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Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
.Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins[1], abbreviated Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.^ Antibodies are immune system-related proteins called immunoglobulins.

^ Antibodies are heavy globular plasma proteins that are also known as immunoglobulins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When bacteria or viruses get into your body, it's your immune system that kills them.
  • Immunoglobulin to reduce relapses and disability | Life and style | BMJ Group 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.They are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains—to form, for example, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units or pentamers with five units.^ The protein consists of two heavy chains and two light chains.
  • AccessScience | Catalytic antibodies 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.accessscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IGG consists of four chains: two heavy and two light.
  • Immunoglobulin G: Genetic Music 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC whozoo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All immunoglobulins have the basic structure of two heavy and two light chains (Fig.
  • AccessMedicine | immunoglobulin light chains 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.accessmedicine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a plasma cell.^ Both types of antibodies are produced from cells called B lymphocyte s.
  • monoclonal antibody@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes or B cells .
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the blood meets a foreign cell, it produces an antibody to fight the invader.
  • Kidney & Pancreas Transplant - Highly Sensitized Transplants 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess.^ There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As stated above, the type of heavy chain an immunoglobulin possesses determines the immunoglobulin "isotype" .
  • Immunoglobulins 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cehs.siu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains in each antibody.

.Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.^ The five major types of antibodies are: .
  • Immunoglobulins 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Immunoglobulins - Yahoo! Health 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Immunoglobulins 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulins - Test Overview - Health.com 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC www.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also mediate the immune response.

^ Antibodies can come in different varieties known as isotypes or classes.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist.^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ Soluble or secreted antibody is structurally slightly different from the antibody on the surface of B cells but the antigen recognition sites are the same.

^ This structural variation among antigen-binding sites allows different B cells to recognize different antigens.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.This region is known as the hypervariable region.^ This region is known as the hypervariable region.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen.^ Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is these tips that bind antigen.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These bonds are in the variable regions that bind antigen.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens.^ Antibodies can recognize an extremely diverse set of antigens.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.
  • Your Health - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • h2u.com 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.h2u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bidmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The unique part of the antigen recognized by an antibody is called an epitope.^ The part of the antigen that the antibody binds to is called the epitope .

^ What epitope does this monoclonal antibody recognize?
  • FAQ: Antibodies - R&D Systems 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Epitope : region on the antigen that contacts the antibody.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction, called induced fit, that allows antibodies to identify and bind only their unique antigen in the midst of the millions of different molecules that make up an organism.^ The part of the antigen that the antibody binds to is called the epitope .

^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ Affinity Constant : describes the binding interaction between antibody and antigen.

.Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system.^ It works, in part, by labeling cells so that the immune system can attack them.
  • ACS :: Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other items tagged with: Antibodies .
  • Topics tagged with "antibodies" on Nature Network 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC network.nature.com [Source type: General]

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.
  • Your Health - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.mbhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - HealthLibrary 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library :: Patients & Visitors :: St. David's HealthCare 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: General]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • h2u.com 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.h2u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bidmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.^ These may bind to any part of the antibody.

^ Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The particular part of the target that the antibody binds to is called an antigen .
  • antibody@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity.^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies can recognize an extremely diverse set of antigens.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of gene segments from which the variable regions are constructed is sufficiently large that both B cells and T cells can generate as many as 10 10 different antigen-binding sites.
  • Antigen Receptors 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

[2][5] .Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region.^ The FRs for B7-1 heavy and light chain variable regions are from the III-2R antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Class switching occurs in the heavy chain gene locus by a mechanism called class switch recombination (CSR).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system.^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.
  • Your Health - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.mbhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - HealthLibrary 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library :: Patients & Visitors :: St. David's HealthCare 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: General]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • h2u.com 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.h2u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an important part of the immune system.
  • What Is Immunoglobulin Quant - HealthCentral 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system .
  • Antibody Tests 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.^ These antibodies are referred to as the humoral portion of the immune system.

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.
  • Your Health - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.mbhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - HealthLibrary 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library :: Patients & Visitors :: St. David's HealthCare 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: General]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC ipf.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • News Archive - Valley Health 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.valleyhealthlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bidmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main function of the immune system is defense against microbial infection.
  • Tag: Antibodies - Explore content tagged Antibodies on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Contents

Forms

.Surface immunoglobulin (Ig) is attached to the membrane of the effector B cells by its transmembrane region, while antibodies are the secreted form of Ig and lack the trans membrane region so that antibodies can be secreted into the bloodstream and body cavities.^ Membrane and secreted Igs .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES: CONCEPT OF DNA REARRANGEMENT 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC atlasgeneticsoncology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulated B-cells also form memory B-cells that do not secrete antibody.
  • Lecture 2: Acquired Immunity 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When a monoclonal antibody attaches to a cancer cell, it can: .
  • Monoclonal antibody drugs for cancer treatment: How they work - MayoClinic.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, surface Ig and antibodies are identical except for the transmembrane regions.^ The IgE antibody is bound to the surface of mast cells, which then release histamine.
  • Welcom to Maryland Allergy & Asthma Center 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.mdaac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secondary antibodies are available with specificity for whole Ig molecules or antibody fragments such as the Fc or Fab regions.
  • Secondary Antibodies in Antibody Research 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sigmaaldrich.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are divided into five major classes, IgM, IgG, Iga, IgD, and IgE, based on their constant region structure and immune function.

.Therefore, they are considered two forms of antibodies: soluble form or membrane-bound form (Parham 21-22).^ In addition to its membrane-bound form, Fc R exists also in soluble forms 111 .
  • Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited -- Pilette et al. 18 (3): 571 -- European Respiratory Journal 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC erj.ersjournals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It consists of the soluble portion of the membrane receptor for tumour necrosis factor linked to the Fc domain of a human IgG1 antibody.

^ Even though sperm antibodies are detected in the semen, they might not be at a high enough level as to cause impairment of fertility, and therefore not be clinically significant.
  • John Gatewood MD, vasectomy reversal - Sperm Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vasectomyreversal.net [Source type: Academic]

.The membrane-bound form of an antibody may be called a surface immunoglobulin (sIg) or a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg).^ Unactivated and memory B-cells produce surface, membrane-bound, antibodies.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunoglobulins are the proteins that form antibodies.
  • World of MS - About MSIF - Immunoglobulin 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.msif.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rh D antibody (also called anti-D or Rh D immunoglobulin).
  • Rh D Immunoglobulin in Obstetrics - Discussion Guidelines 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.thewomens.org.au [Source type: Academic]

.It is part of the B cell receptor (BCR), which allows a B cell to detect when a specific antigen is present in the body and triggers B cell activation.^ B cell receptor ( BCR ) for antigen and the T cell receptor ( TCR ) respectively.
  • B Cells and T Cells 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 10 B cell antigen receptor (BcR) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ Binds to part of the IL-2 receptor produced at the surface of activated T cells.
  • Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .The BCR is composed of surface-bound IgD or IgM antibodies and associated Ig-α and Ig-β heterodimers, which are capable of signal transduction.^ The IgE antibody is bound to the surface of mast cells, which then release histamine.
  • Welcom to Maryland Allergy & Asthma Center 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.mdaac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IgD, with IgM, is the BCR for antigen.

^ Antibodies also can activate the complement system which recruits cell killing proteins to the surface of the cell - these proteins assemble around the antibody and poke holes into the cell membrane, killing the antibody-bound cell.
  • Google Answers: Immune System 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .A typical human B cell will have 50,000 to 100,000 antibodies bound to its surface.^ Novus Biologicals 100,000+ Antibodies .
  • Antibody Definition | Definition of Antibody at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unactivated and memory B-cells produce surface, membrane-bound, antibodies.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The IgE antibody is bound to the surface of mast cells, which then release histamine.
  • Welcom to Maryland Allergy & Asthma Center 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.mdaac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Upon antigen binding, they cluster in large patches, which can exceed 1 micrometer in diameter, on lipid rafts that isolate the BCRs from most other cell signaling receptors.^ B cell receptor ( BCR ) for antigen and the T cell receptor ( TCR ) respectively.
  • B Cells and T Cells 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 10 B cell antigen receptor (BcR) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ T cell receptor signaling pathway .

[8] .These patches may improve the efficiency of the cellular immune response.^ The volume opens with four introductory chapters summarizing key features of the immune response; these provide a succinct overview of the field and are very well written.
  • Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cshlpress.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cshlpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The immune system is more effective than the nonspecific methods, and has a memory component that improves response time when an invader of the same type (or species) is again encountered.

^ These naturally-occurring polyclonal antibodies play a crucial role in triggering an immune response.
  • Genentech: Newsroom: Antibody Technology Glossary of Terms 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.gene.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .In humans, the cell surface is bare around the B cell receptors for several thousand ångstroms,[8] which further isolates the BCRs from competing influences.^ The surface of each T cell also displays thousands of identical T cell receptors ( TCR s).
  • B Cells and T Cells 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several B cell surface receptors serve as targets for immunotherapy of malignancies.
  • Cancer Research Institute - Antibodies 2002: Meeting Highlights 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancerresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both B cells and T cells have surface receptors for antigen .
  • Antigen Receptors 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

Isotypes

Antibody isotypes of mammals
Name Types Description Antibody Complexes
IgA 2 Found in mucosal areas, such as the .gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents colonization by pathogens.^ IgA is found in the GI, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, also in saliva, tears, and breast milk.
  • Allergy Cases: Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) - Case-based Curriculum of Allergy and Immunology 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC allergycases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IVIG replacement prevents severe and lower respiratory tract infections, but not upper respiratory tract and nonrespiratory infections in persons with common variable immune deficiency .
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin: eMedicine Hematology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The defence of the respiratory tract against pathogens relies on two distinct mechanisms, located in the airways (upper and lower) and the alveolar space, respectively.
  • Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited -- Pilette et al. 18 (3): 571 -- European Respiratory Journal 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC erj.ersjournals.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Also found in saliva, tears, and breast milk.^ Also found in saliva, tears, and breast milk.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IgA is also abundant in saliva, tears and breast milk, especially colostrum.

^ IgA is found in the GI, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, also in saliva, tears, and breast milk.
  • Allergy Cases: Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) - Case-based Curriculum of Allergy and Immunology 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC allergycases.org [Source type: Academic]

Some antibodies form complexes that bind to multiple antigen molecules.
IgD 1 Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens..[11] It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors.^ Immunoglobulin E attaches to mast cells and to basophils...
  • immunoglobulin – Dictionary definition of immunoglobulin | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • immunoglobulin – FREE immunoglobulin information | Encyclopedia.com: Find immunoglobulin research 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ Detection of human basophils and mast cells .

[12]
IgE 1 Binds to allergens and triggers .histamine release from mast cells and basophils, and is involved in allergy.^ It binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells.
  • Allergy Cases: Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) - Case-based Curriculum of Allergy and Immunology 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC allergycases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Role of IgE and mast cells in allergy.
  • Allergy Cases: Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) - Case-based Curriculum of Allergy and Immunology 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC allergycases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mast cell histamine release .

.Also protects against parasitic worms.^ Also protects against parasitic worms .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[6]
IgG 4 In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens..[6] The only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to fetus.^ Only IgG is able to cross the placenta to provide maternal immunity.

^ IgG also crosses the placenta and confers passive immunity from the mother to the fetus.
  • WHO | Hepatitis C 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta and in breast milk from the mother.
  • ResourceNurse.com Intravenous Immunoglobulin 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.resourcenurse.com [Source type: Academic]

IgM 1 Expressed on the surface of B cells and in a secreted form with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG.[6][11]
.Antibodies can come in different varieties known as isotypes or classes.^ Antibodies can come in different varieties known as isotypes or classes.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies can come in different forms known as isotypes or classes.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.In placental mammals there are five antibody isotypes known as IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM. They are each named with an "Ig" prefix that stands for immunoglobulin, another name for antibody, and differ in their biological properties, functional locations and ability to deal with different antigens, as depicted in the table.^ The class of antibody (IgG or IgM etc.

^ Antibody isotypes (classes) are named IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE, and IgM to correspond to their H chain types, which influence the effector functions of the antibody molecules.

^ Antibodies are divided into five major classes, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE, based on their constant region structure and immune function.

[13]
.The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during cell development and activation.^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during cell development and activation .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during the cell's development and activation .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Immature B cells, which have never been exposed to an antigen, are known as naïve B cells and express only the IgM isotype in a cell surface bound form.^ Blast cell Immature blood-forming cell.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigens are chemicals on the surface of a cell.

^ There are 30 or more known antigens on the surface of blood cells.

.B cells begin to express both IgM and IgD when they reach maturity—the co-expression of both these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell 'mature' and ready to respond to antigen.^ B cells begin to express both IgM and IgD when they reach maturity - the co-expression of both these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell 'mature' and ready to respond to antigen.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IgD, with IgM, is the BCR for antigen.

^ Upon antigen challenge, mature B cells expressing IgM and/or IgD undergo diversification processes that affect both the V and the constant (C) genes.
  • Blood -- Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination in mice devoid of any S{micro} tan... 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[14] .B cell activation follows engagement of the cell bound antibody molecule with an antigen, causing the cell to divide and differentiate into an antibody producing cell called a plasma cell.^ Following activation with antigen, B cells begin to proliferate rapidly.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both types of antibodies are produced from cells called B lymphocyte s.
  • monoclonal antibody@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unactivated and memory B-cells produce surface, membrane-bound, antibodies.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In this activated form, the B cell starts to produce antibody in a secreted form rather than a membrane-bound form.^ In this activated form, the B cell starts to produce antibody in a secreted form rather than a membrane -bound form.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B cells are stimulated to differentiate and divide into antibody forming cells which secrete the antibodies.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What cells produce antibodies?
  • antibody Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antibody 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some daughter cells of the activated B cells undergo isotype switching, a mechanism that causes the production of antibodies to change from IgM or IgD to the other antibody isotypes, IgE, IgA or IgG, that have defined roles in the immune system.^ This also can happen with the cells of the immune system.
  • Immune System 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some daughter cells of the activated B cells undergo isotype switching , a mechanism that causes the production of antibodies to change from IgM or IgD to the other antibody isotypes, IgE, IgA or IgG, that have defined roles in the immune system.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.
  • Your Health - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC ipf.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • News Archive - Valley Health 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.valleyhealthlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • h2u.com 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.h2u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Structure

.Antibodies are heavy (~150 kDa) globular plasma proteins.^ Antibodies are heavy (~150k Da ) globular plasma proteins that are also known as immunoglobulins.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Description of Service/Assessment/Background Information: Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a sterile solution of plasma proteins containing IgG antibodies from pooled human plasma.
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) for Medicare Plans 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC www.oxhp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When activated by foreign antigen, B cells undergo proliferation and mature into antibody secreting plasma cells which posses the ability to secrete soluble proteins (antibodies).

.They have sugar chains added to some of their amino acid residues.^ Light Chain - V L (110 amino acids) and C L (110 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They have sugar chains added to some of their amino acid residues.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can accommodate approximately four to seven amino acids or sugar residues.

[15] .In other words, antibodies are glycoproteins.^ In other words, antibodies are glycoproteins .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are specific immunoglobulin polypeptides produced by the vertebrate immune system in response to challenge by foreign proteins glycoproteins, cells, or other antigenic foreign substances.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, recovery of antibody from the "cells" may mean either from spun down whole cells, or from the cell culture containing both the medium and the suspended cells.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

The basic functional unit of each antibody is an immunoglobulin (Ig) monomer (containing only one Ig unit); secreted antibodies can also be dimeric with two Ig units as with IgA, tetrameric with four Ig units like teleost fish IgM, or pentameric with five Ig units, like mammalian IgM.[16]
.
Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an antibody.
^ Antibodies are composed of four chains, two long heavy chains (colored red and orange) and two shorter light chains (yellow).
  • RCSB Protein Data Bank : Molecule of the Month - Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.rcsb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each light chain has one C L domain, and each heavy chain has three ( a , g , and d chains) or four ( e and m chains) C H domains.

^ IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN PROTEIN 1BRE 3 .
  • RCSB PDB : Structure Summary for 1OL0 - CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A CAMELISED HUMAN VH 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.rcsb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The immunoglobulin domains are composed of between 7 (for constant domains) and 9 (for variable domains) β-strands.^ An immunoglobulin the has variable and constant .
  • Search Results ((keywords_en:IMMUNOGLOBULIN SUPERFAMILY)) - ETH E-Collection 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC e-collection.ethbib.ethz.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

See also: [1]
.The variable parts of an antibody are its V regions, and the constant part is its C region.^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The action of IVIG is mediated through both the variable and the constant regions of the Fab 2 as well as the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin molecule.
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Use for Neurologic Diseases 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibody FAB Region : top portion of antibody “Y” shape consisting of all the variable regions and a small portion of the constant region.

Immunoglobulin domains

.The Ig monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of four polypeptide chains; two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains connected by disulfide bonds.^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IgE - Epsilon heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ig monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of four polypeptide chains; two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains connected by disulfide bonds .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Each chain is composed of structural domains called immunoglobulin domains.^ Each chain is composed of structural domains called Ig domains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Relationship with structural abnormalities of immunoglobulin chains .
  • Kidney International - Abstract of article: Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (Randall type). Relationship with structural abnormalities of immunoglobulin chains 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of protein is also called "light chains" because it represents a smaller segment of the whole immunoglobulin molecule, composed of heavy and light chains.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

.These domains contain about 70-110 amino acids and are classified into different categories (for example, variable or IgV, and constant or IgC) according to their size and function.^ H and L chains each contain intrachain disulfide bonds which stabilize their folding into 110-amino acid domains .

^ Light Chain - V L (110 amino acids) and C L (110 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ These domains contain about 70-110 amino acids and are classified into different categories (for example, variable or IgV, and constant or IgC) according to their size and function.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .They have a characteristic immunoglobulin fold in which two beta sheets create a “sandwich” shape, held together by interactions between conserved cysteines and other charged amino acids.^ They have a characteristic immunoglobulin fold in which two beta sheets create a “sandwich” shape, held together by interactions between conserved cysteines and other charged amino acids.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They possess a characteristic immunoglobulin fold in which two beta sheets create a “sandwich” shape, held together by interactions between conserved cysteines and other charged amino acids.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Together, these scientists deduced the structure and complete amino acid sequence of IgG, a feat for which they were jointly awarded the 1972 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

Heavy chain

.There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by the Greek letters: α, δ, ε, γ, and μ.^ IgE - Epsilon heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by the Greek letters: α, δ, ε, γ, and μ.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there are five distinct classes of human immunoglobulins, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE antibodies, the basic unit of immunoglobulin structure consists of two identical light polypeptide chains and two identical heavy polypeptide chains linked together by disulfide (SS) bonds.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The type of heavy chain present defines the class of antibody; these chains are found in IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM antibodies, respectively.^ These antibodies are found in Poly-and Dermatomyositis .
  • Terminology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cibliga.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The class of antibody (IgG or IgM etc.

^ IgD - Delta heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Distinct heavy chains differ in size and composition; α and γ contain approximately 450 amino acids, while μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids.^ Light Chain - V L (110 amino acids) and C L (110 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Heavy Chain - V H (110 amino acids) and C H (330-440 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Distinct heavy chains differ in size and composition; α and γ contain approximately 450 amino acids, while μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.
1. Fab region
2. Fc region
3. Heavy chain with one variable (VH) domain followed by a constant domain (CH1), a hinge region, and two more constant (CH2 and CH3) domains.
^ The hinge region is a more extended region (not folded into a domain) between H chain C H 1 and C H 2 that is present in a , g , and d chains.

^ PTA 263), and one or more human heavy chain framework regions.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light chain with one variable (V L ) and one constant (C L ) domain 5.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]


4. Light chain with one variable (VL) and one constant (CL) domain
5. Antigen binding site (paratope)
6. Hinge regions.
.Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region.^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A light chain has two successive domains: one constant domain and one variable domain.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The constant region is identical in all antibodies of the same isotype, but differs in antibodies of different isotypes.^ Constant regions have the same sequence within a class of antibody.
  • Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.andrew.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The constant region is identical in all antibodies of the same isotype, but differs in antibodies of different isotypes.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The classes of antibody differ not only in their constant region but also in activity.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Heavy chains γ, α and δ have a constant region composed of three tandem (in a line) Ig domains, and a hinge region for added flexibility;[13] heavy chains μ and ε have a constant region composed of four immunoglobulin domains.^ Each chain is composed of structural domains called Ig domains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IgE - Epsilon heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The variable region of the heavy chain differs in antibodies produced by different B cells, but is the same for all antibodies produced by a single B cell or B cell clone.^ Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This antibody class has the epsilon (e) Heavy Chain.

^ In this case, an animal produces a library of B cells that are secreting different antibodies.

.The variable region of each heavy chain is approximately 110 amino acids long and is composed of a single Ig domain.^ Each chain is composed of structural domains called Ig domains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IgE - Epsilon heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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Light chain

.In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chain, which are called lambda (λ) and kappa (κ).^ Light chains are classified as either kappa or lambda.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains in each antibody.

^ C. Immunoglobulin Types Immunoglobulins can also be classified by the type of light chain that they have.
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[3] .A light chain has two successive domains: one constant domain and one variable domain.^ Light chain with one variable (V L ) and one constant (C L ) domain 5.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each light chain has one C L domain, and each heavy chain has three ( a , g , and d chains) or four ( e and m chains) C H domains.

^ Engineering and characterization of a single chain surrogate light chain variable domain.
  • PDBsum entry: 2h32 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • PDBsum entry: 2h3n 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The approximate length of a light chain is 211 to 217 amino acids.^ Light Chain - V L (110 amino acids) and C L (110 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ The approximate length of a light chain is 211 to 217 amino acids.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic structure of these proteins consists of two pairs of polypeptide chains (lengths of amino acids linked by peptide bonds ) that form a flexible Y shape.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Each antibody contains two light chains that are always identical; only one type of light chain, κ or λ, is present per antibody in mammals.^ Each antibody contains two light chains that are always identical; only one type of light chain, κ or λ, is present per antibody in mammals.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In mammals there are two types of light chain , which are called lambda (λ) and kappa (κ).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each light chain has one V L domain and each heavy chain has one V H domain.

.Other types of light chains, such as the iota (ι) chain, are found in lower vertebrates like Chondrichthyes and Teleostei.^ Other types of light chains, such as the iota (ι) chain, are found in lower vertebrates like Chondrichthyes and Teleostei .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are less likely to get coronary heart disease than other women and they have lower levels of total and LDL, or bad, cholesterol.
  • Protein Antibody - Protein for Antibody 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC proteinantibody.com [Source type: General]

^ The light and heavy chains are covalently bonded to each other, and the "tail" portions of the two heavy chains are bonded to each other by covalent disulfide linkages when the immunoglobulins are generated either by hybridomas or by B cells.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

CDRs, Fv, Fab and Fc Regions

.Some parts of an antibody have unique functions.^ Some parts of an antibody have unique functions.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some instances, peptide antigens have advantages over whole protein antigens in that the antibodies generated may be targeted to unique sequence regions.
  • Millipore - Antibodies tutorial, Antigen tutorial and Antigen-Antibody interaction 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over time, researchers have learned how to replace some parts of these mouse antibody proteins with human parts.
  • ACS :: Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

.The arms of the Y, for example, contain the site that bind antigen and, therefore, recognize specific foreign objects.^ The tip of the Y, for example, contains the site that binds antigen and, therefore, recognizes specific foreign objects.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigen binding site (paratope) 6.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The V regions each contain 3 hypervariable regions that make up the antigen-binding site.
  • B Cells and T Cells 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

.This region of the antibody is called the Fab (fragment, antigen binding) region.^ Recognition and binding to antigens Inactivation of the antigen Structural regions of an antibody molecule.

^ The Fab region of antibody is involved in antigen binding.

^ The region of an antigen that is recognized by an antibody is called an epitope*.

.It is composed of one constant and one variable domain from each heavy and light chain of the antibody.^ The paratope is shaped at the amino terminal end of the antibody monomer by the variable domains from the heavy and light chains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The FRs for B7-1 heavy and light chain variable regions are from the III-2R antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light chain with one variable (V L ) and one constant (C L ) domain 5.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .The paratope is shaped at the amino terminal end of the antibody monomer by the variable domains from the heavy and light chains.^ The paratope is shaped at the amino terminal end of the antibody monomer by the variable domains from the heavy and light chains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the variable region of the light chain is a C-terminal portion known as the J region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The FRs for B7-1 heavy and light chain variable regions are from the III-2R antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The variable domain is also referred to as the FV region and is the most important region for binding to antigens.^ Each antigen binding region ( Fab ) is made of a variable domain of a heavy chain and a variable domain of a light chain.

^ The variable region is the portion of the antibody that binds to the antigen.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These bonds are in the variable regions that bind antigen.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

.More specifically variable loops, three each on the light (VL) and heavy (VH) chains are responsible for binding to the antigen.^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each light chain has one C L domain, and each heavy chain has three ( a , g , and d chains) or four ( e and m chains) C H domains.

^ Each antigen binding region ( Fab ) is made of a variable domain of a heavy chain and a variable domain of a light chain.

.These loops are referred to as the complementarity determining regions (CDRs).^ Further, mere determination of the size of CDR will not be limited to usage of only these antibodies.
  • Patent 6,777,540 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.pharmcast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A humanized immunoglobulin which specifically binds to B7-1 comprising: a) a humanized light chain comprising three light chain complementarity determining regions from the mouse 1F1 antibody (ATCC Accession No.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The regions between the complementarity determining regions in the variable region are called the framework regions (figure 3).
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

In the framework of the immune network theory, CDRs are also called idiotypes. .According to immune network theory, the adaptive immune system is regulated by interactions between idiotypes.^ What is the adaptive immune system?
  • FAQ 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC isis-nutra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very important feature of the adaptive immune system is that it involves memory, in that gives rise to resistance to repeated exposure or infection by the same invading agent.
  • FAQ 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC isis-nutra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interaction edges between gene products are derived from Ingenuity Systems learning results.
  • Blood -- Temporal genetic program following B-cell receptor cross-linking: altered ba... 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.The base of the Y plays a role in modulating immune cell activity.^ The base of the Y plays a role in modulating immune cell activity.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytokines are secreted proteins that play a key role in innate immunity, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell growth, and differentiation.
  • Cytokine Antibody Arrays 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.panomics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Previous research, including our own work, into the immune responses of CHF was based on in vitro methods to measure T-cell–mediated response that can be highly variable.
  • T-Cell Responses to Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Heart Failure: Abstract and Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This region is called the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region, and is composed of two heavy chains that contribute two or three constant domains depending on the class of the antibody.^ Each chain is composed of structural domains called Ig domains.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .By binding to specific proteins the Fc region ensures that each antibody generates an appropriate immune response for a given antigen.^ Immune response to ones' own proteins or other antigens.
  • PAE Virtual Glossary 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mhhe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A protein formed in response to the intrusion of an antigen.
  • Terminology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cibliga.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are proteins produced by certain lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.

[19] .The Fc region also binds to various cell receptors, such as Fc receptors, and other immune molecules, such as complement proteins.^ Bind to the CD3 molecule on the surface of T cells.
  • Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fc region also binds to various cell receptors , such as Fc receptors , and other immune molecules, such as complement proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IgM binds to some cells via Fc receptors.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

.By doing this, it mediates different physiological effects including opsonization, cell lysis, and degranulation of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils.^ By doing this, it mediates different physiological effects including opsonization , cell lysis , and degranulation of mast cells , basophils and eosinophils .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific IgE binds to high-affinity (Fc RI) receptors on mast cells and basophils.
  • Treatment of Childhood Asthma With Anti-Immunoglobulin E Antibody (Omalizumab) -- Milgrom et al. 108 (2): e36 -- Pediatrics 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This base, or Fc fragment, mediates the binding of the antibody to host tissues, including various cells of the immune system, some phagocytic cells, and compliment.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

[13][20]

Function

.Activated B cells differentiate into either antibody-producing cells called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody or memory cells that survive in the body for years afterward in order to allow the immune system to remember an antigen and respond faster upon future exposures.^ When activated by foreign antigen, B cells undergo proliferation and mature into antibody secreting plasma cells which posses the ability to secrete soluble proteins (antibodies).

^ Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes or B cells .
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.

[21]
.At the prenatal and neonatal stages of life, the presence of antibodies is provided by passive immunization from the mother.^ In transfer of passive immunity the mother passes on her complement of antibodies to these various factors onto her offspring.
  • FAQ 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC isis-nutra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all species of mammals the transfer of passive immunity occurs where the mother passes on her complement of antibodies to her young.
  • FAQ 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC isis-nutra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R&D Systems has established a policy of not limiting the useful life of a product by providing an expiration date or manufacture date for our protein and antibody products.
  • FAQ: Antibodies - R&D Systems 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Reference]

.Early endogenous antibody production varies for different kinds of antibodies, and usually appear within the first years of life.^ Using its proprietary series of antibody Fc variants, antibody half-life can be readily prolonged to enhance performance in a number of different therapeutic indications.
  • Data Published in Nature Biotechnology Shows Fc Engineering Improves Antibody Efficacy and Convenience - news from Boston.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ Antibodies are the basis for many kinds of target-specific assays and affinity-purification techniques in biomedical and life-science research.

^ To assist our customers with sample preparation and as a general research tool, selected citations are available for most products after their first year of sales.
  • Percipio Biosciences, Inc. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC percipiobio.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system.^ Since antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are important for the immune system.

^ Further information: Immune system Since antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus capsid protein fragment).^ Immunoglobulin protein, produced by B cells (or plasma cells derived from B cells), that binds with a specific antigen.
  • PAE Virtual Glossary 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mhhe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A colleague sends you an antibody to polio virus capsid protein.

^ Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen , a virus hull protein fragment, for example.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antibodies contribute to immunity in three ways: they prevent pathogens from entering or damaging cells by binding to them; they stimulate removal of pathogens by macrophages and other cells by coating the pathogen; and they trigger destruction of pathogens by stimulating other immune responses such as the complement pathway.^ The cell-mediated immune responses.

^ Once bound, the foreign cells are marked for destruction by macrophages and complement.
  • Immunotherapy for Cancer - Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies contribute to immunity in three main ways: they can prevent pathogens from entering or damaging cells by binding to them; they can stimulate removal of a pathogen by macrophages and other cells by coating the pathogen; and they can trigger direct pathogen destruction by stimulating other immune responses such as the complement pathway .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.
The secreted mammalian IgM has five Ig units.
^ The secreted mammalian IgM has five Ig units.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic functional unit of each antibody is an immunoglobulin (Ig) monomer (containing only one Ig unit); secreted antibodies can also be dimeric with two Ig units as with IgA, tetrameric with four Ig units like teleost fish IgM, or pentameric with five Ig units, like mammalian IgM. Immunoglobulin domains .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic functional unit of each antibody is an immunoglobulin (Ig) monomer (containing only one Ig unit); secreted antibodies can also be dimeric with two Ig units as with IgA, tetrameric with four Ig units like teleost fish IgM, or pentameric with five Ig units, like mammalian IgM. [13] .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Each Ig unit (labeled 1) has two epitope binding Fab regions, so IgM is capable of binding up to 10 epitopes.

Activation of complement

.Antibodies that bind to surface antigens on, for example, a bacterium attract the first component of the complement cascade with their Fc region and initiate activation of the "classical" complement system.^ Recognition and binding to antigens Inactivation of the antigen Structural regions of an antibody molecule.

^ This region of the antibody is called the Fab (fragment, antigen binding) region .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies that bind to surface antigens on, for example a bacterium, attract the first component of the complement cascade with their Fc region and initiate activation of the "classical" complement system.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .This results in the killing of bacteria in two ways.^ This results in the killing of bacteria in two ways.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .First, the binding of the antibody and complement molecules marks the microbe for ingestion by phagocytes in a process called opsonization; these phagocytes are attracted by certain complement molecules generated in the complement cascade.^ First, the binding of the antibody and complement molecules marks the microbe for ingestion by phagocytes in a process called opsonization ; these phagocytes are attracted by certain complement molecules generated in the complement cascade.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First response antibody; Strong complement fixer; Good opsonizer .
  • Millipore - Antibodies tutorial, Antigen tutorial and Antigen-Antibody interaction 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Secondly, some complement system components form a membrane attack complex to assist antibodies to kill the bacterium directly.^ Secondly, some complement system components form a membrane attack complex to assist antibodies to kill the bacterium directly.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some antibodies destroy antigens directly.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, when antigen-specific IgG antibodies form antigen/antibody immune complexes the effectively aggregated IgG can activate a wide range of effector systems.
  • PDBsum entry: 1h3x 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[23]

Activation of effector cells

.To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells, antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing them to agglutinate.^ To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells, antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing them to agglutinate .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing them to agglutinate .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Secretory IgA antibodies can neutralize viruses, bind toxins, agglutinate bacteria, prevent bacteria from binding to mucosal epithelial cells, and bind to various food antigens, thus preventing their entry into the general circulation.
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency: eMedicine Allergy and Immunology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since an antibody has at least two paratopes it can bind more than one antigen by binding identical epitopes carried on the surfaces of these antigens.^ The valency of all antibodies is at least two and in some instances more.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If more than one ring appears in the test, more than one antigen/antibody reaction has occurred.

^ This can be offset by pooling two or more monoclonal antibodies to the same antigen .
  • Millipore - Antibodies tutorial, Antigen tutorial and Antigen-Antibody interaction 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

.By coating the pathogen, antibodies stimulate effector functions against the pathogen in cells that recognize their Fc region.^ By coating the pathogen, antibodies stimulate effector functions against the pathogen in cells that recognize their Fc region.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies with altered effector functions .
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those cells which recognize coated pathogens have Fc receptors which, as the name suggests, interacts with the Fc region of IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Those cells which recognize coated pathogens have Fc receptors which, as the name suggests, interacts with the Fc region of IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies.^ IgA and the IgA Fc receptor.
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Is a Natural Ligand of Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 (HAVCR1), and the Association of IgA with HAVCR1 Enhances Virus-Receptor Interactions -- Tami et al. 81 (7): 3437 -- The Journal of Virology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The other end of the antibody (Fc) binds to receptors on phagocytic cells.

^ IgG Fc receptors.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell triggers an effector function of that cell; phagocytes will phagocytose, mast cells and neutrophils will degranulate, natural killer cells will release cytokines and cytotoxic molecules; that will ultimately result in destruction of the invading microbe.^ Mast cell histamine release .

^ T cell receptors have a structure similar to antibodies.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies with altered effector functions .
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Fc receptors are isotype-specific, which gives greater flexibility to the immune system, invoking only the appropriate immune mechanisms for distinct pathogens.^ Biology of the Immune System: B-cell receptor.
  • Components of the Immune System: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Professional 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the men, only the immune system was affected.
  • Love, sex, and health - AN APPLE A DAY By Tyrone M. Reyes, M.D. | The Philippine Star >> Lifestyle Features >> Health And Family 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.philstar.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fc receptors are isotype-specific, which gives greater flexibility to the immune system, invoking only the appropriate immune mechanisms for distinct pathogens.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Natural antibodies

.Humans and higher primates also produce “natural antibodies” which are present in serum before viral infection.^ If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are three major types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes that produce antibodies to help combat bacterial, fungal or viral infections; T lymphocytes that have several functions, including assisting B lymphocytes to make antibodies; and natural killer (NK) cells that can attack virus-infected cells or tumor cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Intravenous human immunoglobulin produced from pooled plasma (IVIG) is the major source for antibody therapy by virtue of the diverse repertoire of immunoglobulin molecules responsible for a wide spectrum of anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities [ 2 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Natural antibodies have been defined as antibodies that are produced without any previous infection, vaccination, other foreign antigen exposure or passive immunization.^ Antigen Any substance that causes the body to produce natural antibodies .
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A vaccine made of antibodies that see other antibodies as the antigen and bind to it.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymphocytic 2', 5' oligoadenylate synthetase activity increases prior to the appearance of neutralizing antibodies and immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies after primary and secondary immunization with yellow fever vaccine.
  • Transfusion-Related Transmission of Yellow Fever Vaccine Virus --- California, 2009 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading to lysis of enveloped virus particles long before the adaptive immune response is activated.^ Host immune response to hepatitis A virus.
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Is a Natural Ligand of Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 (HAVCR1), and the Association of IgA with HAVCR1 Enhances Virus-Receptor Interactions -- Tami et al. 81 (7): 3437 -- The Journal of Virology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fc portion of antibody also binds Complement and initiates the classical pathway of Complement activation which leads to lysis of the pathogen by the MAC attack.

^ Thus, when antigen-specific IgG antibodies form antigen/antibody immune complexes the effectively aggregated IgG can activate a wide range of effector systems.
  • PDBsum entry: 1h3x 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Many natural antibodies are directed against the disaccharide galactose α(1,3)-galactose (α-Gal), which is found as a terminal sugar on glycosylated cell surface proteins, and generated in response to production of this sugar by bacteria contained in the human gut.^ It is a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen, found on B cells.
  • ACS :: Monoclonal Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Production of a monoclonal antibody against cell-surface glycoprotein of guinea pig adrenocortical cells.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Generation of monoclonal antibodies against human HAVCR1/TIM1.
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Is a Natural Ligand of Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 (HAVCR1), and the Association of IgA with HAVCR1 Enhances Virus-Receptor Interactions -- Tami et al. 81 (7): 3437 -- The Journal of Virology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Rejection of xenotransplantated organs is thought to be, in part, the result of natural antibodies circulating in the serum of the recipient binding to α-Gal antigens expressed on the donor tissue.^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ Antibodies attack antigens by binding to them.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigen binding by antibodies is the primary function of antibodies and can result in protection of the host.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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[25]

Immunoglobulin diversity

.Virtually all microbes can trigger an antibody response.^ Virtually all microbes can trigger an antibody response.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As antibodies circulate, they attack and neutralize antigens that are identical to the one that triggered the immune response.
  • antibody (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigen —A substance (usually a protein) identified as foreign by the body's immune system, triggering the release of antibodies as part of the body's immune response.
  • Immunoglobulin Deficiency Syndromes - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

.Successful recognition and eradication of many different types of microbes requires diversity among antibodies; their amino acid composition varies allowing them to interact with many different antigens.^ Successful recognition and eradication of many different types of microbes requires diversity among antibodies; their amino acid composition varies allowing them to interact with many different antigens.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thinking about antibody antigen interactions.

^ The next major advance was in the 1940s, when Linus Pauling confirmed the lock-and-key theory proposed by Ehrlich by showing that the interactions between antibodies and antigens depended more on their shape than their chemical composition.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .It has been estimated that humans generate about 10 billion different antibodies, each capable of binding a distinct epitope of an antigen.^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
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^ A second antibody that recognizes a distinct epitope on the antigen can then be added and detected.

^ It has been estimated that humans generate about 10 billion different antibodies, each capable of binding a distinct epitope of an antigen.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Although a huge repertoire of different antibodies is generated in a single individual, the number of genes available to make these proteins is limited by the size of the human genome.^ Single chain antibody based on available gene .

^ Although a huge repertoire of different antibodies is generated in a single individual, the number of genes available to make these proteins is limited.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic studies revealed the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was identified by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Several complex genetic mechanisms have evolved that allow vertebrate B cells to generate a diverse pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.^ Several complex genetic mechanisms have evolved that allow vertebrate B cells to generate a diverse pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic studies revealed the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was identified by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]

Domain variability

The hypervariable regions of the heavy chain are shown in red, PDB 1IGT
.The region (locus) of a chromosome that encodes an antibody is large and contains several distinct genes for each domain of the antibody—the locus containing heavy chain genes (IGH@) is found on chromosome 14, and the loci containing lambda and kappa light chain genes (IGL@ and IGK@) are found on chromosomes 22 and 2 in humans.^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The light chains of any antibody can be classified as either a kappa (.
  • Millipore - Antibodies tutorial, Antigen tutorial and Antigen-Antibody interaction 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

.One of these domains is called the variable domain, which is present in each heavy and light chain of every antibody, but can differ in different antibodies generated from distinct B cells.^ These regions are called domains.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The FRs for B7-1 heavy and light chain variable regions are from the III-2R antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).^ The regions between the complementarity determining regions in the variable region are called the framework regions (Figure 3).

^ The regions between the complementarity determining regions in the variable region are called the framework regions (figure 3).
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.CDRs are supported within the variable domains by conserved framework regions.^ CDRs are supported within the variable domains by conserved framework regions.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MAb-TLR IgA antibodies are chimeric antibodies in which the constant domains of the human IgA molecule were combined with murine variable regions.
  • InvivoGen - TLR antibodies 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.invivogen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The heavy chain locus contains about 65 different variable domain genes that all differ in their CDRs.^ The heavy chain locus contains about 65 different variable domain genes that all differ in their CDRs.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The human immunoglobulin heavy variable genes.

^ Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Combining these genes with an array of genes for other domains of the antibody generates a large cavalry of antibodies with a high degree of variability.^ These antibodies can be used for various applications.
  • InvivoGen - TLR antibodies 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.invivogen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is these variable domains that create the diversity in antibodies.

^ In general, there is a high degree of specificity in antigen-antibody reactions.

This combination is called V(D)J recombination discussed below.[29]

V(D)J recombination

Simplistic overview of V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chains
.Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin variable region.^ Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination , involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin variable region.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic studies revealed the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was identified by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences, between the variable domains, are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3) or complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces—known as gene segments.^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These regions are related to gene segments observed in the genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the variable region of the light chain is a C-terminal portion known as the J region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.These segments are called variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) segments.^ These regions are related to gene segments observed in the genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From the 5' end to the 3' end, the segments are called variable heavy (VH), diversity heavy (DH) and joining heavy (JH), then the constant (C) regions.

^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[28] .V, D and J segments are found in Ig heavy chains, but only V and J segments are found in Ig light chains.^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IgE - Epsilon heavy chains .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ V, D and J segments are found in Ig heavy chains , but only V and J segments are found in Ig light chains .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Multiple copies of the V, D and J gene segments exist, and are tandemly arranged in the genomes of mammals.^ Multiple copies of the V, D and J gene segments exist, and are tandemly arranged in the genomes of mammals .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As there are multiple copies of each type of gene segment, and different combinations of gene segments can be used to generate each immunoglobulin variable region, this process generates a huge number of antibodies, each with different paratope , and thus different antigen specificities.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As there are multiple copies of each type of gene segment, and different combinations of gene segments can be used to generate each immunoglobulin variable region, this process generates a huge number of antibodies, each with different paratopes , and thus different antigen specificities.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the bone marrow, each developing B cell will assemble an immunoglobulin variable region by randomly selecting and combining one V, one D and one J gene segment (or one V and one J segment in the light chain).^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These regions are related to gene segments observed in the genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the variable region of the light chain is a C-terminal portion known as the J region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.As there are multiple copies of each type of gene segment, and different combinations of gene segments can be used to generate each immunoglobulin variable region, this process generates a huge number of antibodies, each with different paratopes, and thus different antigen specificities.^ These regions are related to gene segments observed in the genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Construct specific-antigen antibody library .

^ This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.After a B cell produces a functional immunoglobulin gene during V(D)J recombination, it cannot express any other variable region (a process known as allelic exclusion) thus each B cell can produce antibodies containing only one kind of variable chain.^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the variable region of the light chain is a C-terminal portion known as the J region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

[3][30]

Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation

For more details on this topic, see Somatic hypermutation and Affinity maturation
.Following activation with antigen, B cells begin to proliferate rapidly.^ Following activation with antigen, B cells begin to proliferate rapidly.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Proliferation of activated B cells.

^ Induces proliferation of activated T and B cells .
  • Components of the Immune System: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Professional 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.In these rapidly dividing cells, the genes encoding the variable domains of the heavy and light chains undergo a high rate of point mutation, by a process called somatic hypermutation (SHM).^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light chain with one variable (V L ) and one constant (C L ) domain 5.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.SHM results in approximately one nucleotide change per variable gene, per cell division.^ SHM results in approximately one nucleotide change per variable gene, per cell division.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We noted a change in gene expression profiles over time in the unstimulated cells, demonstrating the necessity to acquire control US gene expression for each selected time point for all future experiments.
  • Blood -- Temporal genetic program following B-cell receptor cross-linking: altered ba... 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A form of cell division in which mitotic nuclear changes do not occur; cleavage without separation of daughter chromosomes.
  • PAE Virtual Glossary 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mhhe.com [Source type: Reference]

[5] .As a consequence, any daughter B cells will acquire slight amino acid differences in the variable domains of their antibody chains.^ Light Chain - V L (110 amino acids) and C L (110 amino acids) .
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a consequence, any daughter B cells will acquire slight amino acid differences in the variable domains of their antibody chains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, surface antibody varies from B cell to B cell.

.This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody’s antigen-binding affinity.^ The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most antibodies have a high affinity for their antigens.

^ Somatic hypermutation serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody’s antigen-binding affinity .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Some point mutations will result in the production of antibodies that have a weaker interaction (low affinity) with their antigen than the original antibody, and some mutations will generate antibodies with a stronger interaction (high affinity).^ Some antibodies destroy antigens directly.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A 'high titer' serum has more antibody than a 'low titer' serum.

^ Most antibodies have a high affinity for their antigens.

[32] .B cells that express high affinity antibodies on their surface will receive a strong survival signal during interactions with other cells, whereas those with low affinity antibodies will not, and will die by apoptosis.^ Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for function and survival.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most antibodies have a high affinity for their antigens.

^ B cells that express high affinity antibodies on their surface will receive a strong survival signal during interactions with other cells, whereas those with low affinity antibodies will not, and will die by apoptosis .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] .Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for function and survival.^ Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for function and survival.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibody affinity for antigen depends on .

^ Avidity is the functional affinity of multivalent antigen binding to multivalent antibody molecules.

.The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation.^ The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoclonal isotype switching and affinity optimization using recombinant DNA techniques The purified antibody gene can be mutated to effect binding specificity or neutralizing capabilities.

^ NAL call number: QP631 N37 Descriptors: rabbits, isolation, purification, antibody formation, binding.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Affinity maturation occurs in mature B cells after V(D)J recombination, and is dependent on help from helper T cells.^ Affinity maturation of recombinant antibodies using E. coli mutator cells.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Affinity maturation occurs in mature B cells after V(D)J recombination, and is dependent on help from helper T cells .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, for T-dependent antigens, a second signal provided by helper T cells is required before B cells are activated.

[33]
Mechanism of class switch recombination that allows isotype switching in activated B cells

Class switching

.Isotype or class switching is a biological process occurring after activation of the B cell, which allows the cell to produce different classes of antibody (IgA, IgE, or IgG).^ The class of antibody (IgG or IgM etc.

^ Isotype or class switching is a biological process occurring after activation of the B cell, which allows the cell to produce different classes of antibody (IgA, IgE, or IgG).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

[2] .The different classes of antibody, and thus effector functions, are defined by the constant (C) regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain.^ Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein.
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All immunoglobulins within a given class will have very similar heavy chain constant regions.
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  9 February 2010 14:18 UTC pathmicro.med.sc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Home 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

.Initially, naïve B cells express only cell-surface IgM and IgD with identical antigen binding regions.^ Antigens are chemicals on the surface of a cell.

^ Pentameric IgM binds to antigens on the surface of a pathogen like a spider.

^ Initially, only IgM is produced.
  • Components of the Immune System: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Professional 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Each isotype is adapted for a distinct function, therefore, after activation, an antibody with a IgG, IgA, or IgE effector function might be required to effectively eliminate an antigen.^ Each isotype is adapted for a distinct function, therefore, after activation, an antibody with a IgG, IgA, or IgE effector function might be required to effectively eliminate an antigen.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anti-IgA autoantibodies of the IgG and/or IgE isotype may be present.
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency: eMedicine Allergy and Immunology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, what type of antibody was it: IgA, IgG or IgE? .
  • Genetic Testing for Celiac Disease - Consults Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC consults.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Class switching allows different daughter cells from the same activated B cell to produce antibodies of different isotypes.^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ Antibodies can come in different varieties known as isotypes or classes.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies can come in different forms known as isotypes or classes.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Only the constant region of the antibody heavy chain changes during class switching; the variable regions, and therefore antigen specificity, remain unchanged.^ The FRs for B7-1 heavy and light chain variable regions are from the III-2R antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each constant region is specific for a species.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F1 heavy chain variable region and for the humanized 1F1 light chain variable region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus the progeny of a single B cell can produce antibodies, all specific for the same antigen, but with the ability to produce the effector function appropriate for each antigenic challenge.^ The ability of antibodies to recognize specific antigen is an important characteristic.

^ Antibodies are proteins produced by certain lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.

^ Construct specific-antigen antibody library .

.Class switching is triggered by cytokines; the isotype generated depends on which cytokines are present in the B cell environment.^ Class switching is triggered by cytokines; the isotype generated depends on which cytokines are present in the B cell environment.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During B-cell development, the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus is the site of 2 types of rearrangements: V(D)J assembly that generates the variable (V) region exons at the heavy- and light-chain loci and class-switch recombination (CSR) at the heavy-chain (IgH) locus.
  • Blood -- Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination in mice devoid of any S{micro} tan... 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Class switching occurs in the heavy chain gene locus by a mechanism called class switch recombination (CSR).^ Class switching occurs in the heavy chain gene locus by a mechanism called class switch recombination (CSR).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This antibody class has the epsilon (e) Heavy Chain.

^ This antibody class has the gamma (g) Heavy Chain.

.This mechanism relies on conserved nucleotide motifs, called switch (S) regions, found in DNA upstream of each constant region gene (except in the δ-chain).^ This mechanism relies on conserved nucleotide motifs, called switch (S) regions , found in DNA upstream of each constant region gene (except in the δ-chain).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoclonal isotype switching and affinity optimization using recombinant DNA techniques The purified antibody gene can be mutated to effect binding specificity or neutralizing capabilities.

.The DNA strand is broken by the activity of a series of enzymes at two selected S-regions.^ The DNA strand is broken by the activity of a series of enzymes at two selected S-regions.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By restriction enzyme analysis or sequencing of the J region, one can select for a particular site for the 3' terminus of the variable region.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IVIG produced from selected plasma donated in WNV endemic regions can be used to produce WNV IVIG with superior activity for therapeutic and prophylactic measures.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

[35][36] .The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).^ The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε).
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The action of IVIG is mediated through both the variable and the constant regions of the Fab 2 as well as the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin molecule.
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Use for Neurologic Diseases 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The binding of pIgA to pIgR is initiated by a noncovalent interaction between a loop region of the third constant domain of IgA (C 3) and a conserved sequence in D1 of the pIgR 53 .
  • Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited -- Pilette et al. 18 (3): 571 -- European Respiratory Journal 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC erj.ersjournals.com [Source type: Academic]

.This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype.^ This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic studies revealed the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was identified by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As there are multiple copies of each type of gene segment, and different combinations of gene segments can be used to generate each immunoglobulin variable region, this process generates a huge number of antibodies, each with different paratope , and thus different antigen specificities.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]

Medical applications

Disease diagnosis and therapy

.Detection of particular antibodies is a very common form of medical diagnostics, and applications such as serology depend on these methods.^ Detection of particular antibodies is a very common form of medical diagnostics , and applications such as serology depend on these methods.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IHC WORLD Ready to Use (RTU) IHC Antibodies are extensively tested and validated for immunohistochemistry applications using standard detection methods to reach maximum signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Ready to Use Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Antibodies 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ihcworld.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis,[39] a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme disease is estimated from the blood.^ For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis, a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme disease is estimated from the blood.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis, [32] a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme disease is estimated from the blood.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epstein-Barr virus coopts lipid rafts to block the signaling and antigen transport functions of the BCR. Immunity.
  • Mimicry of a constitutively active pre-B cell receptor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells -- Feldhahn et al. 201 (11): 1837 -- The Journal of Experimental Medicine 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC jem.rupress.org [Source type: Academic]

.If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.^ If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are three major types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes that produce antibodies to help combat bacterial, fungal or viral infections; T lymphocytes that have several functions, including assisting B lymphocytes to make antibodies; and natural killer (NK) cells that can attack virus-infected cells or tumor cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the median time from diagnosis to initial treatment in each of these groups was significantly shorter than the time in patients with ZAP-70–negative CLL cells who had either mutated or unmutated IgV H genes (P <0.001).
  • NEJM -- ZAP-70 Compared with Immunoglobulin Heavy-Chain Gene Mutation Status as a Predictor of Disease Progression in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

.In clinical immunology, levels of individual classes of immunoglobulins are measured by nephelometry (or turbidimetry) to characterize the antibody profile of patient.^ In clinical immunology , levels of individual classes of immunoglobulins are measured by nephelometry (or turbidimetry) to characterize the antibody profile of patient.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunoglobulin levels are measured to exclude IgA deficiency.

^ Blood -- Influence of plasma immunoglobulin level on antibody synthesis .

[40] .Elevations in different classes of immunoglobulins are sometimes useful in determining the cause of liver damage in patients whom the diagnosis is unclear.^ Elevations in different classes of immunoglobulins are sometimes useful in determining the cause of liver damage in patients whom the diagnosis is unclear.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In clinical immunology , levels of individual classes of immunoglobulins are measured by nephelometry (or turbidimetry) to characterize the antibody profile of patient.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bruton (1952) reported the use of intramuscular (IM) immunoglobulin injections for a patient with agammaglobulinemia.
  • The Nurse's Role in Administration of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .For example, elevated IgA indicates alcoholic cirrhosis, elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis.^ For example, elevated IgA indicates alcoholic cirrhosis , elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis , while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis , autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fc region is responsible for the effector function of the antibody (such as opsonization or Complement activation) and also defines the class of antibody (IgG versus IgA for example).

^ Milk intolerance is common in patients with primary IgAD. Reports indicate that patients with IgAD may have IgG antibodies against cow milk and ruminant serum proteins.
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency: eMedicine Allergy and Immunology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Autoimmune disorders can often be traced to antibodies that bind the body's own epitopes; many can be detected through blood tests.^ Autoimmune disorders can often be traced to antibodies that bind the body's own epitopes ; many can be detected through blood tests .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Titer-- The detection of antibodies in blood through a laboratory test.
  • NIP: terms/glossary 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The antibody level in the blood is a reflection of past exposure to an antigen or to something that the body does not recognize as belonging to itself.

.Antibodies directed against red blood cell surface antigens in immune mediated hemolytic anemia are detected with the Coombs test.^ The cell-mediated immune responses.

^ A laboratory test to identify antibodies that can bind to the surface of red blood cells or platelets and destroy them.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigens are chemicals on the surface of a cell.

[41] .The Coombs test is also used for antibody screening in blood transfusion preparation and also for antibody screening in antenatal women.^ The Coombs test is also used for antibody screening in blood transfusion preparation and also for antibody screening in antenatal women.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In these settings, individuals to be screened for infection are of higher risk groups than the blood donor population, and thus require the use of testing methodologies with high levels of analytical sensitivity to detect primary infection.

^ Some of these H.L.A. genes can be tested for using a sample of blood or cells taken from your mouth by swabbing the inside of your cheek.
  • Genetic Testing for Celiac Disease - Consults Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC consults.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Practically, several immunodiagnostic methods based on detection of complex antigen-antibody are used to diagnose infectious diseases, for example ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blot, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and Magnetic immunoassay.^ The FDA has approved an ELISA and Western blot for use to test urine for antibodies to HIV-1.

^ Formation of an antigen-antibody complex.

^ The direct ELISA uses the method of directly labeled antibody.
  • FAQ: Antibodies - R&D Systems 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Reference]

.Antibodies raised against Human chorionic gonadotropin are used in over the counter pregnancy tests.^ The FDA has approved an ELISA and Western blot for use to test urine for antibodies to HIV-1.

^ Using a different approach, humanized monoclonal antibodies against specific epitopes in the viral envelope showing high in-vivo potency were developed [ 31 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If your health care provider is testing for antibodies against your own tissue, abnormal results would show a positive antibody titer.

.Targeted monoclonal antibody therapy is employed to treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,[42] multiple sclerosis,[43] psoriasis,[44] and many forms of cancer including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,[45] colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and breast cancer.^ Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma A cancer of the lymphatic system .
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoclonal antibody therapy A type of therapy that targets and kills cancer cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

[46] .Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, result in partial or complete lack of antibodies.^ Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia , result in partial or complete lack of antibodies.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary humoral immunodeficiency diseases (such as congenital agammaglobulinemia (X-linked agammaglobulinemia), hypogammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, X-linked immunodeficiency with hyperimmunoglobulin M, Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency) (see Appendix) .
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) 29 September 2009 16:21 UTC www.aetna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This base, or Fc fragment, mediates the binding of the antibody to host tissues, including various cells of the immune system, some phagocytic cells, and compliment.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

[47] .These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity.^ Passive immunity is short-lived.

^ These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These disorders/diseases can be treated using an antibody specific to B7-2 and/or B7-1.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Passive immunity is achieved through the transfer of ready-made antibodies in the form of human or animal serum, pooled immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies, into the affected individual.^ Will trehalose affect the animal I inject it into?
  • FAQ: Antibodies - R&D Systems 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Development of human monoclonal antibodies.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Passive immunity can be provided by administration of human immunoglobulin.
  • Immunise - 3.8 Immunoglobulin preparations - updated July 2009 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

[48]

Prenatal therapy

.Rhesus factor, also known as Rhesus D (RhD) antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rhesus-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and individuals that are Rhesus-negative (Rh–) do not.^ These anti-RhD antibodies are known under several brand names , including RhoGAM, BayRHo-D, Gamulin Rh, HypRho-D, and WinRho SDF. Rhesus factor is an antigen found on red blood cells ; individuals that are Rhesus-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and individuals that are Rhesus-negative (Rh-) do not.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These anti-RhD antibodies are known under several brand names , including RhoGAM, BayRHo-D, Gamulin Rh, HypRho-D, and WinRho SDF. Rhesus factor is an antigen found on red blood cells ; individuals that are Rhesus-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and individuals that are Rhesus-negative (Rh–) do not.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Type O individuals have no antigens on their red blood cells but antigens to both A and B are in their plasma.

.During normal childbirth, delivery trauma or complications during pregnancy, blood from a fetus can enter the mother's system.^ During normal childbirth , delivery trauma or complications during pregnancy, blood from a fetus can enter the mother's system.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rh + blood from the fetus enters the mother's system during birth, causing her to produce Rh antibodies.

^ These can be used to help improve normal blood cell counts during treatment.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of an Rh-incompatible mother and child, consequential blood mixing may sensitize an Rh- mother to the Rh antigen on the blood cells of the Rh+ child, putting the remainder of the pregnancy, and any subsequent pregnancies, at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn.^ In the case of an Rh-incompatible mother and child, consequential blood mixing may sensitize an Rh- mother to the Rh antigen on the blood cells of the Rh+ child, putting the remainder of the pregnancy , and any subsequent pregnancies, at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) results from Rh incompatibility between an Rh - mother and Rh + fetus.

^ The Rh (for the rhesus monkey in which it was discovered) blood group is made up of those Rh positive (Rh + ) individuals who can make the Rh antigen and those Rh negative (Rh - ) who cannot.

[49]
.Rho(D) immune globulin antibodies are specific for human Rhesus D (RhD) antigen.^ Preferably, the antibody is a humanized antibody specific to B7-2 or B7-1.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rho(D) Immune Globulin antibodies are specific for human Rhesus D (RhD) antigen, also known as Rhesus factor .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific antibodies are produced by injecting an antigen into a mammal , such as a mouse , rat or rabbit for small quantities of antibody, or goat , sheep , or horse for large quantities of antibody.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] .Anti-RhD antibodies are administered as part of a prenatal treatment regimen to prevent sensitization that may occur when a Rhesus-negative mother has a Rhesus-positive fetus.^ Anti-RhD antibodies are administered as part of a prenatal treatment regimen to prevent sensitization that may occur when a Rhesus-negative mother has a Rhesus-positive fetus.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These anti-RhD antibodies are known under several brand names , including RhoGAM, BayRHo-D, Gamulin Rh, HypRho-D, and WinRho SDF. Rhesus factor is an antigen found on red blood cells ; individuals that are Rhesus-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and individuals that are Rhesus-negative (Rh-) do not.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rh (for the rhesus monkey in which it was discovered) blood group is made up of those Rh positive (Rh + ) individuals who can make the Rh antigen and those Rh negative (Rh - ) who cannot.

.Treatment of a mother with Anti-RhD antibodies prior to and immediately after trauma and delivery destroys Rh antigen in the mother's system from the fetus.^ Treatment of a mother with Anti-RhD antibodies prior to and immediately after trauma and delivery destroys Rh antigen in the mother's system from the fetus.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some antibodies destroy antigens directly.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Anti-WNV antibodies in the IVIG preparations used for treatments Antigen preparation .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Importantly, this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by generating memory B cells.^ Importantly, this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by generating memory B cells .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Activated B cells differentiate into either antibody generating factories called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody, or into memory cells that survive in the body for years afterwards to allow the immune system to remember an antigen and respond faster upon future exposures.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IgM is the first Ig to be made by the fetus and the first Ig to be made by a virgin B cells when it is stimulated by antigen.

.Therefore, her humoral immune system will not make anti-Rh antibodies, and will not attack the Rhesus antigens of the current or subsequent babies.^ Therefore, her humoral immune system will not make anti-Rh antibodies, and will not attack the Rhesus antigens of the current or subsequent baby.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system.
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system .
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rho(D) Immune Globulin treatment prevents sensitization that can lead to Rh disease, but does not prevent or treat the underlying disease itself.^ Consensus development conference intravenous immune globulin: prevention and treatment of diseases.
  • The Nurse's Role in Administration of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rho(D) Immune Globulin treatment prevents sensitization that can lead to Rh disease , but does not prevent or treat the underlying disease itself.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For more details on this topic, see Rho(D) Immune Globulin .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[50]

Research applications

.
Immunofluorescence image of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.
^ Immunofluorescence image of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Actin filaments are shown in red, microtubules in green, and the nuclei in blue.
.Specific antibodies are produced by injecting an antigen into a mammal, such as a mouse, rat or rabbit for small quantities of antibody, or goat, sheep, or horse for large quantities of antibody.^ Antibodies are proteins produced by certain lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.

^ Specific antibodies are produced by injecting an antigen into a mammal , such as a mouse , rat or rabbit for small quantities of antibody, or goat , sheep , or horse for large quantities of antibody.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, antibodies can be raised against an appropriate immunogen in a suitable mammal such as a mouse, rat, rabbit, sheep, or camelid.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Blood isolated from these animals contains polyclonal antibodies—multiple antibodies that bind to the same antigen—in the serum, which can now be called antiserum.^ Blood isolated from these animals contains polyclonal antibodies — multiple antibodies that bind to the same antigen — in the serum , which can now be called antiserum .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This region of the antibody is called the Fab (fragment, antigen binding) region .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigen binding - These fragments were called the Fab fragments because they contained the antigen binding sites of the antibody.

.Antigens are also injected into chickens for generation of polyclonal antibodies in egg yolk.^ Generation and application of chicken egg-yolk antibodies.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How do the antibodies get into the chcken egg?
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CD28 antigen (CD28) polyclonal antibody .
  • Polyclonal Antibodies Details Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biocarta.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .To obtain antibody that is specific for a single epitope of an antigen, antibody-secreting lymphocytes are isolated from the animal and immortalized by fusing them with a cancer cell line.^ Each B cell produces antibodies which match a single antigen.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To obtain antibody that is specific for a single epitope of an antigen, antibody-secreting lymphocytes are isolated from the animal and immortalized by fusing them with a cancer cell line.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antibody encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies are secreted by the B cells ( 15 ).
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

.The fused cells are called hybridomas, and will continually grow and secrete antibody in culture.^ Optimizing antibody production in batch hybridoma cell culture.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The fused cells are called hybridomas , and will continually grow and secrete antibody in culture.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth, metabolic, and antibody production kinetics of hybridoma cell culture: 2.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Single hybridoma cells are isolated by dilution cloning to generate cell clones that all produce the same antibody; these antibodies are called monoclonal antibodies.^ This pooled product from a variety of B cell clones is called “polyclonal antibody”.

^ Efficient generation of stable antibody forming hybridoma cells by electrofusion.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies on monoclonal antibody production by a hybridoma cell line (C1E3).
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[52] .Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are often purified using Protein A/G or antigen-affinity chromatography.^ Production of mouse monoclonal antibodies using a continuous cell culture fermenter and protein G affinity chromatography.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Generated polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are often purified using Protein A/G or antigen-affinity chromatography .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1920s, Michael Heidelberger and Oswald Avery observed that antigens could be precipitated by antibodies and went on to show that antibodies were made of protein.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[53]
.In research, purified antibodies are used in many applications.^ In research, purified antibodies are used in many applications.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of Birmingham Images produced using antibodies at antibodypatterns.com Antibody database, search by reactivity, host species, applications and conjugate at biocompare.com .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the advent of monoclonal antibodies, the usefulness of immunoglobulins has been greatly expanded and in many situations has greatly extended prior uses employing polyclonal antibodies.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are most commonly used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins.^ They are most commonly used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are also used in immunoprecipitation to separate proteins and anything bound to them (co-immunoprecipitation) from other molecules in a cell lysate , [48] in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis , [49] and in immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence to examine protein expression in tissue sections or to locate proteins within cells with the assistance of a microscope .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The focus of this discussion is on antibody detection, the most widely used and, in most situations, most effective way to identify HIV infection.

.Antibodies are used in flow cytometry to differentiate cell types by the proteins they express; different types of cell express different combinations of cluster of differentiation molecules on their surface, and produce different intracellular and secretable proteins.^ The cells can be engineered to express recipient molecules.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B cells are stimulated to differentiate and divide into antibody forming cells which secrete the antibodies.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flow cytometry analysis of spleen cells.
  • Blood -- Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination in mice devoid of any S{micro} tan... 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] .They are also used in immunoprecipitation to separate proteins and anything bound to them (co-immunoprecipitation) from other molecules in a cell lysate,[55] in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis,[56] and in immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence to examine protein expression in tissue sections or to locate proteins within cells with the assistance of a microscope.^ They are also used in immunoprecipitation to separate proteins and anything bound to them (co-immunoprecipitation) from other molecules in a cell lysate , [48] in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis , [49] and in immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence to examine protein expression in tissue sections or to locate proteins within cells with the assistance of a microscope .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Evaluation of CD133 expression in human tissue using Western blot analysis .

^ They are most commonly used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[54][57] .Proteins can also be detected and quantified with antibodies, using ELISA and ELISPOT techniques.^ Proteins can also be detected and quantified with antibodies, using ELISA and ELISPOT techniques.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Practically, several immunodiagnostic methods based on detection of complex antigen-antibody are used to diagnose infectious diseases, for example ELISA , immunofluorescence , Western blot , immunodiffusion , and immunoelectrophoresis .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies were initially characterized using myeloma proteins , homogenous antibodies produced by cancerous plasma cells in individuals with multiple myeloma.

[58][59]

Structure prediction

.The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology industry demands knowledge of their structures at high resolution.^ If your health care provider is testing for antibodies against your own tissue, abnormal results would show a positive antibody titer.

^ If your health care provider is testing for antibodies against your own tissue, then the normal value would be zero or negative.

^ Human immunoglobulin kappa gene enhancer: Chromatin structure analysis at high resolution.
  • Nomenclature of the Human Immunoglobulin Genes | Current Protocols 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.currentprotocols.com [Source type: Academic]

.This information is used for protein engineering, modifying the antigen binding affinity, and identifying an epitope, of a given antibody.^ In the 1920s, Michael Heidelberger and Oswald Avery observed that antigens could be precipitated by antibodies and went on to show that antibodies were made of protein.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.

^ The affinity of the DNS1 combining site for DNS is 17 nM; the binding affinity of this isomer is lower by a factor of 10 3 , making it suitable for use in affinity purification.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.X-ray crystallography is one commonly used method for determining antibody structures.^ Antibodies can also be produced in a variety of truncated forms using antibody genes in which one or more stop codons have been introduced upstream of the natural stop site.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second method to identify the time of infection for incidence estimation is based on antibody avidity and has been developed using a third-generation ELISA. This method is known as the Avidity Index Protocol.

^ The complete nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of one of these plasmids was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method as described by Smith, Methods Enzymol.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, crystallizing an antibody is often laborious and time consuming.^ However, viral RNA tests are expensive, time consuming, and unavailable in many laboratories.

.Computational approaches can provide a cheaper faster alternative to crystallography, but their results are more equivocal since they do not produce empirical structures.^ Since there are millions of such changes that could be made, and they are random changes, then the resulting antibody produced by each B cell is different.

^ Most investigators conclude that more IgA is actually produced than any other immunoglobulin, since most of it is lost in secretions.
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency: eMedicine Allergy and Immunology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells rearrange their IgL locus ( 10 ), and provided that they produce an Ig L chain able to pair with µH chain, develop into surface IgM-positive immature B cells.
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Online web servers such as Web Antibody Modeling (WAM)[60] and Prediction of Immunoglobulin Structure (PIGS)[61] enables computational modeling of antibody variable regions.^ The action of IVIG is mediated through both the variable and the constant regions of the Fab 2 as well as the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin molecule.
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Use for Neurologic Diseases 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CDRs are hypervariable regions that contain most of the amino acid sequence variation in between immunoglobulins.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rosetta Antibody is a novel antibody FV region structure prediction server, which incorporates sophisticated techniques to minimize CDR loops and optimize the relative orientation of the light and heavy chains, as well as homology models that predict successful docking of antibodies with their unique antigen.^ Surrogate light chain-dependent selection of Ig heavy chain V regions.
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The light and heavy chains each have a variable region and a constant region.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each light chain has one V L domain and each heavy chain has one V H domain.

[62]

History

.The first use of the term "antibody" occurred in a text by Paul Ehrlich.^ First, immunoglobulins, particularly antibodies, are produced using recombinant techniques which mimic the amino acid sequence of naturally occuring antibodies produced by either mammalian B cells in situ, or by B cells fused with suitable immortalizing tumor lines, i.e., hybridomas.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In descriptions of processes for isolation of antibodies from recombinant hosts, the terms "cell" and "cell culture" are used interchangeably to denote the source of antibody unless it is clearly specified otherwise.
  • Recombinant immunoglobin preparations - Patent 4816567 25 September 2009 1:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The term antikörper (the German word for antibody) appears in the conclusion of his article "Experimental Studies on Immunity", published in October 1891, which states that "if two substances give rise to two different antikörper, then they themselves must be different".[63].^ All stem cells have three properties: They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods, they are unspecialized, and under certain circumstances they can give rise to specialized cell types.
  • Stem Cell Antibodies :: Page 1 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.prosci-inc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there are millions of such changes that could be made, and they are random changes, then the resulting antibody produced by each B cell is different.

^ Natural autoantibodies appear to be more polyreactive than immune antibodies; natural antibodies can frequently bind to different antigens.
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin: eMedicine Hematology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the term was not accepted immediately and several other terms for antibody were proposed; these included Immunkörper, Amboceptor, Zwischenkörper, substance sensibilisatrice, copula, Desmon, philocytase, fixateur, and Immunisin.^ Similarly, several autoantibodies, other than aCL, might be detected at APS, and these include antibodies directed to phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidic acid.
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy of antiphospholipid syndrome -- Sherer et al. 39 (4): 421 -- Rheumatology 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several weeks later, usually after the immediate threat has passed and the infection has resolved, the body creates IgG antibodies.

^ Specific antibody to HIV is produced shortly after infection, but the exact time depends on several factors, including host and viral characteristics.

[63] The word antibody has formal analogy to the word antitoxin and a similar concept to Immunkörper.[63]
.
Angel of the West (2008) by Julian Voss-Andreae was created based on the antibody structure published by E. Padlan[64] for the Florida campus of the Scripps Research Institute.
^ Flow diagrams were obtained by analyzing the primary data with the CellQuest software program (The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA).
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Flow diagrams were obtained by analyzing the primary data with the CellQuest software program (The Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA).
  • Surrogate Light Chain-Mediated Interaction of a Soluble Pre-B Cell Receptor with Adherent Cell Lines -- Bradl and Jäck 167 (11): 6403 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

[65] .The antibody is placed into a ring referencing Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man thus highlighting the similar proportions of the antibody and the human body.^ The more homologous a human antibody is to the original murine antibody, the less likely the human framework will introduce distortions into the mouse CDRs that could reduce affinity.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, preferred humanized immunoglobulins can have the binding specificity of the murine HF2.3D1 or 1F1 antibody, the epitopic specificity of the murine HF2.3D1 or 1F1 antibody (e.g., can compete with murine HF2.3D1 or 1F1, a chimeric HF2.3D1 or 1F1 antibody, or humanized HF2.3D1 or 1F1 for binding to B7-2 or B7-1, respectively) and/or inhibitory function.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With inflammation damaging those membranes, more antigens will leak into the body and more antibodies will be produced.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

[66]
.The study of antibodies began in 1890 when Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato described antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins.^ See also: History of immunology The study of antibodies began in 1890 when Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato described antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emil von Behring - Biography .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies on daignostic applications of egg yolk antibodies against Bordetella bronchiseptica.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Behring and Kitasato put forward the theory of humoral immunity, proposing that a mediator in serum could react with a foreign antigen.^ Behring and Kitasato put forward the theory of humoral immunity , proposing that a mediator in serum could react with a foreign antigen.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mucosal immunity in primary glomerulonephritis: II. Study of the serum IgA subclass repertoire to food and airborne antigens.
  • High-Dose Immunoglobulin Therapy for Severe IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schonlein Purpura — Ann Intern Med 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[67][68] .Their idea prompted Paul Ehrlich to propose the side chain theory for antibody and antigen interaction in 1897, when he hypothesized that receptors (described as “side chains”) on the surface of cells could bind specifically to toxins – in a "lock-and-key" interaction – and that this binding reaction was the trigger for the production of antibodies.^ In the Th cell, the receptor-binding stimulates the production of cytokines and receptors.

^ Cell surface IgM functions as a receptor for antigen on B cells.

^ The other end of the antibody (Fc) binds to receptors on phagocytic cells.

[69] .Other researchers believed that antibodies existed freely in the blood and, in 1904, Almroth Wright suggested that soluble antibodies coated bacteria to label them for phagocytosis and killing; a process that he named opsoninization.^ Other researchers believed that antibodies existed freely in the blood and, in 1904, Almroth Wright suggested that soluble antibodies coated bacteria to label them for phagocytosis and killing; a process that he named opsoninization .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I further hypothesize that antibodies seek to match antigens only in areas where stray free radicals or a relatively oxidizing redox potential exists.
  • Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.orthomed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids Albumin Water-soluble blood protein .

[70]
.In the 1920s, Michael Heidelberger and Oswald Avery observed that antigens could be precipitated by antibodies and went on to show that antibodies were made of protein.^ In the 1920s, Michael Heidelberger and Oswald Avery observed that antigens could be precipitated by antibodies and went on to show that antibodies were made of protein.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Michael Heidelberger and the demystification of antibodies .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there are millions of such changes that could be made, and they are random changes, then the resulting antibody produced by each B cell is different.

[71] .The biochemical properties of antigen-antibody binding interactions were examined in more detail in the late 1930s by John Marrack.^ The biochemical properties of antigen-antibody binding interactions were examined in more detail in the late 1930s by John Marrack .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Different combinations of a V H and V L result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.

[72] .The next major advance was in the 1940s, when Linus Pauling confirmed the lock-and-key theory proposed by Ehrlich by showing that the interactions between antibodies and antigens depended more on their shape than their chemical composition.^ The next major advance was in the 1940s, when Linus Pauling confirmed the lock-and-key theory proposed by Ehrlich by showing that the interactions between antibodies and antigens depended more on their shape than their chemical composition.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Avidity describes the collective interactions between antibodies and a multivalent antigen.

[73] .In 1948, Astrid Fagreaus discovered that B cells, in the form of plasma cells, were responsible for generating antibodies.^ Efficient generation of stable antibody forming hybridoma cells by electrofusion.
  • "Information resources for adjuvants and antibody production: comparisons and alternative technologies" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1948, Astrid Fagreaus discovered that B cells, in the form of plasma cells , were responsible for generating antibodies.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of the plasma cell this protein is antibody (immunoglobulin).

[74]
.Further work concentrated on characterizing the structures of the antibody proteins.^ Further work concentrated on characterizing the structures of the antibody proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The protein A binding of each of the eleven variant antibodies was assessed and used as a probe of Fc structural integrity.
  • Methods and transformed mammalian lymphocyte cells for producing functional antigen-binding protein including chimeric immunoglobulin - Patent 5807715 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An HPLC size-exclusion column was used to confirm that the antibodies remained intact and were not aggregated, and to measure protein concentration against standards prepared from non-labeled antibody.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.A major advance in these structural studies was the discovery in the early 1960s by Gerald Edelman and Joseph Gally of the antibody light chain,[75] and their realization that this protein was the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones.^ A major advance in these structural studies was the discovery in the early 1960s by Gerald Edelman and Joseph Gally of the antibody light chain , [61] and their realization that this protein was the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones .
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The nature of Bence-Jones proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with light chain myeloma, either of light chain, kappa or lambda, is dominantly produced and resulting in marked changes of the FLC κ/λ ratio in the early phase of the disease.
  • BioVendor R&D - Immunoassays \ Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains Kappa and Lambda Human ELISA 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.biovendor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .Edelman went on to discover that antibodies are composed of disulfide bond-linked heavy and light chains.^ There are two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains in each antibody.

^ Edelman went on to discover that antibodies are composed of disulphide bond -linked heavy and light chains.
  • Immunoglobulins - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This antibody class has the epsilon (e) Heavy Chain.

.Around the same time, antibody-binding (Fab) and antibody tail (Fc) regions of IgG were characterized by Rodney Porter.^ The Fab region of antibody is involved in antigen binding.

^ The two important regions of the antibody are: - the Fab region - the Fc region The antigen binding region (Fab) is the recognition region of the antibody.

^ Fab regions in each antibody molecule.

[77] .Together, these scientists deduced the structure and complete amino acid sequence of IgG, a feat for which they were jointly awarded the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.^ They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process Amino Acids, Branched-Chain Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain Amino Acids, Cyclic Class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure Amino Acid Sequence The arrangement of amino acids in a protein.

^ Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the unique tails of mouse and human 5 and VpreB genes.
  • Interaction of Murine Precursor B Cell Receptor with Stroma Cells Is Controlled by the Unique Tail of {lambda}5 and Stroma Cell-Associated Heparan Sulfate -- Bradl et al. 171 (5): 2338 -- The Journal of Immunology 24 September 2009 18:58 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CDRs are hypervariable regions that contain most of the amino acid sequence variation in between immunoglobulins.
  • Humanized immunoglobulin reactive with B7 therewith - Patent 6913747 9 February 2010 14:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[77] .While most of these early studies focused on IgM and IgG, other immunoglobulin isotypes were identified in the 1960s: Thomas Tomasi discovered secretory antibody (IgA)[78] and David Rowe and John Fahey identified IgD,[79] and IgE was identified by Kikishige Ishizaka and Teruki Ishizaka as a class of antibodies involved in allergic reactions.^ The class of antibody (IgG or IgM etc.

^ Antibody isotypes (classes) are named IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE, and IgM to correspond to their H chain types, which influence the effector functions of the antibody molecules.

^ There are five different classes ( isotypes ) of immunoglobulins: IgD, IgA, IgM, IgE and IgG. There are subclasses of some of the five classes and they vary among species.

[80] Genetic studies identifying the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.[81]

See also

Notes

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External links


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|255px|Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; this works like a lock and a key.]] Antibodies (also called Immunoglobulins (Ig)) are special proteins. They are found in the blood or other body fluids of vertebrates. The immune system uses antibodies to identify foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. These objects are then neutralized, so that they can no longer cause problems and diseases.

Each antibody is different. They are all designed to attack only one kind of virus or bacteria. For instance, an antibody designed to destroy smallpox are unable to hit the Bubonic plague or the common cold. An antibody resembles the letter "Y". At the two ends of the "Y" are specially shaped antigens that can only insert themselves in one type of germ. This is needed, because every antibody is different. When the antibody finds the germ it's after, it "knows" because of its special antigen. If the antibody can insert its antigen into the germ, it will go to work either destroying it by blocking it from "germ food" (cells), or calling white blood cells to eat it, thereby killing whatever it was after.

It is the job of the "humoral" section of the immune system to make antibodies.

Antibodies can be found almost anywhere in the blood. If a doctor were to look at one, he or she would call it a globulin, because that is what it is shaped like.

Antibodies are also made by special "B Cells" in the immune system. B cells only attack when their antibodies tell them to. Once alerted, the B cell goes to work, breaking germs down into nothing but harmless goo. In some cases, a B cell can not do it alone. When that happens, a T helper cell is called in to help.

Other websites

  • Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISA and ELISPOT assays


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Antibody, which are similar to those in the above article.








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