Anxiety disorder: Wikis

  

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Anxiety disorder
Classification and external resources

The Scream (Norwegian: Skrik) an Expressionist painting by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch depicts an episode of extreme anxiety that Munch felt.
ICD-10 F40.-F42.
ICD-9 300
DiseasesDB 787
eMedicine med/152
MeSH D001008
.Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal and pathological fear and anxiety which only came under the aegis of psychiatry at the very end of the 19th century.^ Phobias can occur in several different forms.
  • Rimrock Foundation - Anxiety Disorders role in addictions such as alcoholism, drug addiction, compulsive gambling and eating disorders. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.rimrock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are different types of anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's the difference between anxiety and an anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

[1] .Current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize a wide variety of anxiety disorders.^ Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric disorders.

^ Psychiatric Disorders/Anxiety disorders/Panic Disorder .
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Anxiety disorders/Panic Disorder - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TABLE 1 Diagnostic Criteria for 300.02 Generalized Anxiety Disorder .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Recent surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans may be affected by one or more of them.^ Anxiety disorders affect more than 23 million Americans, and as many as 25% of all American adults experience intense anxiety at sometime in their lives.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stress can even lead to behaviors that may aggravate symptoms of certain conditions, such as acid reflux disease, which affects more than 7 million Americans.

^ Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), which affects about 6.8 million Americans (3.1 percent), and it affects twice as many women as men.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Contents

Diagnosis

.Anxiety disorders are often debilitating chronic conditions, which can be present from an early age or begin suddenly after a triggering event.^ This anxiety disorder is triggered by a traumatic event.

^ Social anxiety disorder often begins in early adolescence or even younger.
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder is a chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC quiz.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.They are prone to flare up at times of high stress and are frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms such as headache, sweating, muscle spasms, palpitations, and hypertension, which in some cases lead to fatigue or even exhaustion.^ In some cases they become housebound.

^ The main symptom is excessive and persistent worry, causing feelings of being keyed up all the time, being easily tired, having difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and sleep problems.
  • Young Adult Health - Health Topics - Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Persistent symptoms of this disorder occur after experiencing a trauma such as abuse, natural disasters, or extreme violence.
  • Virginia Commission on Youth - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC coy.state.va.us [Source type: Academic]

.Although in casual discourse the words anxiety and fear are often used interchangeably, in clinical usage, they have distinct meanings; anxiety is defined as an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause is either not readily identified or perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable, whereas fear is an emotional and physiological response to a recognized external threat.^ If anxiety and fear are adaptive emotions, when do they become anxiety disorders?
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety is a response to a danger or threat.

^ It can signal that a threat is present, and trigger a fear response or anxiety.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term anxiety disorder, however, includes fears (phobias) as well as anxieties.^ Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) .
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ What is social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder?
  • NewsRx - Anxiety Disorders News Articles 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.newsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most anxiety disorders, especially the phobias, respond well to treatment.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with other mental disorders, particularly clinical depression, which may occur in as many as 60% of people with anxiety disorders.^ Can an anxiety disorder result from mental abuse?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Other anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety Disorders | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Clinical Research Unit for anxiety and depression.
  • Young Adult Health - Health Topics - Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that there is considerable overlap between symptoms of anxiety and depression, and that the same environmental triggers can provoke symptoms in either condition, may help to explain this high rate of comorbidity.^ Then there are the physical conditions that may give rise to anxiety.

^ There are frequently comorbid conditions, especially depression, that may need treating too.
  • Generalised Anxiety Disorder | Doctor | Patient UK 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The link between anxiety and depression .
  • Anxiety Attacks and Disorders: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Studies have also indicated that anxiety disorders are more likely among those with family history of anxiety disorders, especially certain types.^ There are different types of anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety Attacks and Disorders: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What types of anxiety disorders are there?
  • NewsRx - Anxiety Disorders News Articles 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.newsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.Sexual dysfunction also often accompanies anxiety disorders, although it is difficult to determine whether anxiety causes the sexual dysfunction, or whether they arise from a common cause.^ But for many people, they are the root cause of their anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety disorders, Panic Attacks, treated with New Therapy Approach 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.emdr-therapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinicians often have difficulty determining whether alcoholism or anxiety is the primary disorder.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How Common are these Causes of Anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most common manifestations in individuals with anxiety disorder are avoidance of intercourse, premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction among men and pain during intercourse among women.^ Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric disorders.

^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder, affecting 2 to 3 percent of the population.
  • Johns Hopkins: Symptoms|Remedies on Generalized Anxiety Disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.johnshopkinshealthalerts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sexual dysfunction is particularly common among people affected by panic disorder (who may fear that a panic attack will occur during sexual arousal) and posttraumatic stress disorder.^ (It should be noted that panic attacks occur with other anxiety disorders, including phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stresses that may contribute to the onset of panic attacks are: .
  • Anxiety disorders, Panic Attacks, treated with New Therapy Approach 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.emdr-therapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panic attacks and their symptoms are associated with panic disorder.

[5]

Causes and contributing factors

Neuromolecular

.Low levels of GABA, a neurotransmitter that reduces activity in the central nervous system, contribute to anxiety.^ Contrast with central nervous system .
  • ASAP Dictionary of Anxiety and Panic Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxiety-panic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Definitive pathophysiologic mechanisms have not yet been determined, but anxiety symptoms and the resulting disorders are believed to be due to disrupted modulation within the central nervous system.

^ Specifically, deficiencies involving the central nervous system's inhibitory neurotransmitters, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glycine, appear to be involved in the development of anxiety disorders, while other neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine have been more closely linked to depression.

A number of anxiolytics achieve their effect by modulating the GABA receptors.[6] [7] [8]
.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the drugs most commonly used to treat depression, are also frequently considered as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders.^ The reason for this being that the drugs available to treat anxiety are also the same drugs used to treat depression as well.

^ Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric disorders.

^ Medications used to treat anxiety disorders include: .
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .A recent study using functional brain imaging techniques suggests that the effects of SSRIs in alleviating anxiety may result from a direct action on GABA neurons rather than as a secondary consequence of mood improvement.^ Caffeine and nicotine also may have an effect on anxiety.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC quiz.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.studentnews.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, recent studies of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that people with OCD had significantly less white matter than control subjects, suggesting a widely distributed brain abnormality in OCD. Imaging studies are also looking at how brain structure may be related to PTSD. For instance, a part of the brain involved in emotion, called the hippocampus, tends to be smaller in some people with PTSD. Researchers are also trying to decipher whether that is a result of extreme stress responses related to the trauma or whether people who already have a smaller hippocampus are more prone to PTSD. .
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of note, preliminary studies of some of the newer antipsychotic drugs suggest that they may have fewer side effects than conventional antipsychotics such as haloperidol, but controlled studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about any possible advantages in safety and efficacy over traditional agents.
  • Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 3 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.surgeongeneral.gov [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.Severe anxiety and depression are commonly induced by sustained alcohol abuse which in most cases abates with prolonged abstinence.^ Major depression, alcohol abuse .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The MAOIs most commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders are phenelzine (Nardil®), followed by tranylcypromine (Parnate®), and isocarboxazid (Marplan®), which are useful in treating panic disorder and social phobia.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the past 15 years, I have suffered from post-traumatic stress, along with anxiety and depression as a result of severe and prolonged childhood sexual and ritual abuse.
  • Think Right Now! - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thinkrightnow.com [Source type: General]

.Even moderate, sustained alcohol use may increase anxiety and depression levels in some individuals.^ Some individuals may be able to use the book to deal with the OCD by themselves.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression or other anxiety disorders may accompany OCD,2,4 and some people with OCD also have eating disorders.6 In addition, people with OCD may avoid situations in which they might have to confront their obsessions, or they may try unsuccessfully to use alcohol or drugs to calm themselves.4,5 If OCD grows severe enough, it can keep someone from holding down a job or from carrying out normal responsibilities at home.

^ Some individuals may even have a biological propensity for specific fears, for instance of spiders or snakes, that can be triggered and perpetuated after a single first exposure.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Caffeine, alcohol and benzodiazepines can worsen or cause anxiety and panic attacks.^ Technorati Tags: anxiety attacks , panic attack , panic attacks .

^ Alcohol and drug use and even caffeine or nicotine use can cause or worsen anxiety.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC quiz.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Generalized anxiety disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.studentnews.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Anxiety can also give rise to panic attacks.

[12] .In one study in 1988–1990,[13] illness in approximately half of patients attending mental health services at one British hospital psychiatric clinic, for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or social phobia, was determined to be the result of alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence.^ Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric disorders.

^ Can an anxiety disorder result from mental abuse?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Awareness of illness in patients with bipolar I disorder with or without comorbid anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety and Bipolar Disorder 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.In these patients, cessation of their anxiety symptoms corresponded with stopping the use of the benzodiazepine or alcohol.^ In certain instances, the symptoms of anxiety can rebound after these medications are stopped.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cessation of chronic use of sedative-hypnotics, such as alcohol and the benzodiazepines, can cause an acute sedative-hypnotic withdrawal.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Benzodiazepines are also considered generally unsafe for use during pregnancy and have the potential for abuse in patients with substance dependence.

.Intoxication from stimulants is likely to be associated with repetitive panic attacks.^ Panic attacks and their symptoms are associated with panic disorder.

^ This tactic will truly help you with fear of public speaking and panic attacks you have associated with them.

^ The associated symptoms vary in intensity, ranging from mild and tolerable anxiety to a full-blown panic attack.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.There is evidence that chronic exposure to organic solvents in the work environment can be associated with anxiety disorders.^ There are different types of anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What types of anxiety disorders are there?
  • NewsRx - Anxiety Disorders News Articles 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.newsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an association between ADHD and anxiety disorders.
  • Virginia Commission on Youth - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC coy.state.va.us [Source type: Academic]

.Painting, varnishing and carpet laying are some of the jobs in which significant exposure to organic solvents may occur.^ Some individuals may even have a biological propensity for specific fears, for instance of spiders or snakes, that can be triggered and perpetuated after a single first exposure.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women are more likely than men to develop PTSD. 7 It can occur at any age, including childhood, 8 and there is some evidence that susceptibility to PTSD may run in families.

^ Be aware that some medications are effective in anxiety disorders only as long as they are taken regularly, and symptoms may occur again when the medications are discontinued.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Amygdala

.The amygdala is central to the processing of fear and anxiety, and its function may be disrupted in anxiety disorders.^ If your life is disrupted by this kind of fear, you may have social anxiety disorder.
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Social Anxiety disorder May 9, 2009 .
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Definitive pathophysiologic mechanisms have not yet been determined, but anxiety symptoms and the resulting disorders are believed to be due to disrupted modulation within the central nervous system.

[15] Sensory information enters the amgydala through the nuclei of the basolateral complex (consisting of lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei). .The basolateral complex processes sensory related fear memories, and communicate their threat importance to memory and sensory processing elsewhere in the brain, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices.^ The amygdala is an almond-shaped structure deep in the brain that is believed to be a communications hub between the parts of the brain that process incoming sensory signals and the parts that interpret these signals.
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies in animals and humans have focused on pinpointing the specific brain areas and circuits involved in anxiety and fear, which underlie anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prefrontal Cortex - the anterior (frontal) cortex of the brain's frontal lobe .
  • ASAP Dictionary of Anxiety and Panic Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxiety-panic.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another important area is the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, which controls species-specific fear responses, via connections to the brainstem, hypothalamus, and cerebellum areas.^ It has been found that the body's fear response is coordinated by a small structure deep inside the brain, called the amygdala .
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if specific neurotransmitters are found to play an important role in fear, drugs may be developed that will block them and decrease fear responses.
  • Anxiety Disorders - Medpedia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The release of cortisol is controlled by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, where corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is released in response to the stress.

.In those with general anxiety disorder, these connections functionally seem to be less distinct, with greater gray matter in the central nucleus.^ Medication for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Children and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control general stimulus salience, while having greater connectivity with the parietal cortex and prefrontal cortex circuits that underlie executive functions.^ Imaging tools are being developed to allow researchers to peer into the living brain and watch the amygdala, the cortex and other areas of the brain at work.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also noted decreased absolute metabolic activity in the area of the basal ganglion, the cingulate gyrus, the temporal lobes, the amygdala, and the hippocampus of these patients.

^ Lifestyle and home remedies While most people with generalized anxiety disorder need psychotherapy or medications to get anxiety under control, lifestyle changes also can make a difference.

[15] .The latter suggests a compensation strategy for dysfunctional amygdala processing of anxiety.^ The amygdala, although relatively small, is a very complicated structure, and recent research suggests that anxiety disorders may be associated with abnormal activation in the amygdala.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researchers have noted "Amygdalofrontoparietal coupling in generalized anxiety disorder patients may ..^ Generalized Anxiety Disorder Patients with generalized anxiety disorder may experience extreme and constant anxiety or unrealistic worry.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus .

reflect the habitual engagement of a cognitive control system to regulate excessive anxiety."[15] .This is consistent with cognitive theories that suggest the use in this disorder of attempts to reduce the involvement of emotions with compensatory cognitive strategies.^ Treatments for anxiety disorders vary, with both therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, used.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SY-koh-THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment of mental, emotional, personality, and behavioral disorders using methods such as discussion, listening, and counseling.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is very useful in treating anxiety disorders.
  • NewsRx - Anxiety Disorders News Articles 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.newsrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clinical and animal studies suggest a correlation between anxiety disorders and difficulty in maintaining balance.^ What's the difference between anxiety and an anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ In: the clinical management of anxiety disorders.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hospitals & Clinics: Anxiety disorder .
  • Anxiety disorder - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .[17] [18] [19] A possible mechanism is malfunction in the parabrachial nucleus, a brain structure that, among other functions, coordinates signals from the amygdala with input concerning balance.^ The arousal center of the brain --an almond-shaped structure called the amygdala – is so overstimulated that it puts the body in a relentless state of alertness.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Generalized anxiety and panic disorder, however, are associated with the amygdala, a part of the brain that regulates fear, memory, and emotion and coordinates them with heart rate, blood pressure, and other physical responses to stressful events.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been found that the body's fear response is coordinated by a small structure deep inside the brain, called the amygdala .
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
Anxiety processing in the basolateral amygdala has been implicated with dendritic arborization of the amygdaloid neurons. SK2 potassium channels mediate inhibitory influence on action potentials and reduce arborization. .By overexpressing SK2 in the basolateral amygdala, anxiety in experimental animals can reduced together with general levels of stress-induced corticosterone secretion.^ Mathew et al have reported that patients with generalized anxiety disorders have higher plasma catecholamine levels than normal controls.

^ Before each session is over, the therapist helps reduce the patient's anxiety levels so that the patient does not leave the session feeling emotionally vulnerable.
  • Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Trauma - Information on Anxiety and Other Anxiety Related Mental Health Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety disorder includes adjustment disorder , panic disorder, phobias , obsessive-compulsive disorder , post-traumatic stress disorder , generalized anxiety disorder , and anxiety disorder caused by other general medical conditions.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[21]

Stress

.Later in life, anxiety disorder can arise in response to life stresses such as financial worries or chronic physical illness.^ Anxiety is expressed physically through a series of responses such as: .
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trauma later on in life can also induce anxiety disorder or worsen its effects.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everything from the ability to concentrate, perceive and learn to debilitating illnesses such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, post-traumatic stress syndrome and schizophrenia is influenced by the number of receptors on nerve cells.

.Somewhere between 4% and 10% of older adults are diagnosed with anxiety disorder, a figure which is probably an underestimate due to the tendency of adults to minimize psychiatric problems or to focus on their physical manifestations.^ What's the difference between anxiety and an anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Anxiety disorders affect more than 23 million Americans, and as many as 25% of all American adults experience intense anxiety at sometime in their lives.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, there may be an association between social anxiety disorder and parents who are more controlling or protective of their children.
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Anxiety is also common among older people who have dementia.^ They often start mildly and progress, although GAD appears to be the most common form of anxiety in older ages.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with anxiety disorders who have already received treatment should tell their current doctor about that treatment in detail.
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For people who have anxiety disorders the best treatment that you can get is from your doctor.

.On the other hand, anxiety disorder is sometimes misdiagnosed among older adults when doctors misinterpret symptoms of a physical ailment (for instance, racing heartbeat due to cardiac arrhythmia) as signs of anxiety.^ Other anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety Disorders | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Conditions listing symptoms: Anxiety disorder: .
  • Anxiety disorder - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Social anxiety disorder can have emotional, behavioral and physical signs and symptoms.
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[22]

Types

Generalized anxiety disorder

.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic disorder characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation.^ Medication for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) involves anxiety and worry that is excessive and unrelenting.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Children and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

.Those suffering from generalized anxiety experience non-specific persistent fear and worry and become overly concerned with everyday matters.^ Worry about a specific concern .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Persistent Anxiety - see generalized anxiety disorder .
  • ASAP Dictionary of Anxiety and Panic Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxiety-panic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many people who experience panic attacks live in fear of having another panic attack; in extreme cases, they become afraid to leave their homes.
  • anxiety-anxiety attack symptoms¦causes of anxiety attacks ¦anxiety symptoms¦test anxiety¦ Order Natural Remedies for Anxiety and Anxiety Tests Online 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults.^ Medication for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Children and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Panic disorder

.In panic disorder, a person suffers from brief attacks of intense terror and apprehension, often marked by trembling, shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing.^ Some common physical symptoms of anxiety are as follows: *Shortness of breath *Chest pains *Heart palpitations *Headaches *Nausea *Tremors *Increased blood pressure *Pupil dilation Some of the emotional effects of anxiety disorder: *Feelings of terror for no apparent reason *Sensation that one's life is in danger *Fear or hopelessness for the future *General, undefined apprehension *Insomnia *Nightmares With acute anxiety, the onset of symptoms can be sudden and often debilitating - this is what is known as a panic attack.
  • anxiety-anxiety attack symptoms¦causes of anxiety attacks ¦anxiety symptoms¦test anxiety¦ Order Natural Remedies for Anxiety and Anxiety Tests Online 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panic Disorder Panic Attack Symptoms: Pounding heart Chest pains Light-headedness or dizziness Nausea or stomach problems Flushes or chills Shortness of breath or a feeling of smothering or choking Tingling or numbness Shaking or trembling Feelings of unreality Terror A feeling of being out of control or going crazy Fear of dying Sweating Phobias An intense and irrational fear of an object or situation typically leading to avoidance although the feared object or situation may be endured with dread.
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: anxiety , anxiety attacks , depression , panic attacks , panic disorder — admin @ 3:59 pm A panic anxiety disorder is recognized by specific physical reactions that are normal in the presence of a real life threat such as limb shaking, heavy sweating, accelerated heart beat, terror, confusion, pupil dilation, shortness of breath, the impulse to scream or run and so on.

.These panic attacks, defined by the APA as fear or discomfort that abruptly arises and peaks in less than ten minutes, can last for several hours and can be triggered by stress, fear, or even exercise; although the specific cause is not always apparent.^ Panic attacks can onset quickly and last for seconds or minutes.

^ Agoraphobia is caused by a fear of having a panic attack in public.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I got help, severity of the panic attacks and hope.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to recurrent unexpected panic attacks, a diagnosis of panic disorder also requires that said attacks have chronic consequences: either worry over the attacks' potential implications, persistent fear of future attacks, or significant changes in behavior related to the attacks.^ Persistent panic attacks, including unexpected, uncued ones, and persistent dread of further attacks coupled with behavioral change, including avoidance behavior, is what constitutes panic disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But an isolated panic attack unaccompanied by a persistent fear of further attacks does not constitute panic disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A panic disorder consists of episodes of panic attacks followed by a period of persistent fear of the recurrence of more panic attacks.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

.Accordingly, those suffering from panic disorder experience symptoms even outside specific panic episodes.^ I investigated the possibility I suffer from some type of "chemical disorder" or the like and came to the conclusion I have PMDD. In the case of PMDD, one can experience episodes of panic, anxiety, depression, rage at varying times during the month.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many people with panic disorder develop intense anxiety between episodes.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distress of severe panic disorder is comparable to the worst of human experiences.
  • ASAP Dictionary of Anxiety and Panic Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxiety-panic.com [Source type: Reference]

.Often, normal changes in heartbeat are noticed by a panic sufferer, leading them to think something is wrong with their heart or they are about to have another panic attack.^ It is often difficult to distinguish between a heart condition and a panic attack.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If this happens it may lead to a panic attack.

^ You are about to have a panic attack.

In some cases, a heightened awareness (hypervigilance) of body functioning occurs during panic attacks, wherein any perceived physiological change is interpreted as a possible life threatening illness (i.e. extreme hypochondriasis) .

Phobias

.The single largest category of anxiety disorders is that of phobic disorders, which include all cases in which fear and anxiety is triggered by a specific stimulus or situation.^ All anxiety disorders involve persistent, disproportionate, impairing fear and anxiety.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some individuals may even have a biological propensity for specific fears, for instance of spiders or snakes, that can be triggered and perpetuated after a single first exposure.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common, everyday experiences that may be difficult to endure when you have social anxiety disorder include: .
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Sufferers typically anticipate terrifying consequences from encountering the object of their fear, which can be anything from an animal to a location to a bodily fluid.^ The person gradually encounters the object or situation that is feared, perhaps at first only through pictures or tapes, then later face-to-face.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An encounter with the phobic object or situation almost always triggers a very intense fear reaction.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specific phobia, also called single or simple phobia, describes the onset of intense, excessive, or unreasonable fear, stimulated by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

Agoraphobia

.Agoraphobia is the specific anxiety about being in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing.^ Agoraphobia is the fear of being caught in a situation from which a graceful and speedy escape would be impossible, difficult, or embarrassing.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About one-third of people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia, an illness in which they become afraid of being in any place or situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable if they have a panic attack.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About one-third of people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia, an illness in which they become afraid of being in any place or situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of a panic attack.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Agoraphobia is strongly linked with panic disorder and is often precipitated by the fear of having a panic attack.^ Panic disorder/agoraphobia and thyroid disease .

^ Agoraphobia is caused by a fear of having a panic attack in public.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early treatment of panic disorder can often prevent agoraphobia.

A common manifestation involves needing to be in constant view of a door or other escape route. .In addition to the fears themselves, the term agoraphobia is often used to refer to avoidance behaviors that sufferers often develop.^ In addition, people with OCD may avoid situations in which they might have to confront their obsessions, or they may try unsuccessfully to use alcohol or drugs to calm themselves.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various states may be mistakenly called anxiety, and people often use terms such as "panic attack" to describe nonpsychiatric states.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This avoidance may eventually develop into agoraphobia , an inability to go beyond known and safe surroundings because of intense fear and anxiety.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, following a panic attack while driving, someone suffering from agoraphobia may develop anxiety over driving and will therefore avoid driving in the future.^ For more than 40 years I have suffered from anxiety and panic attacks.
  • Think Right Now! - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thinkrightnow.com [Source type: General]

^ Can someone be fired after developing anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ A panic attack is a severe attack of anxiety and fear which occurs suddenly, often without warning, and for no apparent reason.
  • Anxiety Disorders | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

.These avoidance behaviors can often have serious consequences; in severe cases, one can even be confined to one's home.^ While adults with phobias realize that these fears are irrational, they often find that facing, or even thinking about facing, the feared object or situation brings on a panic attack or severe anxiety.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders » Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stress-anxiety-depression.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many therapists use a combination of Cognitive and Behavior Therapies, this is often referred to as CBT. One of the benefits of these types therapies is that the patient learns recovery skills that are useful for a lifetime.

^ Eventually, I ended up staying within the confines of my home for several days at a time without ever leaving.
  • Think Right Now! - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thinkrightnow.com [Source type: General]

Social anxiety disorder

.Social anxiety disorder (SAD; also known as social phobia) describes an intense fear of negative public scrutiny or of public embarrassment or humiliation.^ Social phobia is the fear of being publicly scrutinized and humiliated.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How to overcome social anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Social phobia is a fear of being painfully embarrassed in a social setting.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC telosnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This fear can be specific to particular social situations (such as public speaking) or, more typically, is experienced in most (or all) social interactions.^ The social phobia may be quite specific (for example, public speaking) or may become generalized to all social situations.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Feel confident in public and social situations.

^ A specific phobia is a fear of a particular object or situation.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC telosnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social anxiety often manifests specific physical symptoms, including blushing, sweating, and difficulty speaking.^ Social anxiety disorder can have emotional, behavioral and physical signs and symptoms.
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Physical symptoms often accompany the intense anxiety of social phobia and include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking.

^ Symptoms: Physical symptoms often accompany social anxiety, and include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and stammering.

.Like with all phobic disorders, those suffering from social anxiety often will attempt to avoid the source of their anxiety; in the case of social anxiety this is particularly problematic, and in severe cases can lead to complete social isolation.^ I am suffering from social anxiety disorder for a few years now.
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Social anxiety disorder often first appears in your teens.
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Anxiety disorders are all 100% treatable.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

.Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder primarily characterized by repetitive obsessions (distressing, persistent, and intrusive thoughts or images) and compulsions (urges to perform specific acts or rituals).^ There are different types of anxiety disorders .
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disturbing thoughts or images are called obsessions, and the rituals that are performed to try to prevent or get rid of them are called compulsions.

^ Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by anxious thoughts or rituals you feel you can't control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC telosnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The OCD thought pattern may be likened to superstitions insofar as it involves a belief in a causative relationship where, in reality, one does not exist.^ (PA-nik) Sudden extreme anxiety or fear that may cause irrational thoughts or actions.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, mechanisms causing OCD may be generated in part by the striatum, the portion of the brain involved with motor control.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helping the individual realize that life doesn't have to be boring just because one isn't always worrying or doing things may also help.
  • Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Trauma - Information on Anxiety and Other Anxiety Related Mental Health Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often the process is entirely illogical; for example, the compulsion of walking in a certain pattern may be employed to alleviate the obsession of impending harm.^ Obsessions may often involve thoughts which seem unacceptable to the individual, so that he or she feels ashamed.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However some children, particularly young ones, may not have the cognitive capacity to understand the nature of the obsessions or compulsions.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On occasion, however, the person may be convinced that their obsessions/compulsions are reasonable.
  • Anxiety disorders -Mental health and Psychiatry articles- 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.health.am [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And in many cases, the compulsion is entirely inexplicable, simply an urge to complete a ritual triggered by nervousness.^ The standard treatment for OCD involves exposure to obsession-triggering stimuli coupled with response prevention (refraining from performing compulsive rituals).
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, since the "danger" is typically irrational or imaginary, it simply returns, thereby triggering another cycle of the briefly reassuring compulsions.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a slight minority of cases, sufferers of OCD may only experience obsessions, with no overt compulsions; a much smaller number of sufferers experience only compulsions.^ People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , an anxiety disorder, suffer intensely from recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they cannot control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard treatment for OCD involves exposure to obsession-triggering stimuli coupled with response prevention (refraining from performing compulsive rituals).
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, people with OCD may avoid situations in which they might have to confront their obsessions, or they may try unsuccessfully to use alcohol or drugs to calm themselves.

[25]

Post-traumatic stress disorder

.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder which results from a traumatic experience.^ I suffer from depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress syndrome.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having cancer may also lead to post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I was finally properly diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Post-traumatic stress can result from an extreme situation, such as combat, natural disaster, rape, hostage situations, more serious kinds of child abuse, or even a serious accident.^ Post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the past 15 years, I have suffered from post-traumatic stress, along with anxiety and depression as a result of severe and prolonged childhood sexual and ritual abuse.
  • Think Right Now! - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thinkrightnow.com [Source type: General]

^ These include violent attacks such as mugging, rape or torture; being kidnapped or held captive; child abuse; serious accidents such as car or train wrecks; and natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can also result from long term (chronic) exposure to a severe stressor,[26] for example soldiers who endure individual battles but cannot cope with continuous combat.^ Generally, patients who present with acute anxiety or those with chronic anxiety who undergo a new stressor ("double anxiety") should receive benzodiazepine therapy for several weeks.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditional long-term psychotherapy can cause patients anxiety, especially patients who were traumatized during some part of their lives.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of animals indicate that such damage may result from long term exposure to cortisolthe major stress hormone.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.Common symptoms include hypervigilance, flashbacks, avoidant behaviors, anxiety, anger and depression.^ Symptoms of Separation Anxiety disorder in children vary, but common symptoms can include: .
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The differential diagnosis of agoraphobia and social phobia includes avoidance behaviors that occur as a part of depression, schizophrenia, paranoia, other anxiety disorders, and some organic mental disorders.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, sedative-hypnotic subacute withdrawal often includes such symptoms as bursts of anxiety, insomnia, and irritability.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

[25]

Separation anxiety

.Separation anxiety disorder (SepAD) is the feeling of excessive and inappropriate levels of anxiety over being separated from a person or place.^ Mathew et al have reported that patients with generalized anxiety disorders have higher plasma catecholamine levels than normal controls.

^ People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , an anxiety disorder, suffer intensely from recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they cannot control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before each session is over, the therapist helps reduce the patient's anxiety levels so that the patient does not leave the session feeling emotionally vulnerable.
  • Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Trauma - Information on Anxiety and Other Anxiety Related Mental Health Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Separation anxiety itself is a normal part of development in babies or children, and it is only when this feeling is excessive or inappropriate that it can be considered a disorder.^ Until a child reaches the age 3 or 4 years, Separation Anxiety disorder in children is considered routine and a healthy part of development.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of Separation Anxiety disorder in children vary, but common symptoms can include: .
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, these extrapolations may be highly inaccurate (especially for developing or third-world countries) and only give a general indication (or even a meaningless indication) as to the actual prevalence or incidence of Generalized anxiety disorder in that region.
  • Statistics by Country for Generalized anxiety disorder - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

[27] .Separation anxiety disorder affects roughly 7% of adults and 4% of children, but the childhood cases tend to be more severe, in some instances even a brief separation can produce panic.^ Symptoms of Separation Anxiety disorder in children vary, but common symptoms can include: .
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Brief overview of anxiety disorders."
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MAOIs most commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders are phenelzine (Nardil®), followed by tranylcypromine (Parnate®), and isocarboxazid (Marplan®), which are useful in treating panic disorder and social phobia.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28][29]

Treatment

.The most important clinical point to emerge from studies of social anxiety disorder is the benefit of early diagnosis and treatment.^ I have had social anxiety disorder since I was 7.
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Treatment is available for people with anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most anxiety disorders, especially the phobias, respond well to treatment.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.Social anxiety disorder remains under-recognized in primary care practice, with patients often presenting for treatment only after the onset of complications such as clinical depression or substance abuse disorders.^ Can an anxiety disorder result from mental abuse?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus .

^ Other anxiety disorders, depression, or substance abuse often accompany GAD, which rarely occurs alone.
  • Anxiety Disorders Explained | Womens Health Base 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Treatment options available include lifestyle changes; psychotherapy, especially cognitive behavioral therapy; and pharmaceutical therapy.^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Group therapy) .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments for OCD include medications and behavioral therapy, a specific type of psychotherapy.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Education, reassurance and some form of cognitive-behavioral therapy should almost always be used in treatment.^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Group therapy) .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy (desensitization therapy), hypnosis .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Research has provided evidence for the efficacy of two forms of treatment available for social phobia: certain medications and a specific form of short-term psychotherapy called Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), the central component being gradual exposure therapy.^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral group therapy vs phenelzine therapy for social phobia: long-term outcome.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Psychotherapy

.Research has shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be highly effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia.^ Treatments for anxiety disorders vary, with both therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, used.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[30] .CBT, as its name suggests, has two main components, cognitive and behavioral.^ Treatments for anxiety disorders vary, with both therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, used.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The behavioral component of CBT seeks to change people's reactions to anxiety-provoking situations.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cases of social anxiety, the cognitive component can help the patient question how they can be so sure that others are continually watching and harshly judging him or her.^ Similarly, a person with social phobia might be helped to overcome the belief that others are continually watching and harshly judging him or her.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to overcome social anxiety disorder?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Shy people can be very uneasy around others, but they don't experience the extreme anxiety in anticipating a social situation, and they don't necessarily avoid circumstances that make them feel self-conscious.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC telosnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The behavioral component seeks to change people's reactions to anxiety-provoking situations.^ The behavioral component of CBT seeks to change people's reactions to anxiety-provoking situations.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , an anxiety disorder, suffer intensely from recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they cannot control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social phobia is characterized by intense anxiety provoked by social or performance situations.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.As such it serves as a logical extension of cognitive therapy, whereby people are shown proof in the real world that their dysfunctional thought processes are unrealistic.^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive therapy works on the principle that the thoughts that produce and maintain anxiety can be recognized objectively and altered, thereby changing the response and eliminating the anxiety reaction.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on identifying and modifying the faulty thoughts and assumptions that keep a person stuck in the anxiety pattern.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A key element of this component is gradual exposure, in which the patient is confronted by the things they fear in a structured, sensitive manner.^ A key element of this component is exposure, in which people confront the things they fear.

^ A key element of this component is exposure , in which people confront the things they fear.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gradual exposure to feared situations Involves gradual reentry into feared social situations to reduce the anxiety that they engender .
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Gradual exposure is an inherently unpleasant technique; ideally it involves exposure to a feared social situation that is anxiety provoking but bearable, for as long as possible, two to three times a week.^ Social phobia is characterized by intense anxiety provoked by social or performance situations.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gradual exposure to feared situations Involves gradual reentry into feared social situations to reduce the anxiety that they engender .
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In any social situation, I felt fear.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, a hierarchy of feared steps is constructed and the patient is exposed to each step sequentially.^ This method is particularly relevant for social phobia, because patients often avoid volunteering their fears face-to-face.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By repeatedly exposing the patient to the feared object or situation, either literally or using imagination, the patient experiences the anxiety over and over until the stimulating event eventually loses its effect.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The patient with agoraphobia often makes complicated plans in order to avoid confronting feared situations and places.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

The aim is to learn from acting differently and observing reactions. .This is intended to be done with support and guidance, and when the therapist and patient feel they are ready.^ Often the therapist will accompany him or her to provide support and guidance.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often the therapist will accompany the person to a feared situation to provide support and guidance.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia also includes anxiety management training, which may include techniques such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation exercises, which may be practiced 'in-situ'. CBT can also be conducted partly in group sessions, facilitating the sharing of experiences, a sense of acceptance by others and undertaking behavioral challenges in a trusted environment (Heimberg).^ Social phobia is characterized by intense anxiety provoked by social or performance situations.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy .
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive-behavioral group therapy vs phenelzine therapy for social phobia: long-term outcome.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some studies have suggested social skills training can help with social anxiety[31].^ Interestingly, longitudinal data show that social phobia precedes approximately 70 percent of these comorbid conditions, 3 suggesting that some comorbid conditions arise in response to the phobia.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some children are more anxious than others and may need additional reassurance or help from a professional, especially if an Anxiety disorder is suspected.
  • Anxiety in Children - Treating Child Anxiety Disorders Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have also indicated that fluvoxamine and paroxetine may even help some people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, it is not clear whether specific social skills techniques and training are required, rather than just support with general social functioning and exposure to social situations.^ Gradual exposure to feared situations Involves gradual reentry into feared social situations to reduce the anxiety that they engender .
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In another sort of exposure exercise, a person with social phobia may be encouraged to spend time in feared social situations without giving in to the temptation to flee.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The social phobia may be quite specific (for example, public speaking) or may become generalized to all social situations.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.Additionally, a recent study has suggested that interpersonal therapy, a form of psychotherapy primarily used to treat depression, may also be effective in the treatment of social phobia.^ Group therapy is particularly effective for people with social phobia.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group therapy is particularly effective for social phobia.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment, and treatment.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[33]

Pharmacological treatments

.When medication is indicated SSRIs, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are generally recommended as first line agents.^ They include Fluoxetine (brand name Prozac) Fluvoxamine (brand name Luvox) Paroxetine (brand name Paxil) and Sertraline (brand name Zoloft).
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-depressant drugs – which include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), imipramine (Tofranil), and escitalopram (Lexapro) adjust the neurotransmitter levels in your brain to try and relieve anxiety.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The antidepressants fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft) and the antianxiety medication buspirone (BuSpar) are relatively new medications that can be used to treat symptoms of anxiety disorders, have good safety profiles, are not euphorigenic, and have few drug interaction cautions.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

SNRIs such as venlafaxine (Effexor) are also effective. .Benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin) and diazepam (Valium) are also sometimes indicated for short-term or PRN use.^ Benzodiazepines may be indicated over the short term.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Benzodiazepines like alprazolam (Xanax) and clonazepam (Klonopin) have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for years.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The benzodiazepines most likely to be abused are those that are rapidly absorbed such as diazepam, lorazepam (Ativan) and alprazolam (Xanax).
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.They are usually considered as a second line treatment due to disadvantages such as cognitive impairment and due to their risks of dependence and withdrawal problems.^ The risk of dependence increases as the dosage and the duration of treatment increases, but it can occur even when appropriate dosages are used continuously for three months.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacologic Treatment Pharmacologic therapy should be considered for patients whose anxiety results in significant impairment in daily functioning.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They can cause a fever and other problems, depending on where the infection occurs.
  • Anxiety Disorder - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Other medications commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders include GABA analogues such as gabapentin (Neurontin) or pregabalin (Lyrica), MAOIs such as phenelzine (Nardil) or tranylcypromine (Parnate), as well as the novel antidepressant mirtazapine (Remeron).^ Psychiatrists or other physicians can prescribe medications for anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications used to treat anxiety disorders include: .
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MAOIs most commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders are phenelzine (Nardil®), followed by tranylcypromine (Parnate®), and isocarboxazid (Marplan®), which are useful in treating panic disorder and social phobia.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

TCAs such as imipramine, as well as atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, and piperazines such as hydroxyzine are also occasionally prescribed.[35]
.These medications need to be used with extreme care among older adults, who are more likely to suffer side effects because of coexisting physical disorders.^ Do anti-anxiety medications have side effects?
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should your child present with these symptoms, a medical practitioner will give him or her a physical examination and obtain a complete medical history to rule out any possible medical conditions that may result in similar symptoms such as thyroid problems or side-effects of some conventional drugs or medication.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children - Treat Separation Anxiety Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is especially true for children with over-protective or overly anxious parents (who themselves may suffer from an anxiety disorder).
  • Anxiety in Children - Treating Child Anxiety Disorders Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adherence problems are more likely among elderly patients, who may have difficulty understanding, seeing, or remembering instructions.^ Patients who use benzodiazepines chronically tend to be elderly, to be in psychologic distress and to have multiple medical problems.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be conducted individually or with a group of people who have similar problems.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversely, patients with anxiety disorders are more likely than others to develop a medical illness, 6,7 and the presence of an anxiety disorder may prolong the course of a medical illness.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]

SSRIs

.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of antidepressants, are considered by many to be the first choice medication for generalised social phobia.^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs, are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.

^ MAOIs = monoamine oxidase inhibitors; SSRIs = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.These drugs elevate the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin, among other effects.^ These medications may affect how other drugs are broken down in the liver.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use or withdrawal from these drugs can produce panic effects.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newer antidepressants are being specifically designed to target mechanisms that elevate serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain; some showing promise for anxiety are venlafaxine (Effexor) and nefazodone (Serzone).
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first drug formally approved by the Food and Drug Administration was paroxetine, sold as Paxil in the U.S. or Seroxat in the UK. Compared to older forms of medication, there is less risk of tolerability and drug dependency.^ Like any drug, there is a tolerance factor.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paroxetine (brand name Paxil) approved for adults.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with untreated anxiety are at risk for severe depression and for self-medication with alcohol or drugs.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] .However, their efficacy and increased suicide risk has been subject to controversy.^ In combination with depression (which is frequent), the risk for suicide is markedly increased.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when you’re scared year after year and feel out of control you are putting yourself at increasing risk of depression.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note: All antidepressants carry a black box warning concerning the increased suicide risk in adolescents and children.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a 1995 double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the SSRI paroxetine was shown to result in clinically meaningful improvement in 55% of patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, compared with 23.9% of those taking placebo.^ Can an anxiety disorder result from mental abuse?
  • Anxiety disorder can keep you from doing the things you want and need to do. Find helpful information here. 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.theanxietydisorderssite.com [Source type: General]

^ It began as social anxiety disorder as a result of childhood trauma.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] An October 2004 study yielded similar results. .Patients were treated with either fluoxetine, psychotherapy, fluoxetine and psychotherapy, placebo and psychotherapy, or a placebo.^ They demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin level in the patients treated with alprazolam compared to those receiving a placebo (P=0.04).

.The first four sets saw improvement in 50.8% to 54.2% of the patients.^ As a group, SSRIs have shown acute-treatment improvement rates ranging from 50 to 75 percent of patients.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Of those assigned to receive only a placebo, 31.7% achieved a rating of 1 or 2 on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. .Those who sought both therapy and medication did not see a boost in improvement.^ Generally, patients who present with acute anxiety or those with chronic anxiety who undergo a new stressor ("double anxiety") should receive benzodiazepine therapy for several weeks.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments for anxiety disorders vary, with both therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, used.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buspirone (BuSpar) is the drug often used in patients with chronic anxiety and those who relapse after a course of benzodiazepine therapy.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.General side-effects are common during the first weeks while the body adjusts to the drug.^ The drug can have severe side effects.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism) and does not occur exclusively during a Mood Disorder, a Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I do not abuse this wonderful herb, as I know the effects of abusing drugs first hand.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Symptoms may include headaches, nausea, insomnia and changes in sexual behavior.^ For example, sedative-hypnotic subacute withdrawal often includes such symptoms as bursts of anxiety, insomnia, and irritability.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability and insomnia, and it can be difficult to differentiate between withdrawal symptoms and the recurrence of anxiety.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical symptoms may include hyperventilation, palpitations, trembling, sweating, dizziness, hot flashes or chills, numbness or tingling, and the sensation or fear of nausea or choking.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

Treatment safety during pregnancy has not been established.[39] In late 2004 much media attention was given to a proposed link between SSRI use and juvenile suicide. .For this reason, the use of SSRIs in pediatric cases of depression is now recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as warranting a cautionary statement to the parents of children who may be prescribed SSRIs by a family doctor.^ A combination of these drugs may also be prescribed.
  • Anxiety in Children - Treating Child Anxiety Disorders Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is especially true for children with over-protective or overly anxious parents (who themselves may suffer from an anxiety disorder).
  • Anxiety in Children - Treating Child Anxiety Disorders Naturally 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It often runs in families and may be accompanied by depression or alcoholism.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC telosnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Recent studies have shown no increase in rates of suicide.^ One recent study found that parental influence played no part in obsessive-compulsive disorder when the patient was also not suffering from depression.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .These tests, however, represent those diagnosed with depression, not necessarily with social anxiety disorder.^ Often, these patients had major depression along with their anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted, however, that over half of those with GAD also have another anxiety disorder or depression.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, it should be noted that due to the nature of the conditions, those taking SSRIs for social phobias are far less likely to have suicidal ideation than those with depression.^ It should be noted, however, that over half of those with GAD also have another anxiety disorder or depression.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can benefit a range of anxiety disorders, including OCD, social phobia, PTSD, GAD, and panic disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the response is usually far less harsh than the person fears, these anxieties are lessened.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other drugs

.Although SSRIs are often the first choice for treatment, other prescription drugs are also used, sometimes only if SSRIs fail to produce any clinically significant improvement.^ But all in all it is like any other prescription drug.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paxil is the first and only controlled-release selective SSRI approved for social anxiety disorder, but your health care professional can prescribe other SSRIs "off label" for anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other forms of psychotherapycommonly called "talk" therapies deal more with childhood roots of anxiety and usually, although not always, require longer treatments.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1985, before the introduction of SSRIs, anti-depressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were frequently used in the treatment of social anxiety.^ Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors The monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) have performed well in clinical trials for treatment of generalized social phobia.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors , or MAOIs , are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their efficacy appears to be comparable or sometimes superior to SSRIs or benzodiazepines. .However, because of the dietary restrictions required, high toxicity in overdose, and incompatibilities with other drugs, its usefulness as a treatment for social phobics is now limited.^ Other forms of psychotherapycommonly called "talk" therapies deal more with childhood roots of anxiety and usually, although not always, require longer treatments.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other forms of psychotherapy, commonly called "talk" therapies, deal more with childhood roots of anxiety and usually, although not always, require longer treatments.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although some antipsychotic drugs have sedating properties, they should rarely be used as therapy for patients with GAD. 12 Beta-adrenergic agents are useful for the treatment of patients with performance anxiety (a type of social phobia) because they lower heart rate and decrease tremulousness; they do not however, decrease the worrying or other somatic symptoms associated with GAD. 12 .
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - October 1, 2000 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some argue for their continued use, however, or that a special diet does not need to be strictly adhered to.^ However, it's best to look for a professional who has specialized training in cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or behavioral therapy, as appropriate, and who is open to the use of medications, should they be needed.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, children who need medication respond to the same medications used for adults with OCD. The FDA has approved some of these medications for use in children with OCD. However, a physician may, after discussion with the family, elect to use a medication that technically is only approved for adults.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this does not calm down the patient, pharmacologic treatments can be used in some situations where the anxiety symptoms remain overwhelming and dangerous.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] .A newer type of this medication, Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase subtype A (RIMAs) inhibit the MAO enzyme only temporarily, improving the adverse-effect profile but possibly reducing their efficacy.^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors , or MAOIs , are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs, are the oldest class of antidepressant medications.

.Benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam are an alternative to SSRIs.^ Benzodiazepines include clonazepam, which is used for social phobia and GAD; alprazolam, which is helpful for panic disorder and GAD; and lorazepam, which is also useful for panic disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These drugs are often used for short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety.^ Social phobia is a highly prevalent yet often overlooked psychiatric disorder that can cause severe disability but fortunately has shown responsiveness to specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, it usually takes several days to weeks for the drug to be fully effective, and it is not useful against panic attacks.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Performing these so-called "rituals," however, provides only temporary relief, and not performing them markedly increases anxiety.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Although benzodiazepines are still sometimes prescribed for long-term everyday use in some countries, there is much concern over the development of drug tolerance, dependency and recreational abuse.^ Like any drug, there is a tolerance factor.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some who even use this as sleeping aid.

^ Some experience no withdrawal symptoms not matter how long they've been smoking while others experience severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue use.
  • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has been recommended that benzodiazepines are only considered for individuals who fail to respond to safer medications.^ Given those risks, benzodiazepines are considered for use in patients with a low risk for substance abuse who are unresponsive to alternative treatments.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, children who need medication respond to the same medications used for adults with OCD. The FDA has approved some of these medications for use in children with OCD. However, a physician may, after discussion with the family, elect to use a medication that technically is only approved for adults.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients who have recently been taking benzodiazepines may respond less well to buspirone than others.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Benzodiazepines augment the action of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain; effects usually begin to appear within minutes or hours.^ The acute panic symptoms resolved within minutes, although she was anxious for the next hour.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Usually it will take two to four months before you experience major changes although many of the symptoms will begin to fade in just three or four weeks.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although these medications begin to alter brain chemistry after the very first dose, their full effect requires a series of changes to occur; it is usually about 4 to 6 weeks before symptoms start to fade.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The novel antidepressant mirtazapine has been proven effective in treatment of social anxiety disorder.^ Effective treatments for each of the anxiety disorders have been developed through research.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, treatment for anxiety disorders is, in general, very effective.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressants were developed to treat depression but are also effective for anxiety disorders.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .This is especially significant due to mirtazapine's fast onset and lack of many unpleasant side-effects associated with SSRIs (particularly, sexual dysfunction).^ SSRIs have fewer side effects than older antidepressants, but they sometimes produce slight nausea or jitters when people first start to take them.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SSRIs tend to have fewer side effects than older antidepressants.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because many types of anti-anxiety medications are available, it is likely that one can be identified that produces the fewest side effects with best results.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Milnacipran is used in the treatment of Taijin kyofusho a Japanese variant of social anxiety disorder.^ This technique is frequently used in conjunction with other treatments for anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line medicines used to treat anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can benefit a range of anxiety disorders, including OCD, social phobia, PTSD, GAD, and panic disorder.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people with a form of social phobia called performance phobia have been helped by beta-blockers, which are more commonly used to control high blood pressure.^ The use of beta blockers as needed has been found to be helpful in the treatment of circumscribed social and performance phobias.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lower Your Blood Pressure (and more).
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social phobia can be very debilitating-it may even keep people from going to work or school on some days.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taken in low doses, they control the physical manifestation of anxiety and can be taken before a public performance.^ People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , an anxiety disorder, suffer intensely from recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they cannot control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although medications won't cure an anxiety disorder, they can keep the symptoms under control and enable you to lead a normal, fulfilling life.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beta blockers such as propranolol (Inderal) appear to be clinically effective when used in low doses (10 to 40 mg for propranolol) on an as-needed basis for mild to moderate circumscribed performance anxiety.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.A novel treatment approach has recently been developed as a result of translational research.^ Effective treatments for each of the anxiety disorders have been developed through research.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NIMH is supporting research into new treatment approaches for people whose OCD does not respond well to the usual therapies.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And new treatments are continually being developed through research.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been shown that a combination of acute dosing of d-cycloserine (DCS) with exposure therapy facilitates the effects of exposure therapy of social phobia (Hofmann, Meuret, Smits, et al., 2006).^ The advantages and disadvantages of benzodiazepine therapy for social phobia are shown in Table 6 .
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The advantages and disadvantages of SSRI therapy for social phobia are shown in Table 6 .
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Social phobia is a highly prevalent yet often overlooked psychiatric disorder that can cause severe disability but fortunately has shown responsiveness to specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.DCS is an old antibiotic medication used for treating tuberculosis and does not have any anxiolytic properties per se.^ Medications used to treat anxiety disorders include: .
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GAD is commonly treated with medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy, but co-occurring conditions must also be treated using the appropriate therapies.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buspirone (Buspar®), an azapirone, is a newer anti-anxiety medication used to treat GAD. Possible side effects include dizziness, headaches, and nausea.
  • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it acts as an agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor site, which is important for learning and memory (Hofmann, Pollack, & Otto, 2006).^ Two studies reported that Vietnam veterans and women with PTSD who had been sexually abused displayed a 7% to 8% shrinkage in the hippocampusthe part of the brain important for memory and learning.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has been shown that administering a small dose acutely 1 hour before exposure therapy can facilitate extinction learning that occurs during therapy.^ For example, panic attacks can occur during acute and subacute withdrawal from sedative-hypnotics and opioids.
  • DualDiagnosis.org - Chapter 6 -- Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC dualdiagnosis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches and abdominal pain may occur before or during a separation.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Treatment controversy arises because while some studies indicate that a combination of medication and psychotherapy can be more effective than either one alone, others suggest pharmacological interventions are largely palliative, and can actually interfere with the mechanisms of successful therapy.^ Combined drug plus CBT is seldom more effective than CBT alone.
  • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anafranil has more adverse side effects than the SSRIs; both appear to be equally effective over time.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the same symptoms can also indicate a serious medical condition so it’s important to consult a physician to rule out a physical ailment.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Meta-analysis indicates that psychotherapeutic interventions have better long-term efficacy compared to pharmacotherapy.^ Studies of animals indicate that such damage may result from long term exposure to cortisolthe major stress hormone.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An added benefit of behavioral treatment is its long-term efficacy.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .However, the right treatment may very much depend on the individual patient's genetics and environmental factors.^ All seem to be effective at reducing the symptoms of OCD, but different ones may be best for individual patients.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment selection therefore involves matching the individual patient's preferences, symptoms and treatment goals with the relative benefits and risks of the following treatment options.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in addition to it being now recognized to be much more common (2-3% prevalence rate), it is generally seen to be treatable, with some 60%–80% of patients showing at least some response to treatment.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Natural Treatments

.Regular aerobic exercise, improving sleep hygiene and reducing caffeine are often useful in treating anxiety.^ So for a person used to thinking that a rapidly beating heart is a sign of anxiety exercise can become a source of fear, too.
  • Anxiety Therapists in Philadelphia, PA - By Licensed Therapists 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC anxietytreatmentcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Depression often accompanies anxiety disorders 4 and, when it does, it needs to be treated as well.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using herbs to treat anxiety is healthy and well accepted.

.Herbal drugs are often used in patients with somatoform disorders.^ Conversely, the patients with primary anxiety disorders often presented with a history of other psychiatric symptoms including phobia, conversion symptoms, etc.

^ Often, these patients had major depression along with their anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with anxiety disorders often drink alcohol or abuse drugs in order to conceal or ameliorate symptoms, but substance abuse and dependency can also cause anxiety.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.In one clinical trial, butterbur in a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185 = 4-combination versus 3-combination without butterbur and placebo) was used in patients with somatoform disorders.^ In one investigative trial of patients with major depression, a substance-P blocker termed MK-869 reduced anxiety as well as depression.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As she mastered one level of discomfort, she was moved on to the next more challenging level, until she finally was able to use the bathroom without intolerable anxiety and without her usual rituals.
  • Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adults 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: For anxiety disorders, the most effective treatments are usually combinations of drugs and behavioral techniques.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

[48] .For a 2-week treatment in patients with somatization disorder (F45.0) and undifferentiated somatoform disorder (F45.1), 182 patients were randomized for a 3-arm trial (butterbur root, valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus placebo).^ Stein MB, Liebowitz MR, Lydiard RB, Pitts CD, Bushnell W, Gergel I. Paroxetine treatment of generalized social phobia (social anxiety disorder): a randomized controlled trial.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Open and controlled trials suggest that approximately two thirds of patients will show clinically significant improvement during acute treatment with these agents.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The patients were placed in a randomized double blind, placebo controlled eight-week trial, using alprazolam up to 2 mg a day as the active agent.

.Anxiety (visual analogue scale - VAS) and depression (Beck's Depression Inventory - BDI) were used as primary parameters, and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was used a secondary parameter.^ When used in low doses on an as-needed basis, beta blockers appear to be a clinically effective treatment for mild to moderate circumscribed performance anxiety.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fava GA, Trombini G, Grandi S, et al: Depression and anxiety associated with secondary amenorrhaga.

^ People with anxiety disorders often have more than one disorder or suffer from substance abuse or clinical depression.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 4-combination was significantly superior to the 3-combination and placebo in all the primary and secondary parameters (PP-population), without serious adverse events.
.Many other natural remedies have been used for anxiety disorder.^ This technique is frequently used in conjunction with other treatments for anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety Supplements and other natural anxiety cures .

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), typically phenelzine (Nardil) or tranylcypromine (Parnate), are antidepressants used for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or PTSD that does not respond to other treatments.
  • Anxiety Disorders | HealthyWomen 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include kava, where the potential for benefit seems greater than that for harm with short-term use in patients with mild to moderate anxiety.^ Agrimony and aspen are useful for mild to moderate anxiety.

^ Mathew et al have reported that patients with generalized anxiety disorders have higher plasma catecholamine levels than normal controls.

^ Return of these functions to normal seems to be related to the cessation of the anxiety states that these patients experience.

[49][50] .Based on Cochrane's systematic review of seven RCTs (n = 380), with findings supported by five lower-quality trials (n = 320), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends use of kava for patients with mild to moderate anxiety disorders who are not using alcohol or taking other medicines metabolized by the liver, but who wish to use “natural” remedies.^ Anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus .

^ Psychiatrists or other physicians can prescribe medications for anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Side effects of kava in the clinical trials were rare and mild.^ It is showing promise in trials for significantly reducing panic attacks with few side effects.
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.Inositol has been found to have modest effects in patients with panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.^ Inositol has been shown in studies to have a positive effect in the calming of the symptoms of panic attacks and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

^ Obsessive-compulsive disorder?
  • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , an anxiety disorder, suffer intensely from recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they cannot control.
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

St. John's wort[52] [53][54][55] and Sympathyl[56] have also been used to treat anxiety, but with little scientific evidence.[51]

See also

Further reading

  • Khouzam, HR (March 2009). ."Anxiety Disorders: Guidelines for Effective Primary Care.^ The exposure principle is the main guideline for CBT for anxiety disorders.
    • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Conversely, the patients with primary anxiety disorders often presented with a history of other psychiatric symptoms including phobia, conversion symptoms, etc.

    Part 1: Diagnosis". Consultant 49 (3). .http://www.consultantlive.com/display/article/10162/1387611. 
  • Khouzam, HR (April 2009).^ I would suggest adding tAPir -- The Anxiety Panic internet resource at http://www.algy.com/ anxiety/ as a web link.
    • Anxiety Disorders - a knol by Richard 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I would be honored if I could reprint your article on my blog....http://www.teasasworld.com Please contact me and let me know.
    • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Anxiety Disorders: Guidelines for Effective Primary Care.^ Cognitive-Behavioral and Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that a form of psychotherapy that is effective for several anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder and social phobia, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) .
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Before treatment begins, a doctor must conduct a careful diagnostic evaluation to determine whether a person’s symptoms are caused by an anxiety disorder or a physical problem.
    • NIMH · Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Conversely, the patients with primary anxiety disorders often presented with a history of other psychiatric symptoms including phobia, conversion symptoms, etc.

    Part 2: Treatment". Consultant 49 (4). .http://www.consultantlive.com/display/article/10162/1399819. 
  • Vanin, John; Helsley, James (2007).^ I would be honored if I could reprint your article on my blog....http://www.teasasworld.com Please contact me and let me know.
    • Marijuana Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Anxiety Disorders: A Pocket Guide For Primary Care.^ Conversely, the patients with primary anxiety disorders often presented with a history of other psychiatric symptoms including phobia, conversion symptoms, etc.

    ^ Physical examination may define signs and symptoms that distinguish between endocrine disorders and primary anxiety and panic states.

    ^ Clinicians often have difficulty determining whether alcoholism or anxiety is the primary disorder.
    • Anxiety 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

    Humana Press. ISBN 978-1-58829-923-9. 
  • Craske, Michelle Genevieve (2003). .Origins of Phobias and Anxiety Disorders: Why More Women than Men?.^ Mathew et al have reported that patients with generalized anxiety disorders have higher plasma catecholamine levels than normal controls.

    ^ Women and men are equally likely to develop social phobia.
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Generalized anxiety disorder in women.
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044032-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=OSaH4i37SPsC.
     
  • Schutz, Samantha (2006). .I Don't Want to Be Crazy: A Memoir of Anxiety Disorder.^ Most anxiety, panic disorders, and compulsions don’t just appear out of thin air like a virus.
    • Think Right Now! - Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thinkrightnow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you have recovered from an anxiety disorder, and at a later date it recurs, don't consider yourself a "treatment failure."
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike people with several other anxiety disorders, people with GAD don't characteristically avoid certain situations as a result of their disorder.
    • Anxiety Disorders - The Body 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • ANXIETY DISORDERS 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.siteceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Natural Cures for Anxiety Disorders 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.integrativepsychiatry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    PUSH. ISBN 978-0-4398-0518-6.
     

References

  1. ^ Berrios GE (1999). "Anxiety Disorders: a conceptual history". J Affect Disord 56: 83-94. 
  2. ^ Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMID 15939839. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/62/6/617. 
  3. ^ Cameron OG (December 1, 2007). "Understanding Comorbid Depression and Anxiety". Psychiatric Times 24 (14). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/anxiety/article/10168/53896. 
  4. ^ McLaughlin K; Behar E, Borkovec T (August 25, 2005). "Family history of psychological problems in generalized anxiety disorder". Journal of Clinical Psychology 64 (7): 905–918. doi:10.1002/jclp.20497. PMID 18509873. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119485012/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. 
  5. ^ Coretti G, Baldi I (August 1, 2007). "The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Sexual Dysfunction". Psychiatric Times 24 (9). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/anxiety/article/10168/54881. 
  6. ^ Lydiard RB (2003). "The role of GABA in anxiety disorders.". J Clin Psychiatry 64 (Suppl 3): 21–7. PMID 12662130. 
  7. ^ Nemeroff CB (2003). "The role of GABA in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders.". Psychopharmacol Bull 37 (4): 133–46. PMID 15131523. 
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