Anti-nuclear movement in the United States: Wikis

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Anti-nuclear movement

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Anti-nuclear poster from the 1970s American movement.

The anti-nuclear movement in the United States consists of more than seventy anti-nuclear groups which have acted to oppose nuclear power and/or nuclear weapons in the USA. The movement has delayed construction or halted commitments to build some new nuclear plants,[1] and has pressured the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enforce and strengthen the safety regulations for nuclear power plants.[2]

Anti-nuclear campaigns that captured national public attention in the 1970s and 1980s involved the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, and Three Mile Island.[1] The protests reached a peak in the second half of the 1970s and grew out of the environmental movement.[3]

More recent campaigning has related to several nuclear power plants, the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository,[4][5] the Hanford Site, the Nevada Test Site,[6] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,[7] and transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.[8]

Some scientists and engineers have expressed reservations about nuclear power, including: Barry Commoner, S. David Freeman, John Gofman, Mark Z. Jacobson, Amory Lovins, Arjun Makhijani, Gregory Minor and Joseph Romm.

Contents

Origins of the movement

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History relating to nuclear weapons

A nuclear fireball lights up the night in the United States nuclear test Upshot-Knothole Badger on April 18, 1953.
Map of major U.S. nuclear weapons infrastructure sites during the Cold War and into the present. Places with grayed-out names are no longer functioning and are in various stages of environmental remediation.

Initially, the nuclear debate was mainly about nuclear weapons policy and was located within the scientific community. Scientific concern about the adverse health effects arising from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing first emerged in 1954.[9] Professional associations such as the Federation of Atomic Scientists and the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs were involved.[10] The National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy was formed in November 1957, and surveys showed rising public uneasiness about the nuclear arms race -- especially atmospheric nuclear weapons tests that sent radioactive fallout around the globe.[11] In 1962, Linus Pauling won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to stop the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and the "Ban the Bomb" movement spread throughout the United States.[10]

Between 1945 and 1992, the United States maintained a program of vigorous nuclear weapons testing. A total of 1,054 nuclear tests and two nuclear attacks were conducted, with over 900 of them at the Nevada Test Site, and ten on miscellaneous sites in the United States (Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, and New Mexico).[12] Until November 1962, the vast majority of the U.S. tests were above-ground; after the acceptance of the Partial Test Ban Treaty all testing was regulated underground, in order to prevent the dispersion of nuclear fallout.

The U.S. program of atmospheric nuclear testing exposed some people to the hazards of fallout. Since the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, more than $1.38 billion in compensation has been approved. The money is going to people who took part in the tests, notably at the Nevada Test Site, and to others exposed to the radiation.[13][14]

History relating to nuclear power

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 encouraged private corporations to build nuclear reactors and a significant learning phase followed with many early partial core meltdowns and accidents at experimental reactors and research facilities.[15] This led to the introduction of the Price-Anderson Act in 1957, which was "an implicit admission that nuclear power provided risks that producers were unwilling to assume without federal backing".[15]

The first U.S. reactor to face public opposition was Fermi 1 in 1957. It was built approximately 30 miles from Detroit and there was opposition from the United Auto Workers Union.[16]

Pacific Gas & Electric planned to build the first commercially viable nuclear power plant in the USA at Bodega Bay, north of San Francisco. The proposal was controversial and conflict with local citizens began in 1958.[17] The proposed plant site was close to the San Andreas fault and close to the region's environmentally sensitive fishing and dairy industries. The Sierra Club became actively involved.[18] The conflict ended in 1964, with the forced abandonment of plans for the power plant. Historian Thomas Wellock traces the birth of the anti-nuclear movement to the controversy over Bodega Bay.[17] Attempts to build a nuclear power plant in Malibu were similar to those at Bodega Bay and were also abandoned.[17]

Nuclear accidents continued into the 1960s with a small test reactor exploding at the Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One in Idaho Falls in January 1961 and a partial meltdown at the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station in Michigan in 1966.[15]

In his 1963 book Change, Hope and the Bomb, David Lilienthal criticized nuclear developments, denouncing the nuclear industry's failure to address the nuclear waste question. He argued that it would be "particularly irresponsible to go ahead with the construction of full scale nuclear power plants without a safe method of nuclear waste disposal having been demonstrated". However, Lilienthal stopped short of a blanket rejection of nuclear power. His view was that a more cautious approach was necessary.[19]

Samuel Walker, in his book Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective, explains that the growth of the nuclear industry in the U.S. occurred as the environmental movement was being formed. Environmentalists saw the advantages of nuclear power in reducing air pollution, but became critical of nuclear technology on other grounds.[20] The view that nuclear power was better for the environment than conventional fuels was partially undermined in the late 1960s when major controversy erupted over the effects of waste heat from nuclear plants on water quality. The nuclear industry "gradually and reluctantly took action to reduce thermal pollution by building cooling towers or ponds for plants on inland waterways".[20]

Another concern was the effect of radiation emissions from nuclear plants. Several scientists, including John Gofman and Arthur Tamplin, challenged the prevailing view that the small amounts of radiation released by nuclear power plants during normal operation were not a problem. They argued "that the routine releases were a severe threat to public health and could cause tens of thousands of deaths from cancer each year".[20] This exchange of views about radiation risks caused further uneasiness about nuclear power, especially among those unable to evaluate the conflicting claims.[20]

Another issue was reactor safety. The large size of nuclear plants ordered during the late 1960s raised new safety questions and created fears of a severe reactor accident that would send large quantities of radiation into the environment. In the early 1970s, a highly contentious debate over the performance of emergency core cooling systems in nuclear plants, designed to prevent a core meltdown that could lead to the "China syndrome", received coverage in the popular media and technical journals.[21][22]

There was also the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation. Theodore Taylor, a former nuclear weapons designer, had explained "the ease with which nuclear bombs could be manufactured if fissionable material was available".[22]

In 1976, four nuclear engineers -- three from GE and one from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission -- resigned, stating that nuclear power was not as safe as their superiors were claiming.[23][24] These men were engineers who had spent most of their working life building reactors, and their defection galvanized anti-nuclear groups across the country.[25][26] They testified to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy that:

"the cumulative effect of all design defects and deficiences in the design, construction and operations of nuclear power plants makes a nuclear power plant accident, in our opinion, a certain event. The only question is when, and where.[23]

These issues, together with a series of other environmental, technical, and public health questions, made nuclear power the source of acute controversy. Public support, which was strong in the early 1960s, had been shaken. Forbes magazine, in the September 1975 issue, reported that "the anti-nuclear coalition has been remarkably successful ... [and] has certainly slowed the expansion of nuclear power."[21] By the mid-1970s anti-nuclear activism, fueled by dissenting experts, had moved beyond local protests and politics to gain a wider appeal and influence. Although it lacked a single co-ordinating organization, and did not have uniform goals, it emerged as a movement sharply focused on opposing nuclear power, and the movement's efforts gained a great deal of national attention.[21]

On March 28, 1979, equipment failures and operator error contributed to loss of coolant and a partial core meltdown at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant in Pennsylvania, causing $2.4 billion in property damages.[27] The accident triggered protests around the world.[28]

Complexity of nuclear power

Nuclear power plants are one of the most complex energy systems ever designed,[29][30] and opponents of nuclear power have criticized the sophistication and complexity of the technology. In their assessment, "nuclear power is a very dangerous, expensive way to boil water to generate energy..."[31] Dr Helen Caldicott has said: "... in essence, a nuclear reactor is just a very sophisticated and dangerous way to boil water -- analogous to cutting a pound of butter with a chain saw."[32] These critics of nuclear power advocate the use of energy conservation, efficient energy use, and appropriate renewable energy technologies to create our energy future.[31]

Amory Lovins, from the Rocky Mountain Institute, has argued that centralized electricity systems with giant power plants are becoming obsolete. In their place are emerging "distributed resources"—smaller, decentralized electricity supply sources (including efficiency) that are cheaper, cleaner, less risky, more flexible, and quicker to deploy. Such technologies are often called "soft energy technologies" and their impacts are seen to be more gentle, pleasant, and manageable than hard energy technologies such as nuclear power.[33]

An issue related to complexity is that the nuclear energy systems have an exceedingly long stay time. The completion of the sequence of activities related to one commercial nuclear power station, from the start of construction through the safe disposal of its last radioactive waste, may take 100-150 years.[29]

Anti-nuclear protests

Anti-nuclear protest at Harrisburg in 1979, following the Three Mile Island accident.
President Jimmy Carter leaving Three Mile Island for Middletown, Pennsylvania, April 1, 1979

On June 12, 1982, one million people demonstrated in New York City's Central Park against nuclear weapons and for an end to the cold war arms race. It was the largest anti-nuclear protest and the largest political demonstration in American history.[34][35]

Marco Giugni, in his book Social Protest and Policy Change, explains that several anti-nuclear power campaigns captured national public attention in the 1970s and 1980s. These involved the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, and Three Mile Island.[1] Specific protests have included:[36][37]

  • May 2, 1977: 1,414 protesters were arrested at the Seabrook nuclear power plant in New Hampshire.[38][36]
  • June 1978: some 12,000 people attended a protest at Seabrook.[36]
  • August 1978: almost 500 people were arrested for protesting at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant in California.[39]
  • March 28, 1979: The Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, began undergoing what would become the most famous nuclear accident in U.S. history. The accident triggered protests around the world[40] and enhanced the credibility of anti-nuclear groups, who predicted an accident.[41]
  • April 8, 1979: 30,000 people marched in San Francisco to support shutting down the Diablo Canyon Power Plant.[42]
  • May 6, 1979: an estimated 70,000 people, including the governor of California, attended a march and rally against nuclear power in Washington, D.C.[42][43]
  • June 2, 1979: about 500 people were arrested for protesting construction of the Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant in Oklahoma.[36][44]
  • June 3, 1979: some 15,000 people attended a rally at the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island, N.Y. and about 600 were arrested.[45]
  • June 30, 1979: about 38,000 people attended a protest rally at Diablo Canyon.[46]
  • 1979: Abalone Alliance members held a 38-day sit-in in the Californian Governor Jerry Brown's office to protest continued operation of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, which was a duplicate of the Three Mile Island facility.[47] In 1989, Sacremento voters voted to shut down the Rancho Seco power plant.[48]
  • September 23, 1979: Almost 200,000 people attended the nation's largest antinuclear rally to date, staged on the then-empty north end of the Battery Park City landfill in New York City.[49] The New York rally was held in conjunction with a series of nightly “No Nukes” concerts given at Madison Square Garden from September 19 through 23 by Musicians United for Safe Energy.
  • June 22, 1980: about 15,000 people attended a protest near the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station in California.[36]
  • September 1981: more than 900 protesters were arrested at Diablo Canyon.[50]
  • May 1984: about 130 demonstrators showed up for start-up day at Diablo Canyon, and five were arrested.[51]
  • 1986: Hundreds of people walked from Los Angeles to Washington DC in what is referred to as the Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament; the march took nine months.[52]
  • February 6, 1987: More than 400 people were arrested at the Nevada Test Site, when nearly 2,000 demonstrators, including six members of Congress, held a rally to protest nuclear weapons testing.[53]
  • June 5, 1989: hundreds of demonstrators at Seabrook Station nuclear power plant protested against the plant's first low-power testing, and the police arrested 627 people for trespassing.[54]
  • April 20, 1992: 493 anti-nuclear protesters were arrested on misdemeanor charges, as demonstrators clashed with guards at an annual Easter demonstration against weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.[55]
  • May 1, 2005: Anti-nuclear/anti-war march past the UN in New York, 60 years after the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[56][57]
  • October 16, 2006: 26 people were arrested outside the Brattleboro offices of Vermont Yankee owner Entergy Nuclear; the demonstration drew about 200 people.[58]
  • April 2009: About 150 activists marched against the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and to urge lawmakers to back development of clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power; the marchers had gathered 12,000 signatures in support of closing Vermont Yankee.[59][60]

There is an annual protest against U.S. nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and in the 2007 protest, 64 people were arrested.[61] There have been a series of protests at the Nevada Test Site and in the April 2007 Nevada Desert Experience protest, 39 people were cited by police.[62] There have been anti-nuclear protests at Naval Base Kitsap for many years, and several in 2008.[63][64][65] Also in 2008 and 2009, there have been protests about several proposed nuclear reactors.[66][67]

Some analysts interpret the decline of public protest against nuclear power over the years as "evidence of the decline of the anti-nuclear movement". Others suggest that "what has occurred instead is the institutionalization of the anti-nuclear movement".[68] Since 1980, the anti-nuclear movement has carried its contests into less visible, and more specialized institutional areas, such as regulatory and licensing hearings, and legal challenges.[68] At the state level, anti-nuclear groups were also successful in placing several anti-nuclear referendums on the ballot.[69]

Specific groups

Anti-nuclear organizations are those which oppose nuclear power and/or nuclear weapons. More than eighty anti-nuclear groups are operating, or have operated, in the United States. These include:

Recent campaigning by anti-nuclear groups has related to several nuclear power plants including the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant,[70][71] Indian Point Energy Center,[72] Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station,[73] Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Station,[74] Salem Nuclear Power Plant,[75] and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant.[21] There have also been campaigns relating to the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Plant[76], the Idaho National Laboratory,[77] proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository,[5] the Hanford Site, the Nevada Test Site,[6] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,[7] and transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.[8]

Political parties

The Platform adopted by the delegates of the membership of the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA) at their annual Green Congress, meeting in Chicago, May 26-28, 2000, reflecting the majority views of the G/GPUSA membership, includes the creation of self-reproducing, renewable energy systems and use of federal investments, purchasing, mandates, and incentives to shut down nuclear power plants, and phase out fossil fuels.[78]

People with anti-nuclear views

There are several prominent Americans who hold pro-nuclear views, and these are discussed in the Anti-nuclear movement article. There are also people who have spoken out against nuclear power and nuclear weapons.

Al Gore

Former vice president Al Gore says he is not anti-nuclear, but has stated that the "cost of the present generation of reactors is nearly prohibitive".[79] In his 2009 book, Our Choice, Gore explains that nuclear power was once "expected to provide virtually unlimited supplies of low-cost electricity", but the reality is that it has been "an energy source in crisis for the last 30 years".[80] Worldwide growth in nuclear power has slowed in recent years, with no new reactors and an "actual decline in global capacity and output in 2008". In the United States, "no nuclear power plants ordered after 1972 have been built to completion".[80]

Of the 253 nuclear power reactors originally ordered in the United States from 1953 to 2008, 48 percent were canceled, 11 percent were prematurely shut down, 14 percent experienced at least a one-year-or-more outage, and 27 percent are operating without having a year-plus outage. Thus, only about one fourth of those ordered, or about half of those completed, are still operating and have proved relatively reliable.[81]

Amory Lovins

In his 2005 book Winning the Oil Endgame, Amory Lovins praises nuclear power engineers, but is critical of the nuclear industry:

No vendor has made money selling power reactors. This is the greatest failure of any enterprise in the industrial history of the world. We don’t mean that as a criticism of nuclear power’s practitioners, on whose skill and devotion we all continue to depend; the impressive operational improvements in U.S. power reactors in recent years deserve great credit. It is simply how technologies and markets evolved, despite the best intentions and immense effort. In nuclear power’s heydey, its proponents saw no competitors but central coal-fired power stations. Then, in quick succession, came end-use efficiency, combined-cycle plants, distributed generation (including versions that recovered valuable heat previously wasted), and competitive windpower. The range of competitors will only continue to expand more and their costs to fall faster than any nuclear technology can match.[82]

In 1988, Lovins argued that improving energy efficiency can simultaneously ameliorate greenhouse warming, reduce acid rain and air pollution, save money, and avoid the problems of nuclear power. Given the urgency of abating global warming, Lovins stated that we cannot afford to invest in nuclear power when those same dollars put into efficiency would displace far more carbon dioxide.[83]

Joseph Romm

Joseph Romm explains that nuclear power generates about 20 percent of all U.S. electricity, and because it is a low-carbon source of around-the-clock power, it has received renewed interest in recent years.[84] Yet, Romm argues, nuclear power’s "own myriad limitations will constrain its growth, especially in the near term", and the limitations include:[84]

  • Prohibitively high, and escalating, capital costs.
  • Production bottlenecks in key components needed to build plants.
  • Very long construction times.
  • Concerns about uranium supplies and importation issues.
  • Unresolved problems with the availability and security of waste storage.
  • Large-scale water use amid shortages.
  • High electricity prices from new plants.[84]

Lester Brown

Lester Brown argues that nuclear power is simply not economical,[85] and that installed nuclear capacity will probably remain much the same for the foreseeable future:

Our assumption is that new openings of nuclear power plants worldwide will simply offset the closing of aging plants, with no overall growth in capacity. If we use full-cost pricing—requiring utilities to absorb the costs of disposing of nuclear waste, of decommissioning the plant when it is worn out, and of insuring the reactors against possible accidents and terrorist attacks—building nuclear plants in a competitive electricity market is simply not economical.[86]

Brown states that simple measures, such as changing to more efficient lighting, can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption:

Perhaps the quickest, easiest, and most profitable way to reduce electricity use worldwide—thus cutting carbon emissions—is simply to change light bulbs. Replacing the inefficient incandescent light bulbs that are still widely used today with new compact fluorescents (CFLs) can reduce electricity use by three fourths. The energy saved by replacing a 100-watt incandescent bulb with an equivalent CFL over its lifetime is sufficient to drive a Toyota Prius hybrid car from New York to San Francisco.[87]

Christopher Flavin

Many advocates of nuclear power argue that, given the urgency of doing something about climate change quickly, it must be pursued. Christopher Flavin, however, points out that speedy implementation is not one of nuclear power’s strong points:[88]

Planning, licensing, and constructing even a single nuclear plant typically takes a decade or more, and plants frequently fail to meet completion deadlines. Due to the dearth of orders in recent decades, the world currently has very limited capacity to manufacture many of the critical components of nuclear plants. Rebuilding that capacity will take a decade or more.[88]

Given the urgency of the climate problem, Flavin emphasizes the rapid commercialization of renewable energy and efficient energy use:

Improved energy productivity and renewable energy are both available in abundance—and new policies and technologies are rapidly making them more economically competitive with fossil fuels. In combination, these energy options represent the most robust alternative to the current energy system, capable of providing the diverse array of energy services that a modern economy requires. Given the urgency of the climate problem, that is indeed convenient.[89]

Other people

Other notable individuals who have expressed reservations about nuclear power and/or nuclear weapons in the US include:[90][91][92][93]

Recent developments

In November 2009, The Washington Post reported that nuclear power is emerging as "perhaps the world's most unlikely weapon against climate change, with the backing of even some green activists who once campaigned against it".[94] The report said that rather than deride the potential for nuclear power, some environmentalists are embracing it, and that presently there is only "muted opposition" -- nothing like the protests and plant invasions that helped define the anti-nuclear movement in the United States during the 1970s.[94]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Giugni, Marco (2004). Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements p. 44.
  2. ^ Jerry Brown and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, p. 198.
  3. ^ Herbert P. Kitschelt. Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986, p. 62.
  4. ^ Four Score Organizations Express Opposition to Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Dump Commondreams.org, January 11, 2008.
  5. ^ a b Sierra Club. (undated). Deadly Nuclear Waste Transport
  6. ^ a b 22 Arrested in Nuclear Protest New York Times, August 10, 1989.
  7. ^ a b Hundreds Protest at Livermore Lab The TriValley Herald, August 11, 2003.
  8. ^ a b Concerned Citizens for Nuclear Safety (undated). About CCNS
  9. ^ Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, p. 55.
  10. ^ a b Jerry Brown and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear Movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, Twayne Publishers, pp. 191-192.
  11. ^ Lawrence S. Wittner. Preserving the Golden Rule as a Piece of Anti-Nuclear History History News Network, 8 February 2010.
  12. ^ Carey Sublette, Gallery of U.S. Nuclear Tests
  13. ^ What governments offer to victims of nuclear tests The Associated Press, March 24, 2009.
  14. ^ Radiation Exposure Compensation System: Claims to Date
  15. ^ a b c Benjamin K. Sovacool. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907–2007, Energy Policy 36 (2008), p. 1808.
  16. ^ Michael D. Mehta (2005). Risky business: nuclear power and public protest in Canada Lexington Books, p. 35.
  17. ^ a b c Paula Garb. Review of Critical Masses, Journal of Political Ecology, Vol 6, 1999.
  18. ^ Thomas Raymond Wellock (1998). Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978, The University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 27-28.
  19. ^ Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, p. 61.
  20. ^ a b c d Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press), p. 10.
  21. ^ a b c d Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp. 10-11.
  22. ^ a b Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, pp. 66-67.
  23. ^ a b Mark Hertsgaard (1983). Nuclear Inc. The Men and Money Behind Nuclear Energy, Pantheon Books, New York, p. 72.
  24. ^ Jim Falk (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press, p. 95.
  25. ^ The San Jose Three TIME, Feb. 16, 1976.
  26. ^ The Struggle over Nuclear Power TIME, Mar. 08, 1976.
  27. ^ Benjamin K. Sovacool. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907–2007, Energy Policy 36 (2008), p. 1807.
  28. ^ Mark Hertsgaard (1983). Nuclear Inc. The Men and Money Behind Nuclear Energy, Pantheon Books, New York, p. 95 & 97.
  29. ^ a b Storm van Leeuwen, Jan (2008). Nuclear power – the energy balance
  30. ^ Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, p. 53 & p. 61.
  31. ^ a b Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (undated). Why Nuclear is Risky
  32. ^ Helen Caldicott (2006). Nuclear power is not the answer to global warming or anything else, Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0 522 85251 3, p.xvii
  33. ^ Amory B. Lovins (1977). Soft Energy Paths: Toward a Durable Peace, Penguin Books.
  34. ^ Jonathan Schell. The Spirit of June 12 The Nation, July 2, 2007.
  35. ^ 1982 - a million people march in New York City
  36. ^ a b c d e Williams, Eesha. Wikipedia distorts nuclear history Rutland Herald, May 1, 2008.
  37. ^ Nuke Fight Nears Decisive Moment Valley Advocate, August 28, 2008.
  38. ^ Michael Kenney. Tracking the protest movements that had roots in New England The Boston Globe, December 30, 2009.
  39. ^ Social Protest and Policy Change p. 44.
  40. ^ Mark Hertsgaard (1983). Nuclear Inc. The Men and Money Behind Nuclear Energy, Pantheon Books, New York, p. 95 & 97.
  41. ^ Luther J. Carter "Political Fallout from Three Mile Island", Science, 204, April 13 1979, p. 154.
  42. ^ a b Jon Agnone. Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement p. 7.
  43. ^ Social Protest and Policy Change p. 45.
  44. ^ Anti-Nuclear Demonstrations
  45. ^ Shoreham Action Is One of Largest Held Worldwide; 15,000 Protest L.I. Atom Plant; 600 Seized 600 Arrested on L.I. as 15,000 Protest at Nuclear Plant Nuclear Supporter on Hand Governor Stresses Safety Thousands Protest Worldwide New York Times, June 4, 1979.
  46. ^ Gottlieb, Robert (2005). Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement, Revised Edition, Island Press, USA, p. 240.
  47. ^ Hippy Dictionary p.559.
  48. ^ Frank Trippett and Robert W. Hollis. Shutting Down Rancho Seco TIME, June 19, 1989.
  49. ^ Herman, Robin (September 24, 1979). "Nearly 200,000 Rally to Protest Nuclear Energy". New York Times: p. B1. 
  50. ^ Arrests Exceed 900 In Coast Nuclear Protest New York Times, September 18, 1981.
  51. ^ Testing and Protesting Time, May 14, 1984.
  52. ^ Hundreds of Marchers Hit Washington in Finale of Nationwaide Peace March Gainsville Sun, November 16, 1986.
  53. ^ 438 Protesters are Arrested at Nevada Nuclear Test Site
  54. ^ Hundreds Arrested Over Seabrook Test New York Times, June 5, 1989.
  55. ^ 493 Arrested at Nevada Nuclear Test Site
  56. ^ Lance Murdoch. Pictures: New York MayDay anti-nuke/war march IndyMedia, 2 may 2005.
  57. ^ Anti-Nuke Protests in New York Fox News, May 2, 2005.
  58. ^ Vermont Yankee nuke plant's critics still at it, 34 years later The Boston Globe, October 28, 2006.
  59. ^ Nuclear power foes not stilled in N.E.
  60. ^ Activists stage anti-nuclear rally
  61. ^ Police arrest 64 at California anti-nuclear protest Reuters, April 6, 2007.
  62. ^ Anti-nuclear rally held at test site: Martin Sheen among activists cited by police Las Vegas Review-Journal, April 2, 2007.
  63. ^ For decades, faith has sustained anti-nuclear movement Seattle Times, April 7, 2006.
  64. ^ Bangor Protest Peaceful; 17 Anti-Nuclear Demonstrators Detained and Released Kitsap Sun, January 19, 2008.
  65. ^ Twelve Arrests, But No Violence at Bangor Anti-Nuclear Protest Kitsap Sun, June 1, 2008.
  66. ^ Protest against nuclear reactor Chicago Tribune, October 16, 2008.
  67. ^ Southeast Climate Convergence occupies nuclear facility Indymedia UK, August 8, 2008.
  68. ^ a b Jerry Brown and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, pp. 195-199.
  69. ^ Herbert P. Kitschelt. Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986, p. 68.
  70. ^ Groups petition against new nuclear plant
  71. ^ Fermi 3 opposition takes legal action to block new nuclear reactor
  72. ^ Hudson River Lovers Fight to Shutter Aging Nuclear Power Plant
  73. ^ Oyster Creek's time is up, residents tell board Examiner, June 28, 2007.
  74. ^ Pilgrim Watch (undated). Pilgrim Watch
  75. ^ Unplugsalem.org (undated). UNPLUG Salem
  76. ^ Stop the Bombs! April 2010 Action Event at Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Complex
  77. ^ Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free (2003). Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free
  78. ^ Green Party USA (undated). The Greens/Green Party USA
  79. ^ Anthony Faiola. Nuclear power regains support The Washington Post, November 24, 2009.
  80. ^ a b Al Gore (2009). Our Choice, Bloomsbury, p. 152.
  81. ^ Al Gore (2009). Our Choice, p. 157.
  82. ^ Lovins, Amory (2005). Winning the Oil Endgame p. 259.
  83. ^ Rocky Mountain Institute (1988). E88-31, Global Warming
  84. ^ a b c Romm, Joe (2008). The Self-Limiting Future of Nuclear Power p. 1.
  85. ^ Earth Policy Institute (2008). The Flawed Economics of Nuclear Power
  86. ^ Brown, Lester R. (2008). PLAN B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization p. 214.
  87. ^ Brown, Lester R. (2008). PLAN B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization p. 215.
  88. ^ a b Worldwatch Institute (2008). Building a Low-Carbon Economy in State of the World 2008, p. 81.
  89. ^ Worldwatch Institute (2008). Building a Low-Carbon Economy in State of the World 2008, p. 80.
  90. ^ The Rise of the Anti-nuclear Power Movement
  91. ^ Ancient Rockers Try to Recharge Anti-Nuclear Movement Business & Media Institute, November 8, 2007.
  92. ^ Falk, Jim (1982). Gobal Fission:The Battle Over Nuclear Power, p. 95.
  93. ^ Some critical experts on nuclear power operations
  94. ^ a b Anthony Faiola. Nuclear power regains support The Washington Post, November 24, 2009.

Bibliography

  • Brown, Jerry and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear Movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, Twayne Publishers.
  • Clarfield, Gerald H. and William M. Wiecek (1984). Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States 1940-1980, Harper & Row.
  • Cragin, Susan (2007). Nuclear Nebraska: The Remarkable Story of the Little County That Couldn’t Be Bought, AMACOM.
  • Dickerson, Carrie B. and Patricia Lemon (1995). Black Fox: Aunt Carrie's War Against the Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant, Council Oak Publishing Company, ISBN 1571780092
  • Fradkin, Philip L. (2004). Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy, University of Arizona Press.
  • Giugni, Marco (2004). Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in Comparative Perspective, Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Jasper, James M. (1997). The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226394816
  • Lovins, Amory (2008). The Nuclear Illusion, Rocky Mountain Institute.
  • Lovins, Amory B. and Price, John H. (1975). Non-Nuclear Futures: The Case for an Ethical Energy Strategy, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1975, ISBN 0884106020
  • McCafferty, David P. (1991). The Politics of Nuclear Power: A History of the Shoreham Power Plant, Kluwer.
  • Miller, Byron A. (2000). Geography and Social Movements: Comparing Anti-nuclear Activism in the Boston Area, University of Minnesota Press.
  • Natti, Susanna and Acker, Bonnie (1979). No Nukes: Everyone's Guide to Nuclear Power, South End Press.
  • Ondaatje, Elizabeth H. (c1988). Trends in Antinuclear Protests in the United States, 1984-1987, Rand Corporation.
  • Peterson, Christian (2003). Ronald Reagan and Antinuclear Movements in the United States and Western Europe, 1981-1987, Edwin Mellen Press.
  • Polletta, Francesca (2002). Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226674495
  • Pope, Daniel (2008). Nuclear Implosions: The Rise and Fall of the Washington Public Power Supply System, Cambridge University Press.
  • Price, Jerome (1982). The Antinuclear Movement, Twayne Publishers.
  • Smith, Jennifer (Editor), (2002). The Antinuclear Movement, Cengage Gale.
  • Surbrug, Robert (2009). Beyond Vietnam: The Politics of Protest in Massachusetts, 1974-1990, University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective, University of California Press.
  • Wellock, Thomas R. (1998). Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978, The University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0299158500
  • Wills, John (2006). Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest at Diablo Canyon, University of Nevada Press.

External links


Simple English

For many years the anti-nuclear movement in the United States succeeded in delaying or halting commitments to build some new nuclear plants.[1][2][3] Anti-nuclear campaigns that captured national public attention in the 1970s involved the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, and the Three Mile Island accident.[2] More recent targeted campaigning has related to the Indian Point Energy Center, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station,[4] Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Station,[5] Salem Nuclear Power Plant,[6] Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant,[7][8] Idaho National Laboratory,[9] proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository,[10][11] the Hanford Site,[12] the Nevada Test Site,[13] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,[14][15] and transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.[16] Many different groups have been involved in various protests and demonstrations over the years.

More than fifty anti-nuclear groups are operating, or have operated, in the United States. These include: Abalone Alliance, Clamshell Alliance, Greenpeace USA, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Musicians United for Safe Energy, Nevada Desert Experience, Nuclear Control Institute, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Public Citizen Energy Program, Shad Alliance, and the Sierra Club.

Many well-known scientists and engineers have expressed reservations about nuclear power. These people include: Barry Commoner, S. David Freeman, John Gofman, Amory Lovins, Arjun Makhijani, Gregory Minor and Joseph Romm.

References

  1. Nuclear Politics
  2. 2.0 2.1 Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements p. 44.
  3. Lights Out at Shoreham: Anti-nuclear activism spurs the closing of a new $6 billion plant
  4. Oyster Creek's time is up, residents tell board
  5. Pilgrim Watch
  6. UNPLUG Salem
  7. Vermont Yankee License Renewal
  8. Eleven arrested in latest protest over Vermont Yankee
  9. Keep Yellowstone Nuclear Free
  10. Four Score Organizations Express Opposition to Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Dump
  11. Deadly Nuclear Waste Transport
  12. Hanford History
  13. 22 Arrested in Nuclear Protest
  14. Hundreds Protest at Livermore Lab
  15. More than 80 people arrested at annual protest at Livermore lab
  16. About CCNS

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