|Antioxidant metabolite||Solubility||Concentration in human serum (μM)||Concentration in liver tissue (μmol/kg)|
|Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)||Water||50 – 60||260 (human)|
|Lipoic acid||Water||0.1 – 0.7||4 – 5 (rat)|
|Uric acid||Water||200 – 400||1,600 (human)|
|Carotenes||Lipid||β-carotene: 0.5 – 1||5 (human, total carotenoids)|
|α-Tocopherol (vitamin E)||Lipid||10 – 40||50 (human)|
|Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q)||Lipid||5||200 (human)|
|Foods||Reducing acid present|
|Cocoa bean and chocolate, spinach, turnip and rhubarb.||Oxalic acid|
|Whole grains, maize, legumes.||Phytic acid|
|Tea, beans, cabbage.||Tannins|
|Antioxidant compounds||Foods containing high levels of these antioxidants|
|Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)||Fruits and vegetables|
|Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)||Vegetable oils|
|Polyphenolic antioxidants (resveratrol, flavonoids)||Tea, coffee, soy, fruit, olive oil, chocolate, cinnamon, oregano and red wine|
|Carotenoids (lycopene, carotenes, lutein)||Fruit, vegetables and eggs.|
|AO-22||N,N'-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine||Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, and greases|
|AO-29||2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol||Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, greases, and gasolines|
|AO-30||2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol||Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines|
|AO-31||2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol||Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines|
|AO-32||2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol||Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines|
|AO-37||2,6-di-tert-butylphenol||Jet fuels and gasolines, widely approved for aviation fuels|
Antioxidants are molecules that relieve oxidative stress by preventing formation and by inhibiting oxidation of free radicals (Halliwell, 1995). They are able to donate one of their electrons or hydrogen to free radicals, stopping their chain reaction (Kaur & Kapoor, 2001). Found in our diet (e.g. vitamins) or formed inside our body e.g. enzymes, antioxidants can protect us from the damaging effects of free radicals (Afzal & Armstrong, 2002).
The best way to combat free radicals is to have a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, red wine, and green tea (Percival, 1998; Kaur & Kapoor, 2001). These functional foods are rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. Health supplements enriched with antioxidants are also now widely available.
Afzal, M., Armstrong, D. (2002). “Fractionation of herbal medicine for identifying antioxidant activity”. In: Armstrong, D. (Ed.) Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 186: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Antioxidant Protocols, Humana Press Inc.
Halliwell, B., Aeschbach, R., Loliger, J., Aruoma, O.I. (1995). ”The characterization of antioxidant”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33(7): 601–617.
Kaur, C., Kapoor, H. (2001). “Review: antioxidants in fruits and vegetables – the millennium’s health”. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 36: 703–725.
Percival, M. (1998). “Antioxidants”. Clinical Nutrition Insights 1/96 Rev. 10/98. http://acudoc.com/Antioxidants.PDF
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