Aphasia: Wikis

  
  
  






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Aphasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F80.0-F80.2, R47.0
ICD-9 315.31, 784.3, 438.11
DiseasesDB 4024
MedlinePlus 003204
eMedicine neuro/437
MeSH D001037
Dysphasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F80.1, F80.2, R47.0
ICD-9 438.12, 784.5
.Aphasia (pronounced /əˈfeɪʒə/ or pronounced /əˈfeɪziə/) is an acquired language disorder in which there is an impairment of any language modality.^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Her current research focuses on the development and use of multi-modal applications to assist people with aphasia and other cognitive impairments.
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ However, defining aphasia as purely a disorder of language may oversimplify a complex clinical entity.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

This may include difficulty in producing or comprehending spoken or written language.
.Traditionally, aphasia suggests the total impairment of language ability, and dysphasia a degree of impairment less than total.^ Imagine one person with severe non-fluent aphasia—one person who retains the ability to think and to understand spoken language, but has lost the ability to express thoughts and feelings.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the term dysphasia is easily confused with dysphagia, a swallowing disorder, and thus aphasia has come to mean both partial and total language impairment in common use.^ However, we encourage you to check this Privacy Policy and Terms of Use Agreement often for updates.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors of the study observed that the mean gain on each measure of the Aachen Aphasia Test improved substantially for both the treated and the control group.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on the area and extent of brain damage, someone suffering from aphasia may be able to speak but not write, or vice versa, or display any of a wide variety of other deficiencies in language comprehension and production, such as being able to sing but not speak.^ We will disclose Posting Information in connection with the display of, and other services relating to, such Posting.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of Individual Studies Ten studies investigating the SLT for stroke patients suffering from aphasia met criteria after being reviewed.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage.^ Subcortical aphasia results from damage to areas of the brain that are not language-dominant areas.
  • Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech which also result from brain damage.
  • aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ifip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • aphasia-stoke-diabetes 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ifip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aphasia is a communication disorder that results from damage to parts of the brain that are responsible for language.
  • Aphasia | ThirdAge Articles 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]
  • Aphasia ; Seattle Washington WA 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.swedish.org [Source type: General]

.Aphasia can be assessed in a variety of ways, from quick clinical screening at the bedside to several-hour-long batteries of tasks that examine the key components of language and communication.^ Aphasia may be classified in several ways.

^ Aphasia therapy focuses on helping the person to use remaining abilities, to restore language abilities as much as possible, to compensate for language problems, and to learn other methods of communicating.
  • About Aphasia | My Stroke .org 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mystroke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commonly used tests to diagnose aphasia include the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the Western Aphasia Battery, and possibly, the Porch Index of Speech Ability.

.The prognosis of those with aphasia varies widely, and is dependent upon age of the patient, site and size of lesion, and type of aphasia.^ Lesion site patterns in severe, nonverbal aphasia to predict outcome with a computer-assisted treatment program.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Standard rate Promotions will be subject to either the "single opt-in" or the "double-opt-in" (Site/SMS) method, at the discretion of Spike depending on the type of Promotion.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Causes

.Aphasia usually results from lesions to the language-relevant areas of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of the brain, such as Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the neural pathways between them.^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.These areas are almost always located in the left hemisphere, and in most people this is where the ability to produce and comprehend language is found.^ Language areas may be located in both the left and right hemispheres in left-handed individuals.
  • Aphasia, Information about Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most people, this is the left side of the brain.

^ "In most people, damage to the dominant left hemisphere of the brain can impact their ability to understand and use language.
  • Health Minute: Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in a very small number of people, language ability is found in the right hemisphere.^ The number one feedback that we've received back from our surveys for people to be satisfied is that we provide them with the right resources, the right services and the right training so that they can do their jobs.
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ Listening is a lost art and the ability to hear what people are saying instead of what you are expecting them to say is a challenge....Sometimes to say no is the right answer - something that from a business perspective is very challenging for people to do but sometimes it's the right thing to do...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ Something completely different happens, however, once a person gets involved in a small group Bible study and with a group of people who actually pray.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In either case, damage to these language areas can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other brain injury.^ Artificial language learning in brain damaged adults using a matrix-training procedure.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the comparative control group underwent an altered form of conventional SLT, then the duration of that therapy had to be of the same duration as the SLT. Articles were limited to stroke survivors suffering from aphasia after stroke, and studies that included patients with traumatic brain injury or any other disorders or illnesses were excluded.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Darley 2 noted that aphasia is generally described as an impairment of language resulting from focal brain damage to the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Aphasia may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor or progressive neurological disease, e.g., Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease.^ Longitudinal treatment of primary progressive aphasia: a case study.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ AAC strategies for people with primary progressive aphasia without dementia: Two case studies.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

It may also be caused by a sudden hemorrhagic event within the brain. Certain chronic neurological disorders, such as epilepsy or migraine, can also include transient aphasia as a prodromal or episodic symptom..November 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Aphasia is also listed as a rare side effect of the fentanyl patch, an opioid used to control chronic pain.^ Training volunteers as conversation partners using “Supported conversation for adults with aphasia” (SCA): A controlled trial.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Walker-Batson D, Curtis S, Natarajan R, Ford J, Dronkers N, Salmeron E, Lai J, Unwin D. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the use of amphetamine in the treatment of aphasia.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Symptoms

.People with aphasia may experience any of the following behaviors due to an acquired brain injury, although some of these symptoms may be due to related or concomitant problems such as dysarthria or apraxia and not primarily due to aphasia.^ Effectiveness of functional communication therapy by volunteers for people with aphasia following stroke.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wanting to find other people who shared the same interests as I did and a place where we could share problems, solutions and experiences...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ This serves to distinguish aphasia from the language and cognitive-communication problems associated with non–language-dominant hemisphere damage, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

  • inability to comprehend language
  • inability to pronounce, not due to muscle paralysis or weakness
  • inability to speak spontaneously
  • inability to form words
  • inability to name objects
  • poor enunciation
  • excessive creation and use of personal neologisms
  • inability to repeat a phrase
  • persistent repetition of phrases
  • paraphasia (substituting letters, syllables or words)
  • agrammatism (inability to speak in a grammatically correct fashion)
  • dysprosody (alterations in inflexion, stress, and rhythm)
  • incompleted sentences
  • inability to read
  • inability to write
  • limited verbal output
  • difficulty in naming

Types

The following table summarizes some major characteristics of different types of aphasia:
Type of aphasia Repetition Naming Auditory comprehension Fluency Presentation
Wernicke's aphasia mild–mod mild–severe defective fluent paraphasic Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may speak in long sentences that have no meaning, add unnecessary words, and even create new "words" (neologisms). .For example, someone with Wernicke's aphasia may say, "You know that smoodle pinkered and that I want to get him round and take care of him like you want before", meaning "The dog needs to go out so I will take him for a walk". They have poor auditory and reading comprehension, and fluent, but nonsensical, oral and written expression.^ I could take a screenshot if you'd like.
  • General discussion thread « MyConfinedSpace Forums 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.myconfinedspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Show the evidence they were not written by Him.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you know him well?
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia usually have great difficulty understanding the speech of both themselves and others and are therefore often unaware of their mistakes.^ Definitely, they give you a great opportunity to network with other people....It also allows one to understand that one is part of a global community...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

Transcortical sensory aphasia good mod–severe poor fluent Similar deficits as in Wernicke's aphasia, but repetition ability remains intact.
Conduction aphasia poor poor relatively good fluent Conduction aphasia is caused by deficits in the connections between the speech-comprehension and speech-production areas. This might be damage to the arcuate fasciculus, the structure that transmits information between Wernicke's area and Broca's area. Similar symptoms, however, can be present after damage to the insula or to the auditory cortex. Auditory comprehension is near normal, and oral expression is fluent with occasional paraphasic errors. Repetition ability is poor.
Nominal or Anomic aphasia mild mod–severe mild fluent Anomic aphasia, is essentially a difficulty with naming. The patient may have difficulties naming certain words, linked by their grammatical type (e.g. difficulty naming verbs and not nouns) or by their semantic category (e.g. difficulty naming words relating to photography but nothing else) or a more general naming difficulty. Patients tend to produce grammatic, yet empty, speech. Auditory comprehension tends to be preserved.
Broca's aphasia mod–severe mod–severe mild difficulty non-fluent, effortful, slow Individuals with Broca's aphasia frequently speak short, meaningful phrases that are produced with great effort. .Broca's aphasia is thus characterized as a nonfluent aphasia.^ Broca's aphasia is thus characterized as a nonfluent aphasia.
  • Aphasia - MossRehab ResourceNet 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mossresourcenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia Information | Internet Stroke Center 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.strokecenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIDCD Health Information . Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The findings of Paul Broca in 1864 and Carl Wernicke in 1874 led to an eponymous classification of aphasias and a characterization of a simple brain circuit for the processing of language.
  • Lecture 10: Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC pages.slc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broca's aphasics struggle to speak more than one word at a time but shows signs of enormous effort; thus, patients with Broca's aphasia is characterized as "non-fluent aphasia" (4) .
  • Aphasia: A Language Disorder | Serendip's Exchange 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Affected people often omit small words such as "is", "and", and "the". For example, a person with Broca's aphasia may say, "Walk dog" which could mean "I will take the dog for a walk", "You take the dog for a walk" or even "The dog walked out of the yard". .Individuals with Broca's aphasia are able to understand the speech of others to varying degrees.^ Individuals with Broca's aphasia are able to understand the speech of others to varying degrees.
  • Aphasia - MossRehab ResourceNet 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mossresourcenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia Information | Internet Stroke Center 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.strokecenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIDCD Health Information . Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the physician suspects aphasia, the individual is often referred to a speech-language pathologist, who performs a comprehensive examination of the person's ability to understand, speak, read, and write.
  • Aphasia - MossRehab ResourceNet 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mossresourcenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia Information | Internet Stroke Center 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.strokecenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIDCD Health Information . Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with Broca's aphasia can understand and process what others are saying, so they often become depressed and frustrated by their own inability to communicate.
  • Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of this, they are often aware of their difficulties and can become easily frustrated by their speaking problems.^ Because they are able to understand others to some degree, they may be easily frustrated with their own speaking problems.

^ Because of this, they are often aware of their difficulties and can become easily frustrated.
  • Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nidcd.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • healthyNJ--Information for Healthy Living--Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.healthynj.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of this, they are often aware of their difficulties and can become easily frustrated by their speaking problems.
  • Aphasia - MossRehab ResourceNet 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.mossresourcenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia Information | Internet Stroke Center 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.strokecenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIDCD Health Information . Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there can be paralysis of the patient's right face and arm.
Transcortical motor aphasia good mild–severe mild non-fluent Similar deficits as Broca's aphasia, except repetition ability remains intact. Auditory comprehension is generally fine for simple conversations, but declines rapidly for more complex conversations. It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there can be paralysis of the patient's right face and arm.
Global aphasia poor poor poor non-fluent .Individuals with global aphasia have severe communication difficulties and will be extremely limited in their ability to speak or comprehend language.^ People struggling with global aphasia have severe communication difficulties and can be extremely limited in their ability to speak or comprehend.
  • Evansville,IN National Aphasia Awareness Month; Aphasia is like a prison, ... 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.stmarys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improving communication competence in global aphasia.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With global aphasia, the person has difficulty speaking and understanding words.
  • Aphasia: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatments 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They may be totally nonverbal, and/or only use facial expressions and gestures to communicate. It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there can be paralysis of the patient's right face and arm.
Transcortical mixed aphasia moderate poor poor non-fluent Similar deficits as in global aphasia, but repetition ability remains intact.
Subcortical aphasias Characteristics and symptoms depend upon the site and size of subcortical lesion. Possible sites of lesions include the thalamus, internal capsule, and basal ganglia.
Jargon aphasia is a fluent or receptive aphasia in which the patient's speech is incomprehensible, but appears to make sense to them. Speech is fluent and effortless with intact syntax and grammar, but the patient has problems with the selection of nouns. .They will either replace the desired word with another that sounds or looks like the original one, or has some other connection, or they will replace it with sounds.^ Definitely, they give you a great opportunity to network with other people....It also allows one to understand that one is part of a global community...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ You only commented on one verse and substituting one word for another does not change the original text.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, it is clear that he wasn’t a pantheist (that God and nature are one in the same--see his below quote: "I'm not an atheist and I don't think I can call myself a pantheist."
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, patients with jargon aphasia often use neologisms, and may perseverate if they try to replace the words they can't find with sounds.^ I'm confused; you aren't trying to convince me that Jesus Christ was Divine, but you use His words to try to convince me that Hell is real?
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the New Testament greek they use the word doulos or slave.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following MEDLINE search words were used: aphasia , stroke , speech therapy or language therapy or speech and language therapy , and treatment , as well as the combined exploded key words stroke and aphasia and speech therapy or language therapy or speech and language therapy and treatment .
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Commonly, substitutions involve picking another (actual) word starting with the same sound (e.g.^ You only commented on one verse and substituting one word for another does not change the original text.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

clocktower - colander), picking another se

Acquired childhood aphasia

Acquired childhood aphasia (ACA) is a language impairment resulting from some kind of brain damage. This brain damage can have different causes, such as head trauma, tumors, cerebrovascular accidents, or seizure disorders. Most, but not all authors state that ACA is preceded by a period of normal language development.[2] Age of onset is usually defined as from infancy until but not including adolescence.
ACA should be distinguished from developmental aphasia or developmental dysphasia, which is a primary delay or failure in language acquisition.[3] .An important difference between ACA and developmental childhood aphasia is that in the latter there is no apparent neurological basis for the language deficit.^ To an outside observer, there appears to be no difference then between Christianity (on this blog) and and the ol' distant/angry/impersonal Allah.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.ACA is one of the more rare language problems in children and is notable because of its contribution to theories on language and the brain.^ Do you have the same problem with recognizing true atheists, since I seem to rarely find a single one logically consistent in their worldview.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] Because there are so few children with ACA, not much is known about what types of linguistic problems these children have. However, many authors report a marked decrease in the use of all expressive language. .Children can just stop talking for a period of weeks or even years, and when they start to talk again, they need a lot of encouragement.^ Children need to have access to quality career information so that they can get an idea of what is available....That information should easily be accessible to them...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ They don't even care that you are a girl; they just want to hear what you have to say because they just like talking about technology with people.
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ I suppose it doesn’t matter since atheism is just the suppression of truth as they pretend there is no God – after that, something needs to fill in the vacuum.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Problems with language comprehension are less common in ACA, and don't last as long.[5]

Classification

Classifying the different subtypes of aphasia is difficult and has led to disagreements among experts. The localizationist model is the original model, but modern anatomical techniques and analyses have shown that precise connections between brain regions and symptom classification don't exist. .The neural organization of language is complicated; language is a comprehensive and complex behavior and it makes sense that it isn't the product of some small, circumscribed region of the brain.^ Some Christians say that because of Jesus and His sacrifice some of the Old Testament laws don't make sense.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]


No classification of patients in subtypes and groups of subtypes is adequate. Only about 60% of patients will fit in a classification scheme such as fluent/nonfluent/pure aphasias. There is a huge variation among patients with the same diagnosis, and aphasias can be highly selective. For instance, patients with naming deficits (anomic aphasia) might show an inability only for naming buildings, or people, or colors. [6]

Localizationist model

Cortex
.The localizationist model attempts to classify the aphasia by major characteristics and then link these to areas of the brain in which the damage has been caused.^ Every person’s brain is unique, and ( less ) Tags: aphasia • art • band • brain • cause • cure • documentary • drawing • movie • recovery ` From the Original Series: .
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The initial two categories here were devised by early neurologists working in the field, namely Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke. .Other researchers have added to the model, resulting in it often being referred to as the "Boston-Neoclassical Model". The most prominent writers on this topic have been Harold Goodglass and Edith Kaplan.^ They are high school kids but very often you will see real research that would undoubtedly meet the criteria for being accepted into a paper...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

  • Individuals with Broca's aphasia (also termed expressive aphasia) were once thought to have ventral temporal damage, though more recent work by Nina Dronkers using imaging and 'lesion analysis' has revealed that patients with Broca's aphasia have lesions to the medial insular cortex. Broca missed these lesions because his studies did not dissect the brains of diseased patients, so only the more temporal damage was visible. Individuals with Broca's aphasia often have right-sided weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg, because the frontal lobe is also important for body movement.
  • In contrast to Broca's aphasia, damage to the temporal lobe may result in a fluent aphasia that is called Wernicke's aphasia (also termed sensory aphasia). .These individuals usually have no body weakness, because their brain injury is not near the parts of the brain that control movement.
  • Working from Wernicke's model of aphasia, Ludwig Lichtheim proposed five other types of aphasia, but these were not tested against real patients until modern imaging made more indepth studies available.^ If there is no other alternative for these poor in question to survive, then should they follow your "Moral law" and die?
    • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We all played several other sports, took part in theatre, modeling and acting and learned about handling ourselves, handling rejection and to work well with others and it happened before we understood what stress was because they made it fun.
    • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I haven't checked yet but in case there isn't more by the guy who made the game I'll just screenshot bits of it because it's so pretty.
    • General discussion thread « MyConfinedSpace Forums 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.myconfinedspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The other five types of aphasia in the localizationist model are:
  1. Pure word deafness
  2. Conduction aphasia
  3. Apraxia of speech, which is now considered a separate disorder in itself.
  4. Transcortical motor aphasia
  5. Transcortical sensory aphasia
  • Anomia is another type of aphasia proposed under what is commonly known as the Boston-Neoclassical model, which is essentially a difficulty with naming. A final type of aphasia, global aphasia, results from damage to extensive portions of the perisylvian region of the brain.

Other ways to Classify Aphasia

Fluent, non-fluent and "pure" aphasias

The different types of aphasia can be divided into three categories: fluent, non-fluent and "pure" aphasias.[7]
.
  • Fluent aphasias, also called receptive aphasias, are impairments related mostly to the input or reception of language, with difficulties either in auditory verbal comprehension or in the repetition of words, phrases, or sentences spoken by others.^ Her current research focuses on the development and use of multi-modal applications to assist people with aphasia and other cognitive impairments.
    • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Aphasia literally means a loss of speech, but more devastatingly, it is also a loss of language comprehension.
    • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    Speech is easy and fluent, but there are difficulties related to the output of language as well, such as paraphasia. Examples of fluent aphasias are: Wernicke's aphasia, Transcortical sensory aphasia, Conduction aphasia, Anomic aphasia
  • "Pure" aphasias are selective impairments in reading, writing, or the recognition of words. These disorders may be quite selective. For example, a person is able to read but not write, or is able to write but not read. Examples of pure aphasias are: Alexia, Agraphia, Pure word deafness

Primary and secondary aphasia

Aphasia can be divided into primary and secondary aphasia.[8]
  • Primary aphasia is due to problems with language-processing mechanisms.
  • Secondary aphasia is the result of other problems, like memory impairments, attention disorders, or perceptual problems.

Cognitive neuropsychological model

The cognitive neuropsychological model builds on cognitive neuropsychology. .It assumes that language processing can be broken down into a number of modules, each of which has a specific function.^ The Information requested as part of the online registration process may include a user's telephone number or a wireless email address, but only if specifically requested, and the carrier's name.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The information requested as part of the online registration process is a user's telephone number or a wireless email address, but only if specifically requested, and the carrier's name.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Hence there is a module which recognises phonemes as they are spoken and a module which stores formulated phonemes before they are spoken. Use of this model clinically involves conducting a battery of assessments (usually from the PALPA), each of which tests one or a number of these modules. Once a diagnosis is reached as to where the impairment lies, therapy can proceed to treat the individual module.

History

.The first recorded case of aphasia is from an Egyptian papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus, which details speech problems in a person with a traumatic brain injury to the temporal lobe.^ Every person’s brain is unique, and ( less ) Tags: aphasia • art • band • brain • cause • cure • documentary • drawing • movie • recovery ` From the Original Series: .
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[9]

Famous sufferers

Treatment

.There is no one treatment proven to be effective for all types of aphasias.^ For me there is no such thing as any one single event or technology to present continuous sustained opportunity.
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ USERID__ http://www.livenation.com/artist/aphasia-tickets There are no reviews for this .
  • Aphasia Tickets - Aphasia Concert Tickets and Dates | Official Live Nation Site 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.livenation.com [Source type: General]

^ And if there’s no God then you are just one more meaningless voice of 6 billion, and the value you put on the Ten Commandments is the same value you should expect other to give to your “way of living.” It’s all irrelevant and then you die.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Melodic intonation therapy is often used to treat non-fluent aphasia and has proved to be very effective in some cases.^ Your use of the Site is subject to all applicable local, state, national laws and regulations and, in some cases, international treaties.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.drugs.com/pro/fentanyl-transdermal.html#A02A9CB6-35CF-4F01-A980-C3733E0F861A
  2. ^ B.E. Murdoch: Acquired Neurological Speech/Language Disorders in Childhood: Language Disorders in Childhood (1990)
  3. ^ a b B.T. Woods: Acquired Childhood Aphasia, in: H.S. Kirshner: Handbook of neurological speech and language disorders (1994).
  4. ^ P.F. Paquier & H.R. van Dongen: Is Acquired Childhood Aphasia Atypical? In: P. Coppens et al.: Aphasia in Atypical Populations (1998)
  5. ^ D.P: Cantwell: Developmental Speech and Language Disorders (1987)
  6. ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003), page 502, 505, 511.
  7. ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003), pages 502-504. The whole paragraph "fluent, non-fluent and pure aphasias" is written with help of this reference.
  8. ^ http://christofflab.psych.ubc.ca/psych260/docs/L12-Language.pdf
  9. ^ Paul R. McCrory and Samuel F. Berkovic (2001). Concussion: The history of clinical and pathophysiological concepts and misconceptions. Neurology, 57(12): 2283-2289. PMID 11756611.
  10. ^ Richardson, Robert D. Jr. Emerson: The Mind on Fire. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1995: 569. ISBN 0-520-08808-5.

References

Handbooks

  • Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) Handbook (Northwestern University)
  • Handbook of Speech-Language, Pathology, and Audiology
  • Reference manual for communicative sciences and disorders: speech and language

Bibliographic Databases

  • MLA International Bibliography
  • Linguistics Abstracts Online
  • Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
  • Encyclopedia of the Human Brain
  • PsycINFO

Specialized Bibliographies

  • MD Consult
  • Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
  • Health Reference Complete (Academic)

Academic references

  • R. Chapey (Ed.) (2001). Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders (Fourth Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Goodglass, H. & Kaplan, E. (1972). Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febinger.
  • Kay, J., Lesser, R., & Coltheart, M. (1992). Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA). Hove: Erlbaum.
  • Spreen, O. & Risser, A.H. (2003). Assessment of Aphasia. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tesak, Jürgen. Milestones in the history of aphasia: theories and protagonists. Hove, New York. Psychology Press: 2008.
  • LaPointe, Leonard L. Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders. New York: Thieme: 2005
  • Duchan, Judith Felson. Byng, Sally. Challenging Aphasia Therapies: Broadening the Discourse and Extending the Boundaries. Hove, New York. Psychology Press: 2004.
  • Papathanasiou, Ilias. De Bleser, Ria. The sciences of aphasia : from therapy to theory. Amsterdam/Boston. Pergamon: 2003

Personal experiences of aphasia

  • Hale, S (2003), The Man Who Lost His Language, Penguin.
  • Paul E. Berger and Stephanie Mensh, How to Conquer the World With One Hand...And an Attitude, 2nd Ed., ISBN 0-9668378-7-8
  • Cindy Greatrex (2005) Aphasia in the Deaf Community.
  • Dardick, Geeta (1991), Prisoner of Silence, Reader's Digest, June issue

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. .This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ Information provided on this site is for informational purposes only; it is not intended as a substitute for advice from your own medical team.
  • Aphasia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, if you wish to publish the above article, you are welcome to do so, just you need to provide a link back to authors site at : http://www.diseases-treatment.com .

^ On this site you will find information on diseases and tips for curing them with remedies available.

APHASIA 1 (from Gr. a, privative, and .c¢fives, speech), a term which means literally inability to speak, and is used to denote various defects in the comprehension and expression of both spoken and written language which result from lesions of the brain.^ Inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion - (Source - WordNet 2.1) .
  • Aphasia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Word-finding pauses in speech Difficulty in naming objects Difficulty with reading comprehension Misuse of word endings, verb tenses, conjunctions and pronouns Inability to comprehend word meanings Prominent spelling errors In some cases, symptoms may vary depending on the speaking situation.
  • Primary progressive aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Receptive aphasia - difficulty understanding words (spoken or written) Amnesia aphasia - (anomic aphasia) difficulty using the correct names for things Global aphasia - almost total loss of verbal or written language ability more types...» Read more about Types of Aphasia .
  • Aphasia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Aphasic disorders may be classed in two groups: - first, receptive or sensory aphasia, which comprises (a) inability to understand spoken language (auditory aphasia), and (b) inability to read (visual aphasia, or alexia); second, emissive or motor aphasia, under which category are included (a) inability to speak (motor vocal aphasia, or aphemia), and (b) inability to write (motor graphic aphasia, or agraphia). It has been shown that each of these defects is produced by destruction of a special region of the cortex of the brain.^ Alexia - Inability to read.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agraphia - Inability to express thoughts in writing.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While some activities focus on comprehension or understanding language, other tasks may focus more on speech production.
  • Aphasia Treatment - Northern Michigan Regional Hospital 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.northernhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.These regions, which are termed the speech centres, are, in right-handed people, situated in the left cerebral hemisphere; this is the reason why aphasia is so commonly associated with paralysis of the right side of the body.^ Primary progressive aphasia specifically targets the language center of the brain — located in the brain's left hemisphere.
  • Primary progressive aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (These signs and symptoms may appear on the left side if the right hemisphere contains the language centers.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A TIA can produce any type of aphasia, which occurs suddenly and resolves within 24 hours of the TIA. Associated signs and symptoms include transient hemiparesis, hemianopia, and paresthesia (all usually right-sided), dizziness, and confusion.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.A study of the acquisition of the faculty of speech throws light upon the education of the speech centres, and helps to elucidate their physiological interaction and the phenomena of aphasia.^ Thus, the authors of the study concluded that intensive therapy improves speech recovery 1-year after onset of aphasia for some patients.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The auditory speech centre is the first to show signs of functional activity, for within a few months of birth the child begins to understand spoken language.^ While some activities focus on comprehension or understanding language, other tasks may focus more on speech production.
  • Aphasia Treatment - Northern Michigan Regional Hospital 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.northernhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some stroke survivors who are very disabled in the first few days make a full (or almost full) recovery in a few months.

^ Inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion - (Source - WordNet 2.1) .
  • Aphasia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

Some months later the motor vocal speech centre begins to functionate. .The memories of the auditory word images which are stored up in the auditory speech centre play a most important part in the process of learning to speak.^ The Wernicke's area [of the left hemisphere] appears to store memories of sequences of the sounds that occur in speech and when damage occurs to this area, the person will still hear the sounds when a person speaks but will fail to recognize them as speech.
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in Part II where the vocabulary process becomes important as authors publishing advanced research frequently use highly specialized language.

^ Without damage to the primary auditory cortex, Broca's and Wernickes areas, large parts of the visual association areas were damaged and the speech mechanisms were isolated in function from other areas.
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The child born deaf grows up mute. The visual speech centre comes into activity when the child is taught to read. .Again, when he learns to write and thus begins to educate his graphic centre, he is constantly calling upon his visual speech centre for the visual images of the words he wishes to produce.^ Curiously, some people find using their unaccustomed hand to write can produce a mirror image text more easily, especially when a mirror is used as visual feedback.
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From these remarks it will be seen that there is a very intimate association between the auditory speech centre and the motor vocal speech centre, also between the visual speech centre and the graphic centre.^ There was a significant ratio of improvement (ratio of the score at the end of a period to that at the start) on FCP between the intensive period and a second nonintensive period in movement, speech, and overall score.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Table of contents

Auditory Aphasia

.The auditory speech centre is situated in the posterior part of the first and second temporo-sphenoidal convolutions on the left side of the brain.^ Without damage to the primary auditory cortex, Broca's and Wernickes areas, large parts of the visual association areas were damaged and the speech mechanisms were isolated in function from other areas.
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wernicke aphasia is the result of damage to the language network in the middle left side of the brain.
  • OhioHealth - Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aphasia is caused by damage to the language-dominant side of the brain, usually the left side, and may be brought on by: .
  • NCH Healthcare ~ Health Information 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nchmd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Destruction of this centre causes "auditory aphasia." Hearing is unimpaired but spoken language is quite unintelligible. .The subject of auditory aphasia may be compared to an individual who is listening to a foreign language of which he does not understand a word.^ It does not understand the languages in which they are written.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Receptive aphasia - difficulty understanding words (spoken or written) Amnesia aphasia - (anomic aphasia) difficulty using the correct names for things Global aphasia - almost total loss of verbal or written language ability more types...» Read more about Types of Aphasia .
  • Aphasia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Confirmation of aphasia, extent of the disorder, and prediction for successful treatment may be assessed and confirmed by language tests conducted by a speech-language pathologist.
  • NCH Healthcare ~ Health Information 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.nchmd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Word deafness, a term often used as synonymous with auditory aphasia, is misleading and should be abandoned.^ In addition to synonyms and related conditions, physicians may refer to aphasia using certain coding systems.

^ Therefore, you should understand that aphasia is often considered a synonym or a condition closely related to the following: .

^ Persons with this problem often can speak fluently but have to use other words to describe familiar objects.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Auditory aphasia commonly interferes with vocal expression, for the 1 In 1906 Pierre Marie of Paris expressed views (La Semaine medicale, May 23 and October 17, and elsewhere) upon the question of aphasia which have given rise to much animated controversy, since they are in many respects at complete variance with the classical conception which has been represented in the present article.^ In the most extreme cases of Wernickes aphasia the person may be rendered completely 'word deaf' and will be blissfully unaware of the fact that they ever heard speech to begin with.
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people with aphasia may use a book or board with pictures and words to help them recall commonly used words or help them when they're stuck.
  • OhioHealth - Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marie holds that Broca's convolution plays no special role in the function of speech. He admits that a lesion in the region of the lenticular nucleus is followed b y inability to speak, but this defect is, in his opinion, to he regarded as an anarthria. .He further admits the production of sensory aphasia - the aphasia of Wernicke, as he prefers to call it after its discoverer - by lesions which destroy the angular and supramarginal gyri, and the upper two temporosphenoidal convolutions, but he regards the essential foundation of sensory aphasia as a diminution of intelligence.^ One of the characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia is the production of word "jargon".
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Also called, "Receptive", "Sensory" or "Fluent" Aphasia, pronounced "VER-nick-keys") .
  • Broca's Aphasia and Dysphasia - NLP, Hypnosis 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.23nlpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are, in his opinion, no sensory images of language. .Motor aphasia is, he believes, nothing more than a combination of sensory aphasia and anarthria.^ I mean if I believed beyond a shadow of a doubt that a truck was coming at you, and you didn’t believe it, and that truck was bearing down on you -- there is a certain point where I tackle you -- and this is more important than that."
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To put it another way, there are times when this blog seems to turn into nothing more than an intellectual exchange of ideas.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

These conclusions have been vigorously attacked, more especially by Dejerine of Paris (La Presse medicate, July 1906, and elsewhere).
majority of people when they speak do so by recalling the auditory memories of words stored up in the auditory speech centre. Amnesia verbalis is employed to designate failure to call up in the memory the images of words which are needed for purposes of vocal expression or silent thought.

Visual Aphasia or Alexia

.The visual speech centre, which is located in the left angular gyrus, is connected with the two centres for vision which are situated one in either occipital lobe.^ The two primary language networks for most people are located in the brain's left hemisphere.
  • OhioHealth - Aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Destruction of the visual speech centre produces visual aphasia or alexia. .Word blindness, sometimes used as the equivalent of visual aphasia, is, like word deafness, a misleading term.^ The use of intensive practice for short time intervals is preferred over long-term, less frequent training in CI aphasia therapy.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In normal application use, previous gestural actions may be re-used, much like words are re-used and gain new meaning in conversation.
  • Research In Action 2009 - November 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC web.cs.toronto.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The following MEDLINE search words were used: aphasia , stroke , speech therapy or language therapy or speech and language therapy , and treatment , as well as the combined exploded key words stroke and aphasia and speech therapy or language therapy or speech and language therapy and treatment .
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The individual is not blind, he sees the words and letters perfectly, but they appear to him as unintelligible cyphers.^ How can they be expected to truly understand the Word of God and accept Him into their hearts?
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the visual speech centre is destroyed, the memories of the visual images of words are obliterated and interference with writing, a consequence of amnesia verbalis, results.^ People should seek immediate medical advice if they suddenly have difficulty speaking, comprehending speech, recalling words, reading or writing.
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the other hand, when the lesion is situated deeply in the occipital lobe, and does not implicate the cortex, but merely cuts off the connexions of the angular gyrus with both visual centres, agraphia is not produced, for the visual word centre and its connexion with the graphic centre are still intact (pure, or sub-cortical word blindness).

Motor Vocal Aphasia or Aphemia

.The centre for motor vocal speech is situated in the posterior part of the third left frontal convolution and extends on to the foot of the left ascending frontal convolution (Broca's convolution).^ Damage to the language network near the left frontal area of the brain usually results in Broca aphasia.
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Complete destruction of this region produces loss of speech, although it often happens that a few words, such as "yes" and "no," and, it may be, emotional exclamations such as "Oh!^ We cannot and will not be responsible for any problems or liability that may arise if you do not give us accurate, truthful or complete information or Personal Information or you fail to update such information or Personal Information.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Hartman and Landau 14 asserted that conventional speech therapy was no more effective than emotional support.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You understand, acknowledge and agree that we have the right to delete, re-format and/or change your Postings in any manner that we may determine (although you will not be responsible for any such changes made).
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

dear!" and the like are retained. The utterance of unintelligible sounds is still possible, however, and there is neither defective voice production (aphonia) nor paralysis of the mechanism of articulation. .The individual can recall the auditory and visual images of the words which he wishes to use, but his memory for the complicated, co-ordinated movements which he acquired in the process of learning to speak, and which are necessary for vocal expression, has been blotted out.^ Persons with this problem often can speak fluently but have to use other words to describe familiar objects.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you wish to opt-out of a Co-Branded Partner's future use of your Personal Information for marketing purposes, you will need to contact the Co-Branded Partner directly and the use of such information by Co-Branded Partner is subject to Co-Branded Partner's privacy policy.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Intervention using talking word processing software: an aphasia case study.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

In the great majority of cases of motor vocal aphasia there is associated agraphia, a circumstance which is perhaps to be accounted for by the proximity of the graphic centre. When the lesion is situated below the cortex of Broca's convolution but destroys the fibres which pass from it towards the internal capsule, agraphia is not produced (sub-cortical or pure motor vocal aphasia). Destruction of the auditory speech centre is, as we have seen, commonly accompanied by more or less interference with vocal speech, a consequence of amnesia verbalis. A graphia. - Discussion still rages as to the presence of a special writing centre. Those who favour the separate existence of a graphic centre locate it in the second left frontal convolution. .It may be that the want of unanimity as to the graphic centre is to be explained by an anatomical relationship so close between the graphic centre and that for the fine movement of the hand that a lesion in this situation which produces agraphia ' must at the same time cause a paralysis of the hand.^ Relationship Between Intensity of Therapy Provided and Outcome of Study We next wanted to determine whether there was in fact a correlation between intensity of therapy provided and the outcome of a study.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It's very much a 2-way street, we want the people in IT to be more professional and at the same time we want them to be recognized as a professional...."
  • Canadian IT Manager's Blog 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

Destruction of the visual speech centre by obliterating the visual memories of words (amnesia verbalis) produces agraphia. Further, several instances are on record in which agraphia has followed destruction of the commissure between the visual speech centre and the graphic centre. As already mentioned, agraphia is very often associated with motor vocal aphasia.
A number of aphasic defects are met with in addition to those already mentioned. .Thus paraphasia is a condition in which the patient makes use of words other than those he intends.^ Opting-out of Certain Uses of your Personal Information and Other Information (Other than Wireless Marketing Services and Associated Promotional Opportunities).
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^ When we use the term " Other Information ", we mean any information other than Personal Information collected by the Site (Personal Information and Other Information, together, the " Information ").
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Persons with this problem often can speak fluently but have to use other words to describe familiar objects.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He may mix up his words so that his conversation is quite unintelligible.^ In normal application use, previous gestural actions may be re-used, much like words are re-used and gain new meaning in conversation.
  • Research In Action 2009 - November 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC web.cs.toronto.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the most pronounced forms he gabbles away, employing unrecognizable sounds in place of words (jargon and gibberish aphasia).^ People with this form of aphasia may speak fluently in long, complex sentences that don't make sense or include unrecognizable, incorrect or unnecessary words.
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although dementia symptoms may eventually appear, aphasia is generally the first and most pronounced symptom.
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Paragraphia is a similar defect which occurs in writing. .Both paraphasia and paragraphia may be produced by partial lesions of the sensory speech centres or of the cornmissures which connect these with the motor centres.^ This Agreement does not cover your rights or responsibilities with respect to third party content or sites or any links that may direct your browser or your connection to third party sites or pages.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ You may also have the opportunity to opt-in to receive special Promotions or offers from our third party advertisers, sponsors or promotional partners (" Advertisers ") as a result of your use of the Site in connection with many of these types of Promotions.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

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  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Object blindness (syn. mind-blindness) refers to an inability to recognize an object or its uses by the aid of sight alone. The probable explanation would seem to be that the ordinary centre for vision has been isolated from the other sensory centres with which it is connected. Not uncommonly there is associated visual aphasia. .Optic aphasia was introduced to designate a somewhat similar state in which, although the uses of an object are recognized, the patient cannot name it at sight, yet, if it is of such a nature that it appeals directly to one of the other senses, he may at once be able to name it.^ Other conditions that might have Aphasia as a complication may, potentially, be an underlying cause of Aphasia.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with this form of aphasia may speak fluently in long, complex sentences that don't make sense or include unrecognizable, incorrect or unnecessary words.
  • Aphasia - Valley Health System 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Device manufacturers may preset their browsers to block Tracking Technologies from websites other than those you visit directly and, if so, certain services or advertisements may not work for such Devices.
  • Picturing Aphasia | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Tactile aphasia is a rare defect in which there exists an inability to recognize an object by touch alone although the qualities which, under normal circumstances, suffice for its detection can be accurately described.^ Astereognosia - Inability to recognize things by touch.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agnosia - Failure to recognize familiar objects although sensory mechanism is intact.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amusia, or loss of the musical faculty, may occur in association with or independent of aphasia.^ Any type of aphasia may accompany severe head trauma; typically, it occurs suddenly and may be transient or permanent, depending on the extent of brain injury.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any type of aphasia may accompany severe head trauma, which occurs suddenly and may be transient or permanent, depending on the extent of brain damage.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any type of aphasia may accompany severe head trauma; typically, aphasia occurs suddenly and may be transient or permanent, depending on the extent of brain damage.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is reason for believing that special receptive and emissive centres exist for the musical.^ Your lack of interest in my requests that various unjustified assertions be supported with evidence does not alter the fact that the referenced assertions are, thus far, unsubstantiated and, as such, there exists no reason to believe them to be credible.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, there seem to be two explanations for that: either God doesn't want me to believe in Him, or God doesn't exist.
  • Atheist Central -- Ray Comfort's Blog: He Should Have Been a Plumber 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC raycomfortfood.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

sense exactly analogous to those for speech.
The speech centres are all supplied by the left middle cerebral artery. When this artery is blocked close to its origin by an embolus or thrombus, total aphasia results. It may be, however, that only one of the smaller branches of the artery is obstructed, and, according to the region of the brain to which this branch is distributed, one or more of the speech centres may be destroyed. Occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery causes extensive softening of the occipital lobe and produces pure word blindness. .Further, a tumour, abscess, haemorrhage or meningitis may be so situated as to damage or destroy the individual speech centres.^ Symptoms Primary progressive aphasia symptoms may vary by individual, depending on which portion of the brain's language center has been damaged.
  • Primary progressive aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC premium.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Primary progressive aphasia 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

or their connecting commissures. .The amount of recovery to be expected in any given case depends upon the nature, situation and extent of the lesion, and upon the age of the patient.^ However, with intensive therapy, 78% of the patients treated up to 4 months after onset versus 46% of the patients treated from 4 to 12 months after onset improved beyond that expected with spontaneous recovery.
  • Intensity of Aphasia Therapy, Impact on Recovery * Aphasia Therapy Works! -- Bhogal et al. 34 (4): 987 -- Stroke 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Even after complete destruction of the speech centres, perfect recovery may take place, for the centres in the right hemisphere of the brain are capable of education.^ (These signs and symptoms may appear on the left side if the right hemisphere contains the language centers.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These signs and symptoms may appear on the left side if the right hemisphere contains the language centers.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a restrained patient may focus more on his arm restraint than on a task presented by a therapist; a patient asked to complete arithmetic problems may focus more on construction work taking place outside.
  • Brain Injury Glossary A 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is only possible in young individuals. In the great majority of instances the nature of the lesion is such as to render futile all treatment directed towards its removal. .In suitable cases, however, the education of the right side of the brain may be very greatly assisted by an intelligent application of scientific methods.^ (These signs and symptoms may appear on the left side if the right hemisphere contains the language centers.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These signs and symptoms may appear on the left side if the right hemisphere contains the language centers.
  • Causes of Aphasia - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Broca, Bulletin de la Societe anatomique (1861);, Wernicke, Der Aphasische Symptomen-complex (Breslau, 1874) Kussmaul, Ziemssen's Cyclopaedia, vol. xiv. p. .759; Wyllie, The Disorders of Speech (1895); Elder, Aphasia and the Cerebral Speech Mechanism (1897); Collins, The Faculty of Speech (1897); Bastian, Aphasia and other S p eech Defects (1898) Byrom Bramwell, " Willmaking and Aphasia," British Medical Journal (1897); "The Morison Lectures on Aphasia," The Lancet (1906).^ British Medical Journal, 2, 87-89.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ British Medical Journal, 282, 517-520.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 4, 73-82.
  • ANCDS Aphasia Practice Guidelines 10 February 2010 11:28 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

See also the works of Charcot, Hughlings Jackson, Dejerine, Lichtheim, Pitres, Grasset, Ross, Broadbent, Mills, Bateman, Mirallih, Exner, Marie and others. (J. B. T.)


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Aphasia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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