Antisemitic canard: Wikis

  
  

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An antisemitic canard (evoking a French-derived English catchword for "hoax") is a false story inciting antisemitism. Despite being thoroughly disproved, antisemitic canards are often part of broader theories of Jewish conspiracies. According to Kenneth S. Stern,

Historically, Jews have not fared well around conspiracy theories. Such ideas fuel anti-Semitism. The myths that Jews killed Christ, or poisoned wells, or killed Christian children to bake matzo, or "made up" the Holocaust, or plot to control the world, do not succeed each other; rather, the list of anti-Semitic canards gets longer.[1]

Contents

Antisemitic canards

Accusations of deicide

According to Jeremy Cohen, "[e]ven before the Gospels appeared, the apostle Paul portrayed the Jews as Christ's killers[2] ... But though the New Testament clearly looks to the Jews as responsible for the death of Jesus, Paul and the evangelists did not yet condemn all Jews, by the very fact of their Jewishness, as murderers of God and his messiah. That condemnation, however, was soon to come."[3]

According to the New Testament accounts, the Jewish authorities in Judea charged Jesus with blasphemy and sought his execution, see Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus. However, the Jewish authorities lacked the authority to have Jesus put to death, according to John 18:31 yet Acts 6:12 records them ordering the stoning of Saint Stephen and also James the Just according to Antiquities of the Jews 20.9.1. The Jesus Seminar's Scholars Version translation notes for John 18:31: "it's illegal for us: The accuracy of this claim is doubtful." They brought Jesus to Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor of Iudaea Province, who "consented" to Jesus' execution.

Pilate is portrayed in the Gospel accounts as a reluctant accomplice to Jesus' death. Some modern scholars have questioned the historical accuracy of such a portrayal. These historians suggest that a Roman Governor such as Pilate would not have hesitated to execute any leader whose followers posed a potential threat to Roman rule. However, the Gospel accounts indicate that there could be hesitation on the part of both Jewish and Roman authorities to act immediately or needlessly in the face of potential popular opposition (Matt 26:4-5; Mk 15:12-15; Lk 22:1-2). These scholars also suggest that the Gospel accounts may have downplayed the role of the Romans in Jesus' death during a time when Christianity was struggling to gain acceptance in the Roman world. Yet the four Gospel accounts uniformly portray the Roman Governor Pilate as partly responsible for Jesus' execution, rather than exonerating him, and it is not clear that blaming Pilate completely, decades after his reign, would have diminished Christian acceptance.

As a part of Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic Church under Pope Paul VI issued the document Nostra Aetate, repudiating the traditional belief in the collective Jewish guilt for the Crucifixion.

Accusations of host desecration

During the Middle Ages in Europe, it was claimed that Jews stole consecrated Hosts, or communion wafers, and desecrated them to reenact the crucifixion of Jesus by stabbing or burning the host or otherwise misusing it. The accusations were often supported only by the testimony of the accuser.[4]

The first recorded accusation of host desecration by Jews was made in 1243 at Berlitz, near Berlin, and in consequence of it all the Jews of Berlitz were burned on the spot, subsequently called Judenberg.[5] Jeremy Cohen states that the first host desecration accusation occurred in 1290 in Paris[6] and continues:

"The story exerted its influence even in the absence of Jews... Edward I of England expelled the Jews from his kingdom in 1290, and they would not reappear in Britain until the late 1650s. Yet the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw the proliferation of the Host-desecration story in England: in collections of miracle stories, many of them dedicated to the miracles of the Virgin Mary; in the art of illuminated manuscripts used for Christian prayer and meditation; and on stage, as in popular Croxton Play of the Sacrament, which itself evoked memories of an alleged ritual murder committed by Jews in East Anglia in 1191."[6]

In the following centuries, similar accusations circulated throughout Europe, usually accompanied by massacres. The accusation of host desecration gradually ceased after the Reformation when first Martin Luther in 1523 and then Sigismund August of Poland in 1558 were among those who repudiated the accusation.[7] However, sporadic instances of host desecration libel occurred even in the 18th and 19th century. In 1761 in Nancy, several Jews from Alsace were executed on a charge of host desecration. The last recorded accusation was brought up in Bislad, Romania, in 1836.[8]

Accusations of ritual murder and blood libel

"The blood libel accusation, another famous anti-Semitic canard, is also a twelfth-century creation."[9] The first recorded ritual murder accusation against Jews was that of William of Norwich, reported by a monk Thomas of Monmouth.[10]

The descriptions of torture and human sacrifice in the antisemitic blood libels run contrary to many of the teachings of Judaism. The Ten Commandments forbid murder. The use of blood (human or otherwise) in cooking is prohibited by Kashrut and blood and other discharges from the human body are considered ritually unclean.(Lev 15) The Tanakh (Old Testament) and Jewish teaching portray human sacrifice as one of the evils that separated the pagans of Canaan from the Hebrews.(Deut 12:31, 2 Kings 16:3) Jews were prohibited from engaging in these rituals and were punished for doing so (Ex 34:15, Lev 20:2, Deut 18:12, Jer 7:31). Ritual cleanliness for priests prohibited even being in the same room as a human corpse (Lev 21:11).

When "Church and secular leaders sharply denounced these defamations,... people refused to abandon this myth. ... Popes, kings and emperors declared that Jews, if for no other reason than their strict dietary laws banning even the smallest drop of blood in meat or poultry, were incapable of the crime. The Christian populace was not impressed. In 1385, Geoffrey Chaucer published his Canterbury Tales which included an account of Jews murdering a deeply pious and innocent Christian boy. This blood libel become a part of English literary tradition."[11]

Among those who refuted blood libel against Jews were Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1236: "...we pronounce the Jews of the aforementioned place [Fulda] and the rest of the Jews in Germany completely absolved of this imputed crime,"[12] Pope Gregory IX in Papal Bull dated October 7, 1272: "We decree... that Christians need not be obeyed against Jews in a case or situation of this type, and we order that Jews seized upon such as silly pretext be freed from impisonment, and that they shall not be arrested henceforth on such a miserable pretext, unless - which we do not believe - they be caught in the commission of the crime,"[13] Pope Clement VI on September 26, 1348: "Jews are not responsible for the Plague."[14]

Blood libel stories have appeared a number of times in the state-sponsored media of a number of Arab and Muslim nations, their television shows and websites, and books alleging occurrences of Jewish blood libel are not uncommon.[15]

Some Arab writers have condemned blood libel. The Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram published a series of articles by Osam Al-Baz, a senior advisor to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. He explained the origins of the anti-Jewish blood libel and said that Arabs and Muslims have never been anti-Semitic as a group and urged people not to succumb to "myths" such as the blood libel.[16]

Accusation of anti-Christian bias

Throughout the years, some anti-Semitism within the Christian community has focused on the claim that Jews dislike Christianity or are trying to destroy it. On the Jews and their Lies, written by Martin Luther, is an example of this claim. The claim has continued into the present day, with radio host James Edwards claiming that Jews "hate Christianity" and "the WASP establishment" and "are using pornography as a subversive tool against us". [17]

Demonization, accusations of impurity

Jeremy Cohen writes:

Yet the very impulse that propelled the Christian imagination from the Jew as a deliberate killer of Christ to the Jew as perpetrator of the most heinous crimes against humanity also led to the portrayal of the Jew as inhuman, satanic, animal-like, and monstrous. ... Popular traditions of the later Middle Ages, for example, characterize Jews as having a distinctive foul odor. ... By all accounts, the bestiality of the Jew climaxed in the image of the Judensau...[18]

"a well-dressed, very contemporary-looking Jew has mounted the sow backward and holds her tail, while a second Jew sucks at her milk and a third eats her feces. The horned devil, himself wearing a Jewish badge, looks on and the butchered Simon, splayed as if on a cross, appears on a panel above."

Judensau (German for "Jew-sow"), was a derogatory and dehumanizing image of Jews that appeared around the 13th century. Its popularity lasted for over 600 years and was revived by the Nazis. The Jews, typically portrayed in obscene contact with unclean animals such as pigs or owls or representing a devil, appeared on cathedral or church ceilings, pillars, utensils, etchings, etc.

Often, the images combined several antisemitic motifs and included derisive prose or poetry. Cohen continues:

"Dozens of Judensaus... intersect with the portrayal of the Jew as a Christ killer. Various illustrations of the murder of Simon of Trent blended images of Judensau, the devil, the murder of little Simon himself, and the Crucifixion. In the seventeenth-century engraving from Frankfurt[19] ... a well-dressed, very contemporary-looking Jew has mounted the sow backward and holds her tail, while a second Jew sucks at her milk and a third eats her feces. The horned devil, himself wearing a Jewish badge, looks on and the butchered Simon, splayed as if on a cross, appears on a panel above."[20]

In the Spanish language, the word marrano means "Christianized Jew", "pig" and "dirty".

More recently, "[t]he main recurrent motif in Arab cartoons concerning Israel is "the devilish Jew"[21] and "[t]he core anti-Semitic motif of the Jew as the paradigm of absolute evil has a set of submotifs. These, in turn, recur over the centuries but are differently cloaked according to the predominant narrative of the period."[22]

Accusations of well poisoning

During the Black Death (often identified as bubonic plague epidemic) throughout the late Middle Ages, crowded cities were especially hard hit by the disease, with death tolls as high as 50% of the population. In their distress, emotionally distraught survivors searched for something, or someone, to blame. The Jews proved to be a convenient scapegoat.

There were no mass attacks against "Jewish poisoners" after the period of the Black Death, but the accusation became part and parcel of antisemitic dogma and language. It appeared again in early 1953 in the form of the "doctors' plot" in Stalin's last days, when hundreds of Jewish physicians in the Soviet Union were arrested and some of them killed on the charge of having caused the death of prominent Communist leaders... Similar charges were made in the 1980s and 1990s in radical Arab nationalist and Muslim fundamentalist propaganda that accused the Jews of spreading AIDS and other infectious diseases.[23]

Accusations of plotting to control the world

A Nazi German cartoon circa 1938 depicts Churchill as a Jewish octopus encircling the globe.
The same imagery revived on the cover of the 2001 Egyptian edition of The International Jew.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is widely considered to be the beginning of contemporary conspiracy theory literature.[24]

Included in this canard is not only written text that seeks to accuse Jews of trying to control the world, but also graphic imagery depicting Jews, or their supporters, as trying to control the world. Examples of this imagery include Nazi cartoons that depict Jews as octopuses, encircling the globe.[25] A more recent example is the 2001 re-printing of Henry Ford's anti-semitic text, The International Jew in Egypt, with the same octopus imagery on the front cover.[26]

Among the most notable early refutations of the Protocols as a forgery were a series of articles printed in The Times of London in 1921. This series revealed that much of the material in the Protocols was plagiarized from earlier political satire that did not have an antisemitic theme. Since 1903, when the Protocols appeared in print, its earliest publishers have offered vague and often contradictory testimony detailing how they obtained their copy of the rumored original manuscript.[27]

The text was popularized by those opposed to Russian revolutionary movement, and was disseminated further after the revolution of 1905, becoming known worldwide after the 1917 October Revolution. It was widely circulated in the West in 1920 and thereafter. The Great Depression and the rise of Nazism were important developments in the history of the Protocols, and the hoax continued to be published and circulated despite its debunking. Despite the fact that numerous independent investigations have repeatedly proven the Protocols to be a plagiarism and a literary forgery, the hoax is still frequently quoted and reprinted by antisemites, and is sometimes used as evidence of an alleged Jewish cabal, especially in the Middle East.[28]

According to Rabbi Sidney Schwarz,

"One of the most widely distributed anti-Semitic tracts in history is The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a book of canards authored in the nineteenth century that portrays Jews as conspiring to seek global dominance. Similarly, American-based racist groups in this last century have frequently leveled accusations against Jews for controlling both banks and public officials." [29]

Accusations of causing wars, revolutions, and calamities

As many European localities and entire countries expelled their Jewish populations after robbing them, and others denied them entrance, the legend of the Wandering Jew, a condemned harbinger of calamity, gained popularity.

German politician Heinrich von Treitschke in the 19th century coined a phrase "Die Juden sind unser Unglück!" ("The Jews are our misfortune!") adopted as a motto by Der Stürmer several decades later.[30]

The term "Judeo-Bolshevism" was adopted and used in Nazi Germany to refer to Jews and communists together, implying that the communist movement served Jewish interests.[31]

The Franklin Prophecy was unknown before its appearance in 1934 in the pages of William Dudley Pelley's pro-Nazi weekly magazine Liberation. According to the 2004 US Congress report, Anti-Semitism in Europe: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations:

"The Franklin "Prophecy" is a classic anti-Semitic canard that falsely claims that American statesman Benjamin Franklin made anti-Jewish statements during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It has found widening acceptance in Muslim and Arab media, where it has been used to criticize Israel and Jews..."[32]

Some recent conspiracy theories hold that Jews or Israel played a key role in carrying out the September 11, 2001 attacks. According to the paper published by the Anti-Defamation League, "anti-Semitic conspiracy theories have not been accepted in mainstream circles in the U.S.," but "this is not the case in the Arab and Muslim world."[33] A claim that 4,000 Jewish employees skipped work at the WTC on September 11 has been widely reported and widely debunked. The number of Jews who died in the attacks - typically estimated at around 400[34][35][36] - tracks closely with the proportion of Jews living in the New York area. Five Israelis died in the attack.[37]

In search of a scapegoat for the Iraq War, one commentator noted that "[f]rom left to right, anti-Semitic claims abound in U.S. press."[38]

On October 16, 2003, the Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammed drew a standing ovation at the 57-member Organisation of the Islamic Conference for his speech, in which he said: "...today the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them... They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong, so that they can enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have gained control of the most powerful countries and they, this tiny community, have become a world power." [39] He further urged Muslims to emulate Jews in this regard in order to achieve similar results.

Actor Mel Gibson caused controversy in 2006 after being arrested for drunken driving; during the arrest, he claimed that "Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world". [40]

Accusations of causing antisemitism

In January 2005, a group of Russian State Duma deputies demanded that Judaism and Jewish organizations be banned from Russia. "Their seven-page letter... accused Jews of carrying out ritual killings, controlling Russian and international capital, inciting ethnic strife in Russia, and staging hate crimes against themselves. "The majority of antisemitic actions in the whole world are constantly carried out by Jews themselves with a goal of provocation," the letter claimed." After sharp protests by Russian Jewish leaders, human rights activists, and the Foreign Ministry, Duma members retracted their appeal.[41]

Accusations of usury and profiteering

In the Middle Ages, Jews were ostracized from most professions by the Christian Church and the guilds and were pushed into marginal occupations considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending. This was said to show Jews were insolent, greedy usurers. Natural tensions between creditors and debtors were added to social, political, religious, and economic strains.

... financial oppression of Jews tended to occur in areas where they were most disliked, and if Jews reacted by concentrating on moneylending to gentiles, the unpopularity - and so, of course, the pressure - would increase. Thus the Jews became an element in a vicious circle. The Christians, on the basis of the Biblical rulings, condemned interest-taking absolutely, and from 1179 those who practised it were excommunicated. But the Christians also imposed the harshest financial burdens on the Jews. The Jews reacted by engaging in the one business where Christian laws actually discriminated in their favour, and so became identified with the hated trade of moneylending.[42]

Peasants who were forced to pay their taxes to Jews could personify them as the people taking their earnings while remaining loyal to the lords on whose behalf the Jews worked. Gentile debtors may have been quick to lay charges of usury against Jewish moneylenders charging even nominal interest or fees. Thus, historically attacks on usury have often been linked to antisemitism.

In England, the departing Crusaders were joined by crowds of debtors in the massacres of Jews at London and York in 1189-1190. In 1275, Edward I of England passed the Statute of Jewry which made usury illegal and linked it to blasphemy, in order to seize the assets of the violators. Scores of English Jews were arrested, 300 hanged and their property went to the Crown. In 1290, all Jews were expelled from England, allowed to take only what they could carry, the rest of their property became the Crown's. The usury was cited as the official reason for the Edict of Expulsion. According to Walter Laqueur,

"The issue at stake was not really whether the Jews had entered it out of greed (as antisemites claimed) or because most other professions were barred to them... In countries where other professions were open to them, such as Al-Andalus and the Ottoman Empire, one finds more Jewish blacksmiths than Jewish money lenders. The high tide of Jewish usury was before the fifteenth century; as cities grew in power and affluence, the Jews were squeezed out from money lending with the development of banking."[43]

"Kosher Tax"

The "Kosher tax" (or "Jewish tax") is a canard or urban legend spread by antisemitic, white supremacist and other extremist organizations.[44][45] It refers to the claim that food producers are forced to pay an exorbitant amount to obtain the right to display a symbol on their products that indicates it is kosher, and that this cost is secretly passed on to consumers through higher prices which constitute a "kosher tax."[45][46][47]

Accusations of cowardice and lack of patriotism

As Jewish Emancipation progressed, new antisemitic accusations appeared. Often Jews were accused of insufficient patriotism. In the late 19th century France, a political scandal known as the Dreyfus affair involved the wrongful conviction for treason of a young Jewish French officer. The political and judicial scandal ended with his full rehabilitation.

"12,000 Jewish soldiers died on the field of honor for the fatherland." A leaflet published in 1920 by German Jewish veterans in response to Dolchstosslegende.

During World War I, the German Military High Command administered Judenzählung (German for "Jewish Census"). It was designed to confirm allegations of the lack of patriotism among German Jews, but the results of the census disproved the accusations and were not made public.[48][49]

Another variation of this notion is an accusation that Jews are cowards who evade military service. With the rise of racist theories in the 19th century, "[a]nother old anti-Semitic canard served to underline the putative 'femininity' of the Jewish race. Like women, Jews lacked an 'essence'."[50] In their book Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations, Kurt Jonassohn and Karin S. Björnson wrote:

"Historically, Jews were not allowed to bear arms in the most of the countries of the diaspora. Therefore, when they were attacked, they were not able to defend themselves. In some situations, their protector would defend them. If not, they only had a choice between hiding and fleeing. This is the origin of the anti-Semitic canard that Jews are cowards."[51]

In Stalin's Soviet Union, the state-wide campaign against "rootless cosmopolitans" - a euphemism for Jews - was set out on January 28, 1949 with an article in the newspaper Pravda:

"... unbridled, evil-minded cosmopolitans, profiteers with no roots and no conscience... Grown on rotten yeast of bourgeois cosmopolitanism, decadence and formalism... non-indigenous nationals without a motherland, who poison with stench... our proletarian culture."[52]

"Nile to Euphrates" flag controversy

It has been alleged by some groups that the blue stripes on the Israeli flag actually represent the rivers Nile and Euphrates as the boundaries of Eretz Yisrael, the land promised to the Jews by God.[53] Those making this allegation insist that the flag "secretly" represents the desire of Jews to conquer all of the land between the Nile and Euphrates rivers, which would involve conquering and ruling over much of Egypt, all of Jordan, and some of Syria and Iraq. Yasser Arafat, Iran and Hamas also made the allegation,[54] and repeatedly tied this notion to the stripes on the Israeli flag.[55][56]

Both Zionist and anti-Zionist authors have debunked the claim that the stripes on the flag represent territorial ambitions. Accessed April 3, 2006.</ref> and Danny Rubinstein points out that "…Arafat… added, in interviews that he gave in the past, that the two blue stripes on the Israeli flag represent the Nile and the Euphrates… No Israeli, even those who demonstrate understanding for Palestinian distress, will accept the… nonsense about the blue stripes on the flag, which was designed according to the colors of the traditional tallit (prayer shawl)…"[56] Persistent critic of Israel and Zionism Israel Shahak is equally explicit. In his The Zionist Plan for the Middle East he states

A good example is the very persistent belief in the non-existent writing on the wall of the Knesset of the Biblical verse about the Nile and the Euphrates. Another example is the persistent, and completely false declarations, which were made by some of the most important Arab leaders, that the two blue stripes of the Israeli flag symbolize the Nile and the Euphrates, while in fact they are taken from the stripes of the Jewish praying shawl (Talit).

Saqr Abu Fakhr, an Arab writer, has also spoken out against this idea. He demonstrates that the "Nile to Euphrates" claim regarding the flag is one of seven popular misconceptions and/or myths about Jews which, despite being unfounded and having abundant evidence refuting them, continue to circulate in the Arab world.[57]

Nevertheless, the Hamas Covenant states "After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates," and as recently as January 29, 2006, Hamas leader Mahmoud al-Zahar issued a demand for Israel to change its flag, citing the "Nile to Euphrates" argument.[58]

Accusations of racism

A number of books and websites run by neo-Nazis, White supremacy advocates, Christian Identity adherents, and radical Islamist groups offer what they claim are authoritative quotes from rabbinic literature, all attempting to prove that Judaism is racist, Jews hate non-Jews and perceive them as non-human.

According to Joseph Soloveitchik: "Even as the Jew is moved by his private Sinaitic Covenant with God to embody and preserve the teachings of the Torah, he is committed to the belief that all mankind, of whatever color or creed, is "in His image" and is possessed of an inherent human dignity and worthiness. Man's singularity is derived from the breath "He [God] breathed into his nostrils at the moment of creation" (Genesis 2:7). Thus, we do share in the universal historical experience, and God's providential concern does embrace all of humanity." [59]

According to a 1984 hearing record before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations in the US Congress concerning the Soviet Jewry,

"This vicious anti-Semitic canard, frequently repeated by other Soviet writers and officials, is based upon the malicious notion that the "Chosen People" of the Torah and Talmud preaches "superiority over other peoples," as well as exclusivity. This was, of course, the principal theme of the notorious Tsarist Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[60]

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial consists of claims that the genocide of Jews during World War II—usually referred to as the Holocaust[61]—did not occur at all, or that it did not happen in the manner or to the extent historically recognized. Key elements of these claims are the rejection of any of the following: that the German Nazi government had a policy of deliberately targeting Jews for extermination as a people; that more than five million Jews[61] were systematically killed by the Nazis and their allies; and that genocide was carried out at extermination camps using tools of mass murder, such as gas chambers.[62][63]

Most Holocaust denial claims imply, or openly state, that the Holocaust is a hoax arising out of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy to advance the interest of Jews at the expense of other peoples.[64] For this reason, Holocaust denial is generally considered to be an antisemitic[65] conspiracy theory.[66] The methodologies of Holocaust deniers are criticized as based on a predetermined conclusion that ignores extensive historical evidence to the contrary.[67]

Accusations of controlling the media

The media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting documented the antisemitic canard that the "Jews control the media",[68] and they trace its origins to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (protocol twelve) and to Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent. J. J. Goldberg analyzes this myth[69] and concludes that, although Jews do hold many prominent positions in the U.S. media industry, they "do not make a high priority of Jewish concerns" and that Jewish Americans generally perceive the media as anti-Israel.[70] Variants on this theme have focused on Hollywood, the press,[71][72][73][74] and the music industry.[75][76][77][78][79]

Accusations of controlling Hollywood

A specific variant of the "Jews control the media" canard is that Jews have engaged in a conspiracy to control Hollywood's motion picture industry and subvert American values, and have a disproportionate influence on American culture,[80] a view which Henry Ford promoted in the early twentieth century.[81][82] Additional claims are that Hollywood's Jews deny employment to non-Jews,[80] and portray Christianity and African-Americans in a negative manner.[83] Many commentators point out that, although Jews hold many leadership positions in the film industry, there is no evidence that the positions are used inappropriately.[84][85] In addition, Jews in Hollywood do not act as a cohesive force promoting any specific agenda. According to Neil Sandberg of the American Jewish Committee, "Jews function here [in Hollywood] not as an ethnic or cultural group, but as individuals answerable to banks and foreign and corporate sponsorship. These are business people, like anywhere else, trying to make a profit. They're not defending ethnic or cultural interests."[82]

Accusations of controlling the world financial system

The Anti Defamation League documented various antisemtic canards concerning Jews and banking,[86] including the myth that world banking is dominated by the Rothschild family,[87] that Jews control Wall Street,[87] and that Jews control the United States Federal Reserve.[88] The ADL notes that the canard can be traced back to the prevalence of Jews in the money-lending profession in Europe during the Middle Ages, due to a prohibition against Christians in that profession. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion repeated this canard.

Accusations of organ harvesting

Haiti

In the immediate aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Israel sent 120 staff, doctors and troops of the Israel Defense Forces to Port-au-Prince.[89][90] The IDF set up a field hospital that performed 316 surgeries and delivered 16 babies.[91][92]

However on January 18, an American activist, known only as T. West, posted a video on YouTube in which he called for Haitians to be wary of "personalities who are out for money" and of the Israeli Defense Forces in particular.[93][94][95] To explain his concern, West stated that "the IDF [had] participated in the past in stealing organ transplants of Palestinians and others", thus echoing the Israeli admission of organ harvesting that had, two months earlier, followed the Aftonbladet Israel controversy. West, who claimed to speak for a black-empowerment group called AfriSynergy Productions, stopped short of more explicit accusations against the IDF's behaviour in Haiti but noted that there was "little monitoring" in the quake's aftermath, insinuating that organ theft was at the very least a strong possibility. The Iranian state television Press TV reported on the allegations[96][94] and in a speech on January 22, Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami said "There have been news reports that the Zionist regime, in the case of the catastrophe of Haiti, and under the pretext of providing relief to the people of Haiti, is stealing the organs of these wretched people."[97], again citing no evidence. On January 27th, a Syrian TV reporter described T. West's video as "document[ing] this heinous crime and [...] show[ing] Israelis engaged in stealing organs from the earthquake victims" (despite the fact that the video quite evidently does no such thing).[98] The original accusations were also relayed by a number of organizations often criticized for their antisemitism or anti-Israel positions, such as the websites of Al-Manar and former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard David Duke.[99][94][96][100] Stephen Lendman, a Research Associate of the Centre for Research on Globalization, stated that "the publicity about [Israel] providing humanitarian aid [in Haiti] is cover" for Israeli medical teams "exploiting fresh corpses and the living." [101]

Israeli media and Jewish groups immediately fought back against the claims.[95][102] In an interview with Ynetnews, West re-iterated his accusation about past incidents of organ theft by the IDF and cited Operation Bid Rig as further evidence of Jewish involvement in organ trafficking.[95] The Anti-Defamation League responded, labeling West's allegations as antisemitic and as a "Big Lie", while an author for the Jewish Ledger referred to the rumors as a "blood libel".[102]

Palestinians

The ADL has documented the antisemtic canard that Israel Defence Force soldiers harvested organs from Palestinians that died in their custody. The canard was first published in 2009 by the Swedish daily newspaper Aftonbladet.[103][104][105][106]

Contradictory accusations

Antisemitism has been called "the longest hatred."[107] A number of researchers noted contradictions and irrationality across antisemitic myths. Leon Pinsker noted as early as 1882:

Friend and foe alike have tried to explain or to justify this hatred of the Jews by bringing all sorts of charges against them. They are said to have crucified Jesus, to have drunk the blood of Christians, to have poisoned wells, to have taken usury, to have exploited the peasant, and so on. These and a thousand and one other charges against an entire people have been proved groundless. They showed their own weakness in that they had to be trumped up wholesale in order to quiet the evil conscience of the Jew-baiters, to justify the condemnation of an entire nation, to demonstrate the necessity of burning the Jew, or rather the Jewish ghost, at the stake. He who tries to prove too much proves nothing at all. Though the Jews may justly be charged with many shortcomings, those shortcomings are, at all events, not such great vices, not such capital crimes, as to justify the condemnation of the entire people.[108]

Jocelyn Hellig writes in her 2003 book The Holocaust and Antisemitism: A Short History:

Michael Curtis has pointed out that no other group of people in the world has been charged simultaneously with:

  • alienation from society and cosmopolitanism;
  • being capitalist exploiters and agents of international finance, and also revolutionary agitators;
  • having a materialist mentality and being people of the Book;
  • acting as militant aggressors, yet being cowardly pacifists;
  • adhering to a superstitious religion and being agents of modernism;
  • upholding a rigid law while also being morally decadent;
  • being a chosen people, yet having an inferior human nature;
  • being both arrogant and timid;
  • emphasizing individualism and yet upholding communal adherence.
  • being guilty of the crucifixion of Christ, yet blamed for the invention of Christianity.
Curtis points out that this catalogue of contradictory accusations cannot possibly be true and no single people could feasibly have such a total monopoly on evil.[109]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kenneth S. Stern (1997): A Force upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate. University of Oklahoma Press. p.247
  2. ^ "... the Jews, who killed both the Lord Jesus and the prophets." (I Thessalonians 2:14-15)[1][2]
  3. ^ Jeremy Cohen (2007): Christ Killers: The Jews and the Passion from the Bible to the Big Screen. Oxford University Press. p.55 ISBN 0195178416
  4. ^ Miri Rubin, Gentile Tales: The Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, p. 130. ISBN 978-0812218800
  5. ^ Carolyn Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, p. 69. ISBN 978-0812239850
  6. ^ a b Jeremy Cohen (2007). p.103
  7. ^ Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Avotaynu, 2000, p. 38 ISBN 1886223114
  8. ^ Dennis Prager, Joseph Telushkin, Why the Jews? The Reason for Antisemitism, Touchstone (reprint), 1985, p. 103. ISBN 978-0671556242.
  9. ^ John Kelly (2005): The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time p.242
  10. ^ Alexis P. Rubin, ed. (1993): Scattered Among the Nations: Documents Affecting Jewish History. 49 to 1975. Wall & Emerson. p.109 ISBN 1895131103. The report is cited from: Robert Chazan (1980): Church, State and Jew in the Middle Ages. Behrman House, pp.142-145
  11. ^ Alexis P. Rubin, ed. (1993) pp.106-107
  12. ^ Alexis P. Rubin (1993) pp.113-115, also in: Robert Chazan (1980) pp.124-126
  13. ^ Alexis P. Rubin (1993) pp.115-116, also in: Jacob R. Marcus (1938, 1961): The Jew in the Medieval World. World Publishing. pp.153
  14. ^ Alexis P. Rubin (1993) pp.116-117, also in: Edward Synan (1965): The Popes and the Jews in the Middle Ages. Macmillan. p.133
  15. ^ Antisemitic blood libel in the modern world:
  16. ^ Al-Ahram Weekly Online, January 2-8, 2003 (Issue No. 619)
  17. ^ "James Edwards: In His Own Words". http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2007/fall/memphis-sewage/james-edwards-in-his-own. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  18. ^ Jeremy Cohen (2007). p.204-207
  19. ^ Cohen's book includes an earlier variation of the same image.
  20. ^ Jeremy Cohen (2007) p.208
  21. ^ Major Anti-Semitic Motifs in Arab Cartoons. An Interview with Joël Kotek. JCPA. Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism. No. 21. 1 June 2004
  22. ^ The Twenty-first-century Total War Against Israel and the Jews. Part One by Manfred Gerstenfeld. JCPA. Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism. No. 38. 1 November 2005
  23. ^ Walter Laqueur (2006)" The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-530429-2. p.62
  24. ^ Svetlana Boym, "Conspiracy theories and literary ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kis and The Protocols of Zion": Comparative Literature, Spring 1999.
  25. ^ Nazi Propaganda as part of the Zichronam l'Vracha site. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  26. ^ Examples of anti-Semitism in the Arab and Muslim world on intelligence.org.il, site of the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S), Israel. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  27. ^ John Spargo, "The Jew and American Ideals". Harper & Brothers Publishers New York 1921 p. 20-40.
  28. ^ UNISPAL United Nations Economic and Social Council, Dissemination of racist and antisemitic hate material on television programs (Retrieved September 2005)
  29. ^ Rabbi Sidney Schwarz (2006): Judaism and Justice: The Jewish Passion to Repair the World. Jewish Lights Publishing. ISBN 1580233120. p.96
  30. ^ Ben-Sasson, H.H., ed. (1976): A History of the Jewish People. (Harvard University Press, Cambridge). ISBN 0-674-39730-4, p.875
  31. ^ Walter Laqueur (1965): Russia and Germany (Boston: Little, Brown and Company)
  32. ^ Anti-Semitism in Europe: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations by United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on European Affairs. 2004. p.69
  33. ^ "Unraveling Anti-Semitic 9/11 Conspiracy Theories." New York: Anti-Defamation League, 2003. p. 1
  34. ^ Gary Rosenblatt. The Mitzvah To Remember The Jewish Week September 05, 2002
  35. ^ The Resuscitation of Anti-Semitism: An American Perspective An Interview with Abraham Foxman. JCPA. Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism. No. 13. 1 October 2003
  36. ^ The 4,000 Jews Rumor surrounding Sept. 11th proved untrue USINFO. U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. 14 January 2005. Accessed: April 25, 2007
  37. ^ Cashman, Greer Fay (2002-09-12). "Five Israeli victims remembered in capital". The Jerusalem Post (The Jerusalem Post): p. 3. http://web.archive.org/web/20021104190710/http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/A/JPArticle/ShowFull&cid=1031666147075. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  38. ^ Bret Stephens, Melissa Radler. From left to right, anti-Semitic claims abound in U.S. press. Jewish SF March 28, 2003
  39. ^ "Mahathir attack on Jews condemned", CNN.com, October 17, 2003.
  40. ^ "Mel Gibson rants against Jews in drink-drive arrest". http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article694765.ece. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  41. ^ Deputies Urge Ban on Jewish Organizations, Then Retract - Bigotry Monitor. Volume 5, Number 4. January 28, 2005. Published by UCSJ. Editor: Charles Fenyvesi
  42. ^ Johnson, Paul: A History of the Jews (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1987) ISBN 0-06-091533-1. p.174
  43. ^ Walter Laqueur (2006): The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-530429-2. p.154
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b Tuchman, Aryeh. "Dietary Laws", in Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 178. "Antisemites have decried this certification as a 'kosher tax' that powerful Jews have enlisted governments to collect on their behalf; others have alleged that greedy rabbis threaten businesses with a Jewish boycott unless they accept their fee-based kosher certification."
  46. ^ "Anti-Semitism: Patriot publications taking on anti-Semitic edge". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Winter 2002. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=68. Retrieved 2007-04-25. "Media Bypass, for one, offered a story about a 'Kosher Nostra scam,' in which 'major food companies throughout America actually pay a Jewish Tax amounting to hundreds of millions of dollars per year in order to receive protection' against Jewish boycotts. These 'elaborate extortion schemes' are coordinated, alleges writer Ernesto Cienfuegos, by 'Rabbinical Councils that are set up, not just in the U.S. but in other western countries as well.'" 
  47. ^ "The "Kosher Tax" Hoax: Anti-Semitic Recipe for Hate". Anti-Defamation League. January 1991. http://www.adl.org/special_reports/kosher_tax/print.asp. 
  48. ^ "Deutsche Jüdische Soldaten” Bavarian National Exhibition
  49. ^ "The results were not made public, ostensibly to "spare Jewish feelings." The truth was that the census disproved the accusations: 80 percent served on the front lines."Elon, Amos (2002): The Pity of It All. Metropolitan Books. p.338
  50. ^ Gregory Moore (2002): Nietzsche, Biology and Metaphor p.181
  51. ^ Kurt Jonassohn, Karin Solveig Björnson (1998): Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations. p.89
  52. ^ About one antipatriotic group of theater critics. Pravda article (transliterated Russian). January 28, 1949
  53. ^ Genesis 15.18: "The Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying unto thy seed have I given this land from the river of Egypt [the Nile] unto the great river, the River Euphrates."
  54. ^ Playboy Interview: Yasir Arafat, Playboy Magazine, September 1988.
    ARAFAT: Yes, because they don't want it. Look at the slogans they use: that the land of Israel is from the Euphrates to the Nile. This was written for many years over the entrance to the Knesset, the parliament. It shows their national ambition — they want to advance to the Jordan River. One Israel for them, what's left for us… Do you know what the meaning of the Israeli flag is?
    PLAYBOY: No.
    ARAFAT: It is white with two blue lines. The two lines represent two rivers, and in between is Israel. The rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates. Archived 2009-10-25.
  55. ^ Rubin, Barry. The PLO between Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism, Background and Recent Developments, The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1993. Accessed April 3, 2006.
  56. ^ a b Rubinstein, Danny. Inflammatory legends, Haaretz, November 15, 2004. Accessed April 3, 2006.
  57. ^ Abu Fakhr, Saqr. "Seven Prejudices about the Jews", Al-Hayat, November 12, 1997 – November 14, 1997.
  58. ^ Shiloh, Scott. Mofaz: Hamas Acting Responsibly; Hamas: Israel Must Change Flag, Arutz Sheva, January 30, 2006. Accessed April 3, 2006.
  59. ^ Man of Faith in the Modern World, p. 74
  60. ^ Soviet Jewry: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations, United States Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 1984 p.56
  61. ^ a b Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." Estimates by scholars range from 5.1 million to 7.8 million. See the appropriate section of the Holocaust article.
  62. ^ Key elements of Holocaust denial:
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term "Holocaust denial." Holocaust deniers, or "revisionists," as they call themselves, question all three major points of definition of the Nazi Holocaust. First, they contend that, while mass murders of Jews did occur (although they dispute both the intentionality of such murders as well as the supposed deservedness of these killings), there was no official Nazi policy to murder Jews. Second, and perhaps most prominently, they contend that there were no homicidal gas chambers, particularly at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where mainstream historians believe over 1 million Jews were murdered, primarily in gas chambers. And third, Holocaust deniers contend that the death toll of European Jews during World War II was well below 6 million. Deniers float numbers anywhere between 300,000 and 1.5 million, as a general rule." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "In part III we directly address the three major foundations upon which Holocaust denial rests, including... the claim that gas chambers and crematoria were used not for mass extermination but rather for delousing clothing and disposing of people who died of disease and overwork; ... the claim that the six million figure is an exaggeration by an order of magnitude—that about six hundred thousand, not six million, died at the hands of the Nazis; ... the claim that there was no intention on the part of the Nazis to exterminate European Jewry and that the Holocaust was nothing more than the unfortunate by-product of the vicissitudes of war." Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman. Denying History: : who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?, University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0520234693, p. 3.
    • "Holocaust Denial: Claims that the mass extermination of the Jews by the Nazis never happened; that the number of Jewish losses has been greatly exaggerated; that the Holocaust was not systematic nor a result of an official policy; or simply that the Holocaust never took place." What is Holocaust Denial, Yad Vashem website, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Among the untruths routinely promoted are the claims that no gas chambers existed at Auschwitz, that only 600,000 Jews were killed rather than six million, and that Hitler had no murderous intentions toward Jews or other groups persecuted by his government." Holocaust Denial, Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
  63. ^ "The kinds of assertions made in Holocaust-denial material include the following:
    • Several hundred thousand rather than approximately six million Jews died during the war.
    • Scientific evidence proves that gas chambers could not have been used to kill large numbers of people.
    • The Nazi command had a policy of deporting Jews, not exterminating them.
    • Some deliberate killings of Jews did occur, but were carried out by the peoples of Eastern Europe rather than the Nazis.
    • Jews died in camps of various kinds, but did so as the result of hunger and disease. The Holocaust is a myth created by the Allies for propaganda purposes, and subsequently nurtured by the Jews for their own ends.
    • Errors and inconsistencies in survivors’ testimonies point to their essential unreliability.
    • Alleged documentary evidence of the Holocaust, from photographs of concentration camp victims to Anne Frank’s diary, is fabricated.
    • The confessions of former Nazis to war crimes were extracted through torture." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report #3, 2000. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  64. ^ A hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews:
    • "The title of App's major work on the Holocaust, The Six Million Swindle, is informative because it implies on its very own the existence of a conspiracy of Jews to perpetrate a hoax against non-Jews for monetary gain." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Jews are thus depicted as manipulative and powerful conspirators who have fabricated myths of their own suffering for their own ends. According to the Holocaust deniers, by forging evidence and mounting a massive propaganda effort, the Jews have established their lies as ‘truth’ and reaped enormous rewards from doing so: for example, in making financial claims on Germany and acquiring international support for Israel." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report #3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Why, we might ask the deniers, if the Holocaust did not happen would any group concoct such a horrific story? Because, some deniers claim, there was a conspiracy by Zionists to exaggerate the plight of Jews during the war in order to finance the state of Israel through war reparations." Michael Shermer & Alex Grobman. Denying History: : who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?, University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0520234693, p. 106.
    • "Since its inception...the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The central assertion for the deniers is that Jews are not victims but victimizers. They 'stole' billions in reparations, destroyed Germany's good name by spreading the 'myth' of the Holocaust, and won international sympathy because of what they claimed had been done to them. In the paramount miscarriage of injustice, they used the world's sympathy to 'displace' another people so that the state of Israel could be established. This contention relating to the establishment of Israel is a linchpin of their argument." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust -- The Growing Assault onTruth and Memory, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 27.
    • "They [Holocaust deniers] picture a vast shadowy conspiracy that controls and manipulates the institutions of education, culture, the media and government in order to disseminate a pernicious mythology. The purpose of this Holocaust mythology, they assert, is the inculcation of a sense of guilt in the white, Western Christian world. Those who can make others feel guilty have power over them and can make them do their bidding. This power is used to advance an international Jewish agenda centered in the Zionist enterprise of the State of Israel." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Deniers argue that the manufactured guilt and shame over a mythological Holocaust led to Western, specifically United States, support for the establishment and sustenance of the Israeli state — a sustenance that costs the American taxpayer over three billion dollars per year. They assert that American taxpayers have been and continue to be swindled..." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana, University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0807853747, p. 445.
  65. ^ Antisemitic:
    • "Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include ... denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust)." Working Definition of AntisemitismPDF (33.8 KB), European Fundamental Rights Agency
    • "It would elevate their antisemitic ideology — which is what Holocaust denial is — to the level of responsible historiography — which it is not." Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust, ISBN 0-14-024157-4, p. 11.
    • "The denial of the Holocaust is among the most insidious forms of anti-Semitism..." Roth, Stephen J. "Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law" in the Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Volume 23, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0792325818, p. 215.
    • "Contemporary Holocaust deniers are not revisionists — not even neo-revisionists. They are Deniers. Their motivations stem from their neo-nazi political goals and their rampant antisemitism." Austin, Ben S. "Deniers in Revisionists Clothing", The Holocaust\Shoah Page, Middle Tennessee State University. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
    • "Holocaust denial can be a particularly insidious form of antisemitism precisely because it often tries to disguise itself as something quite different: as genuine scholarly debate (in the pages, for example, of the innocuous-sounding Journal for Historical Review)." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report #3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "This books treats several of the myths that have made antisemitism so lethal... In addition to these historic myths, we also treat the new, maliciously manufactured myth of Holocaust denial, another groundless belief that is used to stir up Jew-hatred." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, p. 3.
    • "One predictable strand of Arab Islamic antisemitism is Holocaust denial..." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, p. 10.
    • "Anti-Semitism, in the form of Holocaust denial, had been experienced by just one teacher when working in a Catholic school with large numbers of Polish and Croatian students." Geoffrey Short, Carole Ann Reed. Issues in Holocaust Education, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0754642119, p. 71.
    • "Indeed, the task of organized antisemitism in the last decade of the century has been the establishment of Holocaust Revisionism - the denial that the Holocaust occurred." Stephen Trombley, "antisemitism", The Norton Dictionary of Modern Thought, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0393046966, p. 40.
    • "After the Yom Kippur War an apparent reappearance of antisemitism in France troubled the tranquility of the community; there were several notorious terrorist attacks on synagogues, Holocaust revisionism appeared, and a new antisemitic political right tried to achieve respectability." Howard K. Wettstein, Diasporas and Exiles: Varieties of Jewish Identity, University of California Press, 2002, ISBN 0520228642, p. 169.
    • "Holocaust denial is a convenient polemical substitute for anti-semitism." Igounet, Valérie. "Holocaust denial is part of a strategy", Le Monde diplomatique, May, 1998.
    • "Holocaust denial is a contemporary form of the classic anti-Semitic doctrine of the evil, manipulative and threatening world Jewish conspiracy." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "In a number of countries, in Europe as well as in the United States, the negation or gross minimization of the Nazi genocide of Jews has been the subject of books, essay and articles. Should their authors be protected by freedom of speech? The European answer has been in the negative: such writings are not only a perverse form of anti-semitism but also an aggression against the dead, their families, the survivors and society at large." Roger Errera, "Freedom of speech in Europe", in Georg Nolte, European and US Constitutionalism, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521854016, pp. 39-40.
    • "Particularly popular in Syria is Holocaust denial, another staple of Arab anti-Semitism that is sometimes coupled with overt sympathy for Nazi Germany." Efraim Karsh, Rethinking the Middle East, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0714654183, p. 104.
    • "Holocaust denial is a new form of anti-Semitism, but one that hinges on age-old motifs." Dinah Shelton, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Macmillan Reference, 2005, p. 45.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana, University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0807853747, p. 445.
    • "Since its inception...the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The primary motivation for most deniers is anti-Semitism, and for them the Holocaust is an infuriatingly inconvenient fact of history. After all, the Holocaust has generally been recognized as one of the most terrible crimes that ever took place, and surely the very emblem of evil in the modern age. If that crime was a direct result of anti-Semitism taken to its logical end, then anti-Semitism itself, even when expressed in private conversation, is inevitably discredited among most people. What better way to rehabilitate anti-Semitism, make anti-Semitic arguments seem once again respectable in civilized discourse and even make it acceptable for governments to pursue anti-Semitic policies than by convincing the world that the great crime for which anti-Semitism was blamed simply never happened -- indeed, that it was nothing more than a frame-up invented by the Jews, and propagated by them through their control of the media? What better way, in short, to make the world safe again for anti-Semitism than by denying the Holocaust?" Reich, Walter. "Erasing the Holocaust", The New York Times, July 11, 1993.
    • "There is now a creeping, nasty wave of anti-Semitism ... insinuating itself into our political thought and rhetoric ... The history of the Arab world ... is disfigured ... by a whole series of outmoded and discredited ideas, of which the notion that the Jews never suffered and that the Holocaust is an obfuscatory confection created by the elders of Zion is one that is acquiring too much, far too much, currency." Edward Said, "A Desolation, and They Called it Peace" in Those who forget the past, Ron Rosenbaum (ed), Random House 2004, p. 518.
  66. ^ Conspiracy theory:
    • "While appearing on the surface as a rather arcane pseudo-scholarly challenge to the well-established record of Nazi genocide during the Second World War, Holocaust denial serves as a powerful conspiracy theory uniting otherwise disparate fringe groups..." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term 'Holocaust denial.'" Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Since its inception...the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
  67. ^ Predetermined conclusion:
    • "'Revisionism' is obliged to deviate from the standard methodology of historical pursuit because it seeks to mold facts to fit a preconceived result, it denies events that have been objectively and empirically proved to have occurred, and because it works backward from the conclusion to the facts, thus necessitating the distortion and manipulation of those facts where they differ from the preordained conclusion (which they almost always do). In short, "revisionism" denies something that demonstrably happened, through methodological dishonesty." McFee, Gordon. "Why 'Revisionism' Isn't", The Holocaust History Project, May 15, 1999. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
    • Alan L. Berger, "Holocaust Denial: Tempest in a Teapot, or Storm on the Horizon?", in Zev Garber and Richard Libowitz (eds), Peace, in Deed: Essays in Honor of Harry James Cargas, Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998, p. 154.
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  81. ^ Boswell, Parley (2007). Edith Wharton on Film. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0809327570. 
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  84. ^ Goldberg, J. J. (1997). Jewish power: inside the American Jewish establishment. Basic Books. ISBN 0201327988. 
  85. ^ Gabler, Neal (1989). An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. 
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  87. ^ a b Levy, Richard (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice. p. 55. ISBN 1851094393. 
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  89. ^ (Hebrew)"Israel help in Haiti". http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/040/859.html. 
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  91. ^ "Survivors still being pulled from Haiti rubble". CNN. 2010-01-19. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/18/haiti.earthquake/index.html. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
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  93. ^ Israeli Defense Force in Haiti, and Demonizing Jean Wyclef, YouTube video
  94. ^ a b c "The Big Lie Of Israeli 'Organ Harvesting' Resurfaces As YouTube Video On Haiti Earthquake Goes Global (this link works intermittently - overloaded? Same article is on http://www.thestreet.com/newsanalysis/press-releases/10664930.html)". http://www.adl.org/PresRele/Internet_75/5693_75.htm. Retrieved January 26, 2010. 
  95. ^ a b c "Anti-Semitic video against Israel team in Haiti". http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3836929,00.html. Retrieved January 26, 2010. 
  96. ^ a b "Israel harvesting organs in Haiti?". http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=116613&sectionid=351020706. Retrieved January 26, 2010.  The same article was posted on the websites of Al Jazeera (Jan. 20th) [url=http://aljazeera.com/news/articles/34/Israel-harvesting-organs-in-Haiti-.html] and Hizb ut-Tahrir (Jan. 24th) [3]
  97. ^ Iranian Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami: US Occupied Haiti; Reports That Israeli Relief Delegation Is Stealing Organs, MEMRITV, Clip No. 2361 - Transcript, January 22, 2010.
  98. ^ Syrian TV and Organ Transplant Experts: Israel Reminiscent of Shylock, Engages in Organ Trafficking in Haiti and Worldwide, MEMRITV, Clip No. 2370, January 20, 2010.
  99. ^ (French)Houbballah, G. (2010-01-20). "Après ceux des Palestiniens,"Israël" voleraient les organes des Haïtiens...!". Al-Manar. http://www.almanar.com.lb/newsSite/NewsDetails.aspx?id=120715&language=fr. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  100. ^ "Israeli Organ Theft Scandal". DavidDuke.com. 2010-02-05. http://www.davidduke.com/general/israeli-organ-theft-scandal_16301.html. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
  101. ^ Focus on Israel: Harvesting Haitian Organs by Stephen Lendman, Palestine Telegraph, February 1, 2010.
  102. ^ a b "Israel in Haiti: Internet critics have their say". http://www.jewishledger.com/articles/2010/01/27/news/news06.txt. Retrieved January 27, 2010. 
  103. ^ "ADL report: "Anti-Semitic Canard About 'Organ Harvesting' Spreads Globally"". 16 Sept 2009. http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ASInt_13/5604_13.htm. Retrieved 23 Feb 2010. 
  104. ^ "ADL press release about Haiti: "The Big Lie Of Israeli 'Organ Harvesting' Resurfaces As YouTube Video On Haiti Earthquake Goes Global "". 2 Jan 2010. http://www.adl.org/PresRele/Internet_75/5693_75.htm. Retrieved 23 Feb 2010. 
  105. ^ "ADL report: "Arab Cartoons Suggest Israel Harvests Organs"". http://www.adl.org/anti_semitism_arab/as_cartoons_harvest.asp. Retrieved 23 Feb 2010. 
  106. ^ "ADL press release: "Swedish Newspaper's Charge Of Organ Harvesting By Israeli Soldiers 'Irresponsible And Shocking' "". 19 Aug 2009. http://www.adl.org/PresRele/IslME_62/5586_62.htm. Retrieved 23 Feb 2010. 
  107. ^ Our common inhumanity: anti-semitism and history by Richard Webster (a review of Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred by Robert S. Wistrich, Thames Methuen, 1991
  108. ^ Leon Pinsker (1882): Autoemancipation
  109. ^ Michael Curtis (1986): Antisemitism in the Contemporary World. Westview Press. p.4, cited in: Jocelyn Hellig (2003): The Holocaust and Antisemitism: A Short History Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851683135. pp.75-76

External links

  • Nazi Propaganda Illustrations A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. Produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida







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