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Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. The yellow sphere is the redox-active sulfur atom that provides antioxidant activity, while the red, blue, white, and dark grey spheres represent oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms, respectively.
.An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules.^ DID YOU KNOW? An antioxidant is capable of preventing the oxidation (break down) of other molecules.
  • Free Radical Antioxidant Supplement for Proper Cell Function. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.naturallydirect.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]
  • Graminex: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.graminex.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Information 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants are simply molecules that slow down or prevent the oxidation of cells in the body.

.Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent.^ The chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred to the oxidizing agent is referred as oxidation.

^ A chemical compound or substance that inhibits oxidation.
  • Antioxidant Definition | Definition of Antioxidant at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC daymix.com [Source type: General]

.Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells.^ Free radical damage may lead to ...
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC daymix.com [Source type: General]

^ How do free radicals cause cell damage?
  • Why are antioxidants important? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.oceanvegetables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxidation produces free radicals that start the chain reaction, damaging cells.

.Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.^ These interrupt the primary oxidation cycle by removing the propagating radicals.

^ Antioxidants neutralize free radicals.
  • 7 Natural Laws Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.energyfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.
  • Antioxidant - Wholesale Tea 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jmw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.^ Antioxidants are plentiful in such common vitamins as vitamin A, ascorbic acid or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.thorne.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols , ascorbic acid or polyphenols .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC daymix.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols or polyphenols.
  • Antioxidants? | Join Ultra Selects | Unicity International 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.joinultraselects.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Antioxidant Information 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant - Wholesale Tea 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jmw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases.^ Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase prevent oxidation by reducing the rate of chain initiation.

^ Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]
  • Antioxidants? | Join Ultra Selects | Unicity International 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.joinultraselects.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do this damage by a process called oxidation .

.Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.^ Antioxidants protect healthy body cells and their components from oxidative damage.

^ Oxidative damage is caused by rogue cells called free radicals.

^ Too low levels of antioxidants or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.
  • Antioxidant - Wholesale Tea 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jmw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.^ Jenner, P. Oxidative damage in neurodegenerative disease.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Scientific studies validate the role of antioxidants in preventing many diseases.

^ As oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Antioxidant - Wholesale Tea 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jmw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it is unknown whether oxidative stress is the cause or the consequence of disease.^ What causes Oxidative stress?

^ However, it is unknown whether oxidative stress is the cause or the consequence of such diseases.
  • Antioxidant - Wholesale Tea 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jmw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antioxidants are widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements in the hope of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease.^ The more antioxidants in the body, the more power the body has to maintain health and avoid disease.

^ Antioxidants and cancer prevention .

^ Antioxidant Supplements Take antioxidant dietary supplements for greater health and vitality .

.Although initial studies suggested that antioxidant supplements might promote health, later large clinical trials did not detect any benefit and suggested instead that excess supplementation may be harmful.^ Some studies even suggest that antioxidant supplement use could have harmful effects.

^ The benefits of antioxidant supplementation .
  • A Green Food Antioxidant Supplement 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.herbalcaredirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are antioxidants under investigation in current large-scale clinical trials?
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.foh.dhhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2] .In addition to these uses of natural antioxidants in medicine, these compounds have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventing the degradation of rubber and gasoline.^ The most effective naturally derived antioxidant for the food industry.

^ Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin ...
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Westco 316 is recommended for use in rubber compounds using phenolic antioxidants, e.g.
  • Antioxidants & Antiozonanta - For Rubber, Polymers & Chemicals. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wrchem.com [Source type: Reference]

Contents

History

.The term antioxidant originally was used to refer specifically to a chemical that prevented the consumption of oxygen.^ Considerable laboratory evidence from chemical, cell culture, and animal studies indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of cancer.
  • ANTIOXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.foh.dhhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Basically, as oxygen is used up by the body’s normal metabolic processes, potentially damaging chemicals called ‘free radicals’ are produced.
  • Antioxidant Rich Wheatgrass - Dr Wheatgrass has 3 times more antioxidant than fresh wheatgrass juice 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.grassfactor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considerable laboratory evidence from chemical, cell culture , and animal studies indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of cancer.
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the late 19th and early 20th century, extensive study was devoted to the uses of antioxidants in important industrial processes, such as the prevention of metal corrosion, the vulcanization of rubber, and the polymerization of fuels in the fouling of internal combustion engines.^ This has led to an interest in the use of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of such problems.

^ Some antioxidants, such as glutathione , which is key to overall cellular health, cannot be taken as glutathione but must be synthesized through chemical processes in the body.

^ Considerable laboratory evidence from chemical, cell culture, and animal studies indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of cancer.
  • ANTIOXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.foh.dhhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Early research on the role of antioxidants in biology focused on their use in preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fats, which is the cause of rancidity.^ The body uses antioxidants to neutralize the damage caused by oxidation.

^ It acts as a powerful antioxidant by preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty [...
  • Antioxidants | ALL ONE Vitamins 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.all-one.com [Source type: General]

^ Researchers have postulated that antioxidants prevent the possible carcinogenic effects of oxidation .
  • Antioxidants | Vitamins | Supplement | Oxidation | 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nokomisnutrition.com [Source type: General]

[4] .Antioxidant activity could be measured simply by placing the fat in a closed container with oxygen and measuring the rate of oxygen consumption.^ Cognitive decline The brain has a high oxygen consumption rate and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in the neuronal cell membranes.

^ Physical activity produces an increase in oxygen consumption reflecting the muscle's use of oxygen to provide energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

^ The Gold Standard for measuring antioxidant capability or protection is the ORAC unit, which translates into oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and cannot be measured by scanners!
  • Antioxidants-An Extreme Health Complement to Your Body's ORAC Needs 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.extremehealthusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was the identification of vitamins A, C, and E as antioxidants that revolutionized the field and led to the realization of the importance of antioxidants in the biochemistry of living organisms.^ However Vitamin C can regenerate Vitamin E, in effect "recycling" Vitamin E. There is a complex interplay among the defense systems, with the various antioxidants cycles acting to prevent cell damage and disease.
  • Antioxidants - BodyGuard Health Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bodyguardhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In biochemistry and medicine , antioxidants are enzymes or other organic substances , such as vitamin e or beta-carotene, that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissue .
  • Antioxidants - definition from Biology-Online.org 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is however limited evidence that taking antioxidant vitamins plus zinc supplements reduce the risk of sy ...
  • Antioxidants - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6]
.The possible mechanisms of action of antioxidants were first explored when it was recognized that a substance with anti-oxidative activity is likely to be one that is itself readily oxidized.^ "Overall, the present data suggest that protection against oxidative damage and related disease is best served by the variety of antioxidant substances found in fruit and vegetables."

^ Direct antioxidants, like vitamins E, C, and beta-carotene, neutralize only one free radical molecule at a time, and are consumed in the process.
  • Brassica: All About Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.brassica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mangosteen Extract  --  Shown to have antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and pro immune system activity in studies since 2004.
  • Bio Quench Super Antioxidant Trans-Resveratrol Supplements from Biotivia Inc. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.biotivia.com [Source type: General]

[7] .Research into how vitamin E prevents the process of lipid peroxidation led to the identification of antioxidants as reducing agents that prevent oxidative reactions, often by scavenging reactive oxygen species before they can damage cells.^ Antioxidants protect healthy body cells and their components from oxidative damage.

^ Antioxidants are substances that slow or prevent damage to the body’s cells.

^ Vitamin E is incorporated into the lipid portion of cell membranes and other molecules, protecting these structures from oxidative damage and preventing the propagation of lipid peroxidation.

[8]

The oxidative challenge in biology

The structure of the antioxidant vitamin ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
.A paradox in metabolism is that while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is a highly reactive molecule that damages living organisms by producing reactive oxygen species.^ As living, breathing organisms, we need oxygen to live.
  • Antioxidants - AskMen.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.askmen.com [Source type: General]

^ Radical (chemistry) Free radical damage Reactive oxygen species Gerontology .
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Benefits of Antioxidants: The damage produced by reactive oxygen species may be prevented by antioxidants.

[9] .Consequently, organisms contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids.^ There is compelling evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the damage of cellular constituents, such as DNA, cell membrane lipids or proteins.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants neutralize free radicals thereby preventing cellular damage.
  • Antioxidants - Benefits of Antioxidants, Beta-carotene, Lycopene 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.indianwomenshealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Over time, "Oxidative stress can damage proteins, lipids, DNA and carbohydrates."

[1][10] .In general, antioxidant systems either prevent these reactive species from being formed, or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell.^ They help to prevent cellular damage.
  • Antioxidants Wage War on Free Radicals! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eat-it-healthy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants prevent the damage of oils and rancidity.

^ Benefits of Antioxidants: The damage produced by reactive oxygen species may be prevented by antioxidants.

[1][9] .However, since reactive oxygen species do have useful functions in cells, such as redox signaling, the function of antioxidant systems is not to remove oxidants entirely, but instead to keep them at an optimum level.^ It has a lot of uses as an antioxidant from boosting immune system function, protecting...
  • Antioxidant Systems - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechansims of action.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants support the immune system, enhance organ function and promote long life by fighting free radicals.* .

[11]
.The reactive oxygen species produced in cells include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2).^ Hydrogen peroxide(H 2 O 2 ), which is not a free radical, but can cause damaging oxidative events in cells.
  • .:: Blueberries ::. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blueberry.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ionizing radiation damages tissues by producing hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide and super oxide anion.

^ ROS include the radicals super oxide and hydroxyl radical, plus derivatives of oxygen that do not contain unpaired electrons, such as hydrogen peroxide, single oxygen, and hypochlorous acid.
  • Antioxidant Vitamins - Benefits, Deficiency, Food Sources 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.healthvitaminsguide.com [Source type: Academic]

[12] .The hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable and will react rapidly and non-specifically with most biological molecules.^ Antioxidants are substances that inactivate free radicals, highly unstable molecules that can damage cell membranes and scramble the genetic information (DNA) in cells.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most radicals are controlled by enzymes that break them down or otherwise transform them to more stable, non-reactive forms.
  • Acai Berry Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.acaiberrytime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They protect the cells from unstable molecules known as free radicals, which can increase the effects of aging and the risk of diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

.This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal-catalyzed redox reactions such as the Fenton reaction.^ Hydrogen peroxide is produced in vivo by many reactions.
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Ionizing radiation damages tissues by producing hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide and super oxide anion.

^ Hydrogen peroxide is also highly toxic to tissue and forms the hydroxyl radical (.OH), one of the most reactive chemical species known to man.

[13] .These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation, or by oxidizing DNA or proteins.^ Oxidation produces free radicals that start the chain reaction, damaging cells.

^ Reduction of peroxides breaks the auto-oxidative chain reaction that damages cell membranes.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions, or even damaging DNA at the cellular level.

[1] .Damage to DNA can cause mutations and possibly cancer, if not reversed by DNA repair mechanisms,[14][15] while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.^ ROS are damaging to proteins, membranes, and DNA. .

^ Damage to DNA can be the beginning of cancer initiation.

^ They slow the mutation action of free radicals produced during oxidative reactions; formation of free radicals are a step in the formation of cancer cells, cause damage to cells in the eye, lead to heart disease.

[16]
.The use of oxygen as part of the process for generating metabolic energy produces reactive oxygen species.^ Its packaging is entirely recyclable and contains no Bisphenol-A. The cold manufacturing process used to make the formula consumes a minimum of energy.
  • REVERSA - Dermatologist-Recommended Rejuvenating Skin Care Line 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.reversa.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides free radicals that are produced in the life-giving process of energy production within our cells, we are also exposed to a variety of other factors that increase our free radical exposure.
  • Understanding Antioxidants - from ecomii 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When our body cells use oxygen, they naturally produce free radicals (by-products) which can cause damage.
  • Antioxidants 101 - What and Where? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.healthcastle.com [Source type: General]

[17] .In this process, the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.^ They are constantly produced during the normal oxidation of food stuffs due to leaks in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.

^ Besides free radicals that are produced in the life-giving process of energy production within our cells, we are also exposed to a variety of other factors that increase our free radical exposure.
  • Understanding Antioxidants - from ecomii 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free radicals are a normal product of metabolism; the body produces its own antioxidants (e.g., the enzyme superoxide dismutase) to keep them in balance.
  • antioxidant Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .Particularly important is the reduction of coenzyme Q in complex III, since a highly reactive free radical is formed as an intermediate (Q·).^ Free radicals are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electron(s).
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Free radicals are highly reactive...
  • Antioxidants - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This form of free radical has a particularly destructive tendency in the body.

.This unstable intermediate can lead to electron "leakage", when electrons jump directly to oxygen and form the superoxide anion, instead of moving through the normal series of well-controlled reactions of the electron transport chain.^ Autoxidation has been found to proceed by a chain reaction; that is, a reaction consisting of a series of successive steps occurring in repetitive cycles, in each of which intermediate products called chain carriers are regenerated.
  • antioxidant (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules.
  • Bürgen® Nutrition FAQs: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.burgen.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS).

[19] Peroxide is also produced from the oxidation of reduced flavoproteins, such as complex I.[20] .However, although these enzymes can produce oxidants, the relative importance of the electron transfer chain to other processes that generate peroxide is unclear.^ Vitamin E is incorporated into the lipid portion of cell membranes and other molecules, protecting these structures from oxidative damage and preventing the propagation of lipid peroxidation.

^ Free radicals are compounds with unpaired electrons that stabilise themselves by oxidising other molecules - including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and DNA. In the process they often create more free radicals, sparking off a chain of destruction.
  • The antioxidant myth: a medical fairy tale - health - 05 August 2006 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ They are constantly produced during the normal oxidation of food stuffs due to leaks in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.

[21][22] .In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, reactive oxygen species are also produced during photosynthesis,[23] particularly under conditions of high light intensity.^ Low-oxygen conditions such as those during a heart attack, stroke, or surgery can cause a situation where CoQ10 may stop acting as an antioxidant and, instead, start producing free radicals.
  • Beyond A Century, Inc.: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.easycart.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress since they produce pure oxygen during photosynthesis.
  • The antioxidant myth: a medical fairy tale - health - 05 August 2006 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ We live in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), are natural by-products of respiration.
  • The antioxidant myth: a medical fairy tale - health - 05 August 2006 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

[24] .This effect is partly offset by the involvement of carotenoids in photoinhibition, which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species.^ Vitamin A works as an antioxidant in the form of carotenoids.
  • Why are antioxidants important? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.oceanvegetables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechansims of action.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any free radical involving oxygen can be referred to as reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

[25][26]

Metabolites

Overview

.Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether they are soluble in water (hydrophilic) or in lipids (hydrophobic).^ Scavenging antioxidants are either water or lipid soluble.
  • The Fisher Institute for Medical Research 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.fisherinstitute.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin C Vitamin C is a powerful, water-soluble antioxidant.
  • Health Quest 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.hquest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin C: Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant nutrient.
  • http://www.falconblanco.com/health/supplements/antioxidant.htm 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.falconblanco.com [Source type: Academic]

.In general, water-soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytosol and the blood plasma, while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation.^ Scavenging antioxidants are either water or lipid soluble.
  • The Fisher Institute for Medical Research 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.fisherinstitute.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bilirubin is a powerful lipophilic antioxidant that protects membranes from lipid peroxidation and protects membrane proteins from oxidation.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin C Vitamin C is a powerful, water-soluble antioxidant.
  • Health Quest 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.hquest.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .These compounds may be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet.^ At present it appears that the wide mix of antioxidants obtained from whole plant foods work more effectively in the body that single supplements with pure antioxidants in tablet form although these may be of value in some circumstances.
  • The facts on antioxidants (Fact Sheet) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.csiro.au [Source type: Academic]

^ "Some of these compounds may be absorbed well and others not as well."
  • The DNA of antioxidants - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Some people may be able to obtain all the antioxidants they need from a healthy diet and others may benefit from supplements.

[10] .The different antioxidants are present at a wide range of concentrations in body fluids and tissues, with some such as glutathione or ubiquinone mostly present within cells, while others such as uric acid are more evenly distributed (see table below).^ Tissue glutathione levels increase when cystine levels increase within the cell.

^ Caffeine and uric acid are good antioxidants.

^ The body can make some needed antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, .

.Some antioxidants are only found in a few organisms and these compounds can be important in pathogens and can be virulence factors.^ Some found benefit in antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamin E, Beta Carotene, and cardiovascular disease 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These compounds are known for their antioxidant capabilities.
  • Acai Berry Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.acaiberrytime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different grades of olive oil help illustrate how processing can affect not only taste and antioxidant content but have important health implications as well.

[27]
.The relative importance and interactions between these different antioxidants is a very complex question, with the various metabolites and enzyme systems having synergistic and interdependent effects on one another.^ There are synergistic interactions among the various antioxidants of your body's antioxidant defense system.

^ Nonetheless, their results differed from one another.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamin E, Beta Carotene, and cardiovascular disease 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several hundred of these antioxidants are known to exist, and the most potent and beneficial ones are these six: Alpha-carotene Beta-carotene Cryptoxanthin Lycopene Lutein Zeaxathin .
  • List of antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.antioxi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28][29] .The action of one antioxidant may therefore depend on the proper function of other members of the antioxidant system.^ This antioxidant vitamins then may block that action.
  • Antioxidants - CopperWiki 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Members related to antioxidant systems .
  • Antioxidant Systems - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These compounds have powerful free radical scavenging capabilities and work synergistically with other antioxidants like vitamin C to support immune system function.
  • NOW Foods Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.zhealthinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The amount of protection provided by any one antioxidant will also depend on its concentration, its reactivity towards the particular reactive oxygen species being considered, and the status of the antioxidants with which it interacts.^ As an antioxidant, it provides powerful protection in the colon.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechansims of action.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants interact to protect each other.

[10]
.Some compounds contribute to antioxidant defense by chelating transition metals and preventing them from catalyzing the production of free radicals in the cell.^ Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as the natural by-product of normal cell processes.
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • ANTIOXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.foh.dhhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In a nutshell, antioxidants shield our cells from the damage of free radicals.

^ Antioxidants neutralise the effects of free radicals.
  • Antioxidants: their role in health - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ferritin.^ Both cardiovascular disease and cancer are thought to be particularly the results of oxidative stress, which can lead to damage of the larger biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learn about one of the most important antioxidants - Vitamin E. How we are all can benefit from it's ability to improve circulation and metabolic function.
  • Tag: Antioxidant - Explore content tagged Antioxidant on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Tannins are generally known for their ability to bind with proteins to give us the taste and feel of astringency.
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Selenium and zinc are commonly referred to as antioxidant nutrients, but these chemical elements have no antioxidant action themselves and are instead required for the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, as is discussed below.^ Selenium is not an antioxidant but is an essential component of antioxidant enzymes.
  • Antioxidants - Newsletter by Dr Tim Schroeder 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.balancedoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selenium is a mineral , not an antioxidant nutrient .
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Selenium is a mineral, not an antioxidant nutrient.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Supplement: Antioxidants, Introduction at Life Enthusiast Co-op 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC life-enthusiast.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.foh.dhhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

Antioxidant metabolite Solubility Concentration in human serum (μM)[31] Concentration in liver tissue (μmol/kg)
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Water 50 – 60[32] 260 (human)[33]
Glutathione Water 4[34] 6,400 (human)[33]
Lipoic acid Water 0.1 – 0.7[35] 4 – 5 (rat)[36]
Uric acid Water 200 – 400[37] 1,600 (human)[33]
Carotenes Lipid β-carotene: 0.5 – 1[38]
retinol (vitamin A): 1 – 3[39]
5 (human, total carotenoids)[40]
α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) Lipid 10 – 40[39] 50 (human)[33]
Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) Lipid 5[41] 200 (human)[42]

Ascorbic acid

.Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide antioxidant found in both animals and plants.^ VITAMIN C (ascorbic acid) is found in high concentration in ocular tissue.
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most famous antioxidant is vitamin C. Vitamin C is also known as Ascorbic Acid.

^ Although both are important in biological systems, as we consider the role of food antioxidants, we will be considering the nonenzymatic antioxidant systems which include substances such as: a -tocopherol (Vitamin E), ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), glutathione, flavonoids, b -carotene (Vitamin A precursor), uric acid and plasma proteins such as albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, metalothionein, etc.
  • .:: Blueberries ::. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blueberry.org [Source type: Academic]

.As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost by mutation during human evolution, it must be obtained from the diet and is a vitamin.^ Food vitamin C is also 10x less acidic than ascorbic acid.

^ Vitamin E , vitamin c , vitamin a , coenzyme q10 and carotenoids must be constantly replenished through the diet.
  • Antioxidant formula to help fight free radicals. This Zest for Life supplement will assist to rid your body of free radicals. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.anyvitamins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VITAMIN C (ascorbic acid) is found in high concentration in ocular tissue.
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

[43] .Most other animals are able to produce this compound in their bodies and do not require it in their diets.^ Alpha-lipoic acid: Alpha-lipoic acid is produced in the body and found in animal and plant sources.
  • http://www.falconblanco.com/health/supplements/antioxidant.htm 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.falconblanco.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous types of antioxidants occur; some are produced by our bodies while others are derived from the diet.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compounds that show good activity against cancer cells in a model system are most likely to have beneficial effects in our bodies.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .In cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide isomerase and glutaredoxins.^ Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidases which are primarily responsible for reducing peroxide free radicals that include lipid peroxide formation in cell membranes.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is explained by the fact that Immunocal brings to all the cells in our body, the building blocks necessary to produce glutathione, a small protein that each cell needs to function properly.

^ Specifically, catalase inhibits the production of ROS following UV exposure, while glutathione’s primary function is to remove damaged proteins from the cells.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

[45][46] .Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent and can reduce, and thereby neutralize, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide.^ Although oxygen is required for human metabolism, its presence in the human body can result in the formation of “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS) such as free radicals.

^ Unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS).

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

[47] .In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants.^ Certain enzymes serve this vital function and four important enzymes are superoxide dismutase (SOD), methione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase .
  • Antioxidant Rich Foods Like The Acai Berry 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.acaiberryjuice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These free radicals then trigger the body to make 2 major antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase .

^ In particular, four antioxidant properties of lipoic acid have been studied [the kind of oxidizable substrate (e.g., DNA, lipid protein) determine its reactions]: .

[48] .Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.^ VITAMIN C (ascorbic acid) is found in high concentration in ocular tissue.
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Anecdotal evidence suggests that cats may also be affected… Being a fructose sugar, it is quickly eliminated through the kidneys where it reaches high tissue levels.
  • Antioxidants for Pets, Benefits of Antioxidant supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.holisticpetinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutathione, a peptide linkage of three amino acids (L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine, and L-glycine), is part of the fundamental antioxidant system present in every cell of virtually all animals.
  • Xtra Antioxidants is a broad spectrum antioxidant nutritional supplement 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.naturesvitamins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]

Glutathione

The free radical mechanism of lipid peroxidation.
.Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in most forms of aerobic life.^ Antioxidant Nutrients: Vitamin C , vitamin E , beta-carotene , mixed carotenes, selenium , zinc, bioflavonoids, cysteine & methionine (sulphur-containing amino acids), CoQ10 , glutathione.

^ Sprouts from vegetables and legumes are extremely health-enhancing and often contain a concentrated form of antioxidant protection not found in the food alone.
  • Antioxidant Rich Foods Like The Acai Berry 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.acaiberryjuice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apples, for instance, contain 3-5 mg of aluminum as it’s one of the most abundant elements that can be found in the surface of the Earth.

[50] .It is not required in the diet and is instead synthesized in cells from its constituent amino acids.^ Coenzyme Q 10 (ubiquinone) It is naturally present in foods, and can be synthesized by the body from the amino acid tyrosine during a multistage (17 stages) process requiring eight vitamins and several trace elements.
  • Antioxidant formula to help fight free radicals. This Zest for Life supplement will assist to rid your body of free radicals. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.anyvitamins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TAURINE is an amino acid localized in the photoreceptor cells, stabilizes the cell membranes, and controls ion influx.
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More of this vitamin is required when you consume alcohol , are on a low-fat diet, or a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, if you smoke, or live in a polluted area.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .Glutathione has antioxidant properties since the thiol group in its cysteine moiety is a reducing agent and can be reversibly oxidized and reduced.^ In particular, four antioxidant properties of lipoic acid have been studied [the kind of oxidizable substrate (e.g., DNA, lipid protein) determine its reactions]: .

^ An antioxidant is a chemical that reduces the rate of particular oxidation reactions in a specific context, where oxidation reactions are chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent, this generally results in different chemicals to the original ones.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Thiols (molecules with -SH groups) such as thioredoxins (small disulphide-containing proteins), cysteine and reduced glutathione ( GSH ) are also examples of molecules that can reduce free radicals by hydrogen donation.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems, such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly with oxidants.^ The glutathione system ( glutathione , glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase ) is a key defense against hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By contrast, scientists know that sulforaphane is absorbed readily, inciting enzyme activity that protects healthy cells long after the actual sulforaphane has left your system.
  • Antioxidants, Decoded : Eat. Drink. Better. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC eatdrinkbetter.com [Source type: General]

^ Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

[45] .Due to its high concentration and its central role in maintaining the cell's redox state, glutathione is one of the most important cellular antioxidants.^ L-GLUTATHIONE is a major cellular antioxidant.
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is due to their high antioxidant value.
  • Antioxidant (Anti-oxidant) Supplements on Wholesale Prices 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.herbsmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is good news as glutathione is one of the body's most important natural antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] .In some organisms glutathione is replaced by other thiols, such as by mycothiol in the Actinomycetes, or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids.^ They include vitamins A, C and E, carotenoids such as beta-carotene, some minerals, phenolic compounds and other naturally occurring chemicals with antioxidant properties.
  • The facts on antioxidants (Fact Sheet) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.csiro.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin E works together with other antioxidants, such as vitamin C, to offer protection from some chronic diseases.

^ Such a molecule is now a free radical, hell-bent on replacing its lost electron by raiding the other molecules making up the cell.
  • Age Erasers for Women Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][53]

Melatonin

.Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can easily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier.^ Tags: brain , antioxidant , blood , stroke , cells , helps Search By Tag .
  • Tag: Antioxidant - Explore content tagged Antioxidant on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Tryptophan, an amino acid naturally found in foods like eggs, turkey, and dairy, can cross the blood-brain barrier where it is… .
  • Antioxidant on Shine 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC shine.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants can increase the amount of fluid in cell membranes responsible for sending more signals through to brain tissues.

[54] .Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction and oxidation.^ An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ An Antioxidant is a molecule that has the ability to slow or prevent completely the oxidation of other molecules hence the name antioxidant.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Redox cycling may allow other antioxidants (such as vitamin C) to act as pro-oxidants and promote free radical formation.^ Vitamin C may also protect other antioxidants, such as Vitamin E. .
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is done by antioxidants or free radical scavengers.
  • About Antioxidants, Nutrition Info from OrganicFood.com.au 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.organicfood.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free radicals and antioxidants: a personal view.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

.Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stable end-products upon reacting with free radicals.^ Although vitamin C, “can readily donate electrons to quench a variety of reactive free radical and oxidative species and is easily returned to its reduced state”, simply taking vitamin C with two or three different antioxidants is not enough.

^ Free radicals are the result of some oxygen molecules that are converted into oxidizing agents during the process that creates energy in cells.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Antioxidants Information and Product Listing! Antioxidants FAQ! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal) antioxidant.[55]

Tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E)

.Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties.^ The body's principal antioxidants are vitamins E (fat soluble) and C (water soluble).

^ "Vitamin E" is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds with distinctive antioxidant activities [ 1 ].

^ The first line, found in the fat-soluble cellular membrane consists of vitamin E, beta-carotene, and coenzyme Q (10).
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

[56][57] .Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and metabolising this form.^ Easy Absorption Body can easily absorb vitamins in liquid form than it is in the form of chewable tablets.

^ Several studies done over the past few months show that Andrographis causes your body to produce more glutathione--your body's most powerful antioxidant and detoxifier.

^ In fact, our digestive system is intelligent enough to absorb the vitamins in liquid form and make it quickly usable by our body system.

[58]
.It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.^ Bilirubin is a powerful lipophilic antioxidant that protects membranes from lipid peroxidation and protects membrane proteins from oxidation.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants work to protect lipids from peroxidation by radicals.
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

[56][59] .This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the propagation reaction from continuing.^ Body cells themselves also become targets and must ward off the free radicals thus preventing disease.
  • About Antioxidants, Nutrition Info from OrganicFood.com.au 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.organicfood.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Antioxidants could prevent cellular damage in the retina by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

.This reaction produces oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals that can be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.^ It must be regenerated (recycled) to the reduced form by other antioxidants.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recycling of other antioxidants .

^ Vitamin E The major function of vitamin E in the body is that of an antioxidant , and it acts primarily by scavenging active oxygen free radicals , which otherwise attack substrates such as lipids, protein, sugars and DNA to initiate damaging chain reactions.
  • Antioxidant formula to help fight free radicals. This Zest for Life supplement will assist to rid your body of free radicals. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.anyvitamins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] .This is in line with findings showing that α-tocopherol, but not water-soluble antioxidants, efficiently protects glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)-deficient cells from cell death[61].^ Inside the cell water soluble antioxidant scavengers are present.
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These free radicals then trigger the body to make 2 major antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase .

.GPx4 is the only known enzyme that efficiently reduces lipid-hydroperoxides within biological membranes.^ There are four forms of glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ) enzymes: (1) cystolic Glutathione Peroxidase ( cGPx , ubiquitously distributed), (2) Phospholipid Hydroperoxidase Glutathione Peroxidase ( PHGPx , in plasma membranes to reduce hydroperoxides of complex lipids), (3) plasma Glutathione Peroxidase ( pGPx , in blood plasma) and (4) Gastro-Intestinal Glutathione Peroxidase ( GIGPx , in the liver and GI tract only).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin E is, presently, the only known antioxidant that helps prevent lipid peroxidation.
  • Antioxidant Products at DermStore 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermstore.com [Source type: General]

^ Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidases which are primarily responsible for reducing peroxide free radicals that include lipid peroxide formation in cell membranes.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the roles and importance of the various forms of vitamin E are presently unclear,[62][63] and it has even been suggested that the most important function of α-tocopherol is as a signaling molecule, with this molecule having no significant role in antioxidant metabolism.^ Vitamin C has been shown to have important roles in cell performance and vascular function.

^ One of the most important functions of this vitamin is its antioxidant properties.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, to suggest that an RDA for a vitamin which acts as a catalyst without being consumed bears any relationship to the RDA for an antioxidant which is consumed in carrying out its function demonstrates a lack of understanding of basic chemistry.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[64][65] .The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are even less well-understood, although γ-tocopherol is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilic mutagens,[58] and tocotrienols may be important in protecting neurons from damage.^ Vitamin C may also protect other antioxidants, such as Vitamin E. .
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While vitamin E performs its antioxidant functions, it also protects the other antioxidants from being oxidized.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skin care featuring primary antioxidants are those which provide the key phytochemicals (carotenoids, tocopherols , vitamin c among others) which are key among the body's native defense systems and have a very clear antioxidant function and high potency.

[66]

Pro-oxidant activities

.Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants.^ Pro-oxidant Phytonutrients Antioxidants (72) .
  • Antioxidant - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ It also acts as an antioxidant to scavenge radiation induced oxygen radicals and reduces lipofuscin (a component of drusen).
  • Antioxidant Descriptions 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mdsupport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is easy to imagine that a necessary condition for being able to regenerate all intracellular antioxidant molecules to a reduced (rather than oxidized, pro-oxidant) form is by having high levels of reducing equivalents (NADH, NADPH) in the cell.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it reduces oxidizing substances such as hydrogen peroxide,[67] however, it will also reduce metal ions that generate free radicals through the Fenton reaction.^ Animals can also obtain antioxidants through diet, such as Vitamin E and the phytochemical carotenoid substances.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All free radical and oxidative substances do not get neutralized by all antioxidants .

^ Free radicals and antioxidants: a personal view.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[68][69]
2 Fe3+ + Ascorbate → 2 Fe2+ + Dehydroascorbate
2 Fe2+ + 2 H2O2 → 2 Fe3+ + 2 OH· + 2 OH
.The relative importance of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of antioxidants are an area of current research, but vitamin C, for example, appears to have a mostly antioxidant action in the body.^ Vitamin C and selenium are examples of potent antioxidants.
  • About Antioxidants, Nutrition Info from OrganicFood.com.au 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.organicfood.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flavonoids also enter the body's antioxidant network, boosting the levels of vitamin-C and of our chief endogenous antioxidant, glutathione .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So the bottom line is: if you take vitamin C you decrease your body's natural antioxidant defense system and literally sabatage your capacity to create energy.

[68][70] .However, less data is available for other dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin E,[71] or the polyphenols.^ Vitamin C may also protect other antioxidants, such as Vitamin E. .
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AntioxidantSuperfood includes other powerful fruit phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds and anthocyanidins that provide natural antioxidant activity.
  • Antioxidants, Super Antioxidants, Green Tea Antioxidant, Anti-Oxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.getnutri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]

Enzyme systems

Enzymatic pathway for detoxification of reactive oxygen species.

Overview

.As with the chemical antioxidants, cells are protected against oxidative stress by an interacting network of antioxidant enzymes.^ It also protects cells against oxidative damage caused by "free radicals."
  • Reference Guide for ANTI-OXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.realtime.net [Source type: Academic]

^ An antioxidant is a substance that inhibits oxidation and deterioration of skin by protecting cells from some of the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals .

^ Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][9] .Here, the superoxide released by processes such as oxidative phosphorylation is first converted to hydrogen peroxide and then further reduced to give water.^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hydrogen atoms are called reducing equivalents , and the molecules having such hydrogen atoms are said to be in a reduced state.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase (CAT) to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.This detoxification pathway is the result of multiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidases removing hydrogen peroxide.^ Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase (CAT) to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Antioxidants Information and Product Listing! Antioxidants FAQ! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ These free radicals then trigger the body to make 2 major antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase .

.As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one another, but the generation of transgenic mice lacking just one antioxidant enzyme can be informative.^ Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These free radicals then trigger the body to make 2 major antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase .

^ So, now you see some of the reasons why I highly recommend Purple Defense as one of your best antioxidant sources.
  • Purple Defense | Resveratrol, Antioxidant Source 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC products.mercola.com [Source type: General]

[73]

Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxiredoxins

.Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.^ The enzyme superoxide dismutase converts two superoxide radicals into one hydrogen peroxide and one oxygen.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A little catalase can go a long way: one catalase enzyme molecule can catalyze the breakdown of five million molecules of peroxide radicals into water and oxygen in just one minute.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Antioxidants Information and Product Listing! Antioxidants FAQ! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

[74][75] .SOD enzymes are present in almost all aerobic cells and in extracellular fluids.^ Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), known as the universal antioxidant, is present in almost all tissues of the body.
  • VitaBlog: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC blog.vitacost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He pointed out that "Almost all anticancer drugs kill cancer cells by way of apoptosis, and antioxidants like vitamin A and vitamin E dramatically reduce apoptosis in cancer cells."
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SOD is an enzyme produced by most cells that neutralizes the powerful superoxide radical which can cause cellular damage.
  • Beyond A Century, Inc.: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.easycart.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .Superoxide dismutase enzymes contain metal ion cofactors that, depending on the isozyme, can be copper, zinc, manganese or iron.^ Manganese Manganese, along with copper and zinc, is an important component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Copper Copper is a component of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some antioxidant supplement might also contain zinc and copper, ingredients that help strengthen the bodys own antioxidant protection system.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

.In humans, the copper/zinc SOD is present in the cytosol, while manganese SOD is present in the mitochondrion.^ Antioxidant action is also part of the role of vitamins C, E, folate and beta carotene and also the minerals selenium, manganese, copper and zinc.
  • Antioxidants: their role in health - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ These building blocks include: manganese, copper and zinc for superoxide dismutase and selenium for glutathione peroxidase.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manganese Manganese, along with copper and zinc, is an important component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

[75] .There also exists a third form of SOD in extracellular fluids, which contains copper and zinc in its active sites.^ Zinc ions may replace redox active molecules, such as iron and copper, at critical sites in cell membranes and proteins; and alternatively, zinc ions may induce the synthesis of metallothionein, sulfhydryl-rich proteins that protect against free radicals.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Superoxide dismutase (SOD) molecule in the cytoplasm contains copper & zinc atoms ( Cu/Zn−SOD ), whereas the SOD in mitochondria contains manganese ( Mn−SOD ).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fluid is a complex compound of powerful water soluble proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, protein enzymes, copper peptides, antimicrobial peptides and Copper, Zinc, Calcium and Iron oligoelements.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

[77] .The mitochondrial isozyme seems to be the most biologically important of these three, since mice lacking this enzyme die soon after birth.^ Orange juice and green leafy vegetables are good sources of folate, which seems the most limiting of the three vitamins.
  • Food & Nutrition Research Briefs, April 1999 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ars.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It would seem, from what has transpired, that the antioxidants are important in the prevention and treatment of these problems.

^ Glutathione peroxidase , glutathione reductase , catalase , thioredoxin reductase , superoxide dismutase , heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase , are the most important antioxidant enzymes.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[78] .In contrast, the mice lacking copper/zinc SOD (Sod1) are viable but have numerous pathologies and a reduced lifespan (see article on superoxide), while mice without the extracellular SOD have minimal defects (sensitive to hyperoxia).^ Search for "chaparral toxicity" on the web and you will see numerous articles still announcing the dangers of the herb (all citing the same cases from the early 90's.

^ Specific studies show the following antioxidant activities in the biological ingredient: a) enzymatics as superoxide dismutase (SOD proteins cofactored with copper and zinc and iron), b) conjugation enzymes as glutathione-S-transferase and c) low molecular weight antioxidants.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These building blocks include: manganese, copper and zinc for superoxide dismutase and selenium for glutathione peroxidase.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

[73][79] In plants, SOD isozymes are present in the cytosol and mitochondria, with an iron SOD found in chloroplasts that is absent from vertebrates and yeast.[80]
.Catalases are enzymes that catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.^ A little catalase can go a long way: one catalase enzyme molecule can catalyze the breakdown of five million molecules of peroxide radicals into water and oxygen in just one minute.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the production of bacteriocidal hypochlorite from hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The enzyme superoxide dismutase converts two superoxide radicals into one hydrogen peroxide and one oxygen.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[81][82] This protein is localized to peroxisomes in most eukaryotic cells.[83] .Catalase is an unusual enzyme since, although hydrogen peroxide is its only substrate, it follows a ping-pong mechanism.^ The element selenium has antioxidant properties because it is an essential component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase — which uses glutathione to neutralize hydrogen peroxide.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase (CAT) to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organisms possess natural defenses against free radicals in the form of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (which neutralizes superoxide) and catalase (which neutralizes hydrogen peroxide).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Here, its cofactor is oxidised by one molecule of hydrogen peroxide and then regenerated by transferring the bound oxygen to a second molecule of substrate.^ Primary defender against lipid peroxidation (creation of unstable molecules containing more oxygen than is usual).
  • Understanding Free Radicals and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.healthchecksystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A little catalase can go a long way: one catalase enzyme molecule can catalyze the breakdown of five million molecules of peroxide radicals into water and oxygen in just one minute.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GH —> GSSG The enzyme glutathione peroxidase utilizes reduced glutathione to eliminate hydrogen peroxide: 2 GSH + H 2 O 2 —> GSSG + 2 H 2 O Glutathione reductase then adds hydrogens to the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[84] .Despite its apparent importance in hydrogen peroxide removal, humans with genetic deficiency of catalase — "acatalasemia" — or mice genetically engineered to lack catalase completely, suffer few ill effects.^ The lifespan of transgenic mice has been extended about 20% by overexpression of human catalase targeted to mitochondria [SCIENCE; Schriner,SE; 308:1909-1911 (2005)].
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase (CAT) to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organisms possess natural defenses against free radicals in the form of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (which neutralizes superoxide) and catalase (which neutralizes hydrogen peroxide).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[85][86]
Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium.[87]
.Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, as well as peroxynitrite.^ The element selenium has antioxidant properties because it is an essential component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase — which uses glutathione to neutralize hydrogen peroxide.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the production of bacteriocidal hypochlorite from hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GH —> GSSG The enzyme glutathione peroxidase utilizes reduced glutathione to eliminate hydrogen peroxide: 2 GSH + H 2 O 2 —> GSSG + 2 H 2 O Glutathione reductase then adds hydrogens to the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[88] .They are divided into three classes: typical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins; atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins; and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxins.^ They can be divided into four subgroups.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Design: Patients were divided into three groups: .
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum concentrations, which do not depend on participant recall, take into account differences in absorption, and they are typically representative of recent intake.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

[89] .These enzymes share the same basic catalytic mechanism, in which a redox-active cysteine (the peroxidatic cysteine) in the active site is oxidized to a sulfenic acid by the peroxide substrate.^ Thioredoxins are small (12 KiloDalton ) proteins with an active dithiol (two −SH groups nearby because of cysteine residues) site: −Cys−Gly−Pro−Cys−.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GH —> GSSG The enzyme glutathione peroxidase utilizes reduced glutathione to eliminate hydrogen peroxide: 2 GSH + H 2 O 2 —> GSSG + 2 H 2 O Glutathione reductase then adds hydrogens to the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[90] Over-oxidation of this cysteine residue in peroxiredoxins inactivates these enzymes, but this can be reversed by the action of sulfiredoxin.[91] .Peroxiredoxins seem to be important in antioxidant metabolism, as mice lacking peroxiredoxin 1 or 2 have shortened lifespan and suffer from hemolytic anaemia, while plants use peroxiredoxins to remove hydrogen peroxide generated in chloroplasts.^ Antioxidants could prevent cellular damage in the retina by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants possibly prevent cellular damage in the lens by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important to test antioxidant functionality – inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by peroxides and malondialdehyde methods.
  • Pomegranate Juice Is Packed With Antioxidants - Healthy Eating - Health.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC eating.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92][93][94]

Thioredoxin and glutathione systems

.The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.^ The thioredoxin system for elimination of protein disulfides can be summarized as follows: TRX−(SH) 2 + Protein−S 2 -> TRX−S 2 + Protein−(SH) 2 TRX−S 2 +NADPH + H + -> TRX−(SH) 2 (catalyzed by thioredoxin reductase) Like glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase is a selenium-containing enzyme whose activity can be influenced by dietary selenium.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thioredoxins are small (12 KiloDalton ) proteins with an active dithiol (two −SH groups nearby because of cysteine residues) site: −Cys−Gly−Pro−Cys−.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[95] .Proteins related to thioredoxin are present in all sequenced organisms with plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, having a particularly great diversity of isoforms.^ A chlorine wash doesn't eliminate all the organisms that can be present on fresh-cut lettuce, like Shigella and E. coli O157:H7.
  • Food & Nutrition Research Briefs, April 1999 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ars.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[96] .The active site of thioredoxin consists of two neighboring cysteines, as part of a highly conserved CXXC motif, that can cycle between an active dithiol form (reduced) and an oxidized disulfide form.^ Thioredoxins are small (12 KiloDalton ) proteins with an active dithiol (two −SH groups nearby because of cysteine residues) site: −Cys−Gly−Pro−Cys−.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CoQH-CF soft gels provide a highly efficient platform for delivering the reduced form of CoQ10 for maximum utilization.
  • Beyond A Century, Inc.: Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.easycart.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two forms of thioredoxin, TRX1 (104 amino acids, found in the cytoplasm) and TRX2 (found in mitochondria).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.In its active state, thioredoxin acts as an efficient reducing agent, scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining other proteins in their reduced state.^ Unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS).

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reactive oxygen species target the carbon-carbon double bond of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • Free Radical Introduction 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

[97] .After being oxidized, the active thioredoxin is regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor.^ When the body oxidizes the food to obtain the nutrients and energy, oxygen is used and unpaired electrons are released in the process.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GH —> GSSG The enzyme glutathione peroxidase utilizes reduced glutathione to eliminate hydrogen peroxide: 2 GSH + H 2 O 2 —> GSSG + 2 H 2 O Glutathione reductase then adds hydrogens to the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is easy to imagine that a necessary condition for being able to regenerate all intracellular antioxidant molecules to a reduced (rather than oxidized, pro-oxidant) form is by having high levels of reducing equivalents (NADH, NADPH) in the cell.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[98]
.The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases.^ Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidases which are primarily responsible for reducing peroxide free radicals that include lipid peroxide formation in cell membranes.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bilirubin recycling may be much faster than glutathione recycling at least partially because glutathione recycling requires two enzymes rather than one: glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These building blocks include: manganese, copper and zinc for superoxide dismutase and selenium for glutathione peroxidase.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] This system is found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[50][99] .Glutathione peroxidase is an enzyme containing four selenium-cofactors that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides.^ Glutathione peroxidase contains selenium .
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A little catalase can go a long way: one catalase enzyme molecule can catalyze the breakdown of five million molecules of peroxide radicals into water and oxygen in just one minute.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The element selenium has antioxidant properties because it is an essential component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase — which uses glutathione to neutralize hydrogen peroxide.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.^ Bilirubin recycling may be much faster than glutathione recycling at least partially because glutathione recycling requires two enzymes rather than one: glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[100] .Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and is a very efficient scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, while glutathione peroxidase 4 is most active with lipid hydroperoxides.^ The body creates glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as its own protective mechanism to target lipid hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide.

^ Glutathione is effective against hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the aqueous phase of cells.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The element selenium has antioxidant properties because it is an essential component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase — which uses glutathione to neutralize hydrogen peroxide.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Surprisingly, glutathione peroxidase 1 is dispensable, as mice lacking this enzyme have normal lifespans,[101] but they are hypersensitive to induced oxidative stress.^ These free radicals then trigger the body to make 2 major antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase .

^ Nrf2 also regulates the activity of glutathione-synthesizing enzyme, both under normal conditions (constitutive gene expression) and under conditions of oxidative stress (which induces more gene expression).
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The element selenium has antioxidant properties because it is an essential component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase — which uses glutathione to neutralize hydrogen peroxide.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

[102] .In addition, the glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides.^ In addition, glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that will prevent lipid peroxidation (a sign of free radical activity).

^ Antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation and skin diseases.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidases which are primarily responsible for reducing peroxide free radicals that include lipid peroxide formation in cell membranes.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant Formula to Destroy Free Radicals 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.baselinenutritionals.com [Source type: Academic]

[103] .These enzymes are at particularly high levels in the liver and also serve in detoxification metabolism.^ Glutathione is essential in intermediary metabolism as a donor of sulfhydryl groups that are essential for the detoxification of the liver.

^ "These new studies raise important issues regarding the advisability of ingesting high levels of antioxidants as a potential anti-cancer benefit," Albright said.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some patients (especially those who have been exposed to high levels of environmental toxins) may have a mild temporary reaction to these mobilized toxins as the liver is removing them from storage in body fat.

[104]

Oxidative stress in disease

.Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer's disease,[105][106] Parkinson's disease,[107] the pathologies caused by diabetes,[108][109] rheumatoid arthritis,[110] and neurodegeneration in motor neuron diseases.^ Unchecked oxidation can contribute to the development of illnesses including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia.

^ Diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

[111] .In many of these cases, it is unclear if oxidants trigger the disease, or if they are produced as a secondary consequence of the disease and from general tissue damage;[12] One case in which this link is particularly well-understood is the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease.^ The developments of degenerative diseases have been linked to these damaging oxidation reactions.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson''s and Alzheimer''s).
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

.Here, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation appears to trigger the process of atherogenesis, which results in atherosclerosis, and finally cardiovascular disease.^ LDL cholesterol An abbreviation for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart disease begins with the oxidation of LDL (low-density lipoproteins) cholesterol which leads to the formation of plaque in the arteries.
  • Antioxidants A Key to Longer and Healthier Lives 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro studies have found that the nutrient inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, thought to be a crucial initiating step for atherosclerosis [ 6 ].

[112][113]
.A low calorie diet extends median and maximum lifespan in many animals.^ But only a few animal experiments have indicated extension of maximum lifespan by antioxidant substances.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CRAN ( Caloric Restriction with Adequate Nutrition ) reduces free radical production and extends maximum lifespan.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.This effect may involve a reduction in oxidative stress.^ There is compelling evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the damage of cellular constituents, such as DNA, cell membrane lipids or proteins.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Li XM, Ma YL, Liu XJ. “Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in aged mice.” J Ethnopharmacol.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We live in a highly oxidative environment, and many processes involved in metabolism may result in the production of more oxidants.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

[114] .While there is some evidence to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans,[115][116] the evidence in mammals is less clear.^ Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson''s and Alzheimer''s).
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former, resulting in oxidative damage to molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins.
  • .:: Blueberries ::. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blueberry.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Polyphenols check oxidative stress and can play a role in the prevention and treatment of these eye conditions.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[117][118][119] .Indeed, a 2009 review of experiments in mice concluded that almost all manipulations of antioxidant systems had no effect on aging.^ Anything that boosts the immune system is protective against cancer , but antioxidants have an additional anti-carcinogenic effect through protection against DNA damage .
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A balanced diet rich in antioxidants can help keep your dog's immune system active and slow the aging process.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AREDS reported no statistically significant effect of antioxidant supplements on the development or progression of age-related lens opacities.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

[120] .Diets high in fruit and vegetables, which are high in antioxidants, promote health and reduce the effects of aging, however antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no detectable effect on the aging process, so the effects of fruit and vegetables may be unrelated to their antioxidant contents.^ May slow processes associated with aging.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Independent of its antioxidant effect, vitamin E promotes immune function by reducing PGE 2 synthesis.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of vitamin E supplementation on immune responsiveness of the aged.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[121][122] .One reason for this might be the fact that consuming antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and vitamin E will produce changes in other parts of metabolism, so it may be these other effects that are the real reason these compounds are important in human nutrition.^ Vitamin C may also protect other antioxidants, such as Vitamin E. .
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are various other molecules that are also antioxidants but these are the ones people are more familiar with.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may explain (in part) the therapeutic effect of vitamin E in these patients.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

[64][123]

Health effects

Disease treatment

.The brain is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative injury, due to its high metabolic rate and elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids, the target of lipid peroxidation.^ Cognitive decline The brain has a high oxygen consumption rate and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in the neuronal cell membranes.

^ The brain, which is very vulnerable to free radical damage (due to high metabolic rate, high unsaturated fat in neurons, and the fact that neurons are post-mitotic) has seven times more glutathione peroxidase activity than catalase activity [ CANCER RESEARCH; Marklund,SL; 42(5):1955-1961 (1982) ].
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[124] .Consequently, antioxidants are commonly used as medications to treat various forms of brain injury.^ These humble leaves have become the darling of Western nutritionally aware people, since they have great antioxidant properties, combat mental fatigue and are also used with great effect by people who suffer from various forms of cancer.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But based on the forms of antioxidants being used, the results of the study are highly predictable even before it starts.
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time, the available evidence does not support a recommendation for healthy patients to use antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent or treat cataracts.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

.Here, superoxide dismutase mimetics,[125] sodium thiopental and propofol are used to treat reperfusion injury and traumatic brain injury,[126] while the experimental drug NXY-059[127][128] and ebselen[129] are being applied in the treatment of stroke.^ Bioflavonoids are effectively used in the treatment of sport injuries, as they are pain relieving.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This result is remarkable, given the fact that NXY−059 cannot cross a blood-brain barrier that has not been damaged by ischemia.
  • GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a study, it was shown that selenium could be useful in treating certain cancers, and is also helpful in making the blood less "sticky", which is helpful in preventing heart attacks and strokes .
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These compounds appear to prevent oxidative stress in neurons and prevent apoptosis and neurological damage.^ These compounds combat free radicals and prevent cellular damage.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But do we need nutritional supplements to protect us from oxidative damage Or can our bodies handle the stress naturally through homeostasis?
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyphenols check oxidative stress and can play a role in the prevention and treatment of these eye conditions.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antioxidants are also being investigated as possible treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[130][131] and as a way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss.^ This has led to an interest in the use of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of such problems.

^ Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson''s and Alzheimer''s).
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

[132]

Disease prevention

.People who eat fruits and vegetables have a lower risk of heart disease and some neurological diseases,[133] and there is evidence that some types of vegetables, and fruits in general, protect against some cancers.^ Fruit and vegetable intake also appears to have a protective effect against coronary heart disease [ 7 ].
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "There are a lot of people who selectively choose chocolate to eat."
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the contrary, there is some evidence of protection for secondary effects.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[134] .Since fruits and vegetables happen to be good sources of antioxidants, this suggested that antioxidants might prevent some types of diseases.^ How might antioxidants prevent cancer?
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants are valuable assets in the prevention of disease.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some antioxidant supplement might also contain zinc and copper, ingredients that help strengthen the bodys own antioxidant protection system.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

.This idea has been tested in clinical trials and does not seem to be true, as antioxidant supplements have no clear effect on the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.^ Three large-scale clinical trials continue to investigate the effect of antioxidants on cancer.
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation is a risk factor in heart disease.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, for example, have shown that increasing the antioxidants in the diet, whether through food or supplementation, significantly reduced the risk of various types of cancer.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

[133][135] .This suggests that these health benefits come from other substances in fruits and vegetables (possibly flavonoids), or come from a complex mix of substances.^ You can find these B-complex vitamins in various food such as in liver, nuts, leafy green vegetables, rice, milk, eggs, meats, fish and whole-grain cereals fruits.

^ While active research into the health benefits of these foods has been ongoing, current reviews of this work exist for all of the above-mentioned foods except apples.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta carotene , which is rich in carrots and other yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, converts to vitamin-A when the body lacks enough of the vitamin.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[136][137]
.It is thought that oxidation of low density lipoprotein in the blood contributes to heart disease, and initial observational studies found that people taking Vitamin E supplements had a lower risk of developing heart disease.^ Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro studies have found that the nutrient inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, thought to be a crucial initiating step for atherosclerosis [ 6 ].

^ Several observational studies have associated lower rates of heart disease with higher vitamin E intakes.

[138] .Consequently, at least seven large clinical trials were conducted to test the effects of antioxidant supplement with Vitamin E, in doses ranging from 50 to 600 mg per day.^ Dose of Vitamin C above 100 mg.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are antioxidants under investigation in current large-scale clinical trials?
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Three large-scale clinical trials continue to investigate the effect of antioxidants on cancer.
  • Antioxidants - by E=MC2 Smart Drinks (keeps you young, healthy and smart) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.smartdrink.net [Source type: Academic]

.None of these trials found a statistically significant effect of Vitamin E on overall number of deaths or on deaths due to heart disease.^ Statistics show that men die earlier than women, are four times more likely to suffer from Cardiovascular Heart Disease (CHD), have higher death rates from stroke and diabetes, are twice as likely to die from cancer, and men are four times more likely to commit suicide.

^ Gey KF, Puska P, Jordan P, Moser UK. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin C administration to these cells would cause a build up of hydrogen peroxide, which leads to cell death.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

[139] Further studies have also been negative.[140][141] .It is not clear if the doses used in these trials or in most dietary supplements are capable of producing any significant decrease in oxidative stress.^ Our body is constantly coping with oxidative stress whether it has its origins in our digestive processes, our energy-producing processes or in the processes we use in killing off foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But do we need nutritional supplements to protect us from oxidative damage Or can our bodies handle the stress naturally through homeostasis?
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[142] .Overall, despite the clear role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease, controlled studies using antioxidant vitamins have observed no reduction in either the risk of developing heart disease, or the rate of progression of existing disease.^ Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular disease.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In these studies there is no control on the intake of antioxidants.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

[143][144]
.While several trials have investigated supplements with high doses of antioxidants, the "Supplémentation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants" (SU.VI.MAX) study tested the effect of supplementation with doses comparable to those in a healthy diet.^ If you are in the market for an antioxidant supplement, be sure to opt for those supplements that include a variety of antioxidants, since antioxidants tend to work synergistically.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

^ Since antioxidants cover such a large array of vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other substances, some of the more common supplemental antioxidants will be discussed in terms of dosage and side effects here: The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin E is 30 IU per day (equivalent to 30 mg per day), yet it is difficult to obtain high doses of vitamin E in the average diet.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in 2001 on age-related eye disease showed that high dose supplementation of 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, 15 mg of beta-carotene, 80 mg of zinc , and 2 mg of copper significantly reduced development of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to placebo.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

[145] .Over 12,500 French men and women took either low-dose antioxidants (120 mg of ascorbic acid, 30 mg of vitamin E, 6 mg of beta carotene, 100 µg of selenium, and 20 mg of zinc) or placebo pills for an average of 7.5 years.^ Dose of Vitamin C above 100 mg.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin A, is also referred to as retinol and beta-carotene.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its effectiveness is increased when taken with other antioxidants, especially Beta Carotene, Vitamin C and Selenium.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

.The investigators found there was no statistically significant effect of the antioxidants on overall survival, cancer, or heart disease.^ The other studies found no beneficial effect or a benefit of marginal statistical significance.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no significant effect found for patients 45 to 64 years old.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Five large-scale clinical trials published in the 1990s reached differing conclusions about the effect of antioxidants on cancer.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a post-hoc analysis they found a 31% reduction in the risk of cancer in men, but not women.^ One analysis found an increased risk of death at doses of ≥400 IU/day, although the risk began to increase at 150 IU [ 49 ].

^ The trial was discontinued in October 2008 when an analysis found that the supplements, taken alone or together for an average of 5 years, did not prevent prostate cancer [ 30 ].

^ They may not get the same cancer-prevention benefits from tamoxifen as women who have a normal gene.
  • Concern About Antioxidants and Breast Cancer - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many nutraceutical and health food companies sell formulations of antioxidants as dietary supplements and these are widely used in industrialized countries.^ Some of the antioxidants manufactured and used in formulations are: .

^ Functional Use in Foods: Nutrient; dietary supplement; antioxidant.

^ Brunswick Labs is recognised internationally by leading health research institutions and companies in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries, as a world leader in research and diagnostic services related to antioxidants and oxidative stress.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]

[146] .These supplements may include specific antioxidant chemicals, like the polyphenol, resveratrol (from grape seeds or knotweed roots),[147] combinations of antioxidants, like the "ACES" products that contain beta carotene (provitamin A), vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium, or herbs that contain antioxidants - such as green tea and jiaogulan.^ Vitamin C may also protect other antioxidants, such as Vitamin E. .
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin A, is also referred to as retinol and beta-carotene.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formulas that contain the antioxidant GREEN TEA EXTRACT: Heart Maximus .
  • Reference Guide for ANTI-OXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.realtime.net [Source type: Academic]

.Although some levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the diet are required for good health, there is considerable doubt as to whether these antioxidant supplements are beneficial or harmful, and if they are actually beneficial, which antioxidant(s) are needed and in what amounts.^ In what amount and in what combinations is supplementation beneficial?
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That some vitamins could actually harm you?
  • Disease Prevention and Reversing Free Radical Damage - The Ultimate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Vitamin E and C are important antioxidants, and you should consider these important supplements in your diet.

[133][135][148] .Indeed, some authors argue that the hypothesis that antioxidants could prevent chronic diseases has now been disproved and that the idea was misguided from the beginning.^ Antioxidants are valuable assets in the prevention of disease.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants could prevent cellular damage in the retina by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diplock, Anthony T. Antioxidant nutrients and disease prevention: an overview.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[149] .Rather, dietary polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme activity or gene regulation.^ Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Higher levels of cell death was restricted only to the brain tumors, while normal tissues were not affected by depletion of antioxidants in the mouse diets."
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the beam intensity at the focal point, no amount of antioxidant activity from orally ingested supplements is likely to be able to save these cells.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[150][151]
.For overall life expectancy, it has even been suggested that moderate levels of oxidative stress may increase lifespan in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, by inducing a protective response to increased levels of reactive oxygen species.^ Unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS).

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite.
  • Antioxidant Supplements For Cells Protection - Buy Anti-Oxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[152] .The suggestion that increased life expectancy comes from increased oxidative stress conflicts with results seen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,[153] and the situation in mammals is even less clear.^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both cardiovascular disease and cancer are thought to be particularly the results of oxidative stress, which can lead to damage of the larger biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A deficiency of glutathione can cause haemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells resulting in severe anaemia) and numerous diseases of oxidative stress.

[117][118][119] .Nevertheless, antioxidant supplements do not appear to increase life expectancy in humans.^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With SOD supplementation, you can protect DNA from oxidative damage and increase the blood antioxidant activity and improve health.

^ Synthetic antioxidants appear to be so ineffective that they may actually increase cancer risk.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

[154]

Physical exercise

.During exercise, oxygen consumption can increase by a factor of more than 10.[155] This leads to a large increase in the production of oxidants and results in damage that contributes to muscular fatigue during and after exercise.^ Lifestream AstaZan Exercise Reovery The active component in Lifestream AstaZan™ appears to assist muscle function by reducing free radical damage during heavy exercise, thus allowing muscles to use more oxygen efficiently and recover quickly.

^ Products with snail serum have been favoured by both Patients and Investigators, being more satisfactory than Standard treatment.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Assay: Not less than 99.0% of C 15 H 24 O. Heavy Metals (as Pb): Not more than 10 mg/kg.

.The inflammatory response that occurs after strenuous exercise is also associated with oxidative stress, especially in the 24 hours after an exercise session.^ By controlling free radical production before the chain reaction of damage can occur, oxidative stress and the human diseases associated with it can be avoided.

^ Also, some authors have speculated that the oxidative muscle damage associated with exercise may lead to the termination of muscular effort.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free radical-induced oxidative stress is an inevitable consequence of prolonged exercise and results in tissue damage, excessive fatigue, delayed recovery and overtraining.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The immune system response to the damage done by exercise peaks 2 to 7 days after exercise, which is the period during which most of the adaptation that leads to greater fitness occurs.^ Immune Response Immune system response to short-term, high-dose beta carotene supplementation was examined.

^ Daily supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin E has also been found to improve the immune response in both young and elderly people (33,34).
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of all the supplements available on the market today, Immunocal™/HMS90™ is the only natural product that is specifically produced to elevate your body’s immune response system.

.During this process, free radicals are produced by neutrophils to remove damaged tissue.^ Free radicals are formed during the process of oxidation in the body.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the process of oxidation, highly reactive byproducts called free radicals are produced.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is an antioxidant During normal processes, molecules called free radicals are produced in the body.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, excessive antioxidant levels may inhibit recovery and adaptation mechanisms.^ The use of antioxidant dietary supplements at a maintenance level may provide the ultimate defense against premature aging and a compromised immune system.

^ At therapeutic levels, natural antioxidants may actually play a significant role in reversing many of the effects of aging and disease.* .

^ The mechanisms by which vitamin E might provide this protection include its function as an antioxidant and its roles in anti-inflammatory processes, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and immune enhancement.

[156] .Antioxidant supplements may also prevent any of the health gains that normally come from exercise, such as increased insulin sensitivity.^ As an antioxidant, it may support cardiovascular health.
  • Wheydepot.com - Antioxidant Complex / 120ct 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants could prevent cellular damage in the retina by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants possibly prevent cellular damage in the lens by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

[157]
.The evidence for benefits from antioxidant supplementation in vigorous exercise is mixed.^ If you’re supplementing with single dose antioxidants, or a combination of a few isolated antioxidant nutrients, you may not be getting the benefits you hoped for.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Turns out that they included the data on the benefits of antioxidants from women who DID NOT TAKE the supplements.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recommended Daily Allowances The evidence is indeed overwhelming and growing daily that supplementation with antioxidants can help prevent the development of most degenerative diseases.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is strong evidence that one of the adaptations resulting from exercise is a strengthening of the body's antioxidant defenses, particularly the glutathione system, to regulate the increased oxidative stress.^ Antioxidant Body Defense, 50 Tablets .
  • Antioxidants Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]

^ A. Glutathione is the master antioxidant of the body.

^ Some antioxidant supplement might also contain zinc and copper, ingredients that help strengthen the bodys own antioxidant protection system.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

[158] .This effect may be to some extent protective against diseases which are associated with oxidative stress, which would provide a partial explanation for the lower incidence of major diseases and better health of those who undertake regular exercise.^ Some of the apple's protective effect against cardiovascular disease may come from its potential cholesterol-lowering ability.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect us against the damage caused by free radicals, and they protect us from cancer and heart disease.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[159]
.However, no benefits for physical performance to athletes are seen with vitamin E supplementation.^ They showed no benefits to supplementation of vitamins C and E. NO KIDDING! How can any self-respecting journal publish something like that?
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, an examination of the impact of dietary factors, including vitamin E, on the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in > 18,000 women found no benefit from the vitamin [ 28 ].

^ In mice getting low levels of vitamins A and E, no negative effects were seen in normal cells, but about 19 percent of tumor cells showed evidence of apoptosis.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[160] .Indeed, despite its key role in preventing lipid membrane peroxidation, 6 weeks of vitamin E supplementation had no effect on muscle damage in ultramarathon runners.^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During strenuous exercise free radicals can cause skeletal damage, muscle damage and lipid peroxidation as well as contributing to the loss of calcium within cells...

^ Now evidence is accumulating that direct supplementation with vitamin C has many beneficial effects as well.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

[161] .Although there appears to be no increased requirement for vitamin C in athletes, there is some evidence that vitamin C supplementation increased the amount of intense exercise that can be done and vitamin C supplementation before strenuous exercise may reduce the amount of muscle damage.^ When more Vitamin E may be required .
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When more Vitamin A may be required .
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When more Vitamin C may be required .
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[162][163] .However, other studies found no such effects, and some research suggests that supplementation with amounts as high as 1000 mg inhibits recovery.^ The other studies found no beneficial effect or a benefit of marginal statistical significance.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have found magnesium supplementation may help relieve tension headaches, muscle tension, and associated pain and cramps.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ New studies are suggesting similar health benefits from other natural foods such as dark beer and green tea1.
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[164]

Adverse effects

Structure of the metal chelator phytic acid.
.Relatively strong reducing acids can have antinutrient effects by binding to dietary minerals such as iron and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and preventing them from being absorbed.^ Because the digestive tract requires fat to absorb vitamin E, people with fat-malabsorption disorders are more likely to become deficient than people without such disorders.

^ Extensive research on lipoic acid has shown several beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Goji berries contain up to 21 trace minerals (the main ones being zinc, iron, copper, calcium, germanium, selenium, and phosphorus ).
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[165] .Notable examples are oxalic acid, tannins and phytic acid, which are high in plant-based diets.^ For example, a diet high in fruits and vegetables may help protect against cataracts, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, and even asthma [ 8 - 10 ].
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

[166] .Calcium and iron deficiencies are not uncommon in diets in developing countries where less meat is eaten and there is high consumption of phytic acid from beans and unleavened whole grain bread.^ Cognitive decline The brain has a high oxygen consumption rate and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in the neuronal cell membranes.

^ By adding enough antioxidants to the diet, there is less oxidative stress , and aging is also slowed down .
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is recommended by the American Health Association to consume a diet high in food sources of antioxidants and other heart-protecting nutrients including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts.

[167]
Foods Reducing acid present
Cocoa bean and chocolate, spinach, turnip and rhubarb.[168] Oxalic acid
Whole grains, maize, legumes.[169] Phytic acid
Tea, beans, cabbage.[168][170] Tannins
.Nonpolar antioxidants such as eugenol—a major component of oil of cloves—have toxicity limits that can be exceeded with the misuse of undiluted essential oils.^ Selenium is an important component of the body's natural antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase, and also plays an important role in combatting the toxic effects of mercury and cadmium (58,59,60).
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other essential antioxidants such as vitamin C, E , and selenium must be obtained from our diet.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides being the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant and a major detoxification agent, glutathione is essential for the functioning of the immune system.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[171] .Toxicity associated with high doses of water-soluble antioxidants such as ascorbic acid are less of a concern, as these compounds can be excreted rapidly in urine.^ The FDA requirement for premarket review of these products is less than that over other products it regulates, such as drugs and many additives used in conventional foods.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Peanuts are high in polyphenol antioxidants, which help to combat oxidative stress and are particularly high in a certain type of polyphenol, called p-Coumaric acid.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidant substances are found naturally in food and include vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), carotenoids, and anthocyanidins.
  • Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Cataract Prevention and Progression 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

[172] .More seriously, very high doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects.^ Goji berries are very high in Antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since antioxidants cover such a large array of vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other substances, some of the more common supplemental antioxidants will be discussed in terms of dosage and side effects here: The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin E is 30 IU per day (equivalent to 30 mg per day), yet it is difficult to obtain high doses of vitamin E in the average diet.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you’re supplementing with single dose antioxidants, or a combination of a few isolated antioxidant nutrients, you may not be getting the benefits you hoped for.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

.The beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) study of lung cancer patients found that smokers given supplements containing beta-carotene and vitamin A had increased rates of lung cancer.^ Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta-carotene and cancer prevention: the Basel Study.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin A, is also referred to as retinol and beta-carotene.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[173] .Subsequent studies confirmed these adverse effects.^ Vitamin C has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo for its ability to prevent the adverse effect of, and decrease resistance to, and increase the effects of chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The implications of these analyses for the potential adverse effects of high-dose vitamin E supplements are unclear [ 51-54 ].

[174]
.These harmful effects may also be seen in non-smokers, as a recent meta-analysis including data from approximately 230,000 patients showed that β-carotene, vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased mortality but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[175] No health risk was seen when all the randomized controlled studies were examined together, but an increase in mortality was detected only when the high-quality and low-bias risk trials were examined separately.^ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, -carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

^ This may explain (in part) the therapeutic effect of vitamin E in these patients.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s not only vitamin’s that can effect outcomes.
  • Concern About Antioxidants and Breast Cancer - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as the majority of these low-bias trials dealt with either elderly people, or people already suffering disease, these results may not apply to the general population.^ These mutations may result in cancer.
  • Reference Guide for ANTI-OXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.realtime.net [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the formulation of vitamin E, other antioxidants, zinc, and copper used in AREDS holds promise for slowing the progression of AMD in people with early-stage disease.

^ These effects, which may be attributed to both the phenolics and the dietary fiber found in apples, may partially explain the inverse association of apple intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

[176] This meta-analysis was later repeated and extended by the same authors, with the new analysis published by the Cochrane Collaboration; confirming the previous results.[177] .These two publications are consistent with some previous meta-analyzes that also suggested that Vitamin E supplementation increased mortality,[178] and that antioxidant supplements increased the risk of colon cancer.^ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, -carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

^ Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Letters: antioxidant supplements and mortality.

[179] .However, the results of this meta-analysis are inconsistent with other studies such as the SU.VI.MAX trial, which suggested that antioxidants have no effect on cause-all mortality.^ The suggestion of starving antioxidants, however, runs contrary to most of the information currently available.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some research suggests that high doses of antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and selenium, may interfere with radiation and some types of chemotherapy.
  • Concern About Antioxidants and Breast Cancer - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in the randomized AREDS study, the use of the vitamin E-containing supplement package had no apparent effect on the development or progression of cataracts over 7 years [ 41 ].

[145][180][181][182] .Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant supplements suggest that either these products have no effect on health, or that they cause a small increase in mortality in elderly or vulnerable populations.^ Letters: antioxidant supplements and mortality.

^ However, to suggest that an RDA for a vitamin which acts as a catalyst without being consumed bears any relationship to the RDA for an antioxidant which is consumed in carrying out its function demonstrates a lack of understanding of basic chemistry.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While nothing can truly replace the benefits of a healthy diet and lifestyle, ongoing research has shown that supplementing your diet with antioxidants really can help prevent a number of diseases and increase overall vitality and resilience.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

[133][135][175]
.While antioxidant supplementation is widely used in attempts to prevent the development of cancer, it has been proposed that antioxidants may, paradoxically, interfere with cancer treatments.^ Can antioxidants prevent cancer?
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients taking the antioxidant and zinc supplement had a 23% chance of developing vision loss from advanced AMD compared to a 29% chance of developing vision loss from advanced AMD for patients taking a placebo pill.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "We believe this work is important because it may make cancer treatments more effective," Salganik said.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[183] .This was thought to occur since the environment of cancer cells causes high levels of oxidative stress, making these cells more susceptible to the further oxidative stress induced by treatments.^ Oxidation occurs when free radicals (highly reactive, high-energy particles) ricochet wildly throughout the body and damage cells.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "We believe this work is important because it may make cancer treatments more effective," Salganik said.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But what is one to make of its reputed ability to cause acne and migraines, not to mention its high caffeine content?
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, by reducing the redox stress in cancer cells, antioxidant supplements could decrease the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.^ The antioxidant should not interfere with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, for example, have shown that increasing the antioxidants in the diet, whether through food or supplementation, significantly reduced the risk of various types of cancer.
  • Antioxidant Supplements | Nutritional Supplements for Health - Natural, Herbal Supplements - DrugNatural 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drugnatural.com [Source type: General]

^ When the active chemotherapy or radiotherapy is finished, an aggressive cancer remission protocol with optimum doses of nutritional supplementation should be considered.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

[184][185] .On the other hand, other reviews have suggested that antioxidants could reduce side effects or increase survival times.^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For this reason, Immunocal supplementation has been associated with sustained and significant increases of cellular glutathione, and is virtually devoid of troublesome side effects.

[186][187]

Measurement and levels in food

Fruits and vegetables are good sources of antioxidants.
.Measurement of antioxidants is not a straightforward process, as this is a diverse group of compounds with different reactivities to different reactive oxygen species.^ Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechansims of action.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS).

^ Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that help our bodies neutralize free radicals, which are byproducts of oxidation, a process that allows oxygen to become readily available for our c...
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In food science, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) has become the current industry standard for assessing antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices and food additives.^ ORAC, short for Oxygen radical Absorbance Capacity, is a standardised measurement of the total antioxidant power of a substance.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OrAC (Oxygen radical Absorbance Capacity), is a standardised measurement of the total antioxidant power of a substance.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OrAC, short for Oxygen radical Absorbance Capacity, is a standardised measurement of the total antioxidant power of a substance.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

[188][189] .Other measurement tests include the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay.^ Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and other substances.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OrAC (Oxygen radical Absorbance Capacity), is a standardised measurement of the total antioxidant power of a substance.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OrAC, short for Oxygen radical Absorbance Capacity, is a standardised measurement of the total antioxidant power of a substance.
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

[190]
.Antioxidants are found in varying amounts in foods such as vegetables, fruits, grain cereals, eggs, meat, legumes and nuts.^ Antioxidants are naturally occurring chemical substances found in fruits and vegetables.
  • Antioxidants - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most isolated antioxidant nutrients are chemically, and structurally, different to those found in foods; and do not have the desired effect in the human body.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Antioxidant. Certified Organic Berry Radical. Gogi. Acai. Cacao. Blueberry. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.chooseorganics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The FNB suggests that mean intakes of vitamin E among healthy adults are probably higher than the RDA but cautions that low-fat diets might provide insufficient amounts unless people make their food choices carefully by, for example, increasing their intakes of nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables [ 6 , 9 ].

.Some antioxidants such as lycopene and ascorbic acid can be destroyed by long-term storage or prolonged cooking.^ Vitamin E is lost in food processing which includes milling, cooking, freezing, long storage periods and when exposed to air.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moisturizing Cream: Hyaluronic Acid, Glycerin, and Squalene in the cream contribute to your skin’s hydration and have long term effects on the capacity of skin to hold in water.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ascorbic acid also promotes healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal tissue growth and repair - such as healing of wounds and burns.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191][192] .Other antioxidant compounds are more stable, such as the polyphenolic antioxidants in foods such as whole-wheat cereals and tea.^ More on the antioxidant WHEAT GRASS .
  • Reference Guide for ANTI-OXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.realtime.net [Source type: Academic]

^ More on the antioxidant GREEN TEA EXTRACT .
  • Reference Guide for ANTI-OXIDANTS 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.realtime.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Research conducted over the past three years at the University of Scranton demonstrated that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in chocolate are very high relative to other common foods and beverages such as black tea, red wine, raisins, strawberries, pinto beans, and other plant products.
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[193][194] .The effects of cooking and food processing are complex, as these processes can also increase the bioavailability of antioxidants, such as some carotenoids in vegetables.^ Vitamin E is lost in food processing which includes milling, cooking, freezing, long storage periods and when exposed to air.
  • Antioxidants, free radicals and information on vitamins C, E, A, P, Selenium, Co-Enzyme Q10, Grape seed extract and Green tea and in their relationship to aging. 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.dermaxime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists theorize that phenolic compounds have antioxidant effects because they are able to absorb free radicals, some of the principal products of oxidation in the body.
  • Chocolate Antioxidant 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.mcmwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to examine the effects of these compounds in vivo , it is necessary to understand the bioavailability of the specific compounds, and the bioavailability of these compounds within the fruit matrix.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

[195] .In general, processed foods contain fewer antioxidants than fresh and uncooked foods, since the preparation processes may expose the food to oxygen.^ Antioxidants could prevent cellular damage in the retina by eliminating free radicals and harmful oxidants that are generated by light absorption and by normal metabolic processes.
  • Antioxidant Supplements and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.eyecareamerica.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although apple juice typically contains less phenolics than whole apples, it is still a widely consumed source of dietary antioxidants.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Food vs Supplements If you’re supplementing with single dose antioxidants, or a combination of a few isolated antioxidant nutrients, you may not be getting the benefits you hoped for.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]

[196]
Antioxidant compounds Foods containing high levels of these antioxidants[170][197][198]
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fruits and vegetables
Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oils
Polyphenolic antioxidants (resveratrol, flavonoids) Tea, coffee, soy, fruit, olive oil, chocolate, cinnamon, oregano and red wine
Carotenoids (lycopene, carotenes, lutein) Fruit, vegetables and eggs.[199]
.Other antioxidants are not vitamins and are instead made in the body.^ However, the formulation of vitamin E, other antioxidants, zinc, and copper used in AREDS holds promise for slowing the progression of AMD in people with early-stage disease.

^ Beta carotene , which is rich in carrots and other yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, converts to vitamin-A when the body lacks enough of the vitamin.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flavonoids also enter the body's antioxidant network, boosting the levels of vitamin-C and of our chief endogenous antioxidant, glutathione .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

For example, ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) is poorly absorbed from the gut and is made in humans through the mevalonate pathway.[42] .Another example is glutathione, which is made from amino acids.^ Some antioxidants are made in our cells and include enzymes and the small molecules glutathione, uric acid, coenzyme Q-10 and lipoic acid .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

.As any glutathione in the gut is broken down to free cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid before being absorbed, even large oral doses have little effect on the concentration of glutathione in the body.^ Glutathione is a tri-peptide of the amino acids cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid.

^ NAC does not travel well in the blood stream, and doesn't reach the cells (to be used to synthesize glutathione and Glutamic acid).

^ Much of the beneficial effect of lipoic acid is attributed to its ability to increase glutathione, chelate metals (such as iron and copper), quench diverse free radicals, and recycle antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[200][201] .Although large amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids such as acetylcysteine can increase glutathione,[202] no evidence exists that eating high levels of these glutathione precursors is beneficial for healthy adults.^ It increases the intracellular glutathione level.
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The evidence is especially strong for the ability of Lipoic acid to recycle vitamin E. This is apparently achieved directly by quenching tocopherol radicals or indirectly by reducing vitamin C or increasing the levels of ubiquinol (a derivative of CoQ10) and glutathione that in turn, helps to regenerate tissue levels of vitamin E. Therapeutic Dose: 500-1000 mg a day .
  • Cancer and Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, Immunocal contains substantial amounts of thermolabile (heat-sensitive) proteins which are rich in cystine and glutamylcystine (known precursors of glutathione), and the effectiveness of Immunocal has been demonstrated in numerous human clinical trials which found statistically significant increases in glutathione and indices of immune function (such as CD4:CD8 ratios).

[203] .Supplying more of these precursors may be useful as part of the treatment of some diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, protein-energy malnutrition, or preventing the liver damage produced by paracetamol overdose.^ "We believe this work is important because it may make cancer treatments more effective," Salganik said.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These effects, which may be attributed to both the phenolics and the dietary fiber found in apples, may partially explain the inverse association of apple intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Still, these off-target tissues are able to repair somewhat between the treatments thanks to the more limited damage at these sites compared to at the tumor itself.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[202][204]
.Other compounds in the diet can alter the levels of antioxidants by acting as pro-oxidants.^ "Higher levels of cell death was restricted only to the brain tumors, while normal tissues were not affected by depletion of antioxidants in the mouse diets."
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When compared to many other commonly consumed fruits in the United States, apples had the second highest level of antioxidant activity (Figure 1 ).
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kwiterovich PO Jr. The effect of dietary fat, antioxidants, and pro-oxidants on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

.Here, consuming the compound causes oxidative stress, which the body responds to by inducing higher levels of antioxidant defenses such as antioxidant enzymes.^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidant : Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid peroxides --markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[149] .Some of these compounds, such as isothiocyanates and curcumin, may be chemopreventive agents that either block the transformation of abnormal cells into cancerous cells, or even kill existing cancer cells.^ Cancer cell culture work has demonstrated that apples inhibit cell proliferation in vitro , which may contribute to the association of apple intake with decreased cancer risk.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that cancer cells seem to soak up large amounts of vitamin C by converting it into a form that's easier to absorb.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Repeated research indicates that resveratrol--present in red grape skins--may cripple the energy source present in cancer cells, actually leading to cell death.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149][205]

Uses in technology

Food preservatives

.Antioxidants are used as food additives to help guard against food deterioration.^ Antioxidants are a potent property found in foods that can help prevent against the damaging effects of environmental stressors known as "free-radicals".
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities of anthocyanins have been proven useful in the fight against high blood sugar.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Garlic contains bioflavonoids, an organo sulfur substance with antioxidant activity that has anti-carcinogenic properties and helps protect against cardiovascular disease.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

.Exposure to oxygen and sunlight are the two main factors in the oxidation of food, so food is preserved by keeping in the dark and sealing it in containers or even coating it in wax, as with cucumbers.^ In fact, they're so attractive to oxygen, that it's the cell's main way of keeping infectious organisms out, like bacteria, fungi, viruses.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

However, as oxygen is also important for plant respiration, storing plant materials in anaerobic conditions produces unpleasant flavors and unappealing colors.[206] .Consequently, packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables contains an ~8% oxygen atmosphere.^ Black tea and many fruits and vegetables contain mainly complex polyphenols, also called polymeric polyphenols , or condensed tannins .
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antioxidants are an especially important class of preservatives as, unlike bacterial or fungal spoilage, oxidation reactions still occur relatively rapidly in frozen or refrigerated food.^ It is important to test antioxidant functionality – inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by peroxides and malondialdehyde methods.
  • Pomegranate Juice Is Packed With Antioxidants - Healthy Eating - Health.com 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC eating.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that help our bodies neutralize free radicals, which are byproducts of oxidation, a process that allows oxygen to become readily available for our c...
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabidiol and THC were found to be comparable with BHT (antioxidant) in both their ability to prevent dihydrorhodamine oxidation (Fenton reaction) and their cyclic voltametric profiles.
  • Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[207] .These preservatives include natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA, E300) and tocopherols (E306), as well as synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, E310), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, E321).^ Conversion rules are as follows: To convert from mg to IU: 1 mg of alpha-tocopherol is equivalent to 1.49 IU of the natural form or 2.22 IU of the synthetic form.

^ In contrast, synthetically produced alpha-tocopherol contains equal amounts of its eight possible stereoisomers; serum and tissues maintain only four of these stereoisomers [ 6 ].

^ Naturally sourced vitamin E is called d-alpha-tocopherol; the synthetically produced form is dl-alpha-tocopherol.

[208][209]
.The most common molecules attacked by oxidation are unsaturated fats; oxidation causes them to turn rancid.^ Free reactive oxygen radicals cause destruction of biomembranes by oxidizing unsaturated fatty acids and protein oxidation in human as well as depolarization and crosslinking of biopolymers.
  • Bio Antioxidant Skin Treatment Prevents Photo-Aging 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.bioantioxidant.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eye disorders Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are among the most common causes of significant vision loss in older people.

[210] Since oxidized lipids are often discolored and usually have unpleasant tastes such as metallic or sulfurous flavors, it is important to avoid oxidation in fat-rich foods. Thus, these foods are rarely preserved by drying; instead, they are preserved by smoking, salting or fermenting. .Even less fatty foods such as fruits are sprayed with sulfurous antioxidants prior to air drying.^ Excessive amounts of radiation can cause cancer and allergens in the air we breathe and the food we eat can cause a whole raft of diseases and even death.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, consuming half a cup or more of blueberries every day in addition to all the vegetables and fruit can double your antioxidant intake from food.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinson J, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P: Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

Oxidation is often catalyzed by metals, which is why fats such as butter should never be wrapped in aluminium foil or kept in metal containers. .Some fatty foods such as olive oil are partially protected from oxidation by their natural content of antioxidants, but remain sensitive to photooxidation.^ Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that help our bodies neutralize free radicals, which are byproducts of oxidation, a process that allows oxygen to become readily available for our c...
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The omega-3 fatty acid known as DHA ( docosahexaenoic acid ), richly present in fish oil, also appears to be important for protecting vision.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin E is found naturally in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement.

[211] .Antioxidant preservatives are also added to fat-based cosmetics such as lipstick and moisturizers to prevent rancidity.^ Antioxidants are also commonly added to food products like vegetable oils and prepared foods to prevent or delay their deterioration from the action of air.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If so, nutrients with antioxidant functions, such as vitamin E, could be used to prevent or treat these conditions.

Industrial uses

.Antioxidants are frequently added to industrial products.^ Since apple peels contain a majority of the antioxidants when compared to the flesh [ 85 ], apple peels have the potential to be a value-added ingredient in food products.
  • Nutrition Journal | Full text | Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.nutritionj.com [Source type: Academic]

.A common use is as stabilizers in fuels and lubricants to prevent oxidation, and in gasolines to prevent the polymerization that leads to the formation of engine-fouling residues.^ Heart disease begins with the oxidation of LDL (low-density lipoproteins) cholesterol which leads to the formation of plaque in the arteries.
  • Antioxidants A Key to Longer and Healthier Lives 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin E might also help prevent the formation of blood clots that could lead to a heart attack or venous thromboembolism [ 15 ].

[212]
.They are widely used to prevent the oxidative degradation of polymers such as rubbers, plastics and adhesives that causes a loss of strength and flexibility in these materials.^ Antioxidant : Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polyphenols check oxidative stress and can play a role in the prevention and treatment of these eye conditions.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They prevent oxidative damage in the capillaries of the eye and extremities, the two most common complications of diabetes.
  • Antioxidants 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC tuberose.com [Source type: Academic]

[213] .Polymers containing double bonds in their main chains are especially susceptible to oxidation and ozonolysis.^ Because the brain has high levels of lipids, it is especially susceptible to oxidation, causing damage to cells, tissues, and genetic material.

Solid polymer products start to crack on exposed surfaces as the material degrades and the chains unzip. The mode of cracking varies between oxygen and ozone attack, the former causing a "crazy paving" effect, while ozone attack produces deeper cracks aligned at right angles to the tensile strain in the product. .Ozone cracking is especially damaging to elastomers such as natural rubber, polybutadiene and other double-bonded rubbers.^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

They can be protected by antiozonants. .Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage.^ Oxidation occurs when free radicals (highly reactive, high-energy particles) ricochet wildly throughout the body and damage cells.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To raise glutathione levels is to reduce premature oxidation, to eliminate destructive free radicals and help detoxify the poisons inside each cell when it needs to.

^ These free radicals are mostly generated from water, because it is the most abundant substance in the cells.
  • Do Herbs, Vitamins, and Antioxidants Adversely Affect Cancer Therapies? 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The free radicals then react with oxygen to produce peroxy radicals which cause yet further damage, often in a chain reaction.^ Free radicals are the product of oxidative stress and create harmful molecules capable of damaging cells, proteins and DNA. Excesses damage by free radicals is believed to be a major cause of diseases including cancer.
  • Antioxidants Supplements at the Lowest Prices! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: General]
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that help our bodies neutralize free radicals, which are byproducts of oxidation, a process that allows oxygen to become readily available for our c...
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antioxidants are compounds that protect us against the damage caused by free radicals, and they protect us from cancer and heart disease.
  • Antioxidants | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other polymers suceptible to oxidation include polypropylene and polyethylene.^ Well-known Antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Beta Carotene (which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  • Antioxidants, Vitamins and Herbs at VitaNet ®, LLC 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC vitanetonline.com [Source type: Academic]

The former is more sensitive owing to the presence of secondary carbon atoms present in every repeat unit. .Attack occurs at this point because the free radical formed is more stable than one formed on a primary carbon atom.^ Of all the free radicals formed in the body, the hydroxyl radical is the most dangerous because it can directly attack DNA. As a free radical scavenger, Flavay ™ is like an antioxidant prize fighter that can successfully take on all challengers, big or small, in any kind of weather.
  • Flavay Unequaled Quality Antioxidant 100% Potency Guarantee 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC antioxidant.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidation occurs when free radicals (highly reactive, high-energy particles) ricochet wildly throughout the body and damage cells.
  • Berry Radical Antioxidant Superfood :: ONEgroup :: New Organic Ways :: Certified Organic :: Goji Berry, Acai Berry, Olive, Dunaliella Salina, Coffee Berry, Raw Cacao, Blueberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Pomegranate 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC radicalantioxidants.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By controlling free radical production before the chain reaction of damage can occur, oxidative stress and the human diseases associated with it can be avoided.

.Oxidation of polyethylene tends to occur at weak links in the chain, such as branch points in low density polyethylene.^ Supplementation with beta-carotene in vivo and in vitro does not inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
  • Antioxidants Information - Learn More about Antioxidants! 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro studies have found that the nutrient inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, thought to be a crucial initiating step for atherosclerosis [ 6 ].

^ Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins: questions of initiation, propagation, and the effect of antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants: The Case for Supplements 10 February 2010 11:26 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

Fuel additive Components[214] Applications[214]
AO-22 N,N'-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, and greases
AO-24 N,N'-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Low-temperature oils
AO-29 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, greases, and gasolines
AO-30 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-31 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-32 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-37 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, widely approved for aviation fuels

See also

Further reading

  • Nick Lane Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-198-60783-0
  • Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine(Oxford University Press, 2007) ISBN 0-198-56869-X
  • Jan Pokorny, Nelly Yanishlieva and Michael H. Gordon Antioxidants in Food: Practical Applications (CRC Press Inc, 2001) ISBN 0-849-31222-1

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External links

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Simple English

An antioxidant is a molecule that can slow or stop the oxidation, or electron transfer, of other molecules. It is an additive in foods.

Antioxidants


Antioxidants are molecules that relieve oxidative stress by preventing formation and by inhibiting oxidation of free radicals (Halliwell, 1995). They are able to donate one of their electrons or hydrogen to free radicals, stopping their chain reaction (Kaur & Kapoor, 2001). Found in our diet (e.g. vitamins) or formed inside our body e.g. enzymes, antioxidants can protect us from the damaging effects of free radicals (Afzal & Armstrong, 2002).

The best way to combat free radicals is to have a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, red wine, and green tea (Percival, 1998; Kaur & Kapoor, 2001). These functional foods are rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. Health supplements enriched with antioxidants are also now widely available.

References

Afzal, M., Armstrong, D. (2002). “Fractionation of herbal medicine for identifying antioxidant activity”. In: Armstrong, D. (Ed.) Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 186: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Antioxidant Protocols, Humana Press Inc.

Halliwell, B., Aeschbach, R., Loliger, J., Aruoma, O.I. (1995). ”The characterization of antioxidant”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33(7): 601–617.

Kaur, C., Kapoor, H. (2001). “Review: antioxidants in fruits and vegetables – the millennium’s health”. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 36: 703–725.

Percival, M. (1998). “Antioxidants”. Clinical Nutrition Insights 1/96 Rev. 10/98. http://acudoc.com/Antioxidants.PDF


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

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