Antonov An-24: Wikis

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An-24
Antonov An-24 at the Uzhhorod International Airport
Role Transport aircraft
Manufacturer Antonov
First flight 29 October 1959[1]
Introduced 1962
Status Active service
Primary users Aeroflot
Soviet Air Force
PLA Air Force
Produced 1959-1979
Number built 1,367 (including the Chinese Y7)[1]
Variants Antonov An-26[1]
Antonov An-30[1]Antonov An-32[1]

The Antonov An-24 (NATO reporting name: Coke) is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport designed manufactured in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau from 1957.[1]

Contents

Development

First flown in 1959, over 1,000 An-24s were built and 880 are still in service worldwide, mostly in the CIS and Africa, with a total of 448 Antonov An-24 aircraft in airline service, as of August 2006.[2]


It was designed to replace veteran piston Ilyushin Il-14 transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The high-wing layout protects engines and blades from debris, the power-to-weight ratio is higher than that of many comparable aircraft and the machine is rugged requiring minimal ground support equipment.


Due to its rugged airframe and good performance the An-24 was adapted to carry out many secondary missions such as Ice reconnaissance and engine/propeller test-bed, as well as further development to produce the An-26 tactical transport, An-30 photo-mapping/survey aircraft and An-32 tactical transport with more powerful engines. Various projects were envisaged such as a four jet short/medium haul airliner and various iterations of powerplant.


The main production line was at the Kiev-Svyatoshin (now "Aviant") aircraft production plant which built 985, with 180 built at Ulan Ude and a further 197 An-24T tactical transport/freighters at Irkutsk. Production in Ukraine and the USSR was shut down by 1978.


Production continues at China's Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation which makes licenced, reverse-engineered and redesigned aircraft as the Xian [Yunshuji] Y7, and its derivatives. Manufacture of the Y7, in civil form, has now been supplanted by the MA60 derivative with western engines and avionics, to improve performance and economy, and widen the export appeal.

Variants

Cockpit
  • An-24: : Original design and prototypes. Twin-engined 44-seat transport aircraft.[1]
  • An-24A : (first use) Airliner project powered by Kuznetsov NK-4 turbo-props, discontinued when the NK-4 was cancelled.[1]
  • An-24A : (second use) Production 50-seat airliners built at Kiev with the APU exhaust moved to the tip of the starboard nacelle.[1]
  • An-24ALK (Avtomatizeerovannaya [sistema] Lyotnovo Kontrolya – automatic flight check system) : Several An-24s were converted for navaids calibration tasks, with one An-24LR 'Toros' re-designated An-24ALK after conversion. This aircraft was fitted with a photo-theodolite and powerful light sources for the optical sensors.[1]
  • An-24AT : A 1962 project for a Tactical transport with rear loading ramp and powered by Isotov TV2-117DS coupled turboprops.[1]
  • An-24AT-RD (RD - Reaktivnyye Dvigateli - jet engines): The An-24AT tactical transport project with two turbojet boosters pod-mounted under the outer wings and a wider loading ramp.[1]
  • An-24AT-U (Ooskoriteli - boosters) : A projected Tactical transport from 1966 with three or five PRD-63 (Porokhovoy Raketnyy Dvigatel – gunpowder rocket motor) JATO bottles , wider cargo ramp and provision for up to three brake parachutes.[1]
  • An-24B: : The second 50-seat airliner version with one extra window each side, simple-slotted flaps replacing the complex double-slotted flaps and extended chord of the centre-section to compensate for the lower performance flaps. Some aircraft were delivered with four extra fuel bladders in the wing centre-section.[1]
  • An-24D : A projected long-range airliner version of the An-24B with a single RU-19 booster jet engine in the starboard nacelle, streched fuselage with seating for 60, strengthened structure and increased fuel capacity.[1]
  • An-24LL (Letyushchaya Laborotoriya – flying laboratory) : The generic suffix LL can be applied to any test-bed, but in the An-24's case seems to refer to a single aircraft equipped for metrology (science of measurement), to be used for checking the airworthiness of production aircraft.[1]
  • An-24LP (LesoPozharnyy - forest fire fighter) : Three An-24RV aircraft converted into fire bombers/cloud seeders by installing a tank in the cabin , optical smoke and flame detectors, provision for a thermal imager, racks for carrying flare dispensers and the ability to carry firefighters for para-dropping.[1]
  • An-24LR 'Toros'(Ice Hummock)(Ledovyy Razvedchik – ice reconnaissance) : At least two An-24Bs converted to carry the 'Toros' SLAR(sideways looking airborne radar) either side of the lower fuselage, for ice reconnaissance, guiding icebreakers, convoys and other shipping.[1]
  • An-24LR 'Nit'(Thread) : One An-24B was converted to with 'Nit' SLAR in very large pods along the lower fuselage sides.[1]
  • An-24PRT (Poikovo-spasahtel'nyy Reaktivnyy [Ooskoritel'] Trahnsportnyy – SAR boosted transport) : The production search and rescue aircraft based on the An-24RT, eleven built.[1]
  • An-24PS (Poikovo-Spasahtel'nyy - SAR) : A single An-24B aircraft converted for search and rescue duties, rejected after acceptance trials in favour of a derivative of the An-24RT.[1]
  • An-24RR ([samolyot] Radiotsionnyy Razvedchik – radiation intelligence [aircraft]) : Four aircrafdt converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 air sampling pods low on the forward fuselage and a sensor pod on a pylon on the port fuselage side.[1]
  • An-24RT (Reaktivnyy [Ooskoritel'] Trahnsportnyy – boosted transport) : Similar to the AN-24T, fitted with an anxiliary turbojet engine.[1]
  • An-24RT (Retranslyator – relay installation) : A few An-24T and An-24RT aircraft converted to Communications relay aircrat. Sometimes referred to as An-24Rt to differentiate from the An-24RT.[1]
  • An-24RV (Reaktivnyy [Ooskoritel'] V – boosted V) : Turbojet boosted export version, similar to the An-24V but fitted with a 1,985-lb (900-kg) thrust auxiliary turbojet engine in the starboard nacelle.[1]
  • An-24ShT (Shtabnoy Trahnsportnyy – Staff/HQ transport) : A tactical Airborne Command Post for use by commanders, also capable of forming grouind based comms and HQ.[1]
  • An-24T (Trahnsportnyy – transport) : (first use) Tactical transport version, rejected due to poor field performance during acceptance testing.[1]
  • An-24T (Trahnsportnyy – transport) : (second use) A tactical transport version with a ventral loading hatch, cargo winch and escape hatch aft of the nose landing gear.[1]
  • An-24T 'Troyanda' (Ukrainian – rose) : From the 1960s the Soviet Union was faced with nuclear submarine threats that were virtually undetectable with the technology available. To assist in the development of sophisticated, optical, chemical, sonic, infra-red and electro-magnetic detection systems several aircraft were built or modified as test-beds. One significant aircraft was the An-24T 'Troyanda' which was built new, for the development of sonobuoy and infra-red detection systems. As well as equipment inside the cabin , sensors could be mounted in large teardrop fairings either side of the lower forward fuselage, and extra equipment could also be carried in extended wing centre-section fairings.[1]
  • An-24TV (Trahnsportnyy V – transport V) : The export cargo version of the An-24T.[1]
  • An-24USh (Oochebno-Shtoormanskiy {samolyot] - Navigator training aircraft) : Seven An-24Bs were converted to An-24USh navigator/air traffic controller trainers with five training stations and four standard rows of seats for trainees in waiting. Outwardly the Ush was distinguishable by the bulged windows at each trainee station.[1]
  • An-24V-I : The initial export version of the An-24B 50-seat airliner with the early narrow chord inner wings, double-slotted flaps, single ventral fin, powered by two 2,550-ehp (1902-ekW) Ivchenko AI-24A turboprop engines.[1]
  • An-24V-II : Export late production 50-seat mixed passenger, cargo and freight aircraft with extended chord inner wing, single-slotted flaps, twin ventral fins and powered by AI-24T(SrsII) engines.[1]
  • An-26 : Tactical transport with cargo ramp.
  • An-30 : Survey/Photo-mapping aircraft.
  • An-32 : Hot and high re-engined An-26.
  • An-34 : The initial designation of the An-24T production tactical transport, discarded shortly after production began.[1]
  • An-50 : A mid-1960s project for a jet-powered An-24, with four Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engines in podded pairs, pylon mounted forward of the wings. Not proceeded with due to competition from the Yak-40.[1]
  • Xian Y7 : The Y7 is a Chinese reverse-engineered version of The An-24 /An-26 family.[1]
  • MA60 : Up-graded and Westernised Y7.

Operators

Military An-24 operators
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Military

 Afghanistan
The Afghan Air Force received six from 1975.
 Algeria
Algerian Air Force
 Angola
People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola
 Armenia
Armenian Air Force
 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Air Force
 Bangladesh
Bangladeshi Air Force, none in service, all retired
 Belarus
Belarus Air Force
 Bulgaria
Bulgaria Air Force
 Cambodia
Royal Cambodian Air Force
 China
 Republic of the Congo
Congolese Air Force
 Cuba
Cuban Air Force
 Czech Republic
Czech air force (before 2005)
 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakian Air Force - No longer in service.
 East Germany
Luftstreitkräfte der NVA
 Egypt
Egyptian Air Force
 Georgia
Georgian Air Force
 Guinea
Military of Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
Military of Guinea-Bissau
 Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea Air Force
 Hungary
Hungarian Air Force
 Iran
Iranian Air Force
 Iraq
Iraqi Air Force
 Kazakhstan
Military of Kazakhstan
 Laos
Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force
 Mali
Military of Mali
 Mozambique
Military of Mozambique
 Mongolia
Mongolian Air Force - All An-24 retired in 2003
 North Korea
Korean People's Army Air Force
 Poland
Polish Air Force- An-24 fleet retired in beginning of 2009
 Romania
Romanian Air Force-the last An-24 of the RoAF was retired in 2007
 Russia
 Slovakia
Slovak Air Force last one retired in 2006
 Somalia
Somali Air Corps
 Sudan
Sudanese Air Force
 Syria
Syrian Air Force
 Turkmenistan
Military of Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
Ukrainian Air Force
 Soviet Union
 Uzbekistan
Military of Uzbekistan
 Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force
 Yemen
Yemen Air Force

Civil operators

Major operators of some of the 448 Antonov An-24 aircraft still in airline service at August 2006 include: China Southern Airlines (11), Air Urga (10), ARP 410 Airlines (10), Scat Air (20), Turkmenistan Airlines (22), Ukraine National Airlines (12), Novosibirsk Air Enterprise (9), TomskAvia (6), Belavia (9), Air Koryo (8) Aeroflot (6), UTair (17), Uzbekistan Airways (11), Yakutia Airlines (17) and Cubana de Aviación (2) Aero Caribbean(1). Some 112 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.[2]

Civil operators have included: Aeroflot, Aerosvit, Air Astana, Air Guinee, Air Mali, Ariana Afghan Airlines,Askari Aviation, Balkan Bulgarian, CAAC, Cubana, Egyptair, Interflug, Iraqi Airways, Lebanese Air Transport, Lina Congo, LOT Polish Airlines, MIAT Mongolian Airlines,Misrair (Egyptair), Mosphil Aero (Philippines), Pan African Air Service, Kyrgyzstan, President Airlines, PMTair, Royal Khmer Airlines, Tarom, Uzbekistan Airways, Lionair

An-24 operators within Aeroflot and post break-up Commonwealth of Independent States (data from[1])
UGA - (Oopravleniye Grazhdahnskoy Aviahtsii - Civil Aviation Directorate) OAO - (Otdel'nyy Aviaotryad – independent flight detachment) LO - (Lyvotnyy Otryad – flight squad) / Aviaeskadril'ya - squadrons) Home Base CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) Airline
Arkhangel'sk 2nd Arkhangel'sk 392nd Arkhangel'sk-Vas'kovo AVL Arkhangel'sk Airlines
Azerbaijan Baku 360th / 1st & 3rd squadrons Baku-Bina AZAL (no An-24s)
Belorussian Gomel' 105th / 1st squadron Gomel' Gomel'avia
1st Minsk 353rd Minsk-Loshitsa (Minsk-1) Belavia;Minsk-Avia
Mogilyov Mogilyov Mogilyov-Avia
Central Regions Belgorod Belgorod Belgorod Air Enterprise (no An-24s)
Bryansk Bryansk Bravia (Bryansk-Avia)
Bykovo 61st Moscow-Bykovo Bykovo Avia
Ivanovo Ivanovo-Yoozhnyy (Zhukovka) IGAP (Ivanovo State Air Enterprise)
Kostroma Kostroma Kostroma Air Enterprise
Kursk Kursk Kurskavia
Ryazan' Ryazan' Ryazan'aviatrans
Tambov 169th Tambov-Donskoye Aviata (Avalinii Tambova)
Tula 294th Tula Tula Air Enterprise
Voronezh 243rd Voronezh Voronezhavia
Vladimir Vladimir Vladimir Air Enterprise / Avialeso'okhrana
East Siberian Bobaido Bobaido Bobaido Air Enterprise
Chita 136th / 1st Squadron Chita Chita Avia
Irkutsk 134th Irkutsk-1 Baikal Airlines
Ust'-Ilimsk Ust'-Ilimsk Ust'-Ilimsk Air Enterprise
Ust'-Kut Ust'-Kut Ust'-Kut Air Enterprise
Ulan-Ude 138th Ulan-Ude / Mookhino Buryatia Airlines
Far Eastern Sakhalin CAPA / Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk UAD 147th / 1st Squadron Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk / Khomutvo Sakhalinskiye Aviatrassy
1st Khabarovsk 289th Khabarovsk Dalavia Far East Airlines Khabarovsk
Kazakh Chimkent 158th Chimkent Kazakstan Airlines;Chimkent-Avia
Goor'yev 156th Goor'yev Kazakstan Airlines;Atyrau Air Ways
Karaganda 14th Karaganda Kazakstan Airlines
Kustanay 155th Kustanay Kazakstan Airlines
Tselinograd 239th Tselinograd Kazakstan Airlines;Air Astana
Kirghiz (dissolved by 1987)
Komi Syktyvkar 366th Syktyvkar Komiavia;Komiinteravia
Krasnoyarsk Abakan 130th Abakan Khakassia Airlines (Abakan A.E.)
Latvian Riga 106th / 2nd Squadron Riga-Apilve Latavio
Leningrad Pskov 320th / 2nd Squadron Pskov
Lithuanian Vilnius 277th / 4th Squadron Vilnius Lithuanian Airlines
Magadan Anadyr' Anadyr'-Oogol'nyy Chukotavia
Chaunskoye 6th Chaunskoye Chaunskoye Air Enterprise
1st Magadan 185th / (1st or 3rd Squadron) Magadan-Sokol Kolyma-Avia
Moldavian Kishinyov 407th Kishinyov Air Moldova
North Caucasian Astrakhan' 110th Astrakhan'-Narimanovo Astrakhan' Airlines
Krasnodar 241st/ 3rd Squadron Krasnodar ALK Kuban Airlines
Makhachkala 111th Makhachkala Daghestan Airlines
Stavropol' Stavropol' SAAK (Stavropol' Joint Stock AL)
Taganrog Taganrog Tavia
Tajik Leninabad 292nd / 2nd Squadron Leninabad Tajikstan Airlines
Training Establishments Directorate KVLUGA (Kirovograd Civil Aviation Higher Flying School) Kirovograd Ukraine State Flight Academy
Turkmen Ashkhabad 165th / 1st Squadron Ashkhabad Turkmenistan Airlines/Akhal
Krasnovodsk 360th / 1st Squadron Krasnovodsk Turkmenistan Airlines/Khazar
Maryy Composite Independent Air Squadron Maryy
Tashauz Tashauz
Tyumen' Salekhard Salekhard Tyumen' Avia Trans
Surgut 358th Surgut Surgur Avia
Ukrainian Donetsk Donetsk Donbass – East Ukrainian Airlines
Kiev 86th / 2nd Squadron Kiev-Zhulyany Air Ukraine / Avialinïi Okraïny
Kirovograd Kirovograd-Khmelyovoye Air URGA
L'vov 88th L'vov Lviv Airlines
Simferopol' 84th Simferopol' Aviakomaniya Krym / Crimea AL
Voroshilovgrad Voroshilovgrad
Urals Izhevsk Izhevsk Izhavia
Kirov Kirov Kirov Air Enterprises (no An-24s)
Magnitogorsk Magnitogorsk Magnitogorsk Air Enterprise
1st Perm' Perm'-Bolshoye Savino Perm Airlines
1st Sverdlovsk Sverdlovsk-Kol'tsovo Ural Airlines [Yekaterinburg]
Uzbek Samarkand 163rdrd Samarkand Uzbekistan Airways
Tashkent 160th Tashkent-Yoozhnyy Uzbekistan Airways
Volga Cheboksary Cheboksary Cheboksary Air Enterprise
Cheboksary Nizhnekamsk Independent air Squadron Nizhnekamsk Nizhnekamsk Air Enterprise
Gor'kiy Gor'kiy-Strigino Nizhegorodskie Airlines (sic)
TatarCAPA / 1st Kazan' 408th Kazan' Tatarstan Airlines
Orenburg 195th / 2nd Squadron Orenburg-Tsentral'nyy Orenburg Airlines
Penza 396th Penza Penza Air Enterprise
Saransk Saransk
Saratov Saratov
Ufa 415th Ufa BAL Bashkirian Airlines
Yoshkar-Ola Yoshkar-Ola
West Siberian Kemerovo 196th Kemerovo
Kolpashevo Kolpashevo
Novosibirsk 6th(?) Novosibirsk-Severnyy 2nd Novosibirsk Air Enterprise
Tolmachovo 448th Novosibirsk-Tolmachovo Sibir'
Novokuznetsk 184th Novokuznetsk Aerokuznetsk
Omsk 365th / 2nd Squadron Omsk Omsk-Avia
Tomsk 119trh Tomsk Tomsk Avia
Yakutian Yakutsk 271st Yakutsk Sakha Avia
Mirnyy Mirnyy Almazy Rossii – Sakha (Alrosa)
GosNII GVF (Gosoodarstvenny Naoochno-Issledovatel'skiy Institoot Grazdahnskovo Vozdooshnovo Flota - state scientific test institute for civil air fleet) Moscow - Sheremet'yevo-1

Accidents

Summary: as of 2004

  • Hull-loss accidents: 109 with a total of 1673 fatalities
  • Other occurrences: 11 with a total of 59 fatalities
  • Hijackings: 33 with a total of 4 fatalities

Recent An-24 accidents

  • On 4 February 2010, Yakutia Airlines Flight 425, operated by RA-47360 suffered an engine failure on take-off from Yakutsk Airport for Olekminsk Airport. During the subsequent landing, the nose and port main undercarriage were retracted, causing substantial damage to the aircraft.[6]

Specifications (An-24)

Preserved An-24 at Aleksotas airport (S. Dariaus / S. Gireno) (EYKS), Kaunas

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3-4: 2 pilots, 1 flight engineer, (optional) 1 radio operator
  • Capacity: 52 passengers (AN-24V 50 passengers)
  • Payload: 5,500 kg (12,000 lb)
  • Length: 23.53 m (77 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 29.20 m (95 ft 10 in)
  • Height: 8.32 m (27 ft 4 in)
  • Wing area: 75.0 m² (807 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2× Ivchenko AI-24A turboprops, 2,820 ehp (2,100 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 500 km/h (270 knots, 310 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 450 km/h (240 knots, 280 mph)
  • Range:
    • With maximum payload: 750 km (404 nm, 466 mi)
    • With maximum fuel: 2,400 km (1,300 nm, 1,500 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 8,400 m (27,559 ft)

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. “Antonov's Turboprop Twins”. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1 85780 153 9
  2. ^ a b Flight International, 3-9 October 2006
  3. ^ Nærland, Mina Hauge (2006-01-19). "Slovakisk militærfly styrtet" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet.no (DB Medialab). http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2006/01/19/455287.html. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  4. ^ RTÉ News, Ireland (2007-06-24). "Angkor Wat tourists in plane crash". RTE.ie (Radio Telefís Éireann). http://www.rte.ie/news/2007/0625/cambodia.html?rss. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  5. ^ CNN International (2007-06-25). "Tourists missing as plane crashes". Associated Press. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/06/25/cambodia.plane.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  6. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Yakutia AN24 at Yakutsk on Feb 4th 2010, rejected takeoff, presumably early gear retraction". Aviation Herald. http://avherald.com/h?article=426cc69e&opt=0. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  • Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. “Antonov's Turboprop Twins”. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1 85780 153 9

External links


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