Anti-Armenianism: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Armenophobia (also Anti-Armenianism, Anti-Armenism and Anti-Armenian sentiment) — fear or dislike of, or aversion to the Armenians; Armenia [1] , is hostility toward or prejudice against Armenian people, Armenian culture and the Republic of Armenia, which can range in expression from individual hatred to institutionalized persecution. Several organizations have stated that difficulties currently experienced by the Armenian minority in Turkey are a result of an anti-Armenian attitude by the Turkish government[2] as well as by ultra-nationalist groups such as the Grey Wolves. Such sentiments are also prevalent in Azerbaijan as well, and stem from the loss of the Nagorno-Karabakh War, and also for domestic political reasons.[citation needed]

Modern anti-Armenianism often seems to lack a racial and cultural basis and appears to be based more on geopolitics and history, in addition to diplomatic and strategic interests, involving the modern states of Turkey and Azerbaijan, although these prejudices usually extend to the widespread Armenian Diaspora. The controversy and emotions surrounding the Armenian Genocide and Nagorno-Karabakh are two examples of intense anti-Armenianism in both countries.[citation needed] These facts do not themselves always imply a direct hate towards Armenians as a nation or ethnic group, as they tend to reflect the various historical and political tensions between these countries. Modern Anti-Armenianism is usually associated with either extreme opposition to the actions or existence of the Armenian Republic, belief in an Armenian conspiracy to fabricate history and manipulate public and political opinion for political gain, or belief that Armenia is attempting to unfairly annex land from neighboring states.

Contents

Persecution under Ottoman Empire and Turkey

The Armenian people have suffered persecution by the Turkish government for over a century. Although it was possible for Armenians to achieve status and wealth in the Ottoman Empire, as a community they were never accorded more than "second-class citizen" status and were regarded as fundamentally alien to the Muslim character of Ottoman society [3]. In 1895, revolts among the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire lead to Sultan Abdül Hamid's decision to massacre hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the Hamidian massacres[4]. During World War I, the Ottoman government massacred between 1 and 1.5 million Armenians in the Armenian Genocide.[5] [6][7][8] The position of the current Turkish government, however, is that the Armenians who died were casualties of the expected hardships of war, the casualties cited are exaggerated, and that there was no genocide. This position has been criticized by international genocide scholars[9], and by several governments, which have resolutions affirming the genocide.

Alparslan Türkeş, a late Turkish politician considered by many to have fascist views,[10] said:

Those that have torn down this nation are Greek, Armenian and Jew traitors, and Kurdish, Bosnian and Albanians… How can you, as a Turk, tolerate these dirty minorities. Remove from within the Armenians and Kurds and all Turkish enemies.[11]

In 2004, Belge Films, the film's distributor in Turkey pulled the release of Atom Egoyan's Ararat, a film about the Armenian Genocide, after receiving threats from the Ülkü Ocakları, an ultra nationalist organization in Turkey that has ties to Grey Wolves of Alparslan Türkeş.[12][13][14][15]

The Ankara Chamber of Commerce included a documentary, accusing the Armenian people of slaughtering Turks, with their paid tourism advertisements in the June 6, 2005 edition of the magazine TIME Europe. Time Europe later apologized for allowing the inclusion of the DVDs and published a critical letter signed by five French organizations.[16][17] The February 12, 2007 edition of Time Europe included an acknowledgment of the truth of the Armenian Genocide and a DVD of a documentary by French director Laurence Jourdan about the genocide.[18]

Hrant Dink, the editor of the Agos weekly Armenian newspaper, was assassinated in Istanbul on January 19, 2007, by Ogün Samast. He was reportedly acting on the orders of Yasin Hayal, a militant Turkish ultra-nationalist.[19][20] For his statements on Armenian identity and the Armenian Genocide, Dink had been prosecuted three times under Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code for “insulting Turkishness.”.”[21][22] He had also received numerous death threats from Turkish nationalists who viewed his "iconoclastic" journalism (particularly regarding the Armenian Genocide) as an act of treachery.[23]

İbrahim Şahin and 36 other alleged members of Turkish ultra-nationalist Ergenekon group were arrested on January, 2009 in Ankara. The Turkish police said the round-up was triggered by orders Şahin gave to assassinate 12 Armenian community leaders in Sivas.[24][25] According to the official investigation in Turkey, Ergenekon also had a role in the murder of Hrant Dink.[26]

Persecution in the Republic of Azerbaijan

During the Soviet era, Armenians and Azerbaijanis coexisted peacefully. When the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh broke out, however, this changed radically. There is an opinion that much of the anti-Armenian sentiments among the Azerbaijani people today stem from the loss of the Nagorno-Karabakh War[citation needed] and the Khojaly Massacre (1992) perpetrated by Armenian irregulars against the Azerbaijanis during the war. However, it should also be noted that among the events precipitating the conflict were pogroms perpetrated by Azerbaijanis against ethnic Armenians in the Azerbaijani towns of Sumgait (1988), Kirovabad (Ganja) (1988) and Baku (1990)[27] and that the Azerbaijanis themselves committed atrocities against Armenians during the war, such as the attack on the town of Maraghar (1992).[28]

In 2004, Azerbaijani lieutenant Ramil Safarov murdered the Armenian lieutenant Gurgen Markaryan in his sleep at a Partnership for Peace NATO program. Safarov's crime resulted in contradictory reactions in his home country: some propagated granting him the status of a national hero, while others expressed severe criticism and condemned Safarov for murder.[29]

Starting in 1998, Armenia began accusing Azerbaijan of embarking on a campaign of destroying a cemetery of finely carved Armenian khachkars in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.[30] On May 30, 2006, Azerbaijan barred the European Parliament from inspecting and examining the ancient burial site. Charles Tannock, British Conservative Party foreign affairs spokesman in the European parliament, stated: "This is very similar to the Buddha statues destroyed by the Taliban. They have concreted the area over and turned it into a military camp. If they have nothing to hide then we should be allowed to inspect the terrain." Hannes Swoboda, an Austrian Socialist MEP and member of the committee barred from examining the site, said he hopes a visit can be arranged in the autumn. He stated that "if they do not allow us to go, we have a clear hint that something bad has happened. If something is hidden we want to ask why. It can only be because some of the allegations are true." He also warned: "One of the major elements of any country that wants to come close to Europe is that the cultural heritage of neighbors is respected."[31] The seething anti-Armenian sentiment present in much of Azerbaijan, and which likely enabled the khachkar destruction, can perhaps best be sensed in the response that the leader of Azerbaijani national chess team, Teimour Radjabov, gave to a question on how he felt about playing against the Armenian team: "[the] enemy is the enemy. We all hate them."[32]

Armenian youths protest Anti-Armenian violence in Russia.

Anti-Armenianism in Russia

A 19th century Russian chauvinist, Vasili Lvovich Velichko, who was active during the period when the Russian tzarizm carried out a purposeful anti-Armenian policy[33], wrote:

"Armenians are the extreme instance of brachycephaly; their actual racial instinct make them naturally hostile to the State".[34]

The Second Chechen War and the associated Chechen terrorism in Russia served as major factors in the grow of intolerance, xenophobia and racist violence in Russia, directed in a great part against the people from the Caucasus.[35] These include Chechens, Azerbaijanis and Armenians. Six Armenians were killed as a result of racially motivated attacks on non-Slavic immigrants in 2006[36]. So far the reaction of the Russian government to these murders has been subdued, often failing to term the incidents hate crimes and declining to strongly condemn them.

Anti-Armenianism in Georgia

In 2007, the Georgian media began running several stories on the March 5 parliamentary elections in Abkhazia, claiming that ethnic Armenians in the area, who make up roughly 20% of the local population, would be controlling the elections.[citation needed] The Georgian newspaper Sakartvelos Respublika predicted that much of the parliament would be Armenian and that there was even a chance of an Armenian president being elected. The paper also reported that the Abkazanian republic might already be receiving financial assistance from Armenians living in the United States.[37] Some Armenian groups believe such reports are attempting to create conflict between Armenians and ethnic Abkhazians to destabilize the region.[37] The Georgian-Abkhazian conflict, which is believed by many Georgians to have been backed by Russia with Armenian assistance, has caused many problems for Georgia, as the Abkhazian separatist resulted in many ethnic Georgians killed and displaced, and Armenians living in Abkhazian region did side with local Abkhazians. Reports such as these suggest growing animosity towards Armenians in the country.

Georgia has also actively pursued a policy of desecration of Armenian spiritual-cultural values, churches and historical monuments on the territory of Georgia. On November 16, 2008, Georgian monk Tariel Sikinchelashvili instructed workers to raze to the ground the graves of patrons of art Mikhail and Lidia Tamamshev. The Armenian Church of Norashen in Tbilisi, built in the middle of the 15th century, has been vandalized and misappropriated by the Georgian government despite the fact that both Armenia's and Georgia's Prime-Ministers have reached an agreement on not to maltreat the church.[38] Due to no law on religion, the status of Surb Norashen, Surb Nshan, Shamhoretsor Surb Astvatsatsin (Karmir Avetaran), Yerevanots Surb Minas and Mugni Surb Gevorg in Tbilisi and Surb Nshan in Akhaltsikh is unknown since being confiscated during the Soviet era. Since independence in 1991, Georgian clergy have occupied the Armenian churches.[39] Armenians in Georgia and Armenia have demonstrated against the destructions. On November 28, 2008, Armenian demonstrators in front of the Georgian embassy in Armenia demanded that the Georgian government immediately cease encroachments on the Armenian churches and punish those guilty, calling the Georgian party's actions White Genocide.[40]

Anti-Armenianism in the United States

While prejudice against ethnic Armenians in the United States is not widespread today, three notable cases do exist. In April 2007, Los Angeles Times' Managing Editor Douglas Frantz blocked a story on the Armenian Genocide written by Mark Arax, allegedly citing the fact Arax was of Armenian descent and therefore had a biased opinion on the subject. However, other sources say that Frantz blocked Arax from completing the story not because of his descent, but rather because of his publicly political involvement in the topic and company policy that prohibited journalists from writing pieces on topics they were activists for in order to maintain the integrity of the paper that is closely linked with neutrality and unbiased journalism. Arax, who has published similar articles before[41] has lodged a discrimination complaint and threatened a federal lawsuit. Frantz, who did not cite any specific factual errors in the article, is accused of having a bias obtained while being stationed in Istanbul, Turkey. Harut Sassounian, an Armenian community leader accused Frantz, of having expressed support for denial of the Armenian Genocide and has stated he personally believed that Armenians rebelled against the Ottoman Empire, an argument commonly used to justify the killings.[41]. Although Sassounian was unable to provide any proof of his allegations. Frantz resigned from the paper not long afterward, possibly due to the mounting requests for his dismissal from the Armenian community.[42] Frantz however has also been stated to have been upholding company policy that prohibited journalists from doing articles on topics in which they have publicly expressed a bias or been involved in political activity concerning the issue, like the case for the article at hand, because journalists are meant to maintain an air of unbiased professionalism. Another incident that received less coverage was a series of hate mail campaigns directed at Paul Krekorian, a city council candidate for Californian Democratic Primary, making racist remarks and accusations that the Armenian community was engaging in voter fraud.[43]

The third act of alleged ethnic bias towards Armenians was on a KFI radio show with Bill Handel, who in attempt at humour said that Glendale should be sold to provide more money for the US economy due to the medical budget issue. When a listener replied to him via mail and said his actions were racist, a co-host replied "What the Turks started, Bill Handel will finish", the show was shortly afterwards made to apologize and has had subsequent Armenians whom they have interviewed.

Anti-Armenianism by individuals

For several months in 1994, someone posted messages under the alias Serdar Argic claiming that the Armenian Genocide did not happen or that Armenians massacred Turks, on Usenet newsgroup threads mentioning the word Turkey.[44]

Samuel Weems published the book Armenia: The Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State in May 2002. Weems has made such claims as the "number one export of Armenia is terrorism" and that there was no Armenian Genocide.[45]

American historian Justin McCarthy is known for his controversial view that no genocide was intended by the Ottoman Empire but that both Armenians and Turks died as the result of civil war. Some attribute his denial of the Armenian Genocide[46] to anti-Armenianism, but there is no independent evidence that he holds anti-Armenian views.

During her interviews modern Azerbaijani historian Farida Mammadova has made anti-Armenian statements. According to her, "it is known, that on whole planet exactly the Armenian people is distinguished by the absence of spiritual and other human values".[47]

Barbaros Agri uses the social networking site Facebook to advocate anti-Armenianism by being the creator of "The Biggest Lie Ever Told: The Armenian Genocide"[48]. The cause has 93,000 plus members.

Monitoring Anti-Armenian Activities

With the recent rapid increase in anti-Armenian propaganda, the need for a constant monitoring has emerged.

In December 2009, the ARDARUTYUN (JUSTICE)[49] project was launched (in Armenian, Russian and English) with the purpose of defending Armenian national dignity by thoroughly identifying, adequately countering and further neutralizing the consistent ideological hate campaigns, namely the malicious disinformation and defamation, inciting of intra-Armenian rivalry, crude falsification of Armenian history in its entirety, including the denial of the Armenian Genocide.

See also

References

  1. ^ Chris Aldrich. The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing, 2002. ISBN 155369886X. p. 225
  2. ^ Armenian Swiss website.
  3. ^ Communal Violence: The Armenians and the Copts as Case Studies, by Margaret J. Wyszomirsky, World Politics, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Apr., 1975), p. 438
  4. ^ Hamidian Massacres, Armenian Genocide.
  5. ^ See Levon Marashlian. Politics and Demography: Armenians, Turks, and Kurds in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Zoryan Institute, 1991.
  6. ^ Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (eds.) Dictionary of Genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0313346429, p. 19.
  7. ^ Noël, Lise. Intolerance: A General Survey. Arnold Bennett, 1994, ISBN 0773511873, p. 101.
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, by Richard T. Schaefer, 2008, p. 90.
  9. ^ Letter from the International Association of Genocide Scholars to Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, June 13, 2005
  10. ^ The Practice of a Century
  11. ^ EPP-ED Group: The Republic of Turkey
  12. ^ "Egoyan award winning film not shown yet in Turkey". Toronto Star. http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/pen-l/2004w01/msg00066.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-06. 
  13. ^ Gray Wolves Spoil Turkey's Publicity Ploy on Ararat
  14. ^ Ülkü Ocaklari: Ararat Yayinlanamaz (Turkish)
  15. ^ Ülkü Ocaklari: ARARAT'I Cesaretiniz Varsa Yayinlayin ! (Turkish)
  16. ^ "In Turkey, a Clash of Nationalism and History," Washington Post, 2005-09-29
  17. ^ TIME carries documentary, adopts policy on Armenian Genocide
  18. ^ TIME MAGAZINE: Carries documentary, adopts policy on Armenian Genocide
  19. ^ Harvey, Benjamin (2007-01-24). "Suspect in Journalist Death Makes Threat". Guardian Unlimited. http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6369111,00.html. Retrieved 2007-01-24. 
  20. ^ "Turkish-Armenian writer shot dead". BBC News. 2007-01-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6279241.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-19. 
  21. ^ By Robert Mahoney (2006-06-15). "Bad blood in Turkey" (PDF). Committee to Protect Journalists. http://www.cpj.org/Briefings/2006/DA_spring_06/DA_spring_06.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  22. ^ "IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul". International Press Institute. 2007-01-22. http://www.freemedia.at/cms/ipi/statements_detail.html?ctxid=CH0055&docid=CMS1169459655335. Retrieved 2007-01-24. 
  23. ^ Committee to Protect Journalists (2007-01-19). "Turkish-Armenian editor murdered in Istanbul". http://www.cpj.org/news/2007/mideast/turkey19jan07na.html. Retrieved 2007-01-24. "Dink had received numerous death threats from nationalist Turks who viewed his iconoclastic journalism, particularly on the mass killings of Armenians in the early 20th century, as an act of treachery." 
  24. ^ Turkish police uncover arms cache, The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 10, 2009
  25. ^ Ergenekon Arrests Preempt Coup Plan, Operation „Glove“, E.I.R. GmbH, 2009
  26. ^ Montgomery, Devin (2008-07-12). "Turkey arrests two ex-generals for alleged coup plot". JURIST. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/07/turkey-arrests-two-ex-generals-for.php. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  27. ^ Pogroms
  28. ^ Survivors of the Maraghar Massacre, Christianity Today.
  29. ^ Murder Case Judgment Reverberates Around Caucasus, War and Peace Reporting.
  30. ^ World Watches In Silence As Azerbaijan Wipes Out Armenian Culture.
  31. ^ PanArmenian.
  32. ^ Teymur Rajabov: The enemy is the enemy, we hate Armenians
  33. ^ "Albanian Myth" (in Russian) / V.A. Shnirelman, "Voyni pamyati. Mifi, identichnost i politika v Zakavkazye", Moscow, Academkniga, 2003
  34. ^ Benthall, Jonathan (ed.), The best of Anthropology Today, 2002, Routledge, ISBN 0415262550, p. 350 by Anatoly Khazanov
  35. ^ The Economist: Russia and Chechnya: The warlord and the spook
  36. ^ Jamestown.
  37. ^ a b Focus on Faction: Georgian media stirs Abkhazian-Armenian "conflict"
  38. ^ "Vandalism and misappropriation of Armenian churches in Georgia goes on". PanArmenian.net. http://www.panarmenian.net/details/eng/?nid=954. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  39. ^ "Armenians of Georgia urge to stop barbarous destruction of Armenian cultural heritage". PanArmenian.net. http://www.panarmenian.net/news/eng/?nid=27849. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  40. ^ "PROTEST ACTION AGAINST ENCROACHMENTS ON ARMENIAN CHURCHES IN GEORGIA HELD IN YEREVAN". defacto.am. http://www.defacto.am/index.php?OP=71341281. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  41. ^ a b LA Observed: Armenian genocide dispute erupts at LAT
  42. ^ Genocide Controversy Leads L.A. Times Managing Editor To Resign
  43. ^ Armenian Community Condemns Anti-Armenian Attacks During California Democratic Primary Election
  44. ^ Wendy Grossman, Net.Wars, NYU Press, 1997, chapter 11 (a), (b)
  45. ^ Weems Interview, Tall Armenian Tale.
  46. ^ "A PBS Documentary Makes Its Case for the Armenian Genocide, With or Without a Debate". New York Times. 2006-04-17. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/17/arts/television/17stan.html?ex=1302926400&en=42703f4960edef66&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  47. ^ Фарида Мамедова: «Разрушив захоронение «Агадеде», армяне в очередной раз пытаются посягнуть на историю Азербайджана», Day. Az daily, January 06, 2006 (in Russian)
  48. ^ http://apps.new.facebook.com/causes/9249?m=5e8b1
  49. ^ Ardarutyun.org is the ARARAT Center's project

Further reading

  • Hilmar Kaiser: Imperialism, Racism, and Development Theories. The Construction of a Dominant Paradigm on Ottoman Armenians, Gomidas Institute, Ann Arbor (MI) 1997
Advertisements

Simple English

Anti-Armenianism is hostility toward or prejudice against Armenian people, Armenian culture and the Republic of Armenia, which can range in expression from individual hatred to institutionalized persecution. Several organizations have stated that difficulties currently experienced by the Armenian minority in Turkey are a result of an anti-Armenian attitude by the Turkish government[1] as well as by ultra-nationalist groups such as the Grey Wolves.

Modern anti-Armenianism often seems to lacks a racial and cultural basis and appears to be based more on geopolitics and history, in addition to diplomatic and strategic interests, involving the modern states of Turkey and Azerbaijan. The controversy and emotions surrounding the Armenian Genocide and Nagorno-Karabakh are two examples of intense anti-Armenianism in both countries. Modern Anti-Armenianism is usually associated with either extreme opposition to the actions or existence of the Armenian Republic, and belief in an Armenian conspiracy.

Anti-Armenianism by individuals

For several months in 1994, Ahmet Coşar going by the alias of Serdar Argic posted thousands of messages, claiming that the Armenian Genocide did not happen or that Armenians massacred Turks, on Usenet newsgroup threads mentioning the word Turkey. Samuel Weems published the book "Armenia: The Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State" where he has made such claims as the "number one export of Armenia is terrorism" and that there was no Armenian Genocide.[2] American historian Justin McCarthy is known for his controversial support of Turkey's denial of the Armenian Genocide.[3] Azeri cartoonist Kerim Kerimov Mammadhan has produced around 4500[4] Anti-Armenian cartoons, most of which depict crude caricatures of Armenians. His cartoons are often included with the phrase “Terrorism, narkomania, and armenism are the same disease”. His works also often mocks the Armenian Genocide and its recognition by foreign countries, especially countries in Europe. Murad Gumen is another individual who espouses anti-Armenian rhetoric in his website "Tall Armenian Tale". Barbaros Agri uses the social networking site Facebook to advocate anti-Armenianism by being the creator of "The Biggest Lie Ever Told: The Armenian Genocide". The cause has 5000 plus members.

References

Other pages



Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message