Anti-Turkism: Wikis


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A World War I Russian propaganda poster depicting a Turk running away from a Cossack.

Anti-Turkism, Turkophobia, Turcophobia or anti-Turkish sentiment is the hostility towards Turkish people, Turkish culture, the Ottoman Empire (Turkish Empire) and the Republic of Turkey.

Anti-Turkism does not always refer to just the Turks of Turkey, but can also refer to various Turkic peoples and Balkan Muslims. This includes the Turkic peoples living in the Russian Federation, the Turkic states of the former Soviet Union, the autonomous Xinjiang Uyghur region of the People's Republic of China, the northern part of Cyprus self-titled as Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, and even non-Turkic Balkan Muslims, particularly Bosniaks and Macedonian Muslims.


Early History

Turcophobia is sometimes traced to the Turkish Wars of the Late Middle Ages, viz. the attempts of Western Christianity to stem the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. By the middle of the 1400s special masses called missa contra turcas (translated as "mass against Turks") were celebrated in various places in Europe,[1] the message of these masses was that victory over the Turks was only possible with the help of God and that a Christian community was therefore necessary to withstand the cruelty of the Turks.


16th Century

Bishop Fabri of Vienna (1536–41) claimed that:

"There are no crueller and more audacious villains under the heavens than the Turks who spare no age or sex and mercilessly cut down young and old alike and pluck unripe fruit from the wombs of mothers".[1]

In the 16th century about 2,500 publications about the Turks were spread around Europe (over a thousand of which were in German), in these publications the image of the 'bloodthirsty Turk' was imprinted on reader. In fact in the period of 1480 to 1610, twice as many books were published about the Turkish threat to Europe than about the discovery of the continents of America.[1]

During this time the Ottoman Empire had conquered the Balkans and had been besieging Vienna. There was much fear in Europe about the Ottoman advance. But the fear was most profound to people in Germany. The reason was partly because of the "Hapsburg propaganda that exaggerated the Turkish threat in an effort to gain support for imperial ambitions in eastern Europe"[2]. Luther cleverly used these fears which were propagated by Hapsburgs by asserting that "the “Turks” were the agents of the Devil who, along with the Antichrist located in the heart of the Catholic Church, Rome, would usher in the Last Days and the Apocalypse" [3].

Martin Luther had the view that the Turks' invasion of Europe was God's punishment of Christianity because it had allowed the corruption of both the Holy See and the Church. In 1518 when he defended his 95 theses, Luther claimed that God had sent the Turks to punish the Christians in the same way as he had sent war, plagues and earthquakes. The reply of Pope Leo X was the famous papal bull in which he threatened Luther with excommunication and attempted to portray Luther as a troublemaker who advocated capitulation to the Turks.[1] In his writings On War Against the Turk and Military Sermon Against the Turks Martin Luther is "consistent in his theological conception of the Turks as a manifestation of God's chastising rod"[4]. Luther and his followers "particularly" made "important" contributions to the view that the war between Hapsburgs and Ottomans was also a war "between Christ and antichrist" or "between God and the devil[5].

Of course, Hapsburgs were not the only imperial power who used "war on Turks" as an instrument. For Portuguese Empire, that was seeking to invade more lands in east Africa and other parts of the world, any encounter with the "Terrible Turk" provided them with "a prime opportunity to establish credentials as champions of the faith on par with other Europeans"[6]

Stories of the Wolf-Turk also gave Europe this negative image of the Turks. The Wolf-Turk was claimed to be a man-eating being, half animal half human with a Wolf’s head and tail. Military power and cruelty were the recurring attributes in all these claims about the origins of the Turks.[1]

17th Century

During the seventeenth century Turks and Turkish life style continued to be portrayed negatively because of political and ideological reasons. The use of accounts of Turkish customs and Turkish people written during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, "served as an "ideological weapon" during the Enlightenment's arguments about the nature of government"[7]. Authors projected an image of Turkish people that is "inaccurate but accepted"[8]. Regarding writings on Turkish people and their life styles, "accuracy [was] of little importance; what matters [was] the illusion"[9].

In Sweden, the Turks were designated the arch-enemy of Christianity. This is evident in a book entitled Luna Turcica eller Turkeske måne, anwissjandes lika som uti en spegel det mahometiske vanskelige regementet, fördelter uti fyra qvarter eller böcker ("Turkish moon showing as in a mirror the dangerous Mohammedan rule, divided into four quarters or books") which was published in 1694 and was written by the parish priest Erland Dryselius of Jönköping. In sermons the country's clergy preached about the Turks' general cruelty and bloodthirstiness and of how they systematically burned and plundered the areas they conquered. In a Swedish school book published in 1795 Islam was described as "the false religion that had been fabricated by the great deceiver Muhammad, to which the Turks to this day universally confess".[1]

In Orientalism, Edward Said noted that:

"Until the end of the seventeenth century the 'Ottoman peril' lurked alongside Europe to represent for the whole of Christian civilization a constant danger, and in time European civilization incorporated that peril and its lore, its great events, figures, virtues, and vices, as something woven into the fabric of life."[10]

Within the Ottoman Empire

Within the Ottoman Empire, the name "Turk" was sometimes used to denote backwoodsmen, bumpkins, or the illiterate peasants in Anatolia. "Etrak-i bi-idrak", for example, was an Ottoman play on words, meaning "the stupid Turk".[11]

Özay Mehmet in his book Islamic Identity and Development: Studies of the Islamic Periphery mentions[12]:

The ordinary Turks did not have a sense of belonging to a ruling ethnic group. In particular, they had a confused sense of self-image. Who were they: Turks, Muslims or Ottomans? Their literature was sometimes Persian, sometimes Arabic, but always courtly and elitist. There was always a huge social and cultural distance between the Imperial centre and the Anatolian periphery. As Bernard Lewis expressed it: "in the Imperial society of the Ottomans the ethnic term Turk was little used, and then chiefly in a rather derogatory sense, to designate the Turcoman nomads or, later, the ignorant and uncouth Turkish-speaking peasants of the Anatolian villages." (Lewis 1968: 1)

In the words of a British observer of the Ottoman values and institutions at the start of the twentieth century: "The surest way to insult an Ottoman gentleman is to call him a 'Turk'. His face will straightway wear the expression a Londoner's assumes, when he hears himself frankly styled a Cockney. He is no Turk, no savage, he will assure you, but an Ottoman subject of the Sultan, by no means to be confounded with certain barbarians styled Turcomans, and from whom indeed, on the male side, he may possibly be descended."(Davey 1907: 209)

Handan Nezir Akmeşe, who describes the attempts of the Young Turk movement to ingrain nationalism among the Turkish speakers of the Ottoman empire prior to World War I[13]:

One consequence was to reinforce these officers sense of their Turkish nationality, and a sense of national grievance arising out of the contrast between the non-Muslim communities, with their prosperous, European-educated elites, and "the poor Turks [who] inherited from the Ottoman Empire nothing but a broken sword and an old-fashioned plough." Unlike the non-Muslim and non-Turkish communities, they noted with some bitterness, the Turks did not even have a proper sense of their own national identity, and used to make fun of each other, calling themselves "donkey Turk"

Contemporary Anti-Turkism

Before the sixties Turkey had "relativle low emigration[14]. After the adoption of new constitution in 1961, Turkish citizens began migrating outside[15 ]. Gradually, in certain Western countries, Turks became a "prominent ethnic minority group"[16], and thus, become "increasingly visible and vocal"[17]. But since the begining Turks were subject to discrimination against them. Even when "host countries" launched "shift in policy" regarding the immigrants "only the Turkish workers were excluded"[18] from them.


Among all, Turks are "the most prominent ethnic minority group in contemporary Germany"[19]. But discrimination against Turkish minority "occurres in various everyday situations"[20] in Germany. After the adoption of 1961 constitution, Turkish citizens began migrating outside the country[15 ]. While the population of Turkish immigrant workers reaching 3 millions in numbers, Turkish minorities have become "well-known butts of welfare chauvinism and racial violence in Germany"[21]. After 1980, xenophobia targeting Turkish minorities grow parallel with unemployment rates and "latent anti-Semitism was transformed into open 'anti-Turkism'"[22]. Turks subjected to destructive jokes and public discourse and were shown "ludicrously different in their food tastes, dress, names, and even in their ability to develop survival techniques[23]. Those "eye-opening" jokes contain such a great deal of animosity and aggressive tendencies so that it is "reflected in the actual increasing violence towards Turks"[24]. As a result of all these discrimination, "serious behavioral consequences of prejudice against Turks is prevailing in Germany"[20].


Netherlands has a sizable Turkish minority group as well as Germany. Turkish ethnic minority group is the "second largest ethnic minority group living in the Netherlands" and their culture is considered to "differ substantially from Dutch culture"[25]. Even though progressive policies are installed, "especially compared with those in some other European countries such as Germany"[26] Human Rights Watch criticized Netherllands for new legislations violating the human rights of Turkish ethnic minority group[27]. The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance published its third report on Netherlands in 2008. In this report Turkish minority group is described as a notable community which have been particularly affected by "stigmatisation of and discrimination against members of minority groups"[28] as a result of controversial policies of the governments of Netherlands. The same report also noted that "the tone of Dutch political and public debate around integration and other issues relevant to ethnic minorities has experienced a dramatic deterioration".

Recently, use of the word "allochtonen" as a "catch-all expression" for "the other" emerged as a new development. European Network against Racism, an international organisation supported by European Commission reported that, in Netherlands, half of the Turks reported having experienced racial discrimination[29]. Same report points "dramatic growth of islamophobia" parallel with antisemitism. Another international organisation European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia highlighted negative trend in Netherlands, regarding attitudes towards minorities, compared to avarage EU results[30]. The analysis also noted that compared to most other Europeans, in the Netherlands, majority group is "more in favour of cultural assimilation of minorities" rather than "cultural enrichment by minority groups".


In the 2000s, Anti-Turkism has risen dramatically in Bulgaria. As an indicator of the rise of Anti-Turkism, Boiko Borisov, "a flamboyant, populist wrestler-cum-politician with anti-Turkish, anti-Gypsy tendencies"[31] came to power in June-July 2009 elections. In December 2009, PM Borisov "declared himself in favor of a motion put forth by the nationalist party ATAKA and its leader for holding a referendum over the broadcast of daily Turkish language news emissions on the Bulgarian National TV"[32].It has become ordinary to hear Anti-Turkic comments from politicians even from cabinet members so that Turkish prime minister "expressed his concern of rising anti-Turkish sentiments in Bulgaria"[33] to Bulgarian prime minister. Turkish Foreign Ministry also "expressed its concern over the rising heated rhetoric in Bulgaria"[34] targeting ethnic Turkish minority group. The striking point was that "not just ATAKA but a large number of Bulgarians have resented the news in Turkish"[32].


The term "Turk" acquired the a meaning similar to "barbarian" or "heathen" in various European languages, as evident from the following dictionary entries:

Many vices in the world were associated with the Turks. Others came from history, when Turks invaded Europe. Some sayings:

  • In Dutch there are, although at present not much used, a lot of demeaning phrases about Turks. The most used ones include "eruit zien als een Turk" ("to look like a Turk") which means to be dirty, disgusting and "rijden als een Turk" ("driving like a Turk") which means someone is a bad driver. For decades after the Turkish immigrants came to The Netherlands most encyclopedias and dictionaires, including the Van Dale, still referred to a Turk as someone who is dirty, barbaric and bloodthirsty, instead of someone who lives in Turkey.[37][38]
  • In Italian phrases such as "bestemmia come un Turco" ("he swears like a Turk"). One of the most infamous Italian phrase (and one much used by headline writers) was "Mamma li Turchi!" ("Oh my, the Turks are coming!") this is used to suggest an imminent danger, as when the Ottoman Turks threatened Europe.[39] In addition, Italians regularly use the expression "Fumare come un Turco" ("To smoke like a Turk").
  • In German[1] there are phrases that mean "he smokes like a Turk".[40]
  • In Romanian, the expression "Măi, turcule" (You, Turk).[41] is used to address to a person that fails to comprehend or is ignorant. The expression "a fuma ca un turc" (to smoke like a Turk) is used to denote a person who smokes a lot.
  • In French, the word Turc was once used in proverbial expressions such as C'est un vrai Turc ("He's a real Turk"), used to indicate that a person was harsh and pitiless.[42]
  • When the Spanish wanted to make disparaging remarks about a person, he/she was called "Turco".[1]
  • In Maltese, a Tork is someone feared and unwanted due to his nature. In fact, when a Maltese person is left out or forgotten from a share between a group, this person would quickly say: "Mela jien xi Tork, jew?" ("Am I a Turk, or what?"). Also, when a rare event occurs, a common saying is: "Tgħammed Tork!" ("A Turk was baptised!") because a Turk turning to Christianity from Islam is seen as a rare event.
  • In Austrian rural areas you can sometimes still hear today how children are called in from play: "Es ist schon dunkel. Türken kommen. Türken kommen" ("It’s already dark, The Turks are coming. The Turks are coming").[1]
  • In Persian, "Tork-e khar" ("Turkish ass/donkey") is a derogatory joke usually directed against Turkic-speaking Iranian Azeris.[43][44]
  • In Russian there is a proverb Незваный гость хуже Татарина ("An unwanted guest is worse than a Tatar").[45]
  • In Greek "Έγινε Τούρκος", literally "He became a Turk", denotes extreme anger towards someone or because of something ("He was so angry that he resembled a Turk").[46]
  • In Norwegian there is a saying: "Sint som en tyrker" which means "Angry like a Turk"[47]
  • In Armenian, a word Turk is still commonly used to question someone's stupidity: "հո թուրք չես?!" ("Are you a Turk?"), also to describe disordered and very dirty house: "կարծես թուրքի տուն լինի" ("Looks like a Turk's house").[48]

Anti-Turkish quotes

Voltaire characterised [49] the Turks as:

"tyrants of the women and enemies of arts".

He also spoke[49] of the need:

"to chase away from Europe these barbaric usurpers"

He accused the Turks[49] of having destroyed Europe's ancient heritage from :"the Orient’s Christian realm" and wrote:

"I wish fervently that the Turkish barbarians be chased away immediately out of the country of Xenophon, Socrates, Plato, Sophocles and Euripides. If we wanted, it could be done soon but seven crusades of superstition have been undertaken and a crusade of honour will never take place. We know almost no city built by them; they let decay the most beautiful establishments of Antiquity, they reign over ruins."

Philipp Melanchthon described Turkish people as follows:

"When i consider history, I find that there has been no nation tht has practiced more blasphemy of God, brutally, shameful fornication, and every kind of wild and chaotic living than the Turks."[50]

Cardinal Newman described the Turks as:

the "great anti-Christ among the races of men."[51]

He also said in the The Blight of Asia, a controversial book written by an American diplomat about Turkish human rights violations,

“The barbarian power, which has been for centuries seated in the very heart of the Old World, which has in its brute clutch the most famous countries of classical and religious antiquity and many of the most fruitful and beautiful regions of the earth; and, which, having no history itself, is heir to the historical names of Constantinople and Nicaea, Nicomedia and Caesarea, Jerusalem and Damascus, Nineva and Babylon, Mecca and Bagdad, Antioch and Alexandria, ignorantly holding in its possession one half of the history of the whole world.”[51]

William Ewart Gladstone, a 19th century British Prime Minister was quoted in the same book as saying:

“Let me endeavor, very briefly to sketch, in the rudest outline what the Turkish race was and what it is. It is not a question of Mohammedanism simply, but of Mohammedanism compounded with the peculiar character of a race. They are not the mild Mohammedans of India, nor the chivalrous Saladins of Syria, nor the cultured Moors of Spain. They were, upon the whole, from the black day when they first entered Europe, the one great anti-human specimen of humanity. Wherever they went a broad line of blood marked the track behind them, and, as far as their dominion reached, civilization disappeared from view. They represented everywhere government by force as opposed to government by law.—Yet a government by force can not be maintained without the aid of an intellectual element.— Hence there grew up, what has been rare in the history of the world, a kind of tolerance in the midst of cruelty, tyranny and rapine. Much of Christian life was contemptuously left alone and a race of Greeks was attracted to Constantinople which has all along made up, in some degree, the deficiencies of Turkish Islam in the element of mind!”[51]

Ziya Gökalp, prominent Turkish ideologue of Pan-Turkism, in his writings heavily criticizes officials of the Ottoman Empire for always using the term "donkey Turk" regarding its Turkish subjects.[52]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Turkey, Sweden and the EU Experiences and Expectations", Report by the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, April 2006, p. 6
  2. ^ Miller, G. J. (2003). Luther on the Turks and Islam. In T. Wengert (Ed.), Harvesting Martin Luther's reflections on theology, ethics, and the church. (p. 185). Grand Rapids MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. [1]
  3. ^ Sean Foley. (2009). Muslims and Social Change in the Atlantic Basin. Journal of World History, 20(3), 377-398. [2]
  4. ^ Smith, R. O. (2007). Luther, the Turks, and Islam. Currents in Theology and Mission, 34(5), 351-365. [3]
  5. ^ Miller, G. J. (2003). Luther on the Turks and Islam. In T. Wengert (Ed.), Harvesting Martin Luther's reflections on theology, ethics, and the church. (p. 186). Grand Rapids MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. [4]
  6. ^ Casale, G. (2007). Global Politics in the 1580s: One Canal, Twenty Thousand Cannibals, and an Ottoman Plot to Rule the World. Journal of World History, 18(3), 267-296. [5]
  7. ^ Grosrichard, A. (1998). The sultan's court: European fantasies of the East. (p. 125). London: Verso.
  8. ^ Isom-Verhaaren, C. (2006). Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century. Journal of World History, 17(2), 159-196. [6]
  9. ^ Grosrichard, A. (1998). The sultan's court: European fantasies of the East. (pp. xiii, xiv, 125, 169, 185). London: Verso.
  10. ^ Edward Said. "Orientalism", (1978), p. 59-60
  11. ^ Alfred J. Rieber, Alexei Miller. Imperial Rule, Central European University Press, 2005. pg 33
  12. ^ Ozay Mehmet, Islamic Identity and Development: Studies of the Islamic Periphery, Routledge, 1990. pg 115
  13. ^ Handan Nezir Akmeshe, The Birth Of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military And The March To World War I, I.B.Tauris, 2005. pg 50
  14. ^ Schwartz, J. M. (1977). [Review of the book Turkish workers in Europe, 1960-1975: A socio-economic reappraisal, by Nermin Abadan-Unat]. Contemporary Sociology, 6(5), 559-560. [7]
  15. ^ a b Unat, N. A. (1995). Turkish migration to Europe. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge survey of world migration (p. 279). Cambridge University Press.
  16. ^ Hübner, E., & Rohlfs, H. H. (1992). Jahrbuch der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 1992/93. München: Beck. [8]
  17. ^ Micallef, R. (2004). Turkish Americans: Performing identities in a transnational setting. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24(2), 233-241. doi: 10.1080/1360200042000296636.
  18. ^ Hahamovitch, C. (2003). Creating perfect immigrants: Guestworkers of the world in historical perspective 1. Labor History, 44(1), 69 - 94. [9]
  19. ^ Klink, A., & Wagner, U. (1999). Discrimination against ethnic minorities in Germany: Going back to the field. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(2), 402-423. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01394.x. [10]
  20. ^ a b Shohat, M., & Musch, J. (2003). Online auctions as a research tool: A field experiment on ethnic discrimination. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 62(2), 139-145. doi: 10.1024//1421-0185.62.2.139. [11]
  21. ^ R. Cohen. (1995). Labour migration to western Europe after 1945. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge survey of world migration. (p. 279). Cambridge University Press.
  22. ^ Unat, N. A. (1995). Turkish Migration to Europe. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge survey of world migration (p. 281). Cambridge University Press.
  23. ^ Toelken, B. (1985). "Turkenrein" and "Turken, Rausl"—Images of fear and aggression in German Gastarbeitterwitze. In N. Furniss & I. Basgoz (Eds.), Turkish workers in Europe: An interdisciplinary study. (p. 155). Indiana: Indiana University Turkish Studies.
  24. ^ Kagitcibasi, C. (1997). Whither multiculturalism? Applied Psychology, 46(1), 44-49. [12]
  25. ^ Hagendoorn, L., & Hraba, J. (1989). Foreign, different, deviant, seclusive and working class: Anchors to an ethnic hierarchy in the Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, (12), 441-468.
  26. ^ Mendes, H. F. (1994). Managing the multicultural society: The policy making process. Paper presented at the Conference on Today’s Youth and Xenophobia: Breaking the Cycle. Wassenaar, The Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study.
  27. ^ Human Rights Watch. (2009). Human Rights Watch world report 2009: Events of 2008. Human Rights Watch. [13]
  28. ^ ECRI. (2008). Third report on the Netherlands. Strasbourg, FRANCE : The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. [14]
  29. ^ Dinsbach, W., Walz, G., & Boog, I. (2009). ENAR shadow report 2008: Racism in the Netherlands. Brussels, Netherlands: ENAR Netherlands. [15]
  30. ^ Thalhammer, E., Zucha , V., Enzenhofer, E., Salfinger , B., & Ogris, G. (2001). Attitudes towards minority groups in the European Union: A special analysis of the Eurobarometer 2000 survey on behalf of the European Monitoring Centre on racism and xenophobia. Vienna, Austria: EUMC Sora. [16].
  31. ^ Doran, Peter B (July 18, 2009). "Bulgarian election raises red flags". (United Kingdom: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved Jenuary 12, 2010.  
  32. ^ a b Dikov, Ivan (December 30, 2009). "The Bulgaria 2009 Review: Domestic Politics". Sofia News Agency. Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd.. Retrieved Jenuary 12, 2010.  
  33. ^ "Erdogan to Borisov: Radical Statements Target Turkish Minority in Bulgaria". Sofia News Agency. Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd.. December 18, 2009. Retrieved Jenuary 12, 2010.  
  34. ^ Dikov, Ivan (December 30, 2009). "The Bulgaria 2009 Review: Diplomacy". Sofia News Agency. Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd.. Retrieved Jenuary 12, 2010.  
  35. ^ Webster (Internet Archive)
  36. ^ AENJ 1.1: Stigma, racism and power
  37. ^ (nl)[17] Van Dale vrijuit (De Telegraaf, November 15, 2001)
  38. ^ [18] Turk (scheldwoord) Dutch Wikipedia article about Turk (curseword)
  39. ^ The View from Bologna: Mama, the Turks! European integration and the burden of history
  40. ^ German: "er qualmt wie ein Türke", Serbian: "On puši k'o Turčin"
  41. ^ [19]
  42. ^
  43. ^ Fereydoun Safizadeh. "Is There Anyone in Iranian Azerbaijan Who Wants to Get a Passport to Go to Mashad, Qum, Isfahan or Shiraz? - The Dynamics of Ethnicity in Iran", Payvand's Iran News, February 2007
  44. ^ Brenda Shaffer. "The Formation of Azerbaijani collective identity in Iran", Nationalities Papers, 28:3 (2000), p. 463
  45. ^ Offord, D. (1996). Using Russian. Cambridge University Press.
  46. ^ Kazazis, I. N. The Hlektronika Dictionaries. Greek Language Center
  47. ^ "Google Translate". Mountain View, California, U.S.A.: Google Inc.. Retrieved 2010-01-13.  
  48. ^ " Search and questioning in series of the opposition" (in Armenian). A1+ News Agency. YArevan, Armenia: Meltex LTD. May 7, 2007. Retrieved Jenuary 13, 2009.  
  49. ^ a b c "The Turk as a Threat And Europe's "Other", Chapter 1, Ingmar Karlsson"
  50. ^ Luther, M., & Melanchthon, P. (1532). Zwen trostbrieve geschriben an der Durchleuchtigen und hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Joachim Churfürste und Marckgraven zu Brandenburger vom Türken zuge. (p. 4b.). Nürmberg: Berg.
  51. ^ a b c Chapter 2 in George Horton's book The Blight of Asia
  52. ^ Gençtürk Haber

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