tribe, the authority of the elders, and general respect to traditional custom as the regulator of life and duty, are more or less well marked in every savage tribe which is not disorganized and falling to pieces.^ "There is, nevertheless, a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in some kind of worship. .If, again, high savage or low barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians, Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship.^ "From Montesquieu through Comte to Durkheim and his school, the dominant philosophical themes in French social thought were thus Progressivism and natural law.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, his strongest evidence to support his belief in an Asian origin ( via the Bering Strait) of the Native Americans was from his study of Indian languages.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North American Languages MINOR REVISION .
  • Anthropological Linguistics (Consulting Editor: REGNA DARNELL) 15 September 2009 4:58 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Academic]

At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing. Along such stages of improvement and invention the bridge is fairly made between savage and barbaric culture; and this once attained to, the remainder of the series of stages of civilization lies within the range of common knowledge.
.The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.^ For me, quotes do with precision what reading does in general: they confirm the astuteness of my perceptions, they open the way to ideas, and they console me with the knowledge that I'm not alone [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The characteristics of any age are revealed not simply by political and social developments, but by the manner in which contemporaries tried to explain their situation in time and place and by the language and concepts in which such explanations were formulated and discussed.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That processes of development similar to these were in prehistoric times effective to raise culture from the savage to the barbaric level, two considerations especially tend to prove. First, there are numerous points in the culture even of rude races which are not explicable otherwise than on the theory of development. Thus, though difficult or superfluous arts may easily be lost, it is hard to imagine the abandonment of contrivances of practical daily utility, where little skill is required and materials are easily accessible. Had the Australians or New Zealanders, for instance, ever possessed the potter's art, they could hardly have forgotten it. The inference that these tribes represent the stage of culture before the invention of pottery is confirmed by the absence of buried fragments of pottery in the districts they inhabit. .The same races who were found making thread by the laborious process of twisting with the hand, would hardly have disused, if they had ever possessed, so simple a labour-saving device as the spindle, which consists merely of a small stick weighted at one end; the spindle may, accordingly, be regarded as an instrument invented somewhere between the lowest and highest savage levels (Tylor, Early Hist.^ PLEASE CONSIDER the implications of the following: "One who makes a close study of almost any branch of science soon discovers the great illusion of the monolith .
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of Mankind,
p. 193). Again, many devices of civilization bear unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; thus the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from ours in having no front pillar, appear certainly to owe this remarkable defect to having grown up through intermediate forms from the simple strung bow, the still used type of the most primitive stringed instrument. In this way the history of numeral words furnishes actual proof of that independent intel lectural progress among savage tribes which some writers have rashly denied. Such words as hand, hands, foot, man, &c., are used as numerals signifying 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., among many savage and barbaric peoples; thus Polynesian lima, i.e. " hand," means 5; Zulu tatisitupa, i.e. " taking the thumb," means 6; Greenlandish arfersanek-pingasut, i.e. " on the other foot three," means 18; Tamanac tevin itoto, i.e. " one man," means 20, &c., &c. .The existence of such expressions demonstrates that the people who use them had originally no spoken names for these numbers, but once merely counted them by gesture on their fingers and toes in low savage fashion, till they obtained higher numerals by the inventive process of describing in words these counting-gestures.^ It demonstrates how inaccurate and easily falsifiable such claims are and recommends a critical reevaluation of these unexamined and destructuve cliches [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, all people who pout adopt the same expression.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'They're attracting not just supergeeks, but people who want to work on the border of people and technology,' she says [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, the process of " survival in culture " has caused the preservation in each stage of society of phenomena belonging to an earlier period, but kept up by force of custom into the later, thus supplying evidence of the modern condition being derived from the ancient.^ On dozens of field trips to study the ways of primitive [ sic ] societies, she found evidence to support her strong belief that cultural conditioning, not genetics, molded human behavior.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus the mitre over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present state was by vast modification evolved. Evidence of this class, proving the derivation of modern civilization, not only from ancient barbarism, but beyond this, from primeval savagery, is immensely plentiful, especially in rites and ceremonies, where the survival of ancient habits is peculiarly favoured. Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage " fire-drill " for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical " need-fire," which was lighted to deliver cattle from a murrain. Again, the funeral offerings of food, clothing, weapons, &c., to the dead are absolutely intelligible and purposeful among savage races, who believe that the souls of the departed are ethereal beings capable of consuming food, and of receiving and using the souls or phantoms of any objects sacrificed for their use. .The primitive philosophy to which these conceptions belong has to a great degree been discredited by modern science; yet the clear survivals of such ancient and savage rites may still be seen in Europe, where the Bretons leave the remains of the All Souls' supper on the table for the ghosts of the dead kinsfolk to partake of, and Russian peasants set out cakes for the ancestral manes on the ledge which supports the holy pictures, and make dough ladders to assist the ghosts of the dead to ascend out of their graves and start on their journey for the future world; while other provision for the same spiritual journey is made when the coin is still put in the hand of the corpse at an Irish wake.^ Somewhere out there on the other side of the world,' said...
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In like manner magic still exists in the civilized world as a survival from the savage and barbaric times to which it originally belongs, and in which is found the natural source and proper home of utterly savage practices still carried on by ignorant peasants in Great Britain, such as taking omens from the cries of animals, or bewitching an enemy by sticking full of pins and hanging up to shrivel in the smoke an image or other object, that similar destruction may fall on the hated person represented by the symbol (Tylor, Primitive Culture, ch.^ "This great world, which some still reckon to be but one example of a whole genus, is the mirror into which we must look if we are to behold ourselves from the proper standpoint."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

i., iii., iv., xi., xii.; Early Hist. of Man, ch. vi.).
.The comparative science of civilization thus not only generalizes the data of history, but supplements its information by laying down the lines of development along which the lowest prehistoric culture has gradually risen to the highest modern level.^ "Anthropologies of late modernity (also called postmodernity, postindustrial society, knowledge society, or information society) provide challenges for all levels of social, cultural, and psychological theory, as well as for ethnographic field methods and genres of writing.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To do this, we must learn established ways of organizing and presenting data and information as well as develop new ones [ stress added]."
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among the most clearly marked of these lines is that which follows the succession of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages (see Archaeology). The Stone Age represents the early condition of mankind in general, and has remained in savage districts up to modern times, while the introduction of metals need not at once supersede the use of the old stone hatchets and arrows, which have often long continued in dwindling survival by the side of the new bronze and even iron ones. .The Bronze Age had its most important place among ancient nations of Asia and Europe, and among them was only succeeded after many centuries by the Iron Age; while in other districts, such as Polynesia and Central and South Africa, and America (except Mexico and Peru), the native tribes were moved directly from the Stone to the Iron Age without passing through the Bronze Age at all.^ The most important skill for almost everyone in the next decade and beyond will be the ability to create valuable, compelling, and empowering information and experiences for others.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archaeologists, meanwhile numbered in the hundreds, many of them amateurs or self-trained excavators, and most worked within the narrow confines of Europe, Southwestern Asia, and North America.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE READER MAY WELL ASK: why place this syllabus on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz go through all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not an interactive course?
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the three divisions of savage, barbaric, and civilized man do not correspond at all perfectly with the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, this classification of civilization has proved of extraordinary value in arranging in their proper order of culture the nations of the Old World.^ He was a man with all the faults, shortcomings and inadequacies of a man, but he was a civilized human being in that he could not endure to see his fellow human being suffer.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elizabeth Weise, 1999, Companies Learn Value of Grass Roots: Anthropologists Help Adapt Products to World's Cultures.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another great line of progress has been followed by tribes passing from the primitive state of the wild hunter, fisher and fruit-gatherer to that of the settled tiller of the soil, for to this change of habit may be plainly in great part traced the expansion of industrial arts and the creation of higher social and political institutions. .These, again, have followed their proper lines along the course of time.^ The WWW is "alive" (as well as this course and, indeed, all education ) and evolving over time and please consider the following from Time of July 19, 1999: .
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among such is the immense legal development by which the primitive law of personal vengeance passed gradually away, leaving but a few surviving relics in the modern civilized world, and being replaced by the higher doctrine that crime is an offence against society, to be repressed for the public good.^ The reconstruction of society in the wake of social trauma caused by world war and civil and ethnic wars....
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another vast social change has been that from the patriarchal condition, in which the unit is the family under the despotic rule of its head, to the systems in which individuals make up a society whose government is centralized in a chief or king.^ From Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) : The individual "...who doesn't make up his [or her!
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the growth of systematic civilization, the art of writing has had an influence so intense, that of all tests to distinguish the barbaric from the civilized state, none is so generally effective as this, whether they have but the failing link with the past which mere memory furnishes, or can have recourse to written records of past history and written constitutions of present order. Lastly, still following the main lines of human culture, the primitive germs of religious institutions have to be traced in the childish faith and rude rites of savage life, and thence followed in their expansion into the vast systems administered by patriarchs and priests, henceforth taking under their charge the precepts of morality, and enforcing them under divine sanction, while also exercising in political life an authority beside or above the civil law.
.The state of culture reached by Quaternary man is evidenced by the stone implements in the drift-gravels, and other relics of human art in the cave deposits.^ An understanding of the phenomenon of culture as that which differentiates human life from other life forms; an understanding of the roles of human biology and cultural processes in human behavior and human evolution.  .
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His drawings on bone or tusk found in the caves show no mean artistic power, as appears by the three specimens copied in the Plate. That representing two deer (fig. 6) was found so early as 1852 in the breccia of a limestone cave on the Charente, and its importance recognized in a remarkable letter by Prosper Merimee, as at once historically ancient and geologically modern (Congres d'anthropologie et d'archeologie prehistoriques, Copenhagen (1869), p. 128). The other two are the famous mammoth from the cave of La Madeleine, on which the woolly mane and huge tusks of Elephas primigenius are boldly drawn (fig. 7); and the group of man and horses (fig. 8). There has been found one other contemporary portrait of man, where a hunter is shown stalking an aurochs.
That the men of the Quaternary period knew the savage art of producing fire by friction, and roasted the flesh on which they mainly subsisted, is proved by the fragments of charcoal found in the cave deposits, where also occur bone awls and needles, which indicate the wearing of skin clothing, like that of the modern Australians and Fuegians. Their bone lance-heads and dart-points were comparable to those of northern and southern savages. Particular attention has to be given to the stone implements used by these earliest known of mankind. The division of tribes in the stone implement stage into two classes, the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age, and the Neolithic or New Stone Age, according to their proficiency in this most important art furnishes in some respects the best means of determining their rank in general culture.
In order to put this argument clearly before the reader, a few selected implements are figured in the Plate. The group in fig. 9 contains tools and weapons of the Neolithic period such as are dug up on European soil; they are evident relics of ancient populations who used them till replaced by metal. The stone hatchets are symmetrically shaped and edged by grinding, while the cutting flakes, scrapers, spear and arrow heads are of high finish. Direct knowledge of the tribes who made them is scanty, but implements so similar in make and design having been in use in North and South America until modern times, it may be assumed for purposes of classification that the Neolithic peoples of the New World were at a similar barbarous level in industrial arts, social organization, moral. and religious ideas. Such comparison, though needing caution and reserve, at once proved of great value to anthropology. When, however, there came to light from the drift-gravels. and limestone caves of Europe the Palaeolithic implements,, of which some types are shown in the group (fig. io), the difficult problem presented itself, what degree of general culture these rude implements belonged to. On mere inspection, their rudeness, their unsuitability for being hafted, and the absence of shaping and edging by the grindstone, mark their inferiority to the Neolithic implements. Their immensely greater antiquity was proved by their geological position and their association with a long extinct fauna, and they were not, like the Neoliths, recognizable as corresponding closely to the implements used by modern tribes. There was at first a tendency to consider the Palaeoliths as the work of men ruder than savages, if, indeed, their makers were to be accounted human at all. Since then, however, the problem has passed into a more manageable state. .Stone implements, more or less approaching the European Palaeolithic type, were found in Africa from Egypt southwards, wherein such parts as Somaliland and Cape Colony they lie about.^ ALSO, ALSO, PLEASE THINK ABOUT / READ THE 49 " THOUGHTS " AT THE END OF THIS SYLLABUS: THEY WILL PLAY A PART IN DISCUSSIONS THROUGHOUT THE SEMESTER; ALSO: PLEASE READ THE QUOTATION STATEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH WEEK} THEY WILL ALSO PLAY A PART IN DISCUSSIONS THROUGHOUT THE SEMESTER! .
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

on the ground, as though they had been the rough tools and weapons of the rude inhabitants of the land at no very distant period. The group in fig. i 1 in the Plate shows the usual Somaliland types. These facts tended to remove the mystery from Palaeolithic man, though too little is known of the ruder ancient tribes of Africa to furnish a definition of the state of culture which might have co-existed with the use of Palaeolithic implements. Information to this purpose, however, can now be furnished from a more outlying region. This is Tasmania, where as in the adjacent continent of Australia, the survival of marsupial animals indicates long isolation from the rest of the world. Here, till far on into the 1 9 th century, the Englishmen could watch the natives striking off flakes of stone, trimming them to convenient shape for grasping them in the hand, and edging; them by taking off successive chips on one face only. The group. in fig. 12 shows ordinary Tasmanian forms, two of them being finer tools for scraping and grooving. (For further details reference may be made to H. Ling Roth, The Tasmanians, (2nd ed., 1899); R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria (1878), vol. ii.; .Papers and Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania; and papers by the present writer in Journal of the Anthropological Institute.) The Tasmanians, when they came in contact with the European explorers and settlers, were not the broken outcasts they afterwards became.^ A museum of ethnology was established in Hamburg in 1850 ; the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard was founded in 1866; the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1873 ; the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1879 .
  • ANTHROPOLOGY 296 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They were a savage people, perhaps. the lowest in culture of any known, but leading a normal, selfsupporting, and not unhappy life, which had probably changed little during untold ages. The accounts, imperfect as they are, which have been preserved of their arts, beliefs and habits, thus present a picture of the arts, beliefs and habits of tribes. whose place in the Stone Age was a grade lower than that of Palaeolithic man of the Quaternary period.
The Tasmanian stone implements, figured in the Plate, show their own use when it is noticed that the rude chipping forms. a good hand-grip above, and an effective edge for chopping, sawing, and cutting below. But the absence of the long-shaped implements, so characteristic of the Neolithic and Palaeolithic series, and serviceable as picks, hatchets, and chisels, shows remarkable limitation in the mind of these savages, who made a broad, hand-grasped knife their tool of all work to cut, saw, and chop with. Their weapons were the wooden club or waddy notched to the grasp, and spears of sticks, often crooked but well balanced, with points sharpened by tool or fire, and sometimes. jagged. No spear thrower or bow and arrow was known. The.
A B C FIG. 2.
E FIG. 6.
FIG. 3.
FIG. 5.
FIG, 4.
FIG. 7.
FIG. 8.
FIG. ICI.
FIG. 9.
Tasmanian savages were crafty warriors and kangaroo-hunters, and the women climbed the highest trees by notching, in quest of opossums. Shell-fish and crabs were taken, and seals knocked on the head with clubs, but neither fish-hook nor fishing-net was known, and indeed swimming fish were taboo as food. Meat and vegetable food, such as fern-root, was broiled over the fire, but boiling in a vessel was unknown. The fire was produced by the ordinary savage fire-drill. Ignorant of agriculture, with no dwellings but rough huts or breakwinds of sticks and bark, without dogs or other domestic animals, these savages, until the coming of civilized man, roamed after food within their tribal bounds. Logs and clumsy floats of bark and grass enabled them to cross water under favourable circumstances. They had clothing of skins rudely stitched together with bark thread, and they were decorated with simple necklaces of kangaroo teeth, shells and berries. Among their simple arts, plaiting and basket-work was one in which they approached the civilized level. The pictorial art of the Tasmanians was poor and childish, quite below that of the Palaeolithic men of Europe. The Tasmanians spoke a fairly copious agglutinating language, well marked as to parts of speech, syntax and inflexion. Numeration was at a low level, based on counting fingers on one hand only, so that the word for man (puggana) stood also for the number 5. The religion of the Tasmanians, when cleared from ideas apparently learnt from the whites, was a simple form of animism based on the shadow (warrawa) being the soul or spirit. The strongest belief of the natives was in the power of the ghosts of the dead, so that they carried the bones of relatives to secure themselves from harm, and they fancied the forest swarming with malignant demons. They placed weapons near the grave for the dead friend's soul to use, and drove out disease from the sick by exorcising the ghost which was supposed to have caused it. Of greater special spirits of Nature we find something vaguely mentioned. The earliest recorders of the native social life set down such features as their previous experience of rude civilized life had made them judges of. They notice the selfdenying affection of the mothers, and the hard treatment of the wives by the husbands, polygamy and the shifting marriage unions. But when we meet with a casual remark as to the tendency of the Tasmanians to take wives from other tribes than their own, it seems likely that they had some custom of exogamy which the foreigners did not understand. Meagre as is the information preserved of the arts, thoughts, and customs of these survivors from the lower Stone Age, it is of value as furnishing even a temporary and tentative means of working out the development of culture on a basis not of conjecture but of fact.

Conclusion

To-day anthropology is grappling with the heavy task of systematizing the vast stores of knowledge to which the key was found by Boucher de Perthes, by Lartet, Christy and their successors. There have been recently no discoveries to rival in novelty those which followed the exploration of the bonecaves and drift-gravels, and which effected an instant revolution in all accepted theories of man's antiquity, substituting for a chronology of centuries a vague computation of hundreds of thousands of years. The existence of man in remote geological time cannot now be questioned, but, despite much effort made in likely localities, no bones, with the exception of those of the much-discussed Pithecanthropus, have been found which can be regarded as definitely bridging the gulf between man and the lower creation. It seems as if anthropology had in this direction reached the limits of its discoveries. Far different are the prospects in other directions where the work of co-ordinating the material and facts collected promises to throw much light on the history of civilization. Anthropological researches undertaken all over the globe have shown the necessity of abandoning the old theory that a similarity of customs and superstitions, of arts and crafts, justifies the assumption of a remote relationship, if not an identity of origin, between races. It is now certain that there has ever been an inherent tendency in man, allowing for difference of climate and material surroundings, to develop culture by the :same stages and in the same way. American man, for example, need not necessarily owe the minutest portion of his mental, religious, social or industrial development to remote contact with Asia or Europe, though he were proved to possess identical usages. An example in point is that of pyramid-building. No ethnical relationship can ever have existed between the Aztecs and the Egyptians; yet each race developed the idea of the pyramid tomb through that psychological similarity which is as much a characteristic of the species man as is his physique.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-J. C. Prichard, Natural History of Man (London, 1843); T. H. Huxley, Man's Place in Nature (London, 1863); and " Geographical Distribution of Chief Modifications of Mankind," in Journal Ethnological Society for 1870; E. B. Tylor, Early History of Man (London, 1865), Primitive Culture (London, 1871), and Anthropology (London, 1881); A. de Quatrefages, Histoire generale des races humaines (Paris, 1889), Human Species (Eng. trans., 1879); Lord Avebury, Prehistoric Times (1865, 6th ed. 1900) and Origin of Civilization (1870, 6th ed. 1902); Theo. Waitz, Anthropologie der NaturvOlker (1859-1871); E. H. Haeckel, Anthropogenie (Leipzig, 1874-1891), Eng. trans., 1879; O. Peschel, Volkerkunde (Leipzig, 1874-1897); P. Topinard, L' Anthropologie (Paris, 1876); Elements d'anthropologie generale (Paris, 1885); D. G. Brinton, Races and Peoples (1890); A. H. Keane, Ethnology (1896), and Man: Past and Present (1899); G. Sergi, The Mediterranean Race (Eng. ed., 1889); F. Ratzel, History of Mankind (Eng. trans., 1897); G. de Mortillet, Le Prehistorique (Paris, 1882); A. C. Haddon, Study of Man (1897); J. Deniker, The Races of Man (London, 1900); W. Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe (1900, with long bibliography); The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain; Revue d'anthropologie (Paris); Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie (Berlin). See also bibliographies under separate ethnological headings (AUSTRALIA, AFRICA, ARABS, AMERICA, &C.). (E. B. T.)


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Subject:Anthropology article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.Books in this subject area deal with anthropology: the study of human beings, everywhere and throughout time.^ Anthropology is the holistic study of humanity.

^ Anthropology studies human culture.
  • Basic cultural anthroplogy, Texas Indians 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.texasindians.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anthropology is the study of humans.
  • Basic cultural anthroplogy, Texas Indians 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC www.texasindians.com [Source type: Original source]

Anthropology Books Related Subjects
Featured Books
Print-ready Books
PDF Books
Books with Public Collections

Simple English

Anthropology is the study of human beings. (In Greek "Anthropos-" means "human", and "-logy" means "study of"). Anthropology is a biological and historical social science that helps us learn how groups of people are the same, and how they are different in all parts of the world. Anthropologists do research in many places and study how people live now and how they may have lived in the past (using the study of Archaeology). They research in modern cities, small villages, tribes, and in the countryside. They study how groups of people consider time, space, life, etc.

Applied anthropology is a type of anthropology that uses information, discovered using science to help people. One recent use of applied anthropology is the return of ancient ways of successful farming to people living in South America. Another use of applied anthropology is the learning of languages close to dying out and the teaching of young people the language of their ancestors.

The four big kinds of anthropology are:

  • Archaeology - The study of how people lived in the past learned from the things people leave behind, like pottery, stone tools, or anything made or used by humans.
  • Physical anthropology - The study of human biology, including how people adapt to where they live and how bodies changed over time (evolution). Physical anthropologists also study non-human primates.
  • Linguistic anthropology - The study of how people speak and the words they use and how their language developed (evolved). Linguistic anthropology also studies how language changes what people think and how people change language.
  • Cultural anthropology - The study of how people live their lives now and how they may have lived in the past, including the tools they used and the food they obtained and ate. It is also related to sociology and social psychology.

Most people who study anthropology have some schoolwork in all four big kinds of anthropology but later study one or two areas primarily.

rue:Антрополоґія



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Anthropology, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message