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Fluoxetine (Prozac), an SSRI
.An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia.^ My first psychiatric diagnosis was major depression, and my first psychiatric medication was Prozac.

^ What medications are used to treat depression?
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression is commonly treated with antidepressant medications.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drugs including the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are most commonly associated with the term.^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the popular new classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoami...
  • New Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.These medications are among those most commonly prescribed by psychiatrists and other physicians, and their effectiveness and adverse effects are the subject of many studies and competing claims.^ These medications are now amongst the drugs most commonly prescribed by psychiatrists and general practitioners, and their effectiveness and adverse effects are the subject of many studies and competing claims.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs also require less monitoring; thus, they are more commonly prescribed by primary care physicians who see these patients on a less regular schedule than do psychiatrists (11 .
  • Antidepressant Statistics- combined edited threads - paxilprogress 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.paxilprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said he had helped study many of the most popular drugs in psychiatry, including Paxil, Prozac, Risperdal, Seroquel, Zoloft and Zyprexa.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many drugs produce an antidepressant effect, but restrictions on their use have caused controversy and off-label prescription a risk, despite claims of superior efficacy.^ What side effects can antidepressants cause?
  • CIGNA - Depression: Should I take an antidepressant? 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ In this case, the antidepressants caused too many side effects.

^ Acetaminophen and butalbital may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives (used to treat insomnia), other pain relievers, anxiety medicines, and muscle relaxants.

.Most typical antidepressants have a delayed onset of action (2–6 weeks) and are usually administered for anywhere from months to years.^ Most antidepressants have a delayed onset of action and are usually taken over the course of weeks, months or years.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I am the most relaxed she has seen me in the twenty years she has known me, even though I am working full time and have a six month old and two year old.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Antidepressants & Depression while Breastfeeding 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ These findings indicate that the time course for the upregulation of BrdU labeling is consistent with the time delay required for the therapeutic action of antidepressants (Duman et al., 1997 ).
  • Chronic Antidepressant Treatment Increases Neurogenesis in Adult Rat Hippocampus -- Malberg et al. 20 (24): 9104 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the name, antidepressants are often used to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, and some hormone-mediated disorders such as dysmenorrhea.^ Treating pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder .

^ Antidepressant Medications (also used for anxiety disorders) .
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What medications are used to treat bipolar disorder?
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alone or together with anticonvulsants (e.g., Tegretol or Depakote), these medications can be used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse by addressing underlying depression.^ Medications treat the symptoms of mental disorders.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information, see the section on medications used to treat depression.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What medications are used to treat ADHD? .
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, antidepressants have been used sometimes to treat snoring and migraines.^ Antidepressants are sometimes used to treat symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants are sometimes still used to treat refractory depression that has failed to respond to standard SSRI therapy.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She had been taking the antidepressant Anafranil as well as Lithium, long used to treat mania.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other medications that are not usually called antidepressants, including antipsychotics in low doses[1] and benzodiazepines,[2] may be used to manage depression, although benzodiazepines may cause physical dependence if treatment is not properly monitored by a doctor.^ It may also mean monitoring whether the depressed person is taking medication.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications, such as antidepressants , are often used to manage the symptoms of depression.
  • Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ To help ease sleeping problems, a doctor may add a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant or a medication called clonidine.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stopping benzodiazepine (or SSRI) treatment abruptly can cause unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.^ People don't get addicted, or "hooked," on the medications, but stopping them abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal symptoms, also known as antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, occur in approximately 20 percent of patients who stop taking their medication abruptly according to a study published in...
  • Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms recur when drug treatments stops (drugs don't cure).
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.An extract of the herb St John's Wort is commonly used as an antidepressant, although it is labeled as a dietary supplement in some countries.^ What are the side-effects of some of the commonly used antidepressants?
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q. What are the side-effects of some of the commonly used antidepressants?
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it had fallen out of favor in most countries through the 19th and 20th centuries, the herb St John's Wort had become increasingly popular in Germany where Hypericum extracts eventually became licensed, packaged and prescribed by doctors.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term antidepressant is sometimes applied to any therapy (e.g., psychotherapy, electro-convulsive therapy, acupuncture) or process (e.g., sleep disruption, increased light levels, regular exercise) found to improve a clinically depressed mood.^ The term antidepressant is sometimes applied to any therapy (e.g.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ If you're a regular reader, you know that effective depression treatments are well-documented, and consumers have a variety of choices when seeking out evidence-based treatments (current ESTs for depression are cognitive-behavioral therapy , CBASP , interpersonal psychotherapy , and antidepressants ).

.Inert placebos can have significant antidepressant effects, and so to establish a substance as an "antidepressant" in a clinical trial it is necessary to show superior efficacy to placebo.^ An inert placebo tends to have a significant antidepressant effect, so establishing something as an antidepressant in a clinical trial involves demonstrating a significant additional effect.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.
  • Meta-Analysis of the Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase Type A Moclobemide and Brofaromine for the Treatment of Depression 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that unblinding effects may inflate the efficacy of antidepressants in trials using inert placebos.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

History

.Various opiates and amphetamines were commonly used as antidepressants until the mid-1950s, when they fell out of favor due to their addictive nature and side effects.^ What side effects can antidepressants cause?
  • CIGNA - Depression: Should I take an antidepressant? 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ Is it possible to manage the side effects of antidepressants?
  • CIGNA - Depression: Should I take an antidepressant? 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ However, these drugs had dangerous and life-threatening side effects including hepatotoxicity and hypertensive crisis due to interactions with food high in tyramine.
  • Serotonin Transporters: Implications for Antidepressant Drug Development 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Extracts from the herb St John's Wort have long been used (as a "nerve tonic") to alleviate depression.^ Opium[3] and St John's Wort[4] (as a "nerve tonic") had long been used to alleviate depression, but the contemporary history of antidepressant medications begins with isoniazid.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The herb St. John's wort may help if you have mild depression.
  • CIGNA - Depression: Should I take an antidepressant? 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ While it had fallen out of favor in most countries through the 19th and 20th centuries, the herb St John's Wort had become increasingly popular in Germany where Hypericum extracts eventually became licensed, packaged and prescribed by doctors.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Isoniazid and iproniazid

.In 1951, two physicians from Sea View Hospital on Staten Island, Irving Selikoff and Edward Robitzek, began clinical trials on two new anti-tuberculosis agents from Hoffman-LaRoche, isoniazid and iproniazid.^ "Clinical trial investigators must be culled from only the finest physicians in the country," he said, "since they work on the frontiers of new knowledge.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After almost I had been on Norpramin for two years,I got a new doctor at the clinic I went to (they were on a six month rotation).
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Only patients with a poor prognosis were initially treated; nevertheless, their condition improved dramatically. Selikoff and Robitzek noted "a subtle general stimulation . . . the patients exhibited renewed vigor and indeed this occasionally served to introduce disciplinary problems."[6] The promise of a cure for tuberculosis in the Sea View Hospital trials was excitedly discussed in the mainstream press. .In 1952, learning of the stimulating side effects of isoniazid, the Cincinnati psychiatrist Max Lurie tried it on his patients.^ In 1952, learning of the stimulant-like side effects of the isoniazid, the Cincinnati psychiatrist Max Lurie decided to try it on his patients.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note that if you go on meds, you may have to try several before you find one that has the right effects (and minimal side effects) for you.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Antidepressants & Depression while Breastfeeding 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ One of Dr. Abuzzahab's patients was David Olson, whom the psychiatrist tried repeatedly to recruit for clinical trials.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the following year, he and Harry Salzer reported that isoniazid improved depression in two thirds of their patients and coined the term antidepressant to describe its action.^ In the following year, he and Harry Salzer reported that isoniazid improved the depression in two thirds of their patients and also coined the term antidepressant to describe its action.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1952, that is even earlier than Lurie and Salzer, Delay with the resident Jean-Francois Buisson also reported the positive action of isoniazid on depressed patients.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How common is the development of hypomania or mania in a depressed patient with bipolar disorder, who is given an antidepressant (a phenomenon generally referred to as "switching" from depressed into hypo/mania)?

[7] .A similar incident took place in Paris, where Jean Delay, head of psychiatry at Sainte-Anne Hospital, found out from his pulmonology colleagues at Cochin Hospital about the side effects of isoniazid.^ Can anything be done about those side-effects?
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar story happened in Paris, where Jean Delay, the head of psychiatry at Sainte-Anne Hospital, found out from his pulmonology colleagues from Cochin Hospital about the side effects of isoniazid.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Always talk with the doctor or pharmacist about any potential side effects before taking the medication.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1952, before Lurie and Salzer, Delay, with the resident Jean-Francois Buisson, reported the positive effect of isoniazid on depressed patients.^ In 1952, that is even earlier than Lurie and Salzer, Delay with the resident Jean-Francois Buisson also reported the positive action of isoniazid on depressed patients.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A similar story happened in Paris, where Jean Delay, the head of psychiatry at Sainte-Anne Hospital, found out from his pulmonology colleagues from Cochin Hospital about the side effects of isoniazid.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .For reasons unrelated to its efficacy, isoniazid as an antidepressant was soon overshadowed by the more toxic iproniazid,[7] although it remains a mainstay of tuberculosis treatment.^ For the reasons unrelated to the efficacy, isoniazid as antidepressant was soon overshadowed by more toxic iproniazid,[6] although it remains one of the mainstays of the tuberculosis treatment.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finding the effective antidepressant for the depressive is at this point far from an exact science, although the outlook is improving as we discover more about depression.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant treatment is clearly not working when the individual receiving the treatment remains depressed or becomes depressed again.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mode of antidepressant action of isoniazid is still unclear.^ The mode of antidepressant action of isoniazid is still unclear.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No matter what their exact mode of action may be, it is clear that antidepressants are not "happy pills."
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ In the following year, he and Harry Salzer reported that isoniazid improved the depression in two thirds of their patients and also coined the term antidepressant to describe its action.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is speculated that its effect is due to the inhibition of diamine oxidase, coupled with a weak inhibition of monoamine oxidase A.^ It is speculated that its effect is due to the inhibition of diamine oxidase coupled with a weak inhibition of monoamine oxidase A.[8] .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The oldest antidepressants, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), increase synaptic levels of 5-HT and NE by inhibiting the enzymatic degradation of these neurotransmitters.
  • Serotonin Transporters: Implications for Antidepressant Drug Development 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This effect is also seen with dopamine reuptake inhibitors, CNS stimulants and dopamine agonists, and is due to increases in testosterone production (due to inhibition of prolactin) and increased nitric oxide synthesis.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.Another anti-tuberculosis drug tried at the same time by Selikoff and Robitzek, iproniazid, showed a greater "psychostimulant" effect, but more pronounced toxicity.^ Another anti-tuberculosis drug tried at the same time by Selikoff and Robitzek, iproniazid, was observed to have a greater "psychostimulant" effect, albeit at the cost of a greater toxicity.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1951, two physicians from the Sea View Hospital on Staten Island, Irving Selikoff and Edward Robitzek, began clinical trials to evaluate two new anti-tuberculosis agents from Hoffman-LaRoche, isoniazid and iproniazid.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The drug needs to be gradually withdrawn and the total treatment period is advised to be no greater than 3 months at a time.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .After the publications on isoniazid, papers by Jackson Smith, Gordon Kamman, George Crane, and Frank Ayd appeared, describing the psychiatric applications of iproniazid.^ Subsequently to the publications on isoniazid, papers by Jackson Smith, Gordon Kamman, George Crane and Frank Ayd describing the psychiatric applications of iproniazid also appeared, and Ernst Zeller found iproniazid to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ernst Zeller found iproniazid to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor.^ Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs) .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Nevertheless, iproniazid remained relatively obscure until Nathan Kline, the influential and flamboyant head of research at Rockland State Hospital, began to popularize it in the medical and popular press as a "psychic energizer".[11][12] Roche put a significant marketing effort behind iproniazid, including promoting its off-label use for depression.^ While isoniazid was not patentable,[6] Roche put a significant marketing effort behind iproniazid, including promoting its off-label use for depression.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What medications are used to treat depression?
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, iproniazid had remained relatively obscure until Nathan Kline, the influential and flamboyant head of research at Rockland State Hospital, began its popularization both in medical and popular press as a "psychic energizer".
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Its sales grew massively in the following years, until it was recalled from the market in 1961 due to cases of lethal hepatotoxicity.^ Its sales grew massively in the following years, until it was recalled from the market in 1961 due to the cases of lethal hepatotoxicity.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ International Marketing Services Health (2004) Year-end U.S. Prescription and sales information and commentary.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symptoms are so typical that the clinical entity "SSRI discontinuation syndrome" is now widely accepted, after its existence had been negated for several years following the introduction of SSRIs on the market.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Imipramine

.The discovery that a tricyclic ("three ringed") compound had a significant antidepressant effect was first made in 1957 by Roland Kuhn in a Swiss psychiatric hospital.^ The discovery that a tricyclic ("three ringed") compound had a significant antidepressant effect was also first made in the early 1950s, by Roland Kuhn in a Swiss psychiatric hospital.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Its psychiatric effects were first noticed at a hospital in Paris in 1952.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, antidepressants may make you especially susceptible to the intoxicating effects of alcohol.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By that time antihistamine derivatives were increasingly used to treat surgical shock and then as psychiatric neuroleptics.^ By that time antihistamine derivatives were coming in to use to treat surgical shock and then as psychiatric neuroleptics.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What makes our jaws drop is the big picture of it all – the infinitesimally short time interval for dramatic growth, the shocking trajectory of increased use.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, one drug that is rarely used now, chlorpromazine, originally a synthetic dye, was one of the first antipsychotic medications, after scientists concluded that it might help treat post-surgical shock.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although in 1955 reserpine was shown to be more effective than placebo in alleviating anxious depression, neuroleptics (literally, "to seize the neuron") were being developed as sedatives and antipsychotics.^ I think this will do more for your exhaustion and depression than anything else.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Antidepressants & Depression while Breastfeeding 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Trials that do not find a new drug significantly more effective than placebo usually go unpublished.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both psychoanalysis, and insight oriented psychotherapy have not been shown to be effective treatments for people with a depressive disorder.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attempting to improve the effectiveness of chlorpromazine, Kuhn, in conjunction with the Geigy pharmaceutical company, discovered that compound "G 22355" (manufactured and patented in the US in 1951 by Häfliger and Schinder) had a beneficial effect in patients with depression accompanied by mental and motor retardation.^ Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In subsequent years, there were numerous attempts to identify reproducible neurochemical alterations in the nervous systems of patients diagnosed with depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When serious effects are noted, the pharmaceutical companies go into denial, and it takes another decade to actually collect enough data and study what the serious problems may be.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Kuhn first reported his findings on what he called a "thymoleptic" (literally, "taking hold of the emotions," in contrast with neuroleptics, "taking hold of the nerves") in 1955-56. These gradually became established, resulting in marketing of the first tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, soon followed by variants.^ He first reported his findings on what he called a "thymoleptic" (literally "taking hold of the emotions", by contrast with neuroleptics, "taking hold of the nerves") in 1955/56 and they gradually became established, resulting in the marketing of the first tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, soon followed by variants.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But he said heavy marketing by drugmakers, Americans' quest for a quick fix and a wider acceptance in popular culture have resulted in the use of antidepressants as "an instant cure for all emotional difficulties."
  • Antidepressant Statistics- combined edited threads - paxilprogress 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.paxilprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first trial of imipramine took place in 1955 and the first report of antidepressant effects was published by Swiss psychiatrist Ronald Kuhn in 1957.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Later history

.These new drug therapies became prescription drugs in the 1950s.^ SS: So people that have been treated with these antipsychotic drugs have a far greater tendency to relapse, and have new episodes of mental illness, as opposed to people who have had other kinds of non- drug therapies?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only in a small percentage of cases the prescription of these drugs could be justified by a psychiatric diagnosis.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Millions of Americans have believed this story and have enriched drug companies like Eli Lilly by spending billions of dollars annually to purchase these new medications.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was estimated that no more than 50 to 100 people per million suffered from the kind of depression that these new drugs would treat, and pharmaceutical companies were not enthusiastic.^ If not killed, an estimated 2 million people are victims of drug-induced illnesses.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet these studies showed that the drugs were of no more benefit than a placebo!

^ Damn these lying pharmaceutical companies!

.Sales through the 1960s remained poor compared to the major tranquilizers (neuroleptics/antipsychotics) and minor tranquilizers (such as benzodiazepines), which were being marketed for different uses.^ The 8 remaining studies used an active comparator.
  • Meta-Analysis of the Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase Type A Moclobemide and Brofaromine for the Treatment of Depression 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sales through the 1960s remained poor compared to the major tranquilizers (neuroleptics/antipsychotics) and minor tranquilizers (such as benzodiazepines), which were being marketed for different uses.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased morbidity and mortality related to asthma among asthmatic patients who use major tranquillisers.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Imipramine remained in common use and numerous successors were introduced.^ Imipramine remained in common use and numerous successors were introduced.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The field of MAO inhibitors remained quiet for many years until "reversible" forms affecting only the MAO-A subtype were introduced, avoiding some of the adverse effects.^ The field of MAO inhibitors remained quiet for many years until "reversible" forms affecting only the MAO-A subtype were introduced, avoiding some of the adverse effects.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead the public and doctors have for many years heard that these drugs are "safe and effective" and if some bad effect showed up it was explained away with the "underlying disease".
  • Patients get worse from new antidepressant drugs - La Leva di Archimede (ENG) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.laleva.org [Source type: News]

^ While most side effects are reversible, some last for months or years after treatment has been stopped.
  • Antidepressant Side Effects - a knol by Jean Morgan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15]
.Most pharmacologists by the 1960s thought the main therapeutic action of tricyclics was to inhibit norepinephrine reuptake, but it was gradually observed that this action was associated with energizing and motor stimulating effects, while some antidepressant compounds appeared to have differing effects through action on serotonin systems (notably proposed in 1969 by Carlsson and Lindqvist as well as Lapin and Oxenkrug).^ SSRIs are the antidepressants most frequently associated with this side effect.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiotoxic side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressant overdose.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

.Researchers began a process of rational drug design to isolate antihistamine-derived compounds that would selectively target these systems.^ Researchers began a process of rational drug design to isolate antihistamine-derived compounds that would 'selectively' (specifically) target these systems.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ideally, these more selective and site-specific drugs will lack the sedative, amnestic and hypnotic properties of today's brands.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problems stem from the indirect inhibitory effect sometimes exerted by Prozac-style drugs on dopamine function, a consequence of deliberate selective targeting of the serotonin system.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first such compound to be patented was zimelidine in 1971, while the first released clinically was indalpine.^ The first such compound to be patented, in 1971, was zimelidine, whilst the first released clinically was indalpine.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From results of clinical research performed prior to the release of the drug in the market, the expected number of cases of agranulocytosis and death was 995 and 149, respectively, raising the question of whether such a drug should have been approved in the first place.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One "problem" is that naturally-occurring compounds - such as inositol and SAMe - can't be patented.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluoxetine was approved for commercial use by the Food and Drug Administration (United States) in 1988, becoming the first blockbuster SSRI. Fluoxetine was developed at Eli Lilly in the early 1970s by Bryan Molloy, David Wong and others.^ Chapter I—Food and drug administration.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluoxetine (Prozac), FDA approved for commercial use in 1988, became the first blockbuster SSRI. Fluoxetine was developed at Eli Lilly in the early 1970s by Bryan Molloy, David Wong and others.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings challenge a 2004 advisory by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which warned that suicidal behavior may emerge after treatment with the newer antidepressant drugs has begun.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

[16][17]
.While it had fallen out of favor in most countries through the 19th and 20th centuries, the herb St John's Wort became increasingly popular in Germany, where Hypericum extracts were eventually licensed, packaged and prescribed by doctors.^ While it had fallen out of favor in most countries through the 19th and 20th centuries, the herb St John's Wort had become increasingly popular in Germany where Hypericum extracts eventually became licensed, packaged and prescribed by doctors.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A specially manufactured extract from the herb St John's Wort is at least as effective in treating depression as a commonly prescribed anti-depressant, according to new research published on bmj.com today.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because St. John's wort may not mix well with other medications, people should always talk with their doctors before taking it or any herbal supplement.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small-scale efficacy trials were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s, and attention grew in the 1990s following a meta-analysis of these.^ Small-scale efficacy trials were carried out from the 1970s and 1980s, and attention grew in the 1990s following a meta-analysis of these.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, in trials using a placebo drug and an active drug, experimenters carrying out the trial on behalf of the drug company may use placebo washout procedures.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] It remained an over-the-counter drug (OTC) or supplement in most countries and research continued to investigate its neurotransmitter effects and active components, particularly hyperforin[19][20]
.SSRIs became known as "novel antidepressants" along with other newer drugs such as SNRIs and NRIs with various different selective effects, such as venlafaxine, duloxetine, nefazodone and mirtazapine.^ SNRIs are similar to SSRIs and include venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta).
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newer agents such as venlafaxine and nefazodone appear to be as effective as SSRIs in the treatment of depression.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ She also knew he was on the antidepressant drug known as prozac.” .

[21]

Types of Antidepressants

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants considered the current standard of drug treatment.^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the popular new classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoami...
  • New Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.A possible cause of depression is an inadequate amount of serotonin, a chemical used in the brain to transmit signals between neurons.^ It is thought that one cause of depression is an inadequate amount of serotonin, a chemical used in the brain to transmit signals between neurons.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The brain chemical these drugs increase, serotonin, is the same brain chemical that LSD, PCP and other psychedelic drugs mimic in order to produce their hallucinogenic effects.

^ SSRIs keep serotonin from being recirculated back to the brain for subsequent use, allowing the chemical to stay active in the brain.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.SSRIs are said to work by preventing the reuptake of serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) by the presynaptic neuron, thus maintaining higher levels of 5-HT in the synapse.^ SSRIs are said to work by preventing the reuptake of serotonin by the presynaptic nerve, thus maintaining higher levels of 5-HT in the synapse.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

Chemists Klaus Schmiegel and Bryan Molloy of Eli Lilly discovered the first SSRI, fluoxetine. This class of drugs includes:
.These antidepressants typically have fewer adverse effects than the tricyclics or the MAOIs, although such effects as drowsiness, dry mouth, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, decreased appetite, and decreased ability to function sexually may occur.^ Adverse effects associated with antidepressants ( 5 , 10 ) .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These antidepressants typically have fewer adverse side effects than the tricyclics or the MAOIs, although such effects as drowsiness, dry mouth, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, decreased appetite, and decreased ability to function sexually may occur.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants can cause side effects, including: Dry mouth.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some side effects may decrease as a person adjusts to the drug, but other side effects may be persistent.^ Some people get side effects from medications and other people don't.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some side effects may decrease as a person adjusts to the drug, but other side effects may be persistent.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Side effects may also be enhanced by other drugs which have antimuscarinic properties.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Though safer than first generation antidepressants, SSRIs may not work on as many patients as previous classes of antidepressants,[citation needed] suggesting the role of norepinephrine in depression is still important.^ There are many classes of antidepressants.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ Many patients being treated with Cytokine immune system activators (Interferon, Interleukins, TNF) for cancer, hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis develop anxiety and/or depression.

.Work by two researchers has called into question the link between serotonin deficiency and symptoms of depression, noting that the efficacy of SSRIs as treatment does not in itself prove the link.^ Recently, however, work by two researchers has called into question the link between serotonin deficiency and symptoms of depression, noting that the efficacy of SSRIs as treatment does not in itself prove the link.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Canadian researchers at the University of Ottawa compared the health of babies born to 972 women taking SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) with that of babies born to mothers who did not use anti-depressants.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The choice of particular antidepressant is reported to be based, in the absence of research evidence of differences in efficacy, on seeking to avoid certain side effects, and taking into account comorbid (co-occurring) psychiatric disorders, specific clinical symptoms and prior treatment history[36] .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Research indicates that these drugs may interact with transcription factors known as "clock genes,"[23] which may play a role in the addictive properties of drugs (drug abuse), and possibly in obesity.^ Recent research indicates that these drugs may interact with transcription factors known as "clock genes",[24] which may be important for the addictive properties of drugs of abuse, and possibly in obesity.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings challenge a 2004 advisory by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which warned that suicidal behavior may emerge after treatment with the newer antidepressant drugs has begun.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, many researchers now question whether these drugs ever really did much of what they were supposed to do at all.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25]
.Randomized controlled trials published in the Archives of General Psychiatry showed that up to one-third of the effect of SSRI Treatment can be seen in the first week.^ Recent randomized controlled trials in Archives of General Psychiatry showed that up to one-third of effects of SSRI Treatment can be seen in first week.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Exercise was found to be as effective as the SSRI sertraline in a randomized controlled trial .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant use in the U.S. doubled from 1996 to 2005, according to a new report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These early effects have also been shown to increase the absolute reduction in HRSD scores by 50%.^ Early effects also shown to have secondary effect of reducing absolute reduction in HDRS score by 50%.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These data indicate that psychotropic drug-related adverse effects may significantly increase the risk of falls in elderly individuals.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results indicate that fluoxetine increases proliferation within hours after the last treatment and that this effect is sustained for at least 4 d.
  • Chronic Antidepressant Treatment Increases Neurogenesis in Adult Rat Hippocampus -- Malberg et al. 20 (24): 9104 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

.Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a newer form of antidepressant that work on both norepinephrine and 5-HT. They typically have similar side effects to the SSRIs, though there may be a withdrawal syndrome on discontinuation that may necessitate dosage tapering.^ Hemorrhagic syndromes related to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senator Grassley , serotonin , Side Effects , SSRI , studies , study , suicidal , Suicidality , SUICIDE .

^ One of the popular new classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These include:

Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs)

.Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) form a newer class of antidepressants which purportedly work to increase norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin neurotransmission by blocking presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors while at the same time blocking certain serotonin receptors.^ Antidepressants work on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NASSAs) form a newer class of antidepressants which purportedly work to increase norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin neurotransmission by blocking presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors while at the same time minimizing serotonin related side-effects by blocking certain serotonin receptors.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic/serotonin antagonist .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[26] .Side effects may include drowsiness, increased appetite, and weight gain.^ You may gain weight on the drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common side effects include: Decreased appetite.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side effects of many antipsychotics include: .
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] Examples include:

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)

.Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) act via norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).^ Norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) such as reboxetine (Edronax) act via norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) .
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

.NRIs are thought to have a positive effect on the concentration and motivation in particular.^ NRIs are thought to have a positive effect on concentration and motivation in particular, though they have been known to increase aggression.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

These include:

Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs)

.Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors inhibit the neuronal reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).^ Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors such as bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) inhibit the neuronal reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Venlafaxine inhibits the neuronal reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in descending order of potency.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] These include:

Selective serotonin reuptake enhancers (SSREs)

Melatonergic agonists

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

.Tricyclic antidepressants are the oldest class of antidepressant drugs.^ Tricyclic antidepressant drugs edit .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research has demonstrated that class-wide SSRI advertising has expanded the size of the antidepressant market , and SSRIs are now among the best-selling drugs in medical practice .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therapeutic monitoring of tricyclic antidepressant drugs: Psychiatria Polska Vol 37(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 825-837.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tricyclics block the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin.^ Such drugs block the circulating serotonin, a neurotransmitter.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants block the reuptake of these neurotransmitters.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are used less commonly now due to the development of more selective and safer drugs.^ Ideally, these more selective and site-specific drugs will lack the sedative, amnestic and hypnotic properties of today's brands.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbona, now executive director of sales for The Medical Letter, which reviews drugs, said that had he known that a doctor had a disciplinary record for excessive prescribing, "I would have been more inclined to use them as a speaker."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For persons of a more philistine temperament, on the other hand, it's hard to see such a drug as a major tool for life-affirmation or the development of the human species.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Side effects include increased heart rate, drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and sexual dysfunction.^ Other side effects may include drowsiness, anxiety , restlessness, cognitive and memory difficulties, confusion , dizziness, akathisia , hypersensitivity reactions, increased appetite with weight gain, sweating, decrease in sexual ability and desire, muscle twitches, weakness, nausea and vomiting, hypotension , tachycardia , and rarely, irregular heart rhythms .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This may lead to constipation Urinary retention or difficulty with urination Hyperthermia Tolerance to these adverse effects often develops if treatment is continued, side effects may also be less troublesome if treatment is initiated with low dose and then gradually increased, although this may delay the clinical effect.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ironically, this common side effect causes an increase in depression as it can seriously impact self-esteem.

.Toxicity occurs at approximately ten times normal dosages; these drugs are often lethal in overdoses, as they may cause a fatal arrhythmia.^ "They are three times as likely to react to these drugs as an adult is."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is a significant cause of fatal drug poisoning .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, many researchers now question whether these drugs ever really did much of what they were supposed to do at all.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, tricyclic antidepressants are still used because of their effectiveness, especially in severe cases of major depression.^ Because antidepressants only work while you’re taking them, however, a few months later I would be seeking out another prescription.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants in adolescent depression: A case report: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 7(3) Sep 1998, 166-171.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, a Cochrane systematic review found no major difference in efficacy between SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These include:
Tertiary Amine Tricyclic Antidepressants:
Secondary Amine Tricyclic Antidepressants

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs)

.Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be used if other antidepressant medications are ineffective.^ These are the tricyclic antidepressants and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) .
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because there are potentially fatal interactions between this class of medication and certain foods (particularly those containing tyramine), red wine, as well as certain drugs, classic MAOIs are rarely prescribed anymore.^ That is, they don't believe there are safer and potentially more effective alternatives to drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several classes of antidepressants, all of which seem to work by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters (most commonly serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) in the brain.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our doctors are trained to prescribe drugs, that is their job basically, and it seems to be a rare person who breaks away from that thinking and considers other options.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this does not apply to Emsam, the transdermal patch form of selegiline, which due to its bypassing of the stomach has never been reported to induce such events [29].^ EMSAM , the transdermal selegiline patch, is probably the safest choice of MAOI. .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were getting a flood of adverse event reports, and the public was never told about this for the longest period of time.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ L-deprenyl/selegiline can now be delivered via a transdermal patch .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MAOIs work by blocking the enzyme monoamine oxidase which breaks down the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) .
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) nonspecifically inhibit type A and type B monoamine oxidases to block the degradation of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.MAOIs can be as effective as tricyclic antidepressants, although they can have a higher incidence of dangerous side effects (as a result of inhibition of cytochrome P450 in the liver).^ Cytochrome P450 enzymes inhibited .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiotoxic side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressant overdose.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Incidence of seizures with tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.A new generation of MAOIs has been introduced; moclobemide (Manerix), known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA), acts in a more short-lived and selective manner and does not require a special diet.^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitor .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (phenelzine) .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Outside America, the the selective and reversible MAOI moclobemide .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As one of the side effects is weight gain and could be extreme.^ Other common side effects are sedation, palpitations, dizziness, insomnia, constipation, tachycardia, agitation, peripheral edema, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, myoclonic jerks, and muscle cramps.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All antidepressants have the potential to cause weight gain and yet most people seem unaware that weight gain is one of the most common side effects associated with Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac, Wellbutrin, Zyprexa and many other behavioral drugs until it is too late.

^ People want the quick fix–in fact one frustration I have is that acupuncture can help with anxiety and depression (particularly the side effects like not sleeping etc).
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

These include:

Augmenter drugs

.Some antidepressants have been found to work better in some patients when used in combination with another drug.^ Some survive and forgive Problem is, when antidepressants don't work as intended, the harmful fallout isn't limited to the user.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because antidepressants only work while you’re taking them, however, a few months later I would be seeking out another prescription.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ Seizures are an uncommon (0.1-4% incidence) but serious adverse reaction associated with the use of antidepressant drugs.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

Such "augmenter" drugs include:
.Tranquillizers and sedatives, typically the benzodiazepines, are prescribed to ease anxiety and promote sleep.^ Xanax is a classic benzodiazepine that has been around for at least 40 years, and is often prescribed for anxiety or sleep disorders.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the high risk of dependency, these medications are intended only for short-term or occasional use.^ Because patients are using some of these drugs for long periods – and scientists aren’t sure of what the long-term effects of many of these drugs might be – she and her co-workers plan to do long-term studies in animals.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Olsen said children are more vulnerable to the side effects of these medications because of their developing organs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medication is not used much in the treatment of problem gambling, and there are few controlled or long-term studies of its effectiveness.

.Medications are often used not for their primary functions, but to exploit what are normally side effects.^ There are side effects with any medication.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ Olsen said children are more vulnerable to the side effects of these medications because of their developing organs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SS: What other side effects are caused by prolonged use of these antipsychotic drugs?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel) is designed primarily to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but frequently causes somnolence because of its affinity for histamine (H1 and H2) receptors, exploiting the same side effects as diphenhydramine (Benadryl).^ Sertraline , Sgt John , shootings , Side Effects , Springle , SSRI , Staff Sgt , Stress Center , SUICIDE , Traumatic Stress Disorder , veterans , violence , war , Zoloft .

^ "The side effects include behavioural disorders, physical illness, dependence and even suicide."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Olsen said children are more vulnerable to the side effects of these medications because of their developing organs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and quetiapine (Seroquel) are prescribed as mood stabilizers and to treat anxiety.^ He said he had helped study many of the most popular drugs in psychiatry, including Paxil, Prozac, Risperdal, Seroquel, Zoloft and Zyprexa.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The possibility of mania is greatly reduced if depressed bipolar folks are on a mood stabilizer such as lithium, Tegretol or Depakote when they are started on an antidepressant.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications can effectively improve depression, relieve severe anxiety, stabilize serious mood swings and lessen psychotic symptoms.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their use as mood stabilizers is a recent phenomenon, and controversial among some patients.^ One difficulty with using such drugs, she says, is that several of them are given to patients who already have psychological problems such as depression and mood swings.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get this: "effective for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants or mood stabilizers."

^ There are some people who because of severe physical illness are unable to tolerate the side-effects of the medications used to treat mood disorders.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Antipsychotics, whether typical or atypical, may also be prescribed to augment an antidepressant, to increase the blood concentration of another drug, or to relieve the psychotic or paranoid symptoms that often accompany clinical depression.^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ These findings challenge a 2004 advisory by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which warned that suicidal behavior may emerge after treatment with the newer antidepressant drugs has begun.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetaminophen and butalbital may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives (used to treat insomnia), other pain relievers, anxiety medicines, and muscle relaxants.

.However, they can cause serious side effects, particularly at high dosages, including blurred vision, muscle spasms, restlessness, tardive dyskinesia, and weight gain.^ The associated drugs do not remove the problem, and they cause side effects.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At sensible dosages, they are remarkably free of side-effects.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So it may not cause as much tardive dyskinesia.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Psychostimulants are sometimes added to an antidepressant regimen if the patient suffers from anhedonia, hypersomnia and/or excessive eating as well as low motivation.^ Patients with recurrent depression who have suffered two episodes or more in 5 years may need long-term antidepressant treatment.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain MAOI-treated patients suffered hypertensive crises after eating varying amounts of tyramine-rich aged cheese; and several died.
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They consider the type of depression the patient suffers from, other medications he or she is taking, the patient's age, how well he or she will deal with the side effects, and other factors.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These symptoms are common in atypical depression, and can be resolved by adding low to moderate doses of amphetamine (Adderall) or methylphenidate (Ritalin) as these chemicals can enhance motivation and social behavior, and suppress appetite and sleep.^ But, in reality, the common thread in all these different treatments was the attempt to suppress "mental illness" by deliberately damaging the higher functions of the brain.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphetamines Antidepressants, other Appetite suppressants Cocaine Decongestants Ephedrine Sympathomimetics .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AM on December 16, 2003 It's not a question of "behavioral disorders"--there are actual physiological symptoms, unrelated to behavior, of clinical depression.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

They can also restore sex drive. Extreme caution must be used however with certain populations. .Stimulants are known to trigger manic episodes in people suffering from bipolar disorder.^ The real paradigm is: People diagnosed with mental disorders have no known problem with their neurotransmitter systems; and these drugs perturb the normal function of neurotransmitters.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it comes to people with Bipolar Disorder who are depressed there are some major problems.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also find it disturbing to hear anyone say that people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are dangerous and need to be on meds, possibly for life.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Close supervision of those with substance abuse disorders is urged.^ Of those 103 doctors, 39 had been penalized for inappropriate prescribing practices, 21 for substance abuse, 12 for substandard care and 3 for mismanagement of drug studies.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dual-diagnosis is a phrase used to indicate the combination of substance abuse and a psychiatric disorder.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emotionally labile patients should avoid stimulants, as they exacerbate mood shifting.^ They should srtive to help their clients and patients to reclaim their faith in fundamental values, including personal responsibility, empathy and love, and principled living.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients should be warned and advised to avoid or greatly limit their intake of cheese, wines, and other tyramine-containing foods.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have known of doctors who forget to tell patients of possible side effects of medication, or what other medication or foods should be avoided while taking their antidepressants.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithium remains the standard treatment for bipolar disorder and is often used in conjunction with other medications, depending on whether mania or depression is being treated.^ Selection of the initial drug(s) in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depressed phase.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important for the clinician to recognize whether or not physical illness or the medications or treatments used for treating physical illness are inducing the depression.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of drugs used to treat bipolar disorder were originally used to treat epilepsy.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lithium's potential side effects include thirst, tremors, light-headedness, nausea, and diarrhea.^ Other side effects include orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache, and nausea.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The side effects include behavioural disorders, physical illness, dependence and even suicide."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The approved product labelling for Effexor notes that it is also associated with potentially severe withdrawal side effects, which could include fatigue, nausea, dizziness, headache, insomnia and nervousness.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), sodium valproate (Epilim), and lamotrigine (Lamictal), are also used as mood stabilizers, particularly in bipolar disorder.^ One difficulty with using such drugs, she says, is that several of them are given to patients who already have psychological problems such as depression and mood swings.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If sodium bicarbonate therapy fails to improve cardiac symptoms, conventional antidysrhythmic drugs such as phenytoin and magnesium can be used to reverse any cardiac abnormalities.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The possibility of mania is greatly reduced if depressed bipolar folks are on a mood stabilizer such as lithium, Tegretol or Depakote when they are started on an antidepressant.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both lithium and lamotrigine have also been studied and used to augment antidepressants in treatment-resistant unipolar depression.^ Pharmacological treatments for unipolar depression.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The next wave of results from the nation's largest real-world study of treatment-resistant depression shows that patients had a moderate chance of becoming symptom-free when they switched to a third antidepressant medication, following two previously unsuccessful medication attempts.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Initial lithium augmentation improves the antidepressant effects of standard TCA treatment in non-resistant depressed patients: Psychopharmacology Vol 118(2) Mar 1995, 223-225.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Prescription trends

.In the United Kingdom the use of antidepressants increased by 234% in the 10 years up to 2002.[30] In the United States a 2005 independent report stated that 11% of women and 5% of men in the non-institutionalized population (2002) take antidepressants[31] A 1998 survey found that 67% of patients diagnosed with depression were prescribed an antidepressant.^ I have been suffering from "diagnosed" depression for over 12 years.
  • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ United Kingdom Parliament (2005) House of Commons health report.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

[32] .A 2007 study suggested that 25% of Americans were overdiagnosed with depression, regardless of any medical intervention.^ An overview of a Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) study on the comparative impact of SSRI vs. Please note, ewkpates, that "The primary outcomes of this study were resolution of depression and the effect of therapy on quality of life scores."
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 2344 patients with major depressive disorders on antidepressant medications, show that only in 3.5% of patients the pattern of use of antidepressant was indicative of successful treatment.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In clinical studies, this medication had increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents who had depression and other psychiatric disorders.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The findings were based on a national survey of 8,098 people.^ SSRI theory is based on findings that depressed people have lower levels of the metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2002 survey found that about 3.5% of all people in France were being prescribed antidepressants, compared to 1.7% in 1992, often for conditions other than depression and often not in line with authorizations or guidelines[34] Between 1996 and 2004 in British Columbia, antidepressant use increased from 3.4% to 7.2% of the population.^ Generally, about 2/3 of depressed people will respond to any given antidepressant.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ About 6 percent of people were prescribed an antidepressant in 1996 — 13 million people.

[35] .Data from 1992 to 2001 from the Netherlands indicated an increasing rate of prescriptions of SSRIs, and an increasing duration of treatment.^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data indicate a high rate of severe adverse effects associated with neuroleptic intake.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These data indicate that psychotropic drug-related adverse effects may significantly increase the risk of falls in elderly individuals.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] .Surveys indicate that antidepressant use, particularly of SSRIs, has increased rapidly in most developed countries, driven by an increased awareness of depression together with the availability and commercial promotion of new antidepressants.^ SSRIs New antidepressants .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressant use in the U.S. doubled from 1996 to 2005, according to a new report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latest guidance comes as research in the BMJ reveals an increase in long-term antidepressant use across the UK. .

[37] .Antidepressants are also increasingly used worldwide for non-depressive patients as studies continue to show the potential of immunomodulatory, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in antidepressants.^ Antidepressant use doubles in U.S., study finds .

^ Anti-inflammatory and analgesic .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The next wave of results from the nation's largest real-world study of treatment-resistant depression shows that patients had a moderate chance of becoming symptom-free when they switched to a third antidepressant medication, following two previously unsuccessful medication attempts.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

.The choice of particular antidepressant is reported to be based, in the absence of research evidence of differences in efficacy, on seeking to avoid certain side effects, and taking into account comorbid (co-occurring) psychiatric disorders, specific clinical symptoms and prior treatment history.^ In a finding that opens new doors to determining susceptibility to antidepressant side effects, researchers at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute report that changes in brain activity prior to treatment with antidepressants can flag patient vulnerability.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The initial choice of an antidepressant is empiric and is typically based on the patient's prior history of response, family history of response, concomitant disease states, adverse-effect profiles, potential for drug interactions with other medications, and cost .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On day 4 of treatment, the cognitive and psychomotor deficits were attenuated in patients who took olanzapine, (indicating adaptation to these side effects), but had worsened in patients taking haloperidol.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.It is also reported that, despite equivocal evidence of a significant difference in efficacy between older and newer antidepressants, clinicians perceive the newer drugs, including SSRIs and SNRIs, to be more effective than the older drugs (tricyclics and MAOIs).^ Tricyclic antidepressant drugs edit .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is a significant cause of fatal drug poisoning .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are SSRIs a cost-effective alternative to tricyclics?
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[39] .A survey in the UK found that male general physicians were more likely to prescribe antidepressants than female doctors.^ In February 2008, a Public Library of Science meta-analysis of four commonly prescribed "second generation" antidepressants - using both published and withheld drug-company data - reported that SSRIs were scarcely more effective as antidepressants than placebos .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I doubt if many doctors would tell someone to just pull themselves together, but on the whole they are much more likely to prescribe a pill than they are to suggest something like counselling.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When people can't make good decisions, they ultimately decide to allow the doctor to keep prescribing them more prescription drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]

Most commonly prescribed antidepressants

Structural formula of the SSRI escitalopram, in its free base form.
The most commonly prescribed antidepressants in the US retail market in 2007 [41] were:
Drug Brand Class 2007 Prescriptions (in millions)
Sertraline Zoloft SSRI 29.652
Escitalopram Lexapro SSRI 27.023
Fluoxetine Prozac SSRI 22.266
Bupropion Wellbutrin NDRI 20.184
Paroxetine Paxil SSRI 18.141
Venlafaxine Effexor SNRI 17.200
Citalopram Celexa SSRI 16.246
Trazodone Desyrel SRI 15.473
Amitriptyline Elavil TCA 13.462
Duloxetine Cymbalta SNRI 12.551
Mirtazapine Remeron TeCA 5.129
Nortriptyline Pamelor TCA 3.105
Imipramine Tofranil TCA 1.524
.The most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Germany is reported to be (concentrated extracts of) hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort).^ But two options worth exploring are SAMe and St John's wort .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I want to stay away from St Johns Wort because of the whole messing with the pill thing.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The composition of many of these substances, including St. John’s Wort and ginseng, is very complex, with numerous active agents that have been little studied.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .In the Netherlands, paroxetine, marketed as Seroxat among generic preparations, is the most prescribed antidepressant, followed by the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, citalopram and venlafaxine.^ Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, they don't know how flimsy the data is for supporting the most commonly used psychiatric medications, such as the newer generation of antidepressants called SSRIs, such as fluvoxamine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil/Seroxat), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluoxetine and buproprion are classified in FDA pregnancy category B; desipramine, phenelzine, sertraline, paroxetine, trazodone, nefazodone, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine in FDA pregnancy category C; and amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline in FDA pregnancy category D. ( 13-25 ) The FDA pregnancy categories are defined as follows: .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[43]

Mechanisms of action

.The therapeutic effects of antidepressants are believed to be caused by their effects on neurotransmitters and neurotransmission.^ Prior to a two month trial the only reason to abandon an antidepressant trial is if the medication is causing severe side effects.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ "Speed" induces a highly artificial state, antidepressants cause the brain to slowly increase its production of naturally occurring neurotransmitters.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ The FDA warned Wednesday that side effects of the antidepressant Norpramin may disturb heart rhythms in some patients, potentially causing seizures and death.
  • Antidepressant Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: News]

.Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block the degradation of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, leading to increased concentrations of these neurotransmitters in the brain and an increase in neurotransmission.^ Norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) prevent the reuptake of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and to a much less extent, dopamine.^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants block the reuptake of these neurotransmitters.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nowadays the most common antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which prevent the reuptake of serotonin (thereby increasing the level of active serotonin in synapses of the brain).^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the popular new classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other novel antidepressants affect norepinephrine reuptake, or different receptors on the nerve cell.^ I was on it briefly myself, and experienced no side effects.It's a selective Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ( SNRI rather than SSRI drug (which affects serotonin.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Geddes J, Freemantle N, Mason J, Eccles M, Boynton J (2005) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus other antidepressants for depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She said Prozac and other SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) antidepressants may cause heart problems and affect the entire body, where the vast majority of serotonin is produced.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While MAOIs, TCAs and SSRIs increase serotonin levels, others prevent serotonin from binding to 5-HT2A receptors, suggesting it is too simplistic to say serotonin is a happy hormone.^ Hepatic enzyme inhibitors (eg, cimetidine, SSRIs) can increase concentrations of TCAs, and hepatic enzyme inducers (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, carbamazepine) can decrease levels of TCAs.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several classes of antidepressants, all of which seem to work by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters (most commonly serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) in the brain.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ SSRIs work by increasing the concentration of serotonin in the brain through inhibition of their re-uptake by brain cells.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, when the former antidepressants build up in the bloodstream and the serotonin level is increased, it is common for the patient to feel worse for the first weeks of treatment.^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ However, many patients wait weeks to actually feel the effects of antidepressants, even though serotonin levels rise immediately when they begin taking antidepressants.

^ The fact that it is important that TCA levels are in the therapeutic range for the attainment of an effective antidepressant response has been addressed frequently in the literature.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.One explanation of this is that 5-HT2A receptors evolved as a saturation signal (people who use 5-HT2A antagonists often gain weight), telling the animal to stop searching for food, a mate, etc., and to start looking for predators.^ In fact, counting in all the people who started the trial, it is not much better than the placebo at all -- 25 getting better on the placebo and 30 on the drug.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does anyone who isn't on the slope at the same place that you are get to tell you its time to stop taking pills or start taking them?
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s only made worse by the fact that 86 percent of people taking antidepressants have one or more side effects, including sexual dysfunction, fatigue, insomnia, loss of mental abilities, nausea, and weight gain.
  • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

In a threatening situation it is beneficial for the animal not to feel hungry even if it needs to eat. Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors will achieve that. .But if the threat is long lasting the animal needs to start eating and mating again - the fact that it survived shows that the threat was not so dangerous as the animal felt.^ In fact, it amazes me all the time that I ever even survived to the point where I started taking meds, and amazes me even more that I have survived since, considering I got worse after starting meds.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So the number of 5-HT2A receptors decreases through a process known as downregulation and the animal goes back to its normal behavior.^ Cortical 5-HT-sub(1A ) receptor downregulation by antidepressants in rat brain: Neurochemistry International Vol 38(7) Jun 2001, 573-579.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It stops producing as much serotonin as it normally does and it reduces the number of serotonin receptors in the brain.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And he notes that the brain, in response to this drug from the outside, alters its normal functions and goes through a series of compensatory adaptations.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This suggests that there are two ways to relieve anxiety in humans with serotonergic drugs: by blocking stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors or by overstimulating them until they decrease via tolerance.^ MDMA stimulates pro-social oxytocin release via activation of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptors .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a gradual decline in amounts of REM sleep for the first two weeks on the drug and a total loss of REM after 3-4 weeks.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They have just come out with a non-stimulating add drug called Strattera, which has also been shown to help with some bipolar depressions.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

The stimulation or blocking of different receptors on a cell affects its genetic expression. .Recent findings have shown that neurogenesis, and thus, changes in brain morphogenesis, mediate the effects of antidepressant drugs.^ What changes in brain chemistry result from the antipsychotics, and how can that lead to the most frightening prospect you describe -- chronic mental illness that is locked in by these drugs?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Click through to find out how to properly dispose of antidepressents and other drugs.

^ Cardiovascular effects of antidepressant drugs: Updated: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(Suppl 15) 1998, 13-18.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[44]
.Another hypothesis is that antidepressants may have some longer-term effects due to the promotion of neurogenesis in the hippocampus, an effect found in mice.^ Poucet, B., Herrmann, T. & Buhot M.C. (1991) Effects of short-lasting inactivations of the ventral hippocampus and medial septum on long-term and short-term acquisition of spatial information in rats.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are some techniques that can be used by people taking antidepressants to make side effects more tolerable?
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ When serious effects are noted, the pharmaceutical companies go into denial, and it takes another decade to actually collect enough data and study what the serious problems may be.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][46] Other animal research suggests that antidepressants can affect the expression of genes in brain cells, by influencing "clock genes". [47]
.Other research suggests that delayed onset of clinical effects from antidepressants indicates involvement of adaptive changes in antidepressant effects.^ Cardiovascular effects of antidepressant drugs: Updated: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(Suppl 15) 1998, 13-18.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that unblinding effects may inflate the efficacy of antidepressants in trials using inert placebos.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interactive metabolism effect of oxcarbazepine with tricyclic antidepressant therapy for OCD symptoms: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 23(4) Aug 2003, 419-420.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rodent studies have consistently shown upregulation of the 3, 5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system induced by different types of chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment, including serotonin and norepinephrine uptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, lithium and electroconvulsions.^ Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

cAMP is synthesized from adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) by adenylyl cyclase and metabolized by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).[48] .Data also suggest that antidepressants can modulate neural plasticity in longterm administration.^ Antidepressants either diminish, prevent or (ideally) reverse stress-induced neural damage and impaired structural plasticity .
  • The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.biopsychiatry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kirsch I, Moore TJ, Scoboria A, Nicholls SS (2002) The emperor's new drugs: An analysis of antidepressant medication data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.One theory regarding the cause of depression is that it is characterized by an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) that resembles the neuro-endocrine response to stress.^ There are somewhere around 50 – 100 chemicals which work as or modify the effects of neurotransmitters, and many of them respond to problems with the endocrine system via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ When a recently started antidepressant fails to cause improvement, the depressed individual often asks that the medication be stopped, and a new one started.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

^ Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the Ability of Long-Term Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment to Suppress Stress-Induced Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 31(12) Dec 2006, 2591-2599.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These HPA axis abnormalities participate in the development of depressive symptoms, and antidepressants serve to regulate HPA axis function.^ Over 80% of people who present depressive symptoms at their doctor's, walk away with a prescription for antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These symptoms may last up to three weeks after interruption of treatment, and may be relieved by restarting antidepressant therapy (!
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most importantly, with any antidepressant, there is a possibility that the antidepressant treatment will cause depressed bipolar people not just to come out of their depressions, but to develop manic episodes.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

[50]

Comparison

A number of antidepressants have been compared below:[51][52][53][54]
Compound SERT NET DAT H1 M1-5 α1 α2 5-HT1A 5-HT2 D2
Amitriptyline 4.3 35 3250 0.95 9.6 24 690 450 18 1460
Amoxapine 58 16 4310 25 1000 50 2600  ?  ?  ?
Atomoxetine 8.9 2.03 1080 5500 2060 3800 8800 10900 940 35000+
Bupropion 45026 1389 2784 11800 35000+ 4200 35000+ 35000+ 35000+ 35000+
Buspirone  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 138  ? 5.7 174 362
Butriptyline 1360 5100 3940  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Citalopram 1.16 4070 28100  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Clomipramine 0.28 38 2190 31 37 38 3200  ?  ?  ?
Desipramine 17.6 0.83 3190 60 66 100 5500 6400 350 3500
Dosulepin 8.6 46 5310  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Doxepin 68 29.5 12100 0.17 23 23.5 1270 276 27 360
Duloxetine 0.8 7.5 240  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Etoperidone 890 20000 52000 3100 35000+ 38 570 85 36 2300
Femoxetine 11 760 2050 4200 184 650 1970 2285 130 590
Fluoxetine 0.81 240 3600 5400 590 3800 13900 32400 280 12000
Fluvoxamine 0.81 240 3600  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Imipramine 1.4 37 8500 37 46 32 3100 5800 150 620
Lofepramine 70 5.4 18000 360 67 100 2700 4600 200 2000
Maprotiline 5800 11.1 1000 2 570 90 9400  ?  ?  ?
Mazindol 100 1.4 11  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Mianserin 4000 71 9400  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Milnacipran 123 200 10000+  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Mirtazapine 1500+ 1250~ 1500+ 1~ 1000~ 500~ 100~ 1500+ 10~ 1500+
Nefazodone 200 360 360 24000 11000 48 640 80 26 910
Nisoxetine 383 5.1 477  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Nomifensine 1010 15.6 56  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Nortriptyline 18 4.37 1140 6.3 37 55 2030 294 41 2570
Oxaprotiline 3900 4.9 4340  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Paroxetine 0.13 40 490 22000 108 4600 17000 35000+ 19000 32000
Protriptyline 19.6 1.41 2100 25 25 130 6600  ?  ?  ?
Reboxetine 720 11 10000+  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Sertraline 0.29 420 25 24000 630 380 4100 35000+ 9900 10700
Trazodone 160 8500 7400 1100 35000+ 42 320 96 25.0 35000+
Trimipramine 149 2450 3780 0.27 58 24 680  ?  ?  ?
Venlafaxine 82 2480 7647 35000+ 35000+ 35000+ 35000+ 35000+ 35000+ 35000+
Viloxazine 17300 155 100000+  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Zimelidine 152 9400 11700  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
The values above are expressed as equilibrium dissociation constants. It should be noted that less is more. .SERT, NET, and DAT correspond to the abilities of the compounds to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, respectively.^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several classes of antidepressants, all of which seem to work by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters (most commonly serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) in the brain.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

.The other values correspond to their affinity for various receptors.^ Tricyclics may also possess an affinity for muscarinic and histamine H1 receptors to varying degrees.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation

.Recent studies show pro-inflammatory cytokine processes take place during clinical depression, mania and bipolar disorder, and it is possible that symptoms of these conditions are attenuated by the pharmacological effect of antidepressants on the immune system.^ Read more from this blogger: Studies show depression weakens immune system .

^ Studies show these cure sometimes.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many patients being treated with Cytokine immune system activators (Interferon, Interleukins, TNF) for cancer, hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis develop anxiety and/or depression.

[55][56][57][58][59]
.Studies also show that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of disease, including somatic infections or autoimmune syndromes, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones.^ Acetaminophen and butalbital may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives (used to treat insomnia), other pain relievers, anxiety medicines, and muscle relaxants.

^ However, when present in high quantities for longer periods of time, as in chronic stress, they actually become toxic to the brain and neural development ceases.

^ The "dysregulation hypothesis" proposes that depression may be due to abnormalities in the pattern and responsiveness of neurotransmitter systems that result from modifications in the receptor sensitivity and function.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[58] .SSRIs, SNRIs and tricyclic antidepressants acting on serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine receptors have been shown to be immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory against pro-inflammatory cytokine processes, specifically on the regulation of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as TNF-alpha and Interleukin-6 (IL-6).^ Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) .
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many patients being treated with Cytokine immune system activators (Interferon, Interleukins, TNF) for cancer, hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis develop anxiety and/or depression.

Antidepressants have also been shown to suppress TH1 upregulation.[60][61][62][63][64]
.Antidepressants, specifically TCAs and SNRIs (or SSRI-NRI combinations), have also shown analgesic properties.^ Efficacy of SSRIs and newer antidepressants in severe depression: Comparison with TCAs: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(5) May 1999, 326-335.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The MAOIs virtually completely abolish REM sleep, while the TCAs and SSRIs have been shown to produce immediate (40-85%) and sustained (30-50%) reductions in REM sleep.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Combinations of a TCA with an SSRI or a TCA with an MAOI have also been documented in overall safety and efficacy in the literature.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[65][66]
.These studies warrant investigation for antidepressants for use in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric illness and that a psycho-neuroimmunological approach may be required for optimal pharmacotherapy.^ I am a psychiatrist trained in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and I use both psychotherapy and medications in my approach to patients.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side effects of antidepressants may reveal the identity of medication to participants or investigators and thus may bias the results of conventional trials using inert placebos.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECT may be used when a severely depressed patient has not responded to antidepressants, is unable to tolerate the side effects of antidepressants, or must improve rapidly.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]

[67] .Future antidepressants may be made to specifically target the immune system by either blocking the actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines or increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.^ Many patients being treated with Cytokine immune system activators (Interferon, Interleukins, TNF) for cancer, hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis develop anxiety and/or depression.

^ Depression may weaken the immune system and a person may become more susceptible to illness or organ failure.’ .

^ Certain blood pressure medications, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, and a few of the antidepressants can also have this effect.

[68]

Therapeutic efficacy

.There is a large amount of research evaluating the potential therapeutic effects of antidepressants, whether through efficacy studies under experimental conditions (including randomized clinical trials) or through studies of "real world" effectiveness.^ A doubleblind randomized clinical trial.
  • Meta-Analysis of the Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase Type A Moclobemide and Brofaromine for the Treatment of Depression 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Validity of clinical trials of antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant-Placebo Debate 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.srmhp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The adequacy of reporting randomized, controlled trials in the evaluation of antidepressants.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A sufficient response to a drug is often defined as at least a 50% reduction in self-reported or observed symptoms, with a partial response often defined as at least a 25% reduction.^ A sufficient response to a drug is often defined as at least a 50% reduction in self-reported or observed symptoms, with a partial response often defined as at least a 25% reduction.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After 12 weeks, 47 percent responded to the drug (ie a 50 percent reduction in symptoms or better) and 28 percent remitted (ie virtual elimination of symptoms), similar to the findings in most placebo-controlled, double-blinded drug trials.
  • When Your First Antidepressant Fails 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mcmanweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, individuals with at least a 40% but less than a 50% reduction were excluded from the "non-response" and "response" groups.
  • METHODS TO PREDICT THE OUTCOME OF TREATMENT WITH ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICATION - Patent application 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term remission indicates a virtual elimination of depression symptoms, albeit with the risk of a recurrence of symptoms or complete relapse.^ Depression should be an indicator that something is wrong (I am not talking here about a short term response to a tragedy or something like that).
  • Parchment and Pen » "Let's Make Mommy Happy" or Martin Luther on Zoloft 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.reclaimingthemind.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An antidepressant may ameliorate the symptoms of depression better than a placebo over the short term.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression and Fatty Acids: Fatty acid deficiencies could significantly contribute to symptoms of depression, particularly in those at high risk of omega-3 deficiencies, such as alcoholics and post partum women.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Full remission or recovery signifies a full sustained return to a "normal" psychological state with full functioning.^ Full remission or recovery signifies a full sustained return to a "normal" psychological state with full functioning.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis returns to normal function 6 to 8 weeks after T3 augmentation is stopped.
  • ‘Supercharge’ antidepressants by adding thyroid hormones — The Journal of Family Practice 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response vs. Recovery as the Goal of Antidepressant Therapy – Emphasizes the importance of attaining full remission when treating depression, rather than just a reduction in symptoms.
  • Antidepressants: What You Need to Know About Depression Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Review studies

Recent clinical reviews include:
.
  • A comparison of the relative efficacy of different classes of antidepressants[69] in different settings[70] and in regard to different kinds of depression[71]
  • An assessment of antidepressants compared with an "active placebo"[72]
  • An assessment of the newer types of the MAOI class[73]
  • A meta-analysis of randomized trials of St John's Wort[74]
  • A review of the use of antidepressants for childhood depression[75][76]
  • A review of all antidepressant trials submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1987 to 2004 has shown that around half of the trials failed to show any benefit over placebo.^ Delay J, Deniker P. Efficacy of Tofranil in the treatment of various types of depression: a comparison with other antidepressant drugs.
    • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chapter I—Food and drug administration.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Antidepressants are effective treatment for 65-75% of all patients with depression.
    • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

    .All but one of the successful trial results were published in scientific journals, while nearly all the unsuccessful trials were either not published or were presented in a misleadingly positive light (compared to the FDA's own evaluation of the data).^ The NEJM article notes that the 11 studies were ones in which the primary outcome was nonsignificant but the publication "highlighted a positive result as if it were the primary outcome."
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They have published nearly all the studies that show benefit -- but almost none of the studies that show these drugs are ineffective.
    • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And those that showed negative results were in the words of the researchers, “published in a way that conveyed a positive outcome.” .
    • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    .This arose because whilst studies are required for medical approval, studies showing adverse findings are not necessarily required to be published or (if published) given similar prominence.^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New study findings suggest the treatment may also bolster patients’ compliance with their HIV medications.

    ^ The results of this study, conducted on all residents of 46 nursing homes in Sydney, show that 59% of them were regularly receiving psychotropic drugs, and 7% of them were receiving them on an "as required" basis.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As a result, while it appeared in the research literature that 94 percent of trials had positive outcomes, in the actual data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, only 51 percent did.^ Chapter I—Food and drug administration.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The NEJM article notes that the 11 studies were ones in which the primary outcome was nonsignificant but the publication "highlighted a positive result as if it were the primary outcome."
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Abbreviations: DTCA, direct-to-consumer advertising; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Citation: Lacasse JR, Leo J (2005) Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This publication bias inflated the apparent statistical effect of every antidepressant studied, by between 11% and 69%.^ Antidepressants and driving ability: Results from a clinical study: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 67(11) Nov 2006, 1776-1781.
    • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I started taking Adderral and all of sudden found I could go to bed around the same time every night (around 11), and get up between 6 and 7 with no ill effects.
    • Parchment and Pen » "Let's Make Mommy Happy" or Martin Luther on Zoloft 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.reclaimingthemind.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The studies supporting a relationship between REM sleep and memory have been strongly criticized for the confounding effects of very stressful REM deprivation techniques.
    • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

    [77]
  • .
  • A meta-analysis by UK, US and Canadian researchers, published in 2008, surveyed all pharmaceutical-company-sponsored drug trials on the six most widely prescribed new-generation antidepressants submitted for approval to the FDA between 1987 and 1999. The results showed, consistent with a prior metaanalysis, that the difference in efficacy between antidepressants and placebo was minimal, but that it increased from virtually no difference at moderate levels of initial depression to a relatively small difference for patients with very severe depression.^ The standard approach to depression is no different.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Drug companies are not forced to publish all the results of their studies.
    • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Antidepressants are effective treatment for 65-75% of all patients with depression.
    • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The difference reached conventional criteria for clinical significance for patients at the upper end of the very severely depressed category, due to a reduction in the efficacy of placebo.^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Efficacy of SSRIs and newer antidepressants in severe depression: Comparison with TCAs: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(5) May 1999, 326-335.
    • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ As some of you already know, I suffer from severe clinical depression as well as an anxiety disorder; I’ve been battling depression since I was a teenager.

    [78] .The study received widespread media coverage in some countries, but was met with criticism from the professional community.^ A few cases received national news media coverage, but drug makers hired the doctors anyway.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [79] .Eli Lilly and Company responded by highlighting that the study did not take into account more recent studies on its product, Prozac, and that it was proud of the difference Prozac has made to millions of people.^ Eli Lilly, the manufacturer, claims that thousands of people received Prozac in controlled clinical trials during its testing phase.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of those respondents, more than half said they always disclosed their conflict to other board members, but 35 percent said they rarely or never did.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I've seen it work for many people firsthand, but that's a whole other topic and I don't want to get into any more arguments.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .GlaxoSmithKline warned that this one study should not be used to cause unnecessary alarm and concern for patients.^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "And no one should ever walk into any building without knowing exactly how it was built, what construction materials were used, and its entire inspection history.
    • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One difficulty with using such drugs, she says, is that several of them are given to patients who already have psychological problems such as depression and mood swings.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Wyeth pointed out that the data were good enough for FDA approval of the drugs.[80] .Two leading UK psychiatrists/pharmacologists, with financial and professional links to pharmaceutical companies, argued that short-term approval trials are not very suitable for evaluating effectiveness, that the unpublished ones are poorer quality, that the meta-analysis authors came from a "psychology background" rather than drug testing background, and that the media and "elements of the medico/scientific community" have "a down on antidepressants" and that the media does not appreciate the seriousness of depression and blames and stigmatizes sufferers in a manner rooted in medieval religious attitudes.^ Many drugs are effective in bringing about the short-term relief of emotional suffering.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An antidepressant may ameliorate the symptoms of depression better than a placebo over the short term.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pharmaceutical companies don't have the same addictive quality for their drugs.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [81]
  • .
  • A May 7, 2002 article in The Washington Post titled "Against Depression, a Sugar Pill Is Hard to Beat" stated, "A new analysis has found that in the majority of trials conducted by drug companies in recent decades, sugar pills have done as well as—or better than—antidepressants.^ An antidepressant may ameliorate the symptoms of depression better than a placebo over the short term.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It found that drug companies selectively publish studies on antidepressants.
    • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This happened again and again in the pediatric drug trials of antidepressants.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Companies have had to conduct numerous trials to get two that show a positive result, which is the Food and Drug Administration's minimum for approval.^ Chapter I—Food and drug administration.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Irving Kirsch and colleagues, using the Freedom of Information Act, gained access to all clinical trials of antidepressants submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by the pharmaceutical companies for medication approval.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .What's more, the sugar pills, or placebos, cause profound changes in the same areas of the brain affected by the medicines, according to research published last week...^ Coincidentally, a damning Oireachtas report on the adverse side effects of pharmaceuticals, which was released last week, has come to more or less the same conclusions.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, it creates a visible change in morphology, a change in the size of an area of the brain, and that's abnormal.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The study was published in this week's issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    the makers of .Prozac had to run five trials to obtain two that were positive, and the makers of Paxil and Zoloft had to run even more...^ He said he had helped study many of the most popular drugs in psychiatry, including Paxil, Prozac, Risperdal, Seroquel, Zoloft and Zyprexa.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet we should suspect that the brain does not always recover from Prozac or similar antidepressants such as Paxil and Zoloft.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Take Paxil or Zoloft, especially if Prozac hasn’t worked.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .When Leuchter compared the brain changes in patients on placebos, he was amazed to find that many of them had changes in the same parts of the brain that are thought to control important facets of mood...^ Patients with depression have symptoms that generally reflect changes in the brain neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
    • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Georgotas, A., McCue, R.E., Reisberg, B., Ferris, S.H., Nagachandran, N., Chang, I. & Mir, P. (1989) The effects of mood changes and antidepressants on the cognitive capacity of elderly depressed patients.
    • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Once the trial was over and the patients who had been given placebos were told as much, they quickly deteriorated.^ This means that everyone is given the placebo first and all those who get significantly better are taken out of the trial at that point.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The data in that trial indicate that Lilly knew beforehand that patients taking Prozac were having much higher suicide attempt rates than patients taking placebos or other drugs.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .People's belief in the power of antidepressants may explain why they do well on placebos..."^ But I wonder why they feel the need to disparage medications that work for many people.
    • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I know that my story is not like everyone's but there are people out there that are on antidepressants that need to just change their lifestyles for better health and wellness.
    • Why Antidepressants Don’t Work for Treating Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Well, if that's the progression that people make, in essence they're making good old boy network connections, so they're not going to be so harsh on the drug companies.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [82]

Clinical guidelines

.The American Psychiatric Association 2000 Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder [83] indicates that, if preferred by the patient, antidepressant medications may be provided as an initial primary treatment for mild major depressive disorder; antidepressant medications should be provided for moderate to severe major depressive disorder unless electroconvulsive therapy is planned; and a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications or electroconvulsive therapy should be used for psychotic depression.^ Somatic treatments of depression in the patient with medical illness ( 4 ) .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Selection of the initial drug(s) in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depressed phase.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bupropion may also be combined with SSRIs in the management of treatment-refractory depression.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.It states that efficacy is generally comparable between classes and within classes and that the initial selection will largely be based on the anticipated side effects for an individual patient, patient preference, quantity and quality of clinical trial data regarding the medication, and its cost.^ Antidepressant medications, while generally safe, can have some unpleasant side effects.
  • New Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Many medications have side effects.
  • Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences - FAQ 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.cedars-sinai.edu [Source type: General]

^ There are side effects with any medication.
  • The Age of Antidepressants? | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

.The UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2004 guidelines indicate that antidepressants should not be used for the initial treatment of mild depression, because the risk-benefit ratio is poor; that for moderate or severe depression an SSRI is more likely to be tolerated than a tricyclic; and that antidepressants for severe depression should be combined with a psychological treatment such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.^ Most SSRIs are more energizing than alternative antidepressant medications.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bupropion may also be combined with SSRIs in the management of treatment-refractory depression.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SSRIs may be less effective for more severe depression than TCAs and MAOIs.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]

Efficacy limitations and strategies

.Between 30% and 50% of individuals treated with a given antidepressant do not show a response.^ The results of this study show that 17% of community-dwelling elderly individuals in Ireland take benzodiazepines, which are, in over 50% of cases, of the long-acting form.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the published and unpublished trials were pooled, the placebo duplicated about 80% of the antidepressant response ; 57% of these pharmaceutical company–funded trials failed to show a statistically significant difference between antidepressant and inert placebo .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elderly generally require smaller doses but show a similar time course of response to antidepressant therapy with SSRIs.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

[85][86] .Even where there has been a robust response, significant continuing depression and dysfunction is common, with relapse rates 3 to 6 times higher in such cases.^ Even where there has been a robust response, significant continuing depression and dysfunction is common, with relapse rates 3 to 6 times higher in such cases.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In such cases, rapid tapering or even abrupt switching is often justifiable, although the potential for discontinuation symptoms must be borne in mind.
  • Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndromes, Fluxetine May Help 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.realmentalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most cases of discontinuation syndrome last between one and four weeks, though there are examples of patients (especially those who have used the drugs for longer periods of time, or at a higher dose) experiencing adverse effects such as impaired concentration, poor short-term memory, elevated anxiety and sexual dysfunction, for months or even years after discontinuation.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[87] .In addition, antidepressant drugs tend to lose efficacy over the course of treatment[88] A number of strategies are used in clinical practice to try to overcome these limits and variations.^ It contradicts much of what you have said about diagnoses, and the efficacy of drugs in treating these conditions.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardiovascular effects of antidepressant drugs: Updated: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(Suppl 15) 1998, 13-18.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[89]

"Trial and error" switching

.The American Psychiatric Association 2000 Practice Guideline advises that where no response is achieved following six to eight weeks of treatment with an antidepressant, to switch to an antidepressant in the same class, then to a different class of antidepressant.^ For a partial response, the American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise adding a different kind of pharmaceutical agent to the antidepressant.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Psychiatric Association in its Practice Guidelines for the treatment of depression recommends switching to another antidepressant if the first one does not work and to a different class of antidepressant if the second one fails.
  • Antidepressants - An Introduction 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.mcmanweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise four to five months of continuation treatment on an antidepressant following the resolution of symptoms.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A recent meta-analysis review found wide variation in the findings of prior studies; for patients who had failed to respond to an SSRI antidepressant, between 12% and 86% showed a response to a new drug, with between 5% and 39% ending treatment due to adverse effects.^ Antidepressant use doubles in U.S., study finds .

^ They are used in clients who do not respond to SSRIs or other antidepressants.
  • Antidepressants: Side Effects-Premature Birth, Sexual Dysfunction 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC winmentalhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FDA for 12 antidepressants and found: .
  • Science-Based Medicine » Do Antidepressants Work? The Effect of Publication Bias 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The more antidepressants an individual had already tried, the less likely they were to benefit from a new antidepressant trial.^ They immigration with run new antidepressants .

^ That makes it less likely to be "correct", not more .
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more antidepressants an individual had already tried, the less likely they were to benefit from a new antidepressant trial.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[86]

Augmentation and combination

.For a partial response, the American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise adding a different kind of pharmaceutical agent to the antidepressant.^ For a partial response, the American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise adding a different kind of pharmaceutical agent to the antidepressant.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (2000), adequate pharmacotherapy use was defined as antidepressant use for at least 60 days with supervision by a prescribing clinician for at least 4 visits in the past year.

^ The American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise four to five months of continuation treatment on an antidepressant following the resolution of symptoms.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Studies suggest that most patients fail to achieve remission on a given antidepressant, and augmentation strategies used in clinical practice include the use of lithium and thyroid augmentation, but there is not a good evidence base for these practices or for more novel strategies such as the use of selective dopamine agonists, sex steroids, NRI's, glucocorticoid-specific agents, or the newer anticonvulsants[90]
.A combination strategy involves adding one or more additional antidepressants, usually from different classes so as to have a diverse neurochemical effect.^ A combination strategy involves adding one or more additional antidepressants, usually from different classes so as to have a diverse neurochemical effect.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the deep side effects of antidepressants .

^ Different antidepressants can cause different side effects.
  • Anti-Depressant Prescription Drugs: Paxil, Lexapro, Celexa, Effexor, Fluoxetine, Buspar, Buspirone, Zoloft, Wellbutrin anti-depressants products 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.usahealthstore.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although this may be used in clinical practice, there is little evidence for the relative efficacy or adverse effects of this strategy.^ There is, however, little evidence for an analgesic effect in acute pain.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although fluoxetine (Prozac) is the only SSRI medication that has met the FDA criteria for efficacy in youth, many clinicians have seen good results from other antidepressants in their clinical practices.
  • Is It Still Safe to Give Antidepressants to Children and Adolescents? 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, though these agents have proved to be efficacious in treating unipolar depression, the data providing support for their use in treating bipolar depression are minimal and are not considered to be sufficient to guide clinical practice.
  • NEJM -- Effectiveness of Adjunctive Antidepressant Treatment for Bipolar Depression 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]
  • NEJM -- Effectiveness of Adjunctive Antidepressant Treatment for Bipolar Depression 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]

Long-term use

.The therapeutic effects of antidepressants typically do not continue once the course of medication ends, resulting in a high rate of relapse.^ But the rate of relapse is high.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The therapeutic effects of antidepressants typically do not continue once the course of medication ends, resulting in a high rate of relapse.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The antidepressant properties of these medications are attributed to modulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic function, but they also have many side effects due to binding to multiple unrelated receptors.
  • Reboxetine: A Novel Antidepressant Kadhe NG, Chillar AJ, Deshmukh YA - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.A recent meta-analysis of 31 placebo-controlled antidepressant trials, mostly limited to studies covering a period of one year, found that 18% of patients who had responded to an antidepressant relapsed while still taking it, compared to 41% whose antidepressant was switched for a placebo.^ To have been on four antidepressants in an 8-week period means that one has not had an adequate trial on any of them.
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been taking antidepressants for about five years.
  • Help with anti-depressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.lpsg.org [Source type: General]

^ In that study, the switch rate was no greater on antidepressants than on placebo.

[92] .The American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise four to five months of continuation treatment on an antidepressant following the resolution of symptoms.^ The American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise four to five months of continuation treatment on an antidepressant following the resolution of symptoms.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressant treatment guidelines .
  • Antidepressants: What You Need to Know About Depression Medications 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since most of the antidepressants suppress REM sleep chronically, the continuation of such treatments past the point of symptom remission may actually go too far, ultimately contributing to mood and cognitive disruption.
  • Research by Grace E. Jackson on Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Drugs 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychrights.org [Source type: Academic]

.For patients with a history of depressive episodes, the British Association for Psychopharmacology's 2000 Guidelines for Treating Depressive Disorders with Antidepressants advise remaining on an antidepressant for at least six months and as long as five years or indefinitely.^ It may also be used to treat associated depression.
  • Pharmacology Guide for Brain Injury Treatment 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.birf.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressants are typically taken for at least 4 to 6 months.
  • Alternatives to prescription antidepressants, supplements, herb, and vitamins by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant-treated patients in ambulatory care.
  • ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whether or not someone relapses after stopping an antidepressant does not appear to be related to the duration of prior treatment, however, and gradual loss of therapeutic benefit during the course also occurs.^ Whether or not someone relapses after stopping an antidepressant does not appear to be related to the duration of prior treatment, however, and gradual loss of therapeutic benefit during the course also occurs.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the required duration of maintenance treatment with antidepressants?

^ Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in.
  • Johns Hopkins: Depression|Anxiety on antidepressant medication. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cleanairmakemore.com [Source type: Academic]

.A strategy involving the use of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of the acute episode, followed by psychotherapy in its residual phase, has been suggested by some studies.^ A strategy involving the use of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of the acute episode, followed by psychotherapy in its residual phase, has been suggested by some studies.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies suggest that it is best to combine antidepressants and psychotherapy.
  • Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some suggest behavioral strategies to improve sexual technique 25 without clarification of what it really means.
  • Primary Psychiatry: Depression, Antidepressants, and Human Sexuality 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.primarypsychiatry.com [Source type: Academic]

[93][94]

Medication failure

.Approximately 30% of patients have remission of depression with medications.^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somatic treatments of depression in the patient with medical illness ( 4 ) .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (SSRI) and amitriptyline (TCA) in depressed patients, and showed a 42% reduction in REM with paroxetine compared to a 30% reduction with amitriptyline.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[95] .For patients with inadequate response, either adding sustained-release bupropion (initially 200 mg per day then increase by 100 mg up to total of 400 mg per day) or buspirone (up to 60 mg per day) for augmentation as a second drug can cause remission in approximately 30% of patients,[96] while switching medications can achieve remission in about 25% of patients.^ Significant dose-dependent increases in blood pressure have been reported at dosages greater than 75 mg/day and limit use in patients with borderline or existing hypertension.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, he says, antidepressants appear to help only 30 to 40 per cent of patients.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]

By pregnancy

There is uncertainty whether pregnancy contributes to medication failure, because the only report so far has drawn much controversy on itself:
.In 2006, a widely reported study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) challenged the common assumption that hormonal changes during pregnancy protected expectant mothers against depression, finding that discontinuing anti-depressive medication during pregnancy led to more frequent relapse.^ Are you a more august authority than the American Medical Association?
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An overview of a Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) study on the comparative impact of SSRI vs. Please note, ewkpates, that "The primary outcomes of this study were resolution of depression and the effect of therapy on quality of life scores."
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98] .The JAMA article did not disclose that several authors had financial ties to pharmaceutical companies making antidepressants.^ What's more, many of those with conflicts rarely or never disclose their financial ties, researchers found.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the early 1990s, the pharmaceutical companies making these drugs are saying, "How do we expand the market for antidepressants?"
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the last five years, there has been heightened scrutiny of the financial ties between researchers and the companies that make experimental drugs and devices.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The JAMA later published a correction noting the ties[99] and the authors maintain that the ties have no bearing on their research work.^ This research in no way bolsters the idea that psychiatric drugs correct imbalances.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Competing Interests: The authors declare that no competing interests exist and that they received no funding for this work.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Obstetrician and perinatologist Adam Urato told the Wall Street Journal that patients and medical professionals need advice free of industry influence.^ I have info regarding antidepressants too and also professional advice received regarding medication in general.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to leading psychiatrist David Healy, this is just the latest in a string of cases where patients and medical professionals have been misled about a drug's adverse effects.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We need to renew our faith in the psychiatric drug-free human being in both our personal and professional lives.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100]

Withdrawal symptoms

.If an SSRI medication is suddenly discontinued, it may produce both somatic and psychological withdrawal symptoms, a phenomenon known as "SSRI discontinuation syndrome" (Tamam & Ozpoyraz, 2002).^ A withdrawal syndrome similar to SSRIs has been reported with venlafaxine.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because withdrawal effects of SSRIs may include symptoms similar to the symptoms of depression, such as fatigue and apathy, doctors often assume, when patients complain of them, that the depression hasn't lifted yet and prescribe the drug for longer.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal symptoms are encountered with both the classical anti-depressants, i.e.

.When the decision is made to stop taking antidepressants it is common practice to "wean" off of them by slowly decreasing the dose over a period of several weeks.^ An adequate therapeutic trial for an antidepressant is generally giving the agent at adequate doses continuously for 4-6 weeks.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It primarily is the testosterone that comes into women that gives the rush of taking antidepressants for four weeks.

^ So far, stopping taking my antidepressants recently is one of the best things I’ve done in a while - I feel great.

Most cases of discontinuation syndrome last between one and four weeks.[citation needed]
.The selection of an antidepressant and dosage suitable for a certain case and a certain person is a lengthy and complicated process, requiring the knowledge of a professional.^ The selection of an antidepressant and dosage suitable for a certain case and a certain person is a lengthy and complicated process, requiring the knowledge of a professional.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First antidepressant prescribed for me was Pamelor, a tricyclic (essentially a serotonin substitute) — the kind where you have to get your blood tested every few weeks because only a certain ‘window’ of dosage will work for a given person.

^ In certain cases, an antidepressant can induce a switch from depression to mania or hypomania , can accelerate and shorten a manic cycle (i.e.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain antidepressants can initially make depression worse, can induce anxiety, or can make a patient aggressive, dysphoric or acutely suicidal.^ Certain antidepressants can initially make depression worse, can induce anxiety, or can make a patient aggressive, dysphoric or acutely suicidal.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain antidepressants can initially make depression worse, can induce anxiety , or can make a patient aggressive, dysphoric or acutely suicidal .
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And can actually make the depression worse.

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In rare cases, an antidepressant can induce a switch from depression to mania or hypomania.^ Tricyclic antidepressants in adolescent depression: A case report: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 7(3) Sep 1998, 166-171.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What about bipolar type II-differentiated by hypomania rather than mania but still suffering from the depressive part of the cycle?
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dramatic Remission of Treatment-resistant Depression after the Cessation of Tricyclic Antidepressants: A Case Report: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 39(3) May 2006, 114.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Side effects

.Antidepressants often cause adverse effects, and difficulty tolerating these is the most common reason for discontinuing an effective medication.^ These potential adverse effects can be fatal .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adverse effects associated with antidepressants ( 5 , 10 ) .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This may lead to constipation Urinary retention or difficulty with urination Hyperthermia Tolerance to these adverse effects often develops if treatment is continued, side effects may also be less troublesome if treatment is initiated with low dose and then gradually increased, although this may delay the clinical effect.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Side effects of SSRIs include: nausea, diarrhea, agitation, headaches.^ Other side effects include orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache, and nausea.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The side effects include behavioural disorders, physical illness, dependence and even suicide."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Listed side effects for Effexor include anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania and mania.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sexual side effects are also common with SSRIs, such as loss of libido, failure to reach orgasm and erectile dysfunction.^ I was on it briefly myself, and experienced no side effects.It's a selective Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ( SNRI rather than SSRI drug (which affects serotonin.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sleep aid was for insomnia that the doctor said was a common side effect.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM on December 17, 2003 Oh, and ps: A lot of the ssri antidepressants have a side effect of sexual problems-severe ones in some cases.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Serotonin syndrome is also a worrying condition associated with the use of SSRIs.^ Hemorrhagic syndromes related to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SSRIs keep serotonin from being recirculated back to the brain for subsequent use, allowing the chemical to stay active in the brain.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of this study suggest that intake of the antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of developing hemorrhagic syndromes.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Food and Drug Administration requires Black Box warnings on all SSRIs, which state that they double suicidal rates (from 2 in 1,000 to 4 in 1,000) in children and adolescents.^ They're slow to even put black box warnings on them.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter I—Food and drug administration.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many researchers now question whether these drugs ever really did much of what they were supposed to do at all.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] .The increased risk for suicidality and suicidal behaviour among adults under 25 approaches that seen in children and adolescents.^ SS: In light of the FDA's failure to warn us about Prozac, what about their recent negligence on the issue of the risk of suicide in children given antidepressants like Paxil?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we know that we have a scientifically shown risk that these drugs increase suicide, shouldn't you at least warn about it?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In clinical studies, this medication had increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents who had depression and other psychiatric disorders.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102]
.Side effects of TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants): Fairly common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness, dizziness, tremors, sexual problems, skin rash, and weight gain or loss.^ Weight gain, dizziness, dry mouth, increased appetite, and constipation have also been reported.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Side effects of TCAs include urinary retention, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The antimuscarinic side effects are relatively common and include: .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Side effects of MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors): Rare side effects of MAOIs like phenelzine (Nardil) and tranylcypromine (Parnate) include hepatitis, heart attack, stroke, and seizures.^ Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitor .
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.Serotonin syndrome is a side effect of MAOIs when combined with certain medications.^ Combination of trazodone or nefazodone with an MAOI can lead to serotonin syndrome.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Combination of nefazodone with an MAOI can lead to serotonin syndrome.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Combination of trazodone with an MAOI can lead to serotonin syndrome.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

General

.MAO inhibitors can produce a potentially lethal hypertensive reaction if taken with foods that contain excessively high levels of tyramine, such as mature cheese, cured meats or yeast extracts.^ However, monoamine oxidase is also responsible for metabolizing compounds, such as tyramine, which are present in certain aged cheeses and other food substances.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many patients can tolerate limited quantities of items that contain moderate levels of tyramine (eg, red or white wine, bottled or canned beer).
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients should be warned and advised to avoid or greatly limit their intake of cheese, wines, and other tyramine-containing foods.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.Likewise, lethal reactions to both prescription and over the counter medications have occurred.^ Likewise, lethal reactions to both prescription and over the counter medications have occurred.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the tricyclics and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors can be lethal in overdose, and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors interact dangerously with several over the counter and prescription drugs.
  • Reboxetine: A Novel Antidepressant Kadhe NG, Chillar AJ, Deshmukh YA - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All approved anti-depressant agents have had case reports or warnings from their manufacturers of such reactions occurring in response to either abrupt discontinuation or medication tapering.
  • Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndrome - August 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Patients undergoing therapy with MAO inhibiting medications are monitored closely by their prescribing physicians, who are consulted before taking an over the counter or prescribed medication.^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients with hepatic insufficiency should have therapy initiated at a reduced dosage and be closely monitored for toxic effects.
  • Antidepressant Update 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A lot of us who take anti-depressants are defensive about it, but I think it's irresponsible and cruel to withhold medication from a person who is suffering from serious depression.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such patients must also inform emergency room personnel and keep information with their identification indicating that they are on MAO inhibitors.^ They really should refer such patients to specialists to verify their diagnoses, at least.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients are often looking to psychiatrists for answers and definitions as they struggle with questions such as who am I or what is happening to me.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What I want to do is disseminate this information so that other people are more informed before they make what may be for them a very big mistake.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some doctors suggest the use of medical identification tags.^ This can be seen by the fact that tamoxifen is the gold-standard used by medical doctors to fight cancer among their patients, particularly breast cancer.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of parallels between gambling and compulsive behavior, some have suggested the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Prozac and related drugs).

^ The outcome: deadly drugs are approved for use among misinformed medical doctors and patients.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although these reactions may be lethal, the total number of deaths due to interactions and dietary concerns is comparable to over-the-counter medications.^ Which is twice as many deaths in a single year from "approved drugs" as the total number of U.S. deaths from the Vietnam War.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herbal and “Natural” Remedies Although this book is about psychiatric medications that are approved by the FDA, many readers may have questions about psychoactive herbal remedies that can be obtained over the counter (OTC).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antidepressants are used with care, usually in conjunction with mood stabilisers, in the treatment of bipolar disorder, as they can exacerbate symptoms of mania.^ Benefits and limitations of antidepressants and traditional mood stabilizers for treatment of bipolar depression: Bipolar Disorders Vol 7(Suppl5) Dec 2005, 3-12.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mania after vascular dementia in a patient with bipolar II disorder: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 60(1) Feb 2006, 117-118.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I didn't want to go back to being angry and impulsive, which they attributed to bipolar disorder.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They can also trigger mania or hypomania in some patients with bipolar disorder and in a small percentage of patients with depression.^ Mania after vascular dementia in a patient with bipolar II disorder: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 60(1) Feb 2006, 117-118.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As some of you already know, I suffer from severe clinical depression as well as an anxiety disorder; I’ve been battling depression since I was a teenager.

^ They have just come out with a non-stimulating add drug called Strattera, which has also been shown to help with some bipolar depressions.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

[103] .SSRIs are the antidepressants most frequently associated with this side effect.^ All antidepressants have the potential to cause weight gain and yet most people seem unaware that weight gain is one of the most common side effects associated with Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac, Wellbutrin, Zyprexa and many other behavioral drugs until it is too late.

^ Again, most people don't think where those side effects come from.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was on it briefly myself, and experienced no side effects.It's a selective Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ( SNRI rather than SSRI drug (which affects serotonin.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

Breast cancer survivors risk having their disease come back if they use certain antidepressants while also taking the cancer prevention drug tamoxifen, according to research released in May 2009.[104]
Anti-depressants are not addictive. This is a major mis-conception. .This mis-conception mainly stems from the side-effects that appear when coming off of an anti-depressant.^ Do you have any suggestions for coming off anti-depressants???
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These people are then chemically subdued and have to suffer the side effects that come with tinkering with neurotransmitters in a way that nature never would.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you were seeing these very problematic side effects even at the same time that you were seeing very modest efficacy, if any, over placebo in ameliorating depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105]

Suicide

.Patients with depression are at greatest risk for suicide immediately after treatment has begun, as antidepressants can reduce the symptoms of depression such as psychomotor retardation or lack of motivation before mood starts to improve.^ Antidepressants and suicidal risk.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back in August 1991, Dr Healy authored the paper, "Antidepressant Induced Suicidal Ideation," in which he said that the cases of two patient "suggest that the emergence of suicidal ideation on antidepressants cannot always be attributed to a lifting of psychomotor retardation but rather that the ideas may in some instances be produced by antidepressants."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initial lithium augmentation improves the antidepressant effects of standard TCA treatment in non-resistant depressed patients: Psychopharmacology Vol 118(2) Mar 1995, 223-225.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Although this appears paradoxical, studies indicate that suicidal ideation is a relatively common at the start of antidepressant therapy, and it may be especially common in younger patients such as pre-adolescents and teenagers.^ Back in August 1991, Dr Healy authored the paper, "Antidepressant Induced Suicidal Ideation," in which he said that the cases of two patient "suggest that the emergence of suicidal ideation on antidepressants cannot always be attributed to a lifting of psychomotor retardation but rather that the ideas may in some instances be produced by antidepressants."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of this study indicate that approximately 26% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are given antidepressant medications, which consist, in over half of the cases, of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years later in 1994, he authored the paper, "The Fluoxetine and Suicide Controversy," and stated, "In the opinion of this author, the volume of case reports and other studies is sufficient to demonstrate that antidepressants and antipsychotics may induce suicidal ideation in certain individuals under certain conditions."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Manufacturers and physicians often recommend that other family members and loved ones monitor the young patient's behavior for any signs of suicidal ideation or behaviors, especially in the first eight weeks of therapy.^ Shortly after Dominique's death, the FDA released a warning that one in 50 patients, or 2 percent, will experience an adverse reaction to Effexor, which can include suicidal thoughts.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article describes three cases of attempt suicide after induction of akathisia in patients on fluoxetine therapy.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He routinely oversaw four to eight drug trials simultaneously, often moved patients from one study to another, sometimes gave experimental medicines to patients at their first consultation, and once hospitalized a patient for the sole purpose of enrolling him in a study, the F.D.A. found.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until the black box warnings on these drugs were issued by FDA and equivalent agencies in other nations, side effects and alerting families to risk were largely ignored and downplayed by manufacturers and practitioners.^ Side effects may also be enhanced by other drugs which have antimuscarinic properties.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SS: What other side effects are caused by prolonged use of these antipsychotic drugs?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the FDA was even digging in its heels about putting that black box warning on the drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may have resulted in some deaths by suicide although direct proof for such a link is largely anecdotal.^ This may have resulted in some deaths by suicide although direct proof for such a link is largely anecdotal.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such opinions are divergent from limited controlled data but may be influenced by a wide range of factors other than direct clinical experience.
  • DreamPharm Online Pharmacy: Lowest price drugs and nutritional supplements: - antidepressant online references. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dreampharm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although this appears to be a paradox, studies indicate the suicidal ideation is a relatively common component of the initial phases of antidepressant therapy, and it may be even more prevalent in younger patients such as pre-adolescents and teenagers.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The higher incidence of suicide ideation reported in a number of studies has drawn attention and caution in how these drugs are used.^ The increased use of these drugs has resulted in a number of studies to gauge their effectiveness.
  • Antidepressant Statistics- combined edited threads - paxilprogress 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.paxilprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The higher incidence of suicide ideation reported in a number of studies has drawn attention and caution in how these drugs are used.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study he headed in last April’s JAMA (Clinical Response and Risk for Reported Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Pediatric Antidepressant Treatment) found “a much lower overall risk” of suicide than the FDA reports when “the potential benefit of these medications” was added.
  • Antidepressants // Current 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People under the age of 24 who suffer from depression are warned that the use of antidepressants could increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour.^ People under the age of 24 who suffer from depression are warned that the use of antidepressants could increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Q. What percentage of depressed people will respond to antidepressants?
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: General]
  • Wing of Madness Depression Guide: tag 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.wingofmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressants are medicines used to help people who have depression .
  • Anti-Depressant Prescription Drugs: Paxil, Lexapro, Celexa, Effexor, Fluoxetine, Buspar, Buspirone, Zoloft, Wellbutrin anti-depressants products 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.usahealthstore.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Federal health officials unveiled proposed changes to the labels on antidepressant drugs in December 2006 to warn people of this danger.^ AM on December 16, 2003 Why do people look down on drugs as a solution?
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But since the government demanded in October that drug manufacturers place such blunt warnings on prescription antidepressants, many patients have been reluctant to try the drugs.

^ Just recently, researchers in Iceland collected nationwide data on the prescribing of antidepressant drugs and on people's recovery from mental illness.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On September 6, 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the suicide rate in American adolescents, (especially girls, 10 to 24 years old), increased 8% (2003 to 2004), the largest jump in 15 years,[106] to 4,599 suicides in Americans ages 10 to 24 in 2004, from 4,232 in 2003, giving a suicide rate of 7.32 per 100,000 people that age.^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson & Johnson, the maker of Risperdal, paid Dr. Hardrict more than $30,000 in 2003 and 2004.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what 10-year-old boy in a confined school setting isn't hyperactive?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rate previously dropped to 6.78 per 100,000 in 2003 from 9.48 per 100,000 in 1990. The findings reinforced the fact that antidepressant drugs reduce suicide risk.^ Antidepressants and suicidal risk.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant drugs and the emergence of suicidal tendencies.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Psychiatrists found that the increase is due to the decline in prescriptions of antidepressant drugs like Prozac to young people since 2003, leaving more cases of serious depression untreated.^ In a study of HIV-positive people seen at Denver public health clinics, researchers found that among the patients with depression, those who were on antidepressants were more likely to be compliant with their antiretroviral HIV drugs.

^ The number of mentally disabled people in the United States has been increasing at the rate of 150,000 people per year since 1987.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By taking drug-medicines more impurities are added, thereby the case is further embarrassed and harder to cure."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a December 2006 study, The American Journal of Psychiatry said that a decrease in antidepressant prescriptions to minors of just a few percentage points coincided with a 14 percent increase in suicides in the United States; in the Netherlands, the suicide rate was 50% up after a fall in antidepressant prescriptions.^ Linda Just to clarify a few points.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (American Journal of Psychiatry, February 1990) 2.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .Critics of this study say that the US "2004 suicide figures were compared simplistically with the previous year, rather than examining the change in trends over several years".[108] The pitfalls of such attempts to infer a trend using just two data points (years 2003 and 2004) are further demonstrated by the fact that, according to the new epidemiological data, the suicide rate in 2005 in children and adolescents actually declined despite the continuing decrease of SSRI prescriptions.^ According to a Federal study, by researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere, in the June 2005, Journal of the American Medical Association, despite a dramatic increase in treatment with antidepressants in 2001-2003, when compared to 1990- 1992, the rates of suicidal ideation, gestures and attempts among adults have remained basically unchanged.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years before Prozac received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 1987, the German BGA had such serious reservations about Prozac's safety that it refused to approve the antidepressant based on Lilly's studies showing that previously non-suicidal patients who took the drug had a fivefold higher rate of suicides and suicide attempts than those on older antidepressants, and a threefold higher rate than those taking placebos.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson & Johnson, the maker of Risperdal, paid Dr. Hardrict more than $30,000 in 2003 and 2004.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."It is risky to draw conclusions from limited ecologic analyses of isolated year-to-year fluctuations in antidepressant prescriptions and suicides.^ FDA statistics show U.S. physicians issue more than 10 million antidepressant prescriptions each year to patients younger than 18.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may not be just a coincidence that the 100% rise in obesity in the past 10 years is occurring at the same time as an 800% increase in the prescription rate of antidepressants.

.One promising epidemiological approach involves examining the associations between trends in psychotropic medication use and suicide over time across a large number of small geographic regions.^ By the year 2000, the time when Prozac was its number-one drug, its capitalization reached 80 billion dollars -- a forty-fold increase.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychotropic medication use and accidents, injuries and cognitive failures: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 20(6) Aug 2005, 391-400.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In over 2 million visits, patients received a minimum of one potentially inappropriate psychotropic medication.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until the results of more detailed analyses are known, prudence dictates deferring judgment concerning the public health effects of the FDA warnings."^ It's about exploiting the public for financial gain, while disregarding the true effects of your company's products on the public health.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's more, too much serotonin has degenerative effects that aren't always easy to spot until people have been on the drugs for years.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SSRI Warning Public Notice There is a class of drugs on the market for depression, anxiety, and a host of other mental health problems known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, or SSRIs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[109][110] .Subsequest follow-up studies have supported the hypothesis that antidepressant drugs reduce suicide risk.^ Antidepressants and suicidal risk.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically what Eli Lilly had to do was cover up that risk of mania and psychosis, cover up that some people were becoming suicidal because they were getting this nervous agitation from Prozac.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As patients with a risk of suicide were excluded from the studies, it is probable that this high proportion can be attributed to an action of the preparation ."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111][112] .However, the conclusion that societal suicide rate decreases are due to antidepressant prescription is extraordinarily dubious given the plethora of confounding variables.^ It may not be just a coincidence that the 100% rise in obesity in the past 10 years is occurring at the same time as an 800% increase in the prescription rate of antidepressants.

^ Read more from this blogger: Researchers say that antidepressants have reduced the suicide rate .

^ Listed below are links to weblogs that reference Researchers say that antidepressants have reduced the suicide rate : .

Sexual

.Sexual dysfunction is a very common side effect, especially with SSRIs.^ So you were seeing these very problematic side effects even at the same time that you were seeing very modest efficacy, if any, over placebo in ameliorating depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was on it briefly myself, and experienced no side effects.It's a selective Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ( SNRI rather than SSRI drug (which affects serotonin.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sleep aid was for insomnia that the doctor said was a common side effect.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common sexual side effects include problems with libido (sexual desire), lack of interest in sex, and anorgasmia (trouble achieving orgasm).^ "The side effects include behavioural disorders, physical illness, dependence and even suicide."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sleep aid was for insomnia that the doctor said was a common side effect.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The associated drugs do not remove the problem, and they cause side effects.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113] .Although usually reversible, these sexual side effects can, in rare cases, last for months or years after the drug has been completely withdrawn.^ Finaly the side effects is gone after years… .
  • Confirmed: German Shooter on Anti-Depressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was educated about these side effects and I had sold drugs that caused these side effects."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although usually reversible, these sexual side effects can, in rare cases, last for months or years after the drug has been completely withdrawn.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is known as Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction.^ These data indicate that the majority of patients treated with SSRIs experience sexual dysfunction.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction affects 30% to 50% or more of individuals who take these drugs for depression.^ I see people all around me who are taking these drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who are these drug reps?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can make so much money selling drugs to all these people who are going to have Alzheimer's, or dementia, or osteoporosis."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Biochemical mechanisms suggested as causative include increased serotonin, particularly affecting 5HT2 and 5HT3 receptors; decreased dopamine; blockade of cholingeric and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors; inhibition of nitric oxide synthetase; and elevation of prolactin levels.^ SSRIs work by increasing the concentration of serotonin in the brain through inhibition of their re-uptake by brain cells.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of this study suggest that intake of the antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of developing hemorrhagic syndromes.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, if you're blocking dopamine in the brain, the brain tries to put out more dopamine and it actually increases the number of dopamine receptors.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114]
.Bupropion, a dual reuptake inhibitor (NE and DA), often causes a moderate increase in libido, due to increased dopamine activity.^ Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are then incorporated into dreams but due to the suppression of activity of the prefrontal cortex dream scenarios are not often recorded and generally do not influence waking behavior.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.This effect is also seen with dopamine reuptake inhibitors, CNS stimulants and dopamine agonists, and is due to increases in testosterone production (due to inhibition of prolactin) and nitric oxide synthesis.^ Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors .
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs, collectively known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), increase the level of serotonin, which is vital to brain cell communication.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mirtazapine (Remeron) is reported to have fewer sexual side effects, most likely because it antagonizes 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors.^ The records most likely understate the extent of the problem because they are incomplete.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Olsen said children are more vulnerable to the side effects of these medications because of their developing organs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coincidentally, a damning Oireachtas report on the adverse side effects of pharmaceuticals, which was released last week, has come to more or less the same conclusions.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mirtazapine can in some cases reverse sexual dysfunction induced by SSRIs, which is also likely due to its antagonisation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors [115]
Apomorphine, nefazodone and nitroglycerin have been shown to reverse some sexual dysfunction via increased nitric oxide activity. .MAOIs are reported to have fewer negative effects on sexual function and libido, particularly moclobemide at a 1.9% rate of occurrence.^ MAOIs are reported to have fewer negative effects on sexual function and libido, particularly moclobemide at a 1.9% rate of occurrence.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Betanechol has been reported to reverse MAOI-induced sexual dysfunction via its cholinergic agonist properties (Gross 1982) .
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She reviewed ways to reverse the negative sexual side effects of SSRI type antidepressants.
  • Modern Love: Sex, Relationships & Your Health: Antidotes to Antidepressant Sexual Side Effects 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bethanechol has been reported to reverse MAOI-induced sexual dysfunction via its cholinergic agonist properties.^ Sexual dysfunction induced by serotonin reuptake antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction during treatment with moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116]

Thymoanesthesia

.Closely related to sexual side effects is the phenomenon of emotional blunting, or mood anesthesia.^ Effexor is actually the only antidepressant I've been able to take without severe side effects or emotional numbness.

^ AM on December 17, 2003 Oh, and ps: A lot of the ssri antidepressants have a side effect of sexual problems-severe ones in some cases.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many users of SSRIs complain of apathy, lack of motivation, emotional numbness, feelings of detachment, and indifference to surroundings.^ I think the Brits jumped the gun on this one, but the feeling that SSRIs are potentially dangerous is one shared by many legitimate professionals within the field.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had gotten to the stage where I was unable to feel happy - I was emotionally numb except for being extremely depressed and wanting to end it all.

^ Many turn to them when they feel on the verge of experiencing painful emotions.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may describe this as a feeling of "not caring about anything anymore."^ They didn't care about the resulting effect they were creating in their customers.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Empathy -- the capacity to understand and to care about the feelings and viewpoint of others -- is central to an ethical and fulfilling life.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While his own particular approach to counselling for depression may not be everyone's cup of tea, I feel that what he says about psychotropic drugs and the ethics of using them worth pondering.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All SSRIs, SNRIs, and serotonergic TCAs can cause this to varying degrees, especially at high doses.^ All SSRIs cause excess serotonin -- at least initially.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As discussed below, virtually all of the commonly used TCAs and SSRIs significantly suppress REM sleep, but unlike the MAOIs, do not eliminate it.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "We asked the question, ‘Would other SSRI’s cause the same effects in high doses’?"
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

REM Sleep

.All major antidepressant drugs, except trimipramine and mirtazapine, suppress REM sleep, and it has been proposed that the clinical efficacy of these drugs largely derives from their suppressant effects on REM sleep.^ Of the antidepressants, the MAOIs have the strongest suppressive action on REM sleep.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is well recognized that virtually all major antidepressant drugs suppress REM sleep (for review, Vogel et al.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Whilst these latter findings can reach statistical significance, the effects are still relatively small, and not convincing enough to support any theory that REM sleep has a crucial role to play in the consolidation of memory".
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The three major classes of antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), profoundly suppress REM sleep.^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemorrhagic syndromes related to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three major classes of antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), profoundly suppress REM sleep.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[117] .Mirtazapine either has no effect on REM sleep or increases it slightly.^ Effects of heightened experiences of waking on subsequent REM sleep.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sloan, M. A. (1972) The effects of deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on maze learning and aggression in the albino rat.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, several other TCAs (doxepin, desipramine, nortriptyline, amoxapine, protriptyline and maprotiline, chlorimipramine) that also suppress REM sleep reportedly produce little or no detrimental effects on memory (Liljequist et al.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[118] .The MAOIs almost completely suppress REM sleep, while the TCAs and SSRIs have been shown to produce immediate (40-85%) and sustained (30-50%) reductions in REM sleep.^ The MAOIs virtually completely abolish REM sleep, while the TCAs and SSRIs have been shown to produce immediate (40-85%) and sustained (30-50%) reductions in REM sleep.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SSRIs suppress REM sleep by 40-85% but do not alter memory or other cognitive functions.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As discussed for the MAOIs, if memories are consolidated in REM sleep, it would seem that the sustained reductions in REM with TCAs/SSRIs would alter memory.
  • THE CASE AGAINST MEMORY CONSOLIDATION IN REM SLEEP 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.bbsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.This effect often causes increased fatigue in patients who take large doses of antidepressants for extended periods of time.^ Acetaminophen and butalbital may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives (used to treat insomnia), other pain relievers, anxiety medicines, and muscle relaxants.

^ Ironically, this common side effect causes an increase in depression as it can seriously impact self-esteem.

^ Because withdrawal effects of SSRIs may include symptoms similar to the symptoms of depression, such as fatigue and apathy, doctors often assume, when patients complain of them, that the depression hasn't lifted yet and prescribe the drug for longer.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such fatigue can occasionally interfere with a patient's everyday activities. .Abrupt discontinuation of MAOIs can cause a temporary phenomenon known as "REM rebound" in which the patient experiences extremely vivid dreams and nightmares.^ IRBs are little-known committees responsible for protecting patients in research experiments.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Weight gain

.Many antidepressants are associated with weight gain usually in the range of 5–25 kg (11–55 lb) but rarely upwards of 50 kg (110 lb).^ All antidepressants have the potential to cause weight gain and yet most people seem unaware that weight gain is one of the most common side effects associated with Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac, Wellbutrin, Zyprexa and many other behavioral drugs until it is too late.

.The specific cause is unknown, but antidepressants are associated with increased cravings, an inability to feel full despite consuming enough calories, low energy levels and increased daytime sleepiness, which can lead to overeating and a lack of desire to exercise, and dry mouth, which can lead to ingestion of calorie-laden beverages.^ I feel that antidepressants were the cause of the Columbine shooting."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The story of M I was prescribed Effexor XR for low energy levels in November last year.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of this study suggest that intake of the antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of developing hemorrhagic syndromes.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The antihistaminic properties of certain NaSSA and TCA class antidepressants have been shown to contribute to the common side effects of increased appetite and weight gain associated with these classes of medication.^ These people are then chemically subdued and have to suffer the side effects that come with tinkering with neurotransmitters in a way that nature never would.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Olsen said children are more vulnerable to the side effects of these medications because of their developing organs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you were seeing these very problematic side effects even at the same time that you were seeing very modest efficacy, if any, over placebo in ameliorating depression.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eating low fat, low protein carbohydrate snacks and carbohydrate-rich dinners allows the brain to make serotonin which then controls appetite and balances mood.^ Low serotonin levels are linked to mood and eating disorders.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SSRIs keep serotonin from being recirculated back to the brain for subsequent use, allowing the chemical to stay active in the brain.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serotonin, a neurotransmitter, is a chemical that facilitates communication within the brain, allowing one to experience happy feelings upon its release.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carbohydrates thus eaten, as part of a balanced diet, by virtue of their effect on brain serotonin levels, can support weight loss in the setting of antidepressant weight gain.^ If you give someone an antidepressant, and that tries to keep serotonin levels too high in the brain, it does exactly the opposite.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serotonin is the brain chemical that has the effect of lifting mood.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also stated, "For his/her own safety, the patient must be sufficiently observed, until the antidepressive effect of Fluctin sets in.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119][120]

Controversy

.Several studies have stimulated doubt about the effectiveness of antidepressants.^ Several studies have stimulated doubt about the effectiveness of antidepressants.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have been on several diff antidepressants for about 5 years.
  • New Antidepressants | LIVESTRONG.COM 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ So what does this say about the "effectiveness" of antidepressants?
  • Antidepressant Statistics- combined edited threads - paxilprogress 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.paxilprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2002 study cited that the difference between antidepressants and placebo is close to negligible.^ When the published and unpublished trials were pooled, the placebo duplicated about 80% of the antidepressant response ; 57% of these pharmaceutical company–funded trials failed to show a statistically significant difference between antidepressant and inert placebo .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, a Cochrane systematic review found no major difference in efficacy between SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kirsch I, Scoboria A, Moore TJ (2002) Antidepressants and placebos: Secrets, revelations, and unanswered questions.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[121]
.One reason for this is that it deals almost exclusively with the SSRI class of medication.^ One reason for this is that it deals almost exclusively with the SSRI class of medication.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is most often seen in the primary care office in association with SSRI discontinuation, because SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressant medications.
  • Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndrome - August 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Paroxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Pharmacology Guide for Brain Injury Treatment 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.birf.info [Source type: Academic]

.In leveling criticism against the efficacy of SSRIs, critics state, it is not the best paper, merely the most widely known one.^ In leveling criticism against the efficacy of SSRIs, critics state, it is not the best paper, merely the most widely known one.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ RW: First of all, with Prozac and the SSRIs that followed, their level of efficacy was always of a very minor sort.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While a variety of antidepressant s exist, the medical experts at the Mayo Clinic state that most doctors prefer SSRIs (selective s...
  • Antidepressant Medications | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Also, other classes of antidepressants have demonstrated superior efficacy, and it has been argued that this paper is "throwing the baby out with the bathwater", while its thrust should in fact be leveled at the serotonin hypothesis of depression.^ Many of the antidepressants prescribed for depression work by increasing serotonin levels.

^ SSRI theory is based on findings that depressed people have lower levels of the metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attempts were also made to induce depression by depleting serotonin levels, but these experiments reaped no consistent results .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, not all patients necessarily respond to a given medication, studies do not always address dosage versus drug-placebo differences for those who do.^ I am opposed to all psychiatric drugging of patients.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the people who are left are given either the placebo or the real drug.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of this study, conducted on a cohort of 200 long-term psychiatric patients, show that approximately half of them were being prescribed unnecessary or excessive medications.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Data submitted to the FDA can also underestimate how a drug will perform in clinic practice, as studies sometimes are designed as much for marketing purposes as they are to estimate the magnitude of a medication's effects.^ However, many researchers now question whether these drugs ever really did much of what they were supposed to do at all.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Minnesota records often fail to distinguish between drug company payments to doctors for research and for marketing, so it is sometimes impossible to determine why doctors were paid.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122]
.Through a Freedom of Information Act request, two psychologists obtained 47 studies used by the FDA for approval of the six antidepressants prescribed most widely between 1987-99. Overall, antidepressant pills worked 18% better than placebos, a statistically significant difference, "but not meaningful for people in clinical settings", says University of Connecticut psychologist Irving Kirsch.^ It looks as if the drug is six times better than the placebo.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irving Kirsch and colleagues, using the Freedom of Information Act, gained access to all clinical trials of antidepressants submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by the pharmaceutical companies for medication approval.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the most widely prescribed class of antidepressants act by blocking this protein, researchers have focused on possible functional consequences of a slight variation in its DNA sequence across individuals.

.He and co-author Thomas Moore released their findings in "Prevention and Treatment", an e-journal of the American Psychological Association.^ He and co-author Thomas Moore released their findings in "Prevention and Treatment", an e-journal of the American Psychological Association.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressant medication for chronic tension headache: Reply: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 286(16) Oct 2001, 1969-1970.
  • Tricyclic antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Psychiatric Association guidelines advise four to five months of continuation treatment on an antidepressant following the resolution of symptoms.
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[123]
.Dr Joseph Glenmullen, a Harvard psychiatrist, has written a book on the subject for the layperson; see link below.^ Dr Joseph Glenmullen, a Harvard psychiatrist, has written a book on the subject for the layperson; see link below.
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Antidepressants 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antidepressant drugs - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ RW: An example is Dr. Joseph Glenmullen, a psychiatrist who also works for Harvard University Health Services, and who wrote a book called Prozac Backlash to warn about the dangers of Prozac.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For psychiatrists, a technical review of this subject by Dr. Joseph Goldberg, whose research in this area is well-known, can be found in his essay " Antidepressant-Induced Switching to Hypomania, Mixed Mania, or Rapid Cycling Mania", Fall 2006.

.In 2005, anti-depressants became the most prescribed drug in the United States, causing more debate over the issue.^ When people can't make good decisions, they ultimately decide to allow the doctor to keep prescribing them more prescription drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It suggests that most if not all of our psychological, emotional, and spiritual problems are “psychiatric disorders” best treated by specialists who prescribe psychoactive drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "On the drug, she became more agitated, combative and restless," Slater said.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some doctors believe this is a positive sign that people are finally seeking help for their issues.^ It was clear to me that these meds were not well chosen by my doctor to help me individually, but rather he believed, or had been told (by drug company advertising) that whatever is newer is better.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is that some people regard medication as a necessary part of their treatment and are helped by it.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people might believe that a long history of use without known ill effects is in itself a good indication of a psychoactive herb’s safety.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others disagree, saying that this shows that people are becoming too dependent on anti-depressants.^ This analysis clearly shows that SSRIs can cause some children who were not depressed to begin with to become suicidal.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, I realize not everyone can exercise or meditate, but certainly the vast majority of people on anti-depressant medication have no physical reason they can't exercise.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I just don't hear anyone else here saying these things, and people need to be aware of them so that they have a better understanding of the ways in which depression can be treated.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124]

Lawsuits

.In many cases SSRI drug manufacturers have withheld information from the FDA and the public to play down the risks and adverse effects associated with SSRIs.^ I was on it briefly myself, and experienced no side effects.It's a selective Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ( SNRI rather than SSRI drug (which affects serotonin.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She also provided information to investigators in two separate Congressional investigations that resulted in two hearings in 2004, at which drug company executives and FDA officials were interrogated and chastised by members of Congress.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The underreporting of SSRI-related adverse reactions is also partly responsible for the vast increase in prescribing rates of these drugs.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This had led to litigation against many of the pharmaceutical manufacturers of SSRI anti-depressants in cases covering suicidality, SSRI withdrawal and birth defects in neonates from nursing mothers on SSRIs.^ From a pool of 931 depressed patients taking SSRIs versus 811 depressed patients taking placebo, Dr Healy determined that there were 52 suicidal acts by patients on SSRI versus 18 in the placebo group.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal symptoms are encountered with both the classical anti-depressants, i.e.

^ It makes available trial transcripts in 3 major cases involving SSRIs and suicide and homicide.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In one of the only three cases to ever go to trial for SSRI indication in suicide, Eli Lilly and Company was caught corrupting the judicial process by making a deal with the plaintiff's attorney to throw the case, in part by not disclosing damaging evidence to the jury.^ It makes available trial transcripts in 3 major cases involving SSRIs and suicide and homicide.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eli Lilly felt it was going to lose this trial.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They agreed to go ahead and settle the case, but had the plaintiffs go ahead with the trial.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The case, known as the Fentress Case involved a Kentucky man, Joseph Wesbecker, on Prozac, who went to his workplace and opened fire with an assault rifle killing 8 people (including Fentress), and injuring 12 others before turning the gun on himself.^ Breggin has testified as a medical expert in an ongoing lawsuit, the case of Joseph Wesbecker, who, while taking Prozac, shot 20 people, killing eight of them and then himself.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dr Zenon Duda I have personally known several people who came very close to killing themselves whilst on this drug 2520 Tulip Lane Cape Girardeau, Missouri USA 11748.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In another famous case, 47-year-old Joseph T. Wesbecker, just a month after he began taking Prozac, shot 20 workers at Standard Gravure Corp.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The jury returned a 9-to-3 verdict in favor of Lilly. .The judge, in the end, took the matter to the Kentucky Supreme Court, which found that "there was a serious lack of candor with the trial court and there may have been deception, bad faith conduct, abuse of judicial process and, perhaps even fraud."^ In another case in Australia, a supreme court judge found Zoloft to be the reason a fellow murdered his wife of over 30 years...
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It might even be the case that many people in trials do realise when they are taking an active drug (perhaps they experience particular side effects) and so their expectation of getting better may be partly responsible anyway.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally I found that it pays to look carefully: There is some truth in many things, only a fool does not study carefully even his enemy.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

The judge later revoked the verdict and instead, recorded the case as settled. The value of the secret settlement deal has never been disclosed, but was reportedly "tremendous".[125]
.On December 22, 2006, a US court decided in Hoorman, et al.^ Posted by Linda, 18:22 14 December 2006 .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

v. SmithKline Beecham Corp. that individuals who purchased Paxil(R) or Paxil CR(TM) (paroxetine) for a minor child may be eligible for benefits under a $63.8 million Proposed Settlement. .The lawsuit won the claim that pharmaceutical maker GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) promoted Paxil(R) or Paxil CR(TM) for prescription to children and adolescents while withholding and concealing material information about the medication's safety and effectiveness for minors.^ GlaxoSmithKline (2005) Paxil Prescribing Information.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lot of us who take anti-depressants are defensive about it, but I think it's irresponsible and cruel to withhold medication from a person who is suffering from serious depression.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SS: In light of the FDA's failure to warn us about Prozac, what about their recent negligence on the issue of the risk of suicide in children given antidepressants like Paxil?
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126]
.The lawsuit stemmed from a consumer advocate protest against Paroxetine manufacturer GSK. Since the FDA approved paroxetine in 1992, approximately 5,000 U.S. citizens – and thousands more worldwide – have sued GSK. Most of these people feel they were not sufficiently warned in advance of the drug's side effects and addictive properties.^ Again, most people don't think where those side effects come from.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was educated about these side effects and I had sold drugs that caused these side effects."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people feel they make things more manageable.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the Paxil Protest website, hundreds more lawsuits have been filed against GSK. The Paxil Protest website was launched August 8, 2005 to offer both information about the protest and information on Paxil previously unavailable to the public.^ GlaxoSmithKline (2005) Paxil Prescribing Information.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an unusual experiment in which actresses posed as patients, doctors were five times more likely to write them prescriptions after the patients inquired about a specific antidepressant, Paxil.

^ "Free information is worth about that," said Orlowski, who relies on the independent publication Medical Letter for drug research.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just three weeks after its launch, the site received more than a quarter of a million hits.^ In women who first used psychotropic drugs before menopause for more than two years, the risk increased by almost three times.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A case in point is the millions of pounds the NHS spends on statins, which are no more of an effective treatment for high cholesterol or heart disease than is a placebo.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And still more people are just plain receiving medication when they shouldn't (antibiotics for viral infections being a prime example).
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

The original Paxil Protest website is no longer available. It is understood that the action to remove the site from the internet was undertaken as part of a confidentiality agreement or 'gagging order' which the owner of the site entered into as part of a settlement of his action against GlaxoSmithKline. .(However, in March 2007, the website Seroxat Secrets[127] discovered that an archive of Paxil Protest site[128] was still available on the internet via Archive.org) Gagging orders are common in such cases and can extend to documents that defendants wish to remain hidden from the public.^ Some consumer advertisements (such as the Zoloft and Paxil Web sites) promote the serotonin hypothesis, not just for depression, but also for some of these other diagnostic categories .
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More links http://www.paxilprogress.org/forums/ A support site for paxil (seroxat) withdrawal.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Lily Suicides" -- info about SSRIs and suicide, and litigation http://www.paxilprogress.org/forums/ A support site for paxil (seroxat) withdrawal.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, in some cases, such documents can become public at a later date, such as those made public by Peter Breggin in February 2006. A press release from Dr. Breggin can be seen here:[129]
.In January 2007, according to the Seroxat Secrets website,[130] the national group litigation in the United Kingdom, on behalf of several hundred people who allege withdrawal reactions after use of the drug Seroxat, against GlaxoSmithKline plc, moved a step closer to the High Court in London, with the confirmation that Public Funding had been reinstated following a decision by the Public Interest Appeal Panel.^ A federal judge has ordered that emails between GlaxoSmithKline PLC (GSK) and researchers over Paxil birth defects must be turned over to a family that has filed a lawsuit against the drug maker over the death their infant son.
  • Antidepressant Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: News]

^ We can make so much money selling drugs to all these people who are going to have Alzheimer's, or dementia, or osteoporosis."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, counting in all the people who started the trial, it is not much better than the placebo at all -- 25 getting better on the placebo and 30 on the drug.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The issue at the heart of this particular action claims Seroxat is a defective drug in that it has a propensity to cause a withdrawal reaction.^ Testimony from GlaxoSmithKline officials suggest that the drug company knew that side effects of Paxil could cause birth defects as early as 2001, lending some support to claims that the company suppressed or downplayed the drugs’ birth defect risks.
  • Antidepressant Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: News]

^ In fact Seroxat is notorious for causing withdrawal problems.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These drugs can cause a host of seriously unpleasant physical reactions and take away your sex drive to boot.
  • Antidepressants | MetaFilter 3 February 2010 14:22 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

Hugh James Solicitors confirm this news on their website[131]
On January 29, 2007, the BBC in the UK aired a fourth documentary in its 'Panorama'[132] series about the controversial drug Seroxat. .This programme, entitled Secrets of the Drug Trials, focuses on three GSK paediatric clinical trials on depressed children and adolescents.^ Indeed, the drug industry's own guidelines for clinical trials state, "Investigators are selected based on qualifications, training, research or clinical expertise in relevant fields."
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When new drugs are developed, they have to be tested in rigorously controlled clinical trials, in which usually the efficacy of the new drug is compared with that of a placebo (a dummy drug).
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In clinical studies, this medication had increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents who had depression and other psychiatric disorders.
  • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

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Additional reading

  • Healy, David (1997). The antidepressant era. .Cambridge: Harvard University Press.^ Cambridge: Harvard University.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Antidepressant info - Lumie 16 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.lumie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-674-03958-0.
     
  • Kramer, Peter D. (1997). Listening to Prozac. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-026671-2. 
  • Baumel, Syd (1999). Natural Antidepressants. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-87983-900-7. 
  • Stahl, Stephen M. (1997). Psychopharmacology of Antidepressants. Informa Healthcare. ISBN 1-85317-513-7. 
  • Pacher P, Kecskemeti V (April 2004). "Trends in the development of new antidepressants. Is there a light at the end of the tunnel?". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (7): 925–43. doi:10.2174/0929867043455594. PMID 15078174. 
  • Pacher P, Kohegyi E, Kecskemeti V, Furst S (February 2001). "Current trends in the development of new antidepressants". Curr. Med. Chem. 8 (2): 89–100. PMID 11172668. 

External links

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Simple English

File:Fluoxetine 20mg with
Fluoxetine, an SSRI antidepressant.

An antidepressant is a type of medication that is used to treat people with mood disorders including depression. There are different types of antidepressant, called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).

How they work

Antidepressants work to improve the mood. Doctors think that when someone is depressed, the chemicals in their brain are not working properly. Antidepressants balance these chemicals, lifting the depression.[1]

References

  1. Cefrey, Holly (2000). Antidepressants. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 14. ISBN 0823932834. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TmUUxIu7DJkC. 
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