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RG Casey House, Canberra, is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the department responsible for the formulation and enactment of Australian foreign policy.

The foreign relations of Australia have spanned from the country's time as Dominion and later Realm of the Commonwealth to become steadfastly allied with New Zealand through long-standing ANZAC ties dating back to the early 1900s and the United States throughout the Cold War to its engagement with Asia as a power in its own right. Its relations with the international community are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid.

Australia's foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism and regionalism, as well as to strong bilateral relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, economic cooperation with Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific. Australia is active in the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Contents

History

Its first major independent foreign policy action was to conclude an agreement in 1944 with New Zealand dealing with the security, welfare, and advancement of the people of the independent territories of the Pacific (the ANZAC pact). After the war, Australia played a role in the Far Eastern Commission in Japan and supported Indonesian independence during that country's revolt against the Dutch (1945–49).

Australia was one of the founders of both the United Nations and the South Pacific Commission (1947), and in 1950, it proposed the Colombo Plan to assist developing countries in Asia. In addition to contributing to UN forces in the Korean War – it was the first country to announce it would do so after the United States – Australia sent troops to assist in putting down the communist revolt in Malaya in 1948–60 and later to combat the Indonesian-supported invasion of Sarawak in 1963–65.

Australia also sent troops to assist South Vietnamese and US forces in Vietnam and joined coalition forces in the Persian Gulf conflict in 1991. Australia has been active in the Australia – New Zealand – United Kingdom agreement and the Five Power Defence Arrangement—successive arrangements with Britain and New Zealand to ensure the security of Singapore and Malaysia.

In 1999 Australian peace keeping forces intervened in East Timor following its referendum to secede from Indonesia. In 2006 Australia sent a contingent of Australian troops to the state in order to assist in the 2006 East Timor crisis.

International agencies, treaties, and agreements

One of the drafters of the UN Charter, Australia has given firm support to the United Nations and its specialised agencies. It was a member of the Security Council in 1986–87, a member of the Economic and Social Council in 1986–89, and a member of the UN Human Rights Commission in 1994–96. Australia takes a prominent part in many other UN activities, including peacekeeping, disarmament negotiations, and narcotics control.

Australia also is active in meetings of the Commonwealth Heads of Government and the South Pacific Forum, and has been a leader in the Cairns Group — countries pressing for agricultural trade reform in the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations — and in the APEC forum. In September 1999, acting under a UN Security Council mandate, Australia led an international coalition to restore order in East Timor upon Indonesia's withdrawal from that territory.

Australia has devoted particular attention to relations between developed and developing nations, with emphasis on the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) — Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Brunei — and the island states of the South Pacific. Australia is an active participant in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), which promotes regional cooperation on security issues. Australia was a participant at the inaugural ASEAN sponsored East Asia Summit in 2005. Australia's place at the summit was only secured after it agreed to reverse its policy and accede to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. Australia had been reluctant to sign the treaty out of concerns regarding how it would effect Australia's obligation under other treaty arrangements including ANZUS.

Australia has a large bilateral aid programme (about $1.3 billion for 1997–98, mostly in the form of grants) under which some 60 countries receive assistance. Papua New Guinea (PNG), a former Australian trust territory, is the largest recipient of Australian assistance. Starting in 1997–99 Australia contributed to the IMF program for Thailand and assisted Indonesia and PNG with regional environmental crisis and drought relief efforts.

Security treaties

Australia is party to the Australia, New Zealand, United States security treaty.

It has also been a party of the Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom force.

Trade

Overall Australia's largest trading partners are the United States, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. Australia currently has bilateral Free Trade Agreements with New Zealand, the United States, Thailand and Singapore as of 2007. As well as this, Australia is in the process undertaking studies on Free Trade Agreements with ASEAN, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea and Malaysia.

Sanctions

Australia has played an active role in implementing trade and migration sanctions against governments whose activities have endangered their global or domestic communities, such as in North Korea and Zimbabwe. However, recently Australia’s effectiveness in the implementation and commitment to sanctions has being questioned, with the AWB’s breach of US sanctions on Iraq; though, despite the United States' lift on uranium trade sanctions with India, Australia continues to refuse to supply Uranium to India.

On 9 October 2006 North Korea carried out an underground nuclear test. This act caused much global tension, and prompted the United Nation’s Security Council to dispense trade sanctions, migration sanctions and financial sanctions against the country. The sanctions were specifically aimed towards the restriction of trading goods and money that may aid North Korea’s nuclear weapon’s program. Australia was quick to adopt these sanctions as law, illustrating its commitment to them. This commitment was further displayed by the former Foreign Affairs Minister Alexander Downer’s strong stance towards sanctions and their role in ensuring a safer global community, “We will strictly implement the measures mandated by the Security Council”. Clearly, Australia’s role in this conflict was strong and tenacious, as it diligently attempted to pressure the North Korean government to terminate its nuclear weapons program.

Another example of Australia’s commitment to sanctions, as a means of coercing humane and responsible governing, is their recent migratory sanctions on Zimbabwe. Under the Zimbabwean President, Robert Mugabe, and his regime’s undemocratic, inhuman and economically unstable policies, the country is deteriorating. As a result Australia has implemented migration sanctions which prohibit the children of the regime members to hold a student visa. According to Mr Downer, “These new measures will now also prevent these individuals from giving their families the kind of education their policies have denied the ordinary people of Zimbabwe.” Again, this displays Australia’s committed and industrious role in using sanctions to pressure governments into governing in a trustworthy and humane manner. This claim, however, may be rebutted by the Australian Government's apparent unwillingness to intervene more effectively in East Timor and Indonesia during the 1999 crisis. Many high ranking military officials felt "constrained" by the policies they were forced to adhere to during the ADF's mission there.

Despite these positive sanction efforts; Australia’s role regarding sanctions has being flawed. For example, in 2006 AWB’s (Australian Wheat Board) US subsidiary (which trades using American currency) attempted to pay an Iranian transport company approximately $1 million, in clear breach of the US sanctions. These sanctions prohibit American citizens and companies using American currency from trading with Iran.

Foreign missions

Australia House, Canada, is an example of an Australian mission (it serves as the ambassadorial residence). As Canada is a fellow Commonwealth nation, Australia maintains a High Commission there.

Australia has diplomatic representatives in most countries. Australia has official relations with a number of countries. In these countries, Australia maintains an embassy, or in the case of Commonwealth countries, a high commission. Australia has consulates in many countries where there are no official government ties in existence, and these serve primarily to assist Australian travellers and business people visiting those countries. A number of Canadian missions provide consular assistance to Australians in countries in Africa where Australia does not maintain an office (and Australia reciprocates this arrangement for Canada in some other countries).

Due to the One China Policy of the People's Republic of China, in Taiwan the Australian Commerce and Industry Office unofficially represents Australia's interest. It serves the functions similar to other Australian Consulates.

Pacific

Australia is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum and other regional organisations. It has High Commissions in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. It has an embassy in the Federated States of Micronesia. Australia provides aid to many of its developing Pacific Islands neighbours, and to Papua New Guinea.

Australia's approach to the Pacific has included frequent references to what it has perceived as an "Arc of Instability" among its island neighbours. In August 2006 Australian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson stated to the Australian Parliament:

We cannot afford to have failing states in our region. The so-called 'arc of instability', which basically goes from East Timor through to the south-west Pacific states, means that not only does Australia have a responsibility in preventing and indeed assisting with humanitarian and disaster relief, but also that we cannot allow any of these countries to become havens for transnational crime, nor indeed havens for terrorism.[1]

Pacific Island countries are currently requesting that Australia allow seasonal migrants from the islands to enter the country on temporary work visas. Tuvalu is also requesting that Australia welcome part of its population on a permanent basis if and when they become climate refugees due to rising sea levels.

As from early 2008 the Australian government led by Kevin Rudd began what it called a "new approach" to relations between Australia and the Pacific, appointing a Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs, Duncan Kerr. In February, Kerr and fellow Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Bob McMullan visited Samoa, Tonga and Kiribati in February, and stated:

"Broadly, the approach is one of much more partnership and engagement on the basis of mutual respect. We're not going to be lecturing or hectoring, we're going to try and work together with them and I think we set a pretty good standard with the way we started. The relationships we've established with ministers and leaders in those countries [Kiribati, Tonga and Samoa] is very positive."[2]
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East Timor

Australia and East Timor are near neighbours with close political and trade ties. East Timor, one of the poorest countries in Asia, lies about 610 kilometres (380 mi) northwest of the Australian city of Darwin and Australia has played a prominent role in the young republic's history. Australia led the military force that helped stabilise the country after it chose independence from Indonesia in 1999 and has been a major source of aid since.

Fiji

Relations with Fiji are strained due to Australia's condemnation of the military coup which overthrew the government of Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase in December 2006. Military leader and "interim Prime Minister" Voreqe Bainimarama has accused Australia of "bullying" Fiji by applying sanctions and insisting on a swift return to a democratic government. In March 2008 the Fiji Human Rights Commission published a report which alleged that Australia might have been planning an armed intervention in Fiji in late 2006. Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith dismissed the allegations, and stated: "The best thing that can happen in Fiji is not spurious suggestions about Australian activity but having an election, returning Fiji to democracy, respecting human rights".[3]


On November 4, 2009, Fijian military leader, Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, expelled the Australian high commissioner James Batley and his New Zealand counterpart. He said that Australia and New Zealand had tried to undermine Fiji's judiciary and weaken its economy. New Zealand and Australia disputed key aspects of Fiji's claims.[4] In response, Australia quickly expelled Fiji's acting high commissioner, Kamlesh Kumar Arya.[5]

Nauru

Australian-Nauruan relations go back almost a century. Australia administered Nauru as a dependent territory from 1914 to 1968, and has remained one of Nauru's foremost economic and aid partners thereafter. Relations between the two countries are, at present, cordial, with Australia having committed itself to assisting Nauru's economic development.

Relations between Australia and Nauru were essentially framed by the Pacific Solution, whereby Nauru housed a detention centre for unauthorised refugee applicants who had attempted to enter Australia, and Australia provided financial aid in return. The detention centre was closed by Australia in February 2008, causing Nauru to express concern regarding the future of its economy.

New Zealand

The relationship between Australia and New Zealand is exceptionally close on both the national and interpersonal scales.[6] This close relationship goes back to the time of the first World War and the ANZAC Spirit forged at Gallipoli. Former New Zealand Prime Minister Mike Moore declared that Australians and New Zealanders have more in common than New Yorkers and Californians.[7] Relations are especially close given the number of tourists that travel between the two countries and the (generally) common economics policy. Immigration, employment, and residency policies are also very liberal and generous between citizens of either nation, similar to a two-nation model European Union.

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea is Australia's closest neighbour, and former dependent territory. Relations between Canberra and Port Moresby are close, although there have been tensions in recent years. Papua New Guinea has developed much closer relations with Australia than with Indonesia, the only country it shares a border with. The two countries are Commonwealth realms, and Papua New Guinea benefits from economic development aid from Australia. Relations are, at present, cordial.

Under the government of John Howard, Australia's relations with Michael Somare's Papua New Guinea worsened, primarily because of the "Julian Moti affair", but also because of the "shoes episode". Rudd and Somare have met to mend relations between Australia and Papua New Guinea.

Solomon Islands

Under the government of John Howard, Australia's relations with Manasseh Sogavare's Solomon Islands were strained, primarily because of the "Julian Moti affair". Sogavare notably accused Australia of conducting neo-colonialism in the Solomons via RAMSI. On 1 October 2007, the Solomon Islands' Foreign Affairs Minister Patteson Oti addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations, and accused Australia of undermining his country's sovereignty:

Mine is too nationalistic a government to become captive to the fortunes which justify our perpetual retention under siege. My [country's government] remain[s] unmoved by Australian resistance to our attempts to reclaim our sovereignty and independence.[8]

This led Australia to exercise its right of reply, denying the accusation.[9] Relations subsequently improved when both Howard and Sogavare lost office in December 2007, and their successors -Kevin Rudd and Derek Sikua- immediately set out to improve relations between Canberra and Honiara.

Australia currently leads the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, at the request of the Governor-General of the Solomon Islands.

Tonga

Following the 2006 riots in Tonga, Australia sent police officers, at Tonga's request, to help stabilise the situation in the kingdom.

Southeast and East Asia

"When describing Australia in Asia it can be compared to the spot cream left over by the dipping knife of colonialism in a uniquely Asian jar of jam. Both go well together on a multilateral scone but cannot be mixed in a pot. The jam with has too many inconsistencies and the cream is too ambiguous for either to fully blend." (Whyte 2005:57)

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Indonesia See Australia–Indonesia relations

Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice cooperation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance.

The two nations differ in terms of religion and language: Indonesia is a largely Muslim country, whereas Australia possesses a Judeo-Christian heritage. Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.[10]

In 2008–09 Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of $462 million. [11]

 Japan See Australia–Japan relations

Australia-Japan relations are generally warm, substantial and driven by mutual interests, and have expanded beyond strong economic and commercial links to other spheres, including culture, tourism, defence and scientific cooperation.

 Malaysia
 People's Republic of China See Australia – People's Republic of China relations

Despite political unsureness, the PRC and Australia actively take part in a close and politically robust partnership.

 Philippines See Australia-Philippines relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney.[13]
 Singapore See Australia–Singapore relations
  • Australia has a high commission in Singapore.
  • Singapore has a high commission in Canberra.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Both Australia and Singapore are members of the Five Power Defence Arrangements and often participate in military exercises together.[12]
 South Korea 1963-05May 1963 See Australia – South Korea relations
  • During the Korean War, Australia has sent 17,000 soldiers to offer military cooperation with South Korea.
  • Economic ties has been strengthened while trade value between the two reached $18 thousand million in 2007.[14]
 Thailand 1952 See Australia-Thailand relations
 Vietnam 1973 See Australia–Vietnam relations

Each country has an embassy with the other.[15]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Foreign relations of Argentina
 Barbados See Australia–Barbados relations
 Brazil See Australia-Brazil relations

Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney. Australia has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate in São Paulo.

 Canada See Australia–Canada relations

Canada's and Australia's militaries have fought alongside each other numerous times including World War I, World War II, the Korean War and many United Nations Security Council-sanctioned missions. To maintain this military alliance, a Canadian Defence Advisor is stationed at the High Commission in Canberra to share intelligence[17]. Australia and Canada both contributed the International force in East Timor and both worked closely together to fight terrorism in Afghanistan

 Chile

Diplomatic relations date back from the time when Australia was a British colony, during the Australian gold rush, population grew fast and Chile became one of Australias major wheat supplier and there was a regular traffic of ships between Sydney and Valparaíso. Both countries are members of the APEC the Cairns Group.

Australia and Chile signed the Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement on 30 July 2008. The agreement will come into effect in the first quarter of 2009.

 Mexico

Australia and Mexico's partnership is strong and still increasing. The two APEC allies Australia and Mexico celebrated the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations in 2006. Cooperation expansions recently has resulted in several commercial outcomes, including bilateral double taxation agreements signed in 2004, a memorandum of understanding on mining (MOU) in 2002, an MOU on Training and Education signed in 2003 an MOU on energy in 2005 and in August 2005 an MOU on investment protection and promotion agreement.

 Peru 1963 See Australia–Peru relations
 United States
Former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, with former US President George W. Bush on 16 May 2006, during Howard's seventh official visit to the White House as Prime Minister. From left to right: the Prime Minister's wife Janette Howard, former US First Lady Laura Bush, Howard and Bush.

See Australia – United States relations

While Australia has traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations, it has strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalised by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement. Moreover, the United States has had a considerable impact on Australian culture.[citation needed]

 Uruguay See Australia-Uruguay relations
  • Australia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney.
  • Australia and Uruguay share an interest in the Antarctic waters and the fisheries therein.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria See Foreign relations of Austria
 Bulgaria 1972
  • Australia is represented in Bulgaria through its embassy in Athens (Greece). Australia has an honorary consulate in Sofia.[20]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Canberra.[21]
 Cyprus
 Czech Republic 1920
 Denmark
 Estonia 01921-09-2222 September 1921[30] See Australia–Estonia relations

Australia was among the first countries to re-recognise Estonia's independence on 27 August 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1991.[30]

Australia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Stockholm (Sweden), and through an honorary consulate in Tallinn. Estonia is represented in Australia through its embassy in Tokyo (Japan) and through three honorary consulates (in Claremont, Hobart, and two in Sydney). Australia is host to one of the largest communities of Estonians abroad, with 8,232 people identifying as Estonian in the 2006 Australian Census.[30][31]

 Finland See Australia–Finland relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949. Australia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, and through an honorary consulate in Helsinki. Finland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate in Sydney.

 France See Australia–France relations

France and Australia have a close relationship founded on historical contacts, shared values of democracy and human rights, substantial commercial links, and a keen interest in each other's culture.

 Greece
 Hungary 1972
 Ireland See Australia–Ireland relations
 Italy See Australia–Italy relations
 Kosovo 21 May 2008[42] See Australia–Kosovo relations
  • Australia recognised the Republic of Kosovo on 19 February 2008.[43]
  • Australia's Ambassador to Kosovo is subordinate to the Embassy in Vienna.[44]
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1967
 Montenegro 02006-09-011 September 2006
 Netherlands
  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra.
 Romania 01968-03-1818 March 1968
  • Australia has a non-resident ambassador in its embassy in Belgrade (Serbia), and has a consulate general in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney.[47]
  • Romania and Australia have concluded an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement, signed in 1994, a Trade and Economic Agreement (signed with full effect for Australia in July 2002 and for Romania in January 2003) and an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion, signed in 2001. [48]
 Russia 1942 See Australia–Russia relations
 Serbia 1966 See Australia–Serbia relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Belgrade. Australian Ambassador to Serbia is Clare Birgin.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Serbian Ambassador to Australia is Milivoje Glišić and Consul-General in Sydney is Aleksandar Besarabić.
  • The European office of the Australian Federal Police is located in Belgrade as of 2003.
  • In the 2006 Australian Census, 95,364 people identified themselves as having Serbian origin.
 Slovenia 01992-02-055 February 1992
 Sweden See Australia–Sweden relations

Australia has an embassy in Stockholm. Sweden has an embassy in Canberra as well as a Consulate-General in Sydney. Sweden is also represented by consulates in Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne and Perth.

 Switzerland 1961
 Turkey 1967 See Australian–Turkish relations
 Ukraine
 United Kingdom See Australia – United Kingdom relations

Anglo-Australian relations are close, marked by shared history, culture, institutions and language, extensive people-to-people links, aligned security interests, and vibrant trade and investment cooperation.

South Asia and Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 India See Australia–India relations[56]

In 2009, relations were strained between the two nations by the attacks on Indian students, termed "Curry Bashings" in Melbourne[57]. Police denied any racial motivation, but this was viewed differently by the government in India leading to high-level meetings with Australian officials.[58]

 Israel 1948
 Pakistan See Australia–Pakistan relations

The relations between the two countries have been friendly, with former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf having visited Australia in 2005[61] and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to study in Australia.[62]

 Sri Lanka
  • Bilateral relations are generally warm, supported by trade, investment flows, education, immigration and other development cooperations. Australia is also a member in helping the economic and social development of Sri Lanka.
  • In 2007 a two-way trade agreement was created between Australia and Sri Lanka valued at $232 million a year. The trade agreement includes exports from Australia such as vegetables and dairy products. Tea and other foods, textiles, clothing, rubber, iron and steel which are the main imports from Sri Lanka.
  • In 2008–09 the estimated budget for aid to Sri Lanka is $27 million.[63]

Sri Lanka Country Brief

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Egypt 1950 See Australia–Egypt relations
 South Africa See Australia – South Africa relations
  • Australia has a High Commission in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has a High Commission in Canberra.
 Zimbabwe See Australia–Zimbabwe relations

Both countries have full embassy level diplomatic relations.[67] Australia currently manintains an embassy in Harare,[68] and Zimbabwe maintains an embassy in Canberra.[69]

International disputes

Australia has a number of ongoing international disputes. Australia's role in the 2003 Invasion of Iraq without UN sanction has been a cause of protest. Presently, there is tension in Australia's relations with Indonesia over the release of Abu Bakar Bashir as well as Australia's recent decision to grant temporary protection visas to 42 West Papuans, after which Indonesia's ambassador was recalled. There was also minor tensions between the two countries in 2004–05 when Schapelle Corby was imprisoned for 20 years for possessing 4.2 kg of marijuana.

A recent foreign relations dispute came to light when, on the 12 September 2006, the Australian High Commissioner in Honiara, Solomon Islands — Patrick Cole — was labelled persona non grata by the Solomon Islands government. The incident marked the beginning of a diplomatic dispute between the two nations, with the Australian federal government and in particular the Prime Minister implementing diplomatic changes including new visa requirements on Solomon Islands diplomats.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Dobell, Graeme (20 August 2006). "The Pacific 'arc of instability'". Correspondent's Report. http://www.abc.net.au/correspondents/content/2006/s1719019.htm. 
  2. ^ "Aust, Pacific working on damaged relationship", Edmond Roy, ABC News, 10 February 2008
  3. ^ "Smith rejects Fiji accusations", The Australian, 2 April 2008
  4. ^ Chris Merritt and Patrick Walters, 'Fiji Expels High Commissioner',The Australian 4 November 2009, [1]
  5. ^ Samantha Maiden, 'Australia expels top Fiji Diplomat in retaliation move', The Australian, 4 November 2009, [2]
  6. ^ "NZ, Australia 'should consider merger'". Sydney Morning Herald. 4 December 2006. http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/nz-australia-should-consider-merger/2006/12/04/1165080875361.html. Retrieved 20 March 2008. "The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs [found] "While Australia and New Zealand are of course two sovereign nations, it seems to the committee that the strong ties between the two countries – the economic, cultural, migration, defence, governmental and people-to-people linkages – suggest that an even closer relationship, including the possibility of union, is both desirable and realistic,"" 
  7. ^ Australia and New Zealand Cooks – Community – Allrecipes
  8. ^ Patteson Oti, statement at the 62nd session of the United Nations General Assembly, 2 October 2007
  9. ^ Australia exercises its right of reply to Patteson Oti's statement, United Nations General Assembly, 2 October 2007
  10. ^ http://www.dfat.gov.au/media/speeches/foreign/1996/austindo.html see reference to '12000 students' from Indonesia
  11. ^ a b c http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/indonesia/indonesia_brief.html
  12. ^ a b Australian Department of Defence
  13. ^ Australian embassy in Manila
  14. ^ (Korean)Greetings in Korean embassy
  15. ^ Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs VIETNAM – AUSTRALIA RELATIONS
  16. ^ Australian High Commission to Trinidad and Tobago (Accredited to Barbados)
  17. ^ "Australia-Canada bilateral relations". Government of Canada. http://geo.international.gc.ca/asia/australia/relations/canausdefence-en.aspx. Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  18. ^ Australian embassy in Santiago (also accredited to Peru)
  19. ^ Peruvian embassy in Canberra
  20. ^ Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Bulgaria
  21. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Canberra
  22. ^ Australian High Commission in Nicosia
  23. ^ Cyprus High Commission in Canberra
  24. ^ Australian embassy in Warsaw (also accredited to the Czech Republic)
  25. ^ Czech embassy in Canberra
  26. ^ Czech general consulate in Sydney
  27. ^ Australian embassy in Copenhagen
  28. ^ Danish embassy in Canberra
  29. ^ Danish general consulate in Sydney
  30. ^ a b c "Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Estonia". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.dfat.gov.au/GEO/estonia/estonia_brief.html. Retrieved 3 June 2009. 
  31. ^ "Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Australia". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.vm.ee/eng/kat_176/2846.html. Retrieved 3 June 2009. 
  32. ^ Australian embassy in Athens
  33. ^ Greek embassy in Canberra
  34. ^ Commonwealth of Australia. "About the Australian Embassy in Hungary". http://www.hungary.embassy.gov.au/btps/aboutus.html. Retrieved 23 December 2008. 
  35. ^ Hungarian consulate general in Sydney
  36. ^ Australia embassy in Dublin
  37. ^ Irish honorary consulate in Victoria
  38. ^ Australian embassy in Rome
  39. ^ Italian embassy in Canberra
  40. ^ Italian general consulate in Sydney
  41. ^ Italian general consulate in Perth
  42. ^ "Kosovo Country Brief". Australian Government - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2008-10-03. http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/kosovo/country_brief.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  43. ^ "Australia Recognises the Republic of Kosovo". Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2008-02-19. http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2008/fa-s034_08.html. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  44. ^ "Australia's International Relations". Australian Embassy and Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Slovakia, and Slovenia. http://www.austria.embassy.gov.au/vien/relations.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  45. ^ Australian High Commission in Valletta
  46. ^ Maltese representations in Australia
  47. ^ Romanian embassy in Canberra
  48. ^ Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Romania
  49. ^ Australian embassy in Moscow
  50. ^ Russian embassy in Canberra
  51. ^ "Diplomatic relations". Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia Canberra. http://canberra.embassy.si/index.php?id=1576&L=1. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  52. ^ Slovenian embassy in Canberra
  53. ^ Australian embassy in Ankara
  54. ^ Turkish embassy in Canberra
  55. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Canberra
  56. ^ Foreign relations of India#Australia
  57. ^ 'Curry bashings' strain Australia-India relations
  58. ^ 'Race' attacks spark Indian rally – BBC News
  59. ^ Australian embassy in Tel Aviv
  60. ^ Israeli embassy in Canberra
  61. ^ Musharraf on key Australia visit – BBC News
  62. ^ Earthquakes in South Asia – Australian Government
  63. ^ http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/sri_lanka/sri_lanka_country_brief.html
  64. ^ Australian embassy Cairo
  65. ^ Egyptian embassy in Canberra
  66. ^ Egyptian Consulate-General in Sydney
  67. ^ "Zimbabwe – Country Brief". http://web.archive.org/web/20070806111604/http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/zimbabwe/zimbabwe_brief.html. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  68. ^ "Australian Embassy, Zimbabwe". http://www.dfat.gov.au/missions/countries/zw.html. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  69. ^ "Zimbabwe Details". http://www.info.dfat.gov.au/Info/WebProtocol/WebProtocol.nsf/WebConsularList?OpenForm&ZimbabweD. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 

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