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’ '

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( [ ], ( ), { }, ⟨ ⟩ )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipses ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) () () ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
copyright symbol ( © )
currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ฿, ¢, $, , ƒ, , , , £, , ¥, , , , , , ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator (º, ª)
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
registered trademark ( ® )
section sign ( § )
service mark ( )
sound recording copyright symbol ( )
tilde ( ~ )
trademark ( )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/broken bar, pipe ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
falsum ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark/percontation point ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

.The apostrophe  or  ' ) is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritic mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet or certain other alphabets.^ The sign sometimes regarded as a PUNCTUATION MARK ,...
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apostrophe usage Apostrophe clothing Apostrophe shoes Apostrophe - 2 reference results Apostrophe The apostrophe ( ’ or ' ) is a punctuation mark and, sometimes, a diacritic mark, in languages written in the Latin alphabet .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some Latin transliterations of the Cyrillic alphabet (of Belarusian , Russian , or Ukrainian language ), the apostrophe is used to replace the soft sign (ь, indicating palatalization of the preceding consonant), e.g., Русь is transliterated Rus' according to the BGN/PCGN system .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In English, it serves two main purposes--the omission of one or more letters (as in doesn't for does not) and the marking of possessives (as in the cat's whiskers).^ What purpose does this serve?
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ In English it has two main functions: it marks omissions, and it assists in marking the possessives of all nouns and many pronouns.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Omission of a letter or possession.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In strictly limited cases, it is allowed to assist in marking plurals, but most authorities now disapprove of such usage; see below.^ (In strictly limited cases, it is allowed to assist in marking plurals, but most authorities now disapprove of such usage; see below .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It must not be used for plurals or most of the possessive forms ( Max' Vater being an exception, for instance), both of which usages are widespread, but deemed wrong.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless, such usage of the apostrophe to indicate plurality is incorrect grammar.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .According to the OED, the word comes ultimately from Greek ἡ ἀπόστροφος [προσῳδία] (hē apóstrophos [prosōidía], “[the accent of] ‘turning away’, or elision”), through Latin and French.^ According to the OED , the word comes ultimately from Greek ἡ ἀπόστροφος [προσῳδία] ( hē apóstrophos [ prosōidía ], the [ accent of ] "turning away", or elision ), through Latin and French .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The apostrophe is different from the closing single quotation mark (usually rendered identically but serving a different purpose), and from the similar-looking prime (which is used to indicate measurement in feet or arcminutes, and for various mathematical purposes).^ Punctuation apostrophe (or right single quotation mark ; single comma quotation mark ), U+2019.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You use an apostrophe to indicate that letters are missing in a word like "'em," (and an apostrophe looks like a closing single quotation mark).
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

^ An apostrophe is used to indicate possession.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

English language usage

Possessive apostrophe

.An apostrophe is used in English to indicate possession.^ One major new use for the apostrophe was to indicate possession.
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

^ An apostrophe is used to indicate possession.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many languages, especially European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate the elision of one or more sounds, as in English.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The practice ultimately derives from the Old English genitive case: the “of” case, itself used as a possessive in many languages.^ In Estonian , apostrophes can be used in the declension of some foreign names to separate the stem from any declension endings; e.g., Monet' or Monet'sse for the genitive case and illative case , respectively, for the name of the famous painter Monet.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of the apostrophe to mark the English possessive ultimately derives from the Old English genitive case, indicating possession; this often ended in the letters -es , which evolved into a simple s for the possessive ending.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many languages, especially European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate the elision of one or more sounds, as in English.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The genitive form of many nouns ended with the inflection -es, which evolved into a simple -s for the possessive ending.^ The practice comes from the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most English nouns .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, there's a funny form of the possessive pronoun that ends in s.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The English possessive of French nouns ending in a silent s , x , or z is rendered differently by different authorities.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An apostrophe was later added to mark the omitted e.^ Later sans-serif typefaces had stylized apostrophes with a more geometric or simplified form, but usually retaining the same directional bias as a closing quotation mark.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An apostrophe was later added to mark the omitted e , a practice that came into general use in the 17th century.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the greengrocers' apostrophe is more likely to be found in small retail businesses, the UK's largest supermarket chain, Tesco , has a habit of omitting the mark where it should be included.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
Joint and separate possession
.A distinction is made between joint possession (Jason and Sue's emails: the emails of both Jason and Sue), and separate possession (Jason's and Sue's emails: the emails of Jason, and the emails of Sue).^ Global changes have been made to the language to clarify the distinction between code point and code unit.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Joint third was using "its" instead of "it's" and vice versa – the confusion between a plural possessive and abbreviation of "it is".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Quote: "Joint third was using "its" instead of "it's" and vice versa - the confusion between a plural possessive and abbreviation of "it is".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Style guides differ only in how much detail they provide concerning these.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

^ Actually, they don’t mean that much these days anyway.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ By Patti Henningsen   |  Published 2/27/2008 Aveeno Ultra Calming Moisturizer Review It's been over five years since I had one of these peels done and I forgot how much they can burn.

[3] .Their consensus: in joint possession only the last possessor has possessive inflection; in separate possession all the possessors have possessive inflection.^ (Possessive only on the last subject noun; object noun plural.
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

^ (Possessive only on the last subject noun; object noun singular.
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

.But if any of the possessors is indicated by a pronoun, then for both joint and separate possession all of the possessors have possessive inflection (His and her emails; His, her, and Anthea's emails; Jason's and her emails; His and Sue's emails; His and Sue's wedding; His and Sue's weddings).^ All other possessive pronouns ending in s do take an apostrophe: one's ; everyone's ; somebody's , nobody else's , etc.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English it has two main functions: it marks omissions, and it assists in marking the possessives of all nouns and many pronouns.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some people, it’s difficult to figure out where and when to use an apostrophe to indicate the possessive in nouns and pronouns (Is it the peoples’ or the people’s clubhouse?
  • Apostrophes don’t swing both ways | i love typography, the typography and fonts blog 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC ilovetypography.com [Source type: General]

.Note that in cases of joint possession the above rule does not distinguish between a situation in which only one or more jointly possessed items perform a grammatical role and a situation in which both one or more such items and a non-possessing entity independently perform that role.^ When the noun is a normal plural, with an added s , no extra s is added in the possessive, so pens' lids (where there is more than one pen) is correct rather than pens's lids .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A license can be shared between 2 PCs only if both PCs are used by a single user (E.G. A user has a work & home PC).
  • FAR Home Page 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC helpware.net [Source type: General]

^ Lize Lubbe 12/4/2007 12:53:35 PM How does one show possession for the word "business"?
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

Although verb number suffices in some cases ("Jason and Sue's dog has porphyria") and context suffices in others ("Jason and Sue's emails rarely exceed 200 characters in length"), number and/or grammatical position often prevent a resolution of ambiguity:
.
  • Where multiple items are possessed and context is not dispositive, a rule forbidding distribution of the possessive merely shifts ambiguity: Suppose that Jason and Sue had one or more children who died in the 2003 Staten Island Ferry crash and that none of Jason's children by anyone other than Sue were killed.^ Number of students in the 8th grade who disapprove or strongly disapprove of people smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day.

    ^ Number of students in the 10th grade who disapprove or strongly disapprove of people smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day.

    ^ There is nothing that you can show in your letters that will ever prove to deserve more than a fleeting compliment from people leading very different lives than the one you are leading.

    Under a rule forbidding distribution of the joint possessive, writing "Jason and Sue's children [rather than "Jason's and Sue's children"] died in the crash" eliminates the implication that Jason lost children of whom Sue was not the mother, but it introduces ambiguity as to whether Jason himself was killed.
  • Moreover, in cases where only one item is possessed, the rule against distribution of the joint possessive introduces ambiguity (unless context happens to resolve it): Read in light of a rule requiring distribution, the sentence "Jason and Sue's dog died after being hit by a bus" makes clear that the dog belonged to Sue alone and that Jason survived or was not involved, whereas a rule prohibiting distribution forces ambiguity as to both whether Jason (co-)owned the dog and whether he was killed.

General principles for the possessive apostrophe

Basic rule (singular nouns)
.For most singular nouns the ending 's is added; e.g., the cat's whiskers.^ Singular nouns ending with an "s" or "z" sound .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most singular nouns the ending 's is added; e.g., the cat's whiskers .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • If a singular noun ends with an /s/ or a /z/ sound (spelled with -s, -se, -z, -ce, for example), practice varies as to whether to add 's or the apostrophe alone.^ Pluralizing a noun with an apostrophe will flunk you out of third grade spelling.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Singular nouns ending with an "s" or "z" sound .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A widely accepted practice is to follow whichever spoken form is judged better: the boss's shoes, Mrs Jones' hat (or Mrs Jones's hat, if that spoken form is preferred).^ In general, a good practice is to follow whichever spoken form is judged better: the boss's shoes , Mrs Jones' hat (or Mrs Jones's hat , if that spoken form is preferred).
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In many cases, both spoken and written forms differ between writers.^ In many cases, both spoken and written forms differ between writers.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (See details below.)
Basic rule (plural nouns)
.When the noun is a normal plural, with an added s, no extra s is added in the possessive; so pens' caps (where there is more than one pen) is correct rather than pens's caps.^ When the noun is a normal plural, with an added s , no extra s is added in the possessive, so pens' lids (where there is more than one pen) is correct rather than pens's lids .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Possessive on each subject noun; object noun plural.
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

^ Americans means more than one American.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.
  • If the plural is not one that is formed by adding s, an s is added for the possessive, after the apostrophe: children's hats, women's hairdresser, some people's eyes (but compare some peoples' recent emergence into nationhood, where peoples is meant as the plural of the singular people).^ Form the plural of an acronym or initialism by adding an s.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apostrophe + s means possession, NOT plural.
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Its is actually the singular possessive, not plural.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .These principles are universally accepted.
  • A few English nouns have plurals that are not spelled with a final s but end in an /s/ or a /z/ sound: mice (plural of mouse, and for compounds like dormouse, titmouse), dice (when used as the plural of die), pence (a plural of penny, with compounds like sixpence that now tend to be taken as singulars).^ Pluralizing a noun with an apostrophe will flunk you out of third grade spelling.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

    .In the absence of specific exceptional treatment in style guides, the possessives of these plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and an s in the standard way: seven titmice's tails were found, the dice's last fall was a seven, his few pence's value was not enough to buy bread.^ I’m glad I did.Although a standard shooter in many ways, the addition of the basic RPG elements added a great deal of depth to the gameplay.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Oh and, by the way, you may have noticed that Latin didn't do its possessives with apostrophes.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ My pet peeve rigth now is the epidemic of apostrophes to form the plural.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    These would often be rephrased, where possible: the last fall of the dice was a seven.[4]
Basic rule (compound nouns)
.Compound nouns have their singular possessives formed with an apostrophe and an added s, in accordance with the rules given above: the Attorney-General's husband; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports' prerogative; this Minister for Justice's intervention; her father-in-law's new wife.^ Sources that rule on the matter appear to favour the following forms, in which there is both an s added to form the plural, and a separate s added for the possessive: the Attorneys-General's husbands ; successive Ministers for Justice's interventions ; their fathers-in-law's new wives .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Possessive only each noun; object noun singular.
  • Grammar Girl : Apostrophe Catastrophe (Part One) :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC grammar.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: General]

^ Compound nouns have their singular possessives formed with an apostrophe and an added s , in accordance with the rules given above: the Attorney-General's husband ; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ' prerogative ; this Minister for Justice's intervention ; her father-in-law's new wife .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • In such examples, the plurals are formed with an s that does not occur at the end: e.g., Attorneys-General.^ In those examples, the plurals are formed with an s that does not occur at the end: e.g., Attorneys-General .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The apostrophe is sometimes used in forming the plural of numbers (for example, 1000's of years ); however, as with groups of years, it is unnecessary: there is no possibility of misreading.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Examples occur in the Cyrillic Azerbaijani alphabet , or in some transliterations such as the transliterated Arabic glottal stop , hamza , or transliterated Cyrillic soft sign .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A problem therefore arises with the possessive plurals of these compounds.^ A problem therefore arises with the possessive plurals of these compounds.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sources that rule on the matter appear to favour the following forms, in which there is both an s added to form the plural, and a separate s added for the possessive: the Attorneys-General's husbands; successive Ministers for Justice's interventions; their fathers-in-law's new wives.^ Sources that rule on the matter appear to favour the following forms, in which there is both an s added to form the plural, and a separate s added for the possessive: the Attorneys-General's husbands ; successive Ministers for Justice's interventions ; their fathers-in-law's new wives .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Form the plural of an acronym or initialism by adding an s.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Compound nouns have their singular possessives formed with an apostrophe and an added s , in accordance with the rules given above: the Attorney-General's husband ; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ' prerogative ; this Minister for Justice's intervention ; her father-in-law's new wife .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [5] .Because these constructions stretch the resources of punctuation beyond comfort, in practice they are normally reworded: interventions by successive Ministers for Justice.^ Because these constructions stretch the resources of punctuation beyond comfort, in practice they are normally reworded: interventions by successive Ministers for Justice .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sources that rule on the matter appear to favour the following forms, in which there is both an s added to form the plural, and a separate s added for the possessive: the Attorneys-General's husbands ; successive Ministers for Justice's interventions ; their fathers-in-law's new wives .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As usual in punctuation, the best advice is to respect soundly established practice, and beyond that to strive for simplicity, logic, and especially consistency.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [6][7]
With other punctuation; compounds with pronouns
If the word or compound includes, or even ends with, a punctuation mark, an apostrophe and an s are still added in the usual way: Awaye!'s Paulette Whitten recorded Bob Wilson's story;[8] Washington, D.C.'s museums,[9] assuming that the prevailing style requires full stops in D.C.
.
  • If the word or compound already includes a possessive apostrophe, a double possessive results: Tom's sisters' careers; the head of marketing's husband's preference; the master of foxhounds' best dog's death.^ Compound nouns have their singular possessives formed with an apostrophe and an added s , in accordance with the rules given above: the Attorney-General's husband ; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ' prerogative ; this Minister for Justice's intervention ; her father-in-law's new wife .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some early guides used and advocated the use of apostrophes in between word parts, to aid recognition of compound words as in dank' , "guitarist".
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Compound Words Sears Black Friday 2008 Advertisement Sears is a best store for shopping.

    .Some style guides, while allowing that these constructions are possible, advise rephrasing: the preference of the head of marketing's husband.^ This punctuation is preferred in major style guides.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some style guides would prefer to use a change of font: dot your i s and cross your t s.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For these cases, style markup is preferred because in ordinary mathematical notation the juxtaposition of variables generally implies multiplication, not word formation as in ordinary text.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .If an original apostrophe, or apostrophe with s, occurs at the end, it is left by itself to do double duty: Our employees are better paid than McDonald's employees; Standard & Poor's indexes are widely used; the 5uu's first album (the fixed forms of McDonald's and Standard & Poor's already include possessive apostrophes; 5uu's already has a non-possessive apostrophe before its final s).^ The apostrophe: its uses and abuses: pity the poor apostrophe.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An apostrophe is used to indicate possession.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finally, there's a funny form of the possessive pronoun that ends in s.
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .No noun or noun phrase ever includes two apostrophes at its end.^ There are two places where apostrophes do not belong, but a lot of people don't realize it: Plural Nouns Possessive Pronouns .
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I've tried the trick with typing two apostrophes, Polycarp , but I sometimes end up with the little dudes ending up in the same direction anyway.
    • Apostrophe directions in typography - Straight Dope Message Board 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An apostrophe + s shows ownership.* No apostrophe means a plural noun.
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .For similar cases involving geographical names, see below.
  • By extended application of the principles stated above, the possessives of all phrases whose wording is fixed are formed in the same way:
    • Us and Them”'s inclusion on the album The Dark Side of the Moon
    • You Am I's latest CD
    • The 69'ers' last drummer, Tom Callaghan (only the second apostrophe is possessive)
    • His 'n' Hers' first track is called “Joyriders”.^ When this happens with the first word of a sentence, only the second word of the sentence is capitalised.
      • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ United States place names generally do not use the possessive apostrophe.
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      ^ Possessives in geographic names .
      • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [10]
    • Was She's success greater, or King Solomon's Mines'?[11]
For complications with foreign phrases and titles, see below.
Time, money, and similar
.An apostrophe is used in time and money references, among others, in constructions such as one hour's respite, two weeks' holiday, a dollar's worth, five pounds' worth, one mile's drive from here.^ An apostrophe is used in time and money references, among others, in constructions such as one hour's respite , two weeks' holiday , a dollar's worth , five pounds' worth .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The point is, NEITHER one uses an apostrophe.
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^ In many languages, especially European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate the elision of one or more sounds, as in English.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is like an ordinary possessive use.^ Although it may not be immediately obvious, this is an ordinary possessive use.
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.For example, one hour's respite means a respite of one hour (exactly as the cat's whiskers means the whiskers of the cat).^ For example, one hour's respite means a respite of one hour (exactly as the cat's whiskers means the whiskers of the cat ).
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An apostrophe is used in time and money references, among others, in constructions such as one hour's respite , two weeks' holiday , a dollar's worth , five pounds' worth .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PhDs means more than one PhD. CDs means more than one CD. Also, this is correct: dos and don'ts Therefore: cat's means ONE cat which has something.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Exceptions are accounted for in the same way: three months pregnant (in modern usage, we do not say pregnant of three months).
Possessive pronouns and adjectives
.No apostrophe is used in the following possessive pronouns and adjectives: yours, his, hers, ours, its, theirs, and whose.^ An apostrophe is used to indicate possession.
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^ No apostrophe is used in the following possessive pronouns and adjectives: yours , his , hers , ours , its , theirs , and whose .
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^ Possessive pronouns do not need an apostrophe .
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.(Many people use it's for the possessive of it, but authorities are unanimous that it's can only be a contraction of it is or it has.^ (Many people wrongly use it's for the possessive of it , but authorities are unanimous that it's can only be a contraction of it is or it has .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Yet many people use apostrophes where they don't belong, and forget them where they DO belong.  English is confusing enough without random apostrophes wandering around!
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[12]) .All other possessive pronouns not ending in s do take an apostrophe: one's; everyone's; somebody's, nobody else's, etc.^ All other possessive pronouns ending in s do take an apostrophe: one's ; everyone's ; somebody's , nobody else's , etc.
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^ For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x , z , or s , the few authorities that address the issue at all call for an added s , and require that the apostrophe precede the s : The Loucheux's homeland is in the Yukon ; Compare the two Dumas's literary achievements .
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^ All the other terminals hung off VTAM running under OS in one virtual machine .
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With plural forms, the apostrophe follows the s, as with nouns: the others' husbands (but compare They all looked at each other's husbands, in which both each and other are singular).^ With plural forms, the apostrophe follows the s , as with nouns: the others' husbands (but compare They all looked at each other's husbands , in which both each and other are singular).
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^ Compound nouns have their singular possessives formed with an apostrophe and an added s , in accordance with the rules given above: the Attorney-General's husband ; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ' prerogative ; this Minister for Justice's intervention ; her father-in-law's new wife .
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^ If the plural is not one that is formed by adding s , add an s for the possessive, after the apostrophe: children's hats , women's hairdresser , some people's eyes (but compare some peoples' recent emergence into nationhood , where peoples is meant as the plural of the singular people ).
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Importance for disambiguation
Each of these four phrases (listed in Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct) has a distinct meaning:
  • My sister's friend's investments (the investments belonging to a friend of my sister)
  • My sister's friends' investments (the investments belonging to several friends of my sister)
  • My sisters' friend's investments (the investments belonging to a friend of several of my sisters)
  • My sisters' friends' investments (the investments belonging to several friends of several of my sisters)
Kingsley Amis, on being challenged to produce a sentence whose meaning depended on a possessive apostrophe, came up with:
.
  • Those things over there are my husband's.^ Those things over there are my husbands.
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    ^ Those things over there belong to my husband .
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    ^ The Hellboy series is one of my favorites, and there are a couple of costumed superheroes in those books.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .(Those things over there belong to my husband.^ You're = a contraction for you are your = a possessive pronoun meaning "belonging to you" it's = a contraction for it is its = a possessive pronoun meaning "belonging to it" If you get those two things mixed up, nobody can tell which one you mean.
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    )
  • .
  • Those things over there are my husbands.^ Those things over there are my husbands.
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    ^ Those things over there belong to my husband .
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    ^ The Hellboy series is one of my favorites, and there are a couple of costumed superheroes in those books.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    (I'm married to those men over there.)[13]

Singular nouns ending with an “s” or “z” sound

.This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.^ This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.
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^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Traditionally it was more common to require and many respected sources still do require that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe.
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.The spelling of these ends with -s, -se, -z, -ze, -ce, -x, or -xe.^ The spelling of these ends with -s , -se , -z , -ze , or -ce .
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^ If a singular noun ends with an /s/ or a /z/ sound (spelled with -s , -se , -z , -ce , for example), practice varies as to whether to add 's or the apostrophe alone.
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.Many respected sources have required that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe.^ The practice comes from the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most English nouns .
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^ This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.
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^ Traditionally it was more common to require and many respected sources still do require that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe.
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.Examples include the Modern Language Association and The Economist.^ Rules of English usage in the humanities are overwhelmingly determined by the Modern Language Association (MLA) style manual.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of their use include American shape-note and modern percussion notations.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples include the Modern Language Association , The Elements of Style , and The Economist .
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[14] .Such sources would demand possessive singulars like these: Senator Jones's umbrella; Mephistopheles's cat.^ Such sources would demand possessive singulars like these: Senator Jones's umbrella ; Mephistopheles's cat .
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^ Such sources permit possessive singulars like these: Socrates' later suggestion ; James's house , or James' house , depending on which pronunciation is intended.
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.On the other hand, some modern writers omit the extra s in all cases, and Chicago Manual of Style allows this as an “alternative practice”.^ However, many modern writers omit the extra s .
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^ Rules of English usage in the humanities are overwhelmingly determined by the Modern Language Association (MLA) style manual.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people say stuff like "all the fonts are great", and it feels great to think that this may be the case, but I know better than that.

[15] .Generally, Chicago Manual of Style is in line with the majority of current guides, and recommends the traditional practice but provides for several exceptions to accommodate spoken usage, including the omission of the extra s after a polysyllabic word ending in a sibilant.^ This punctuation is preferred in major style guides.
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^ Some respected style guides such as the Chicago Manual of Style recommend the traditional practice but say that both are correct.
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^ Classical, biblical, and similar names ending in a sibilant, especially if they are polysyllabic , do not take an added s in the possessive; among sources giving exceptions of this kind are The Times and The Elements of Style , which make general stipulations, and Vanderbilt University , which mentions only Moses and Jesus .
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[16] Rules that modify or extend the standard principle have included the following:
.
  • If the singular possessive is difficult or awkward to pronounce with an added sibilant, do not add an extra s; these exceptions are supported by The Guardian,[17] Emory University's writing center,[18] and The American Heritage Book of English Usage.^ Rules that modify or extend this principle have included the following: If the singular possessive is difficult or awkward to pronounce with an added sibilant, do not add an extra s ; these exceptions are supported by The Guardian , Emory University 's writing center, and The American Heritage Book of English Usage .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Classical, biblical, and similar names ending in a sibilant, especially if they are polysyllabic , do not take an added s in the possessive; among sources giving exceptions of this kind are The Times and The Elements of Style , which make general stipulations, and Vanderbilt University , which mentions only Moses and Jesus .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the plural is not one that is formed by adding s , add an s for the possessive, after the apostrophe: children's hats , women's hairdresser , some people's eyes (but compare some peoples' recent emergence into nationhood , where peoples is meant as the plural of the singular people ).
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [19] .Such sources permit possessive singulars like these: Socrates' later suggestion; James's house, or James' house, depending on which pronunciation is intended.
  • Classical, biblical, and similar names ending in a sibilant, especially if they are polysyllabic, do not take an added s in the possessive; among sources giving exceptions of this kind are The Times[20] and The Elements of Style, which make general stipulations, and Vanderbilt University,[21] which mentions only Moses and Jesus.^ Such sources permit possessive singulars like these: Socrates' later suggestion ; James's house , or James' house , depending on which pronunciation is intended.
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Classical, biblical, and similar names ending in a sibilant, especially if they are polysyllabic , do not take an added s in the possessive; among sources giving exceptions of this kind are The Times and The Elements of Style , which make general stipulations, and Vanderbilt University , which mentions only Moses and Jesus .
    • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply cosmicjellybaby cosmicjellybaby Sep 4, 2009 @ 6:24 am Isn't the possessive 's after a name that ends in s supposed to be used except when referring to either Jesus or a name of a Roman Emperor?
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .As a particular case, Jesus'  is very commonly written instead of Jesus's – even by people who would otherwise add 's in, for example, James's or Chris's.^ As a particular case, Jesus' is very commonly written instead of Jesus's —even by people who would otherwise add 's in, for example, James's or Chris's .
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    ^ I noticed I type apostrophe's as a plural a moment ago - I think this shows that sometimes it's not a case of people not knowing what to do, but just that fingers slip and, frankly, who cares?
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ A few years ago even people who couldn't spell worth a damn would never think the plural of taco is "taco's".
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Jesus'  is referred to as “an accepted liturgical archaism” in Hart's Rules.
.Similar examples of notable names ending in an s that are often given a possessive apostrophe with no additional s include Dickens and Williams.^ Reply cosmicjellybaby cosmicjellybaby Sep 4, 2009 @ 6:24 am Isn't the possessive 's after a name that ends in s supposed to be used except when referring to either Jesus or a name of a Roman Emperor?
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The correct usage for a name which ends in s is to add an apostrophe and a further s - as in Brooks's NOT Brooks'.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

There is often a policy of leaving off the additional s on any such name, but this can prove problematic when specific names are contradictory (for example, St James' Park in Newcastle [the football ground] and the area of St. James's Park in London). .For more details on practice with geographic names, see the relevant section below.^ This is described in more detail in the next section.

^ For more details on practice with geographic names, see the relevant section below .
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^ For more details on the data file format, see UnicodeCharacterDatabase.html.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some writers like to reflect standard spoken practice in cases like these with sake: for convenience' sake, for goodness' sake, for appearance' sake, for compromise' sake, etc.^ Some people like to reflect standard spoken practice in cases like these with sake : for convenience' sake , for goodness' sake , for appearance' sake , for compromise' sake , for peace' sake , etc.
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^ In many cases, both spoken and written forms differ between writers.
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^ Some people say stuff like "all the fonts are great", and it feels great to think that this may be the case, but I know better than that.

.This punctuation is preferred in major style guides.^ This punctuation is preferred in major style guides.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some style guides would prefer to use a change of font: dot your i s and cross your t s.
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.Others prefer to add 's: for convenience's sake.^ Others prefer to add 's : for convenience's sake .
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^ Still others prefer to omit the apostrophe when there is an s sound before sake : for morality's sake , but for convenience sake .
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[22] .Still others prefer to omit the apostrophe when there is an s sound before sake: for morality's sake, but for convenience sake.^ Still others prefer to omit the apostrophe when there is an s sound before sake : for morality's sake , but for convenience sake .
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^ Others prefer to add 's : for convenience's sake .
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^ It is a mistake to believe that there must always be an apostrophe before an 's' to denote possession.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

[23]

Nouns ending with silent “s”, “x”, or “z”

.The English possessive of French nouns ending in a silent s, x, or z is rendered differently by different authorities.^ The English possessive of French nouns ending in a silent s , x , or z is rendered differently by different authorities.
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^ For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x , z , or s , the few authorities that address the issue at all call for an added s , and require that the apostrophe precede the s : The Loucheux's homeland is in the Yukon ; Compare the two Dumas's literary achievements .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English it has two main functions: it marks omissions, and it assists in marking the possessives of all nouns and many pronouns.
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.Some prefer Descartes' and Dumas', while others insist on Descartes's and Dumas's.^ Some prefer Descartes' and Dumas' , while others insist on Descartes's and Dumas's .
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.Certainly a sibilant is pronounced in these cases; the theoretical question is whether the existing final letter is sounded, or whether s needs to be added.^ Certainly a sibilant is pronounced in these cases; the theoretical question is whether the existing final letter is sounded, or whether s needs to be added.
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^ Upper case letters need no apostrophe when there is no risk of misreading: I got three As in my exams , except possibly at the start of a sentence: A's are the highest marks achievable in these exams.
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^ This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.
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.Similar examples with x or z: Sauce Périgueux's main ingredient is truffle; His pince-nez's loss went unnoticed; “Verreaux('s) eagle, a large, predominantly black eagle, Aquila verreauxi,...” (OED, entry for “Verreaux”, with silent x; see Verreaux's eagle); in each of these some writers might omit the added s.^ Similar examples with x or z : Sauce Périgueux's main ingredient is truffle ; His pince-nez's loss went unnoticed ; in both of these some writers might omit the added s .
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^ An apostrophe is used by some writers to form a plural for abbreviations, acronyms , and symbols where adding just s rather than 's may leave things ambiguous or inelegant.
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^ These are all issues where there might be some cryptographic assistance as part of the total solution.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same principles and residual uncertainties apply with “naturalised” English words, like Illinois and Arkansas.^ The same principles and residual uncertainties apply with "naturalised" English words, like Arkansas and Illinois .
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^ The same principle applies to "managing" (adding and deleting) pages, with the group being indicated by your app_pkContextCMS_manage_group setting.

[24]
.For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x, z, or s, the few authorities that address the issue at all typically call for an added s, and require that the apostrophe precede the s: The Loucheux's homeland is in the Yukon; Compare the two Dumas's literary achievements.^ Apostrophe + s means possession, NOT plural.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x , z , or s , the few authorities that address the issue at all call for an added s , and require that the apostrophe precede the s : The Loucheux's homeland is in the Yukon ; Compare the two Dumas's literary achievements .
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British founder of The Apostrophe Protection Society earned a 2001 Ig Nobel prize for "efforts to protect, promote and defend the differences between plural and possessive".
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[25] .The possessive of a cited French title with a silent plural ending is uncertain: “Trois femmes's long and complicated publication history”,[26] but “Les noces' singular effect was 'exotic primitive'...” (with nearby sibilants -ce- in noces and s- in singular).^ For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x , z , or s , the few authorities that address the issue at all call for an added s , and require that the apostrophe precede the s : The Loucheux's homeland is in the Yukon ; Compare the two Dumas's literary achievements .
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^ This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: /s/ or /z/.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the apostrophe is used for plurals where the singulars end with certain vowels , e.g.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] Compare treatment of other titles, above.
Guides typically seek a principle that will yield uniformity, even for foreign words that fit awkwardly with standard English punctuation.

Possessives in geographic names

.Place names in the United States generally do not use the possessive apostrophe.^ An apostrophe is used to indicate possession.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States place names generally do not use the possessive apostrophe.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply cosmicjellybaby cosmicjellybaby Sep 4, 2009 @ 6:24 am Isn't the possessive 's after a name that ends in s supposed to be used except when referring to either Jesus or a name of a Roman Emperor?
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The United States Board on Geographic Names, which has responsibility for formal naming of municipalities and geographic features, has deprecated the use of possessive apostrophes since 1890. Only five names of natural features in the U.S. are officially spelled with a genitive apostrophe (one example being Martha's Vineyard[28]).^ The point is, NEITHER one uses an apostrophe.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply cosmicjellybaby cosmicjellybaby Sep 4, 2009 @ 6:24 am Isn't the possessive 's after a name that ends in s supposed to be used except when referring to either Jesus or a name of a Roman Emperor?
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

.On the other hand, the United Kingdom has Bishop's Stortford, Bishop's Castle and King's Lynn (but St Albans, St Andrews and St Helens) and, while Newcastle United play at St James' Park, and Exeter City at St James Park, London has a St James's Park (this whole area of London is named after St James's Church, Piccadilly[29]).^ There is often a policy of leaving off the additional s on any such name, but this can prove problematic when specific names are contradictory (for example, St James' Park in Newcastle [the football ground] and the area of St. James's Park in London).
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This could be regarded as an example of a double genitive: it refers to the park of the church of St James.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stephen Dale on November 12, 2008 at 12:17 PM Report this comment It's St James's Park, London, but St James' Park, Newcastle United football ground - which just goes to prove there are no rules!
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The special circumstances of the latter case may be this: the customary pronunciation of this place name is reflected in the addition of an extra -s; since usage is firmly against a doubling of the final -s without an apostrophe, this place name has an apostrophe.^ The special circumstances of the latter case may be this: the customary pronunciation of this place name is reflected in the addition of an extra -s ; since usage is firmly against a doubling of the final -s without an apostrophe, this place name has an apostrophe.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Estonian , apostrophes can be used in the declension of some foreign names to separate the stem from any declension endings; e.g., Monet' or Monet'sse for the genitive case and illative case , respectively, for the name of the famous painter Monet.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, such repair of mangled data is a special case, and must not be used in circumstances where it would cause security problems.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.This could be regarded as an example of a double genitive: it refers to the park of the church of St James.^ This could be regarded as an example of a double genitive: it refers to the park of the church of St James.
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is often a policy of leaving off the additional s on any such name, but this can prove problematic when specific names are contradictory (for example, St James' Park in Newcastle [the football ground] and the area of St. James's Park in London).
  • Apostrophe encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have a feeling that "St James's Square" is correct, but I think it is an archaism which no longer serves as an example.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.None of this detracts from the fact that omission of the apostrophe in geographical names is becoming a clear standard in most English-speaking countries, including Australia.^ But because of the influence of the English culture, most people use those apostrophes, even in German texts.
  • Apostrophes don’t swing both ways | i love typography, the typography and fonts blog 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC ilovetypography.com [Source type: General]

^ The name was simply derived from my Apostrophe alias and the fact that I wanted a theme for the site.

[30] Practice in the United Kingdom and Canada is not so uniform.[31]

Possessives in names of organizations

.Sometimes the apostrophe is omitted in the names of clubs, societies, and other organizations, even though the standard principles seem to require it: Country Women's Association, but International Aviation Womens Association;[32] Magistrates' Court of Victoria,[33] but Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union.^ ISO 3166: International Organization for Standardization.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ISO 639: International Organization for Standardization.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ISO/IEC 10646: International Organization for Standardization.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

Usage is variable and inconsistent. .Style guides typically advise consulting an official source for the standard form of the name; some tend towards greater prescriptiveness, for or against such an apostrophe.^ I almost forgot, I did another CP modification which might have some official IBM standard which applies to 3270 full-screen operation.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps it's a rumor, but I've heard some variations in style were influenced by printers, who tended to try to minimize punctuation to save space and ink.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .As the case of womens shows, it is not possible to analyse these forms simply as non-possessive plurals, since women is the only correct plural form of woman.^ However, these characters are used in only the basic form.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most notable among the corrigenda to the standard is a tightening of the definition of UTF-8, to eliminate a possible security issue with non-shortest-form UTF-8.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

Possessives in business names

.Where a business name is based on a family name, it may or may not take an apostrophe (compare Sainsbury's and Harrods), though in recent times there has been an increasing tendency to drop the apostrophe.^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Unless you've been there and done that you can't really make assumptions because you will often find that they can and may apply to you at some point in time.

.Names based on a first name are more likely to take an apostrophe (Joe's Crab Shack).^ Apostrophes Are Not Difficult, But My Neighbors Are A flash-based quiz takes you through a story about two neighbors who have to hash out a problem.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ If one reads the book first, one is more likely to pick apart the movie and be disappointed by even the slightest unfaithfulness to the original.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

.A small activist group called the Apostrophe Protection Society[35] has campaigned for large retailers such as Harrods, Currys and Selfridges to reinstate their missing punctuation.^ One guy has compiled a huge collection of catapostrophes, here are some plurals: http://www.apostroph.de/plural01.php he also has a small international section: http://www.apostroph.de/fremdsprachen01.php Other sites: The Apostrophe Protection Society Friends Of The Apostrophe .
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Apostrophe Protection Society Since 2001, the Apostrophe Protection Society has been looking after stray apostrophes.
  • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ But a small, nimble and well-moneyed group like the Society of Jesus?
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

A spokesperson for Barclays PLC stated, “It has just disappeared over the years. Barclays is no longer associated with the family name.”[36]

Apostrophe showing omission

An apostrophe is commonly used to indicate omitted characters:
  • It is used in contractions, such as can't from cannot, it's from it is or it has, and I'll from I will or I shall.[37]
  • It is used in abbreviations, as gov't for government, or '70s for 1970s. .In modern usage, apostrophes are generally omitted when letters are removed from the start of a word, particularly for a compound word.^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The rule is incredibly simple: apostrophes indicate either the omission of letter or word (e.g.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who knew that the apostrophe could generate such impassioned pleas for proper usage?
    • Apostrophes don’t swing both ways | i love typography, the typography and fonts blog 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC ilovetypography.com [Source type: General]

    For example, it is not common to write 'bus (for omnibus), 'phone (telephone), 'net (Internet). .However, if the shortening is unusual, dialectal or archaic, the apostrophe may still be used to mark it (e.g., 'bout for about, 'less for unless, 'twas for it was).^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Proofread How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

    ^ (You may be able to work around this issue with less typing by using Doctrine's "name: phpname as sqlname" syntax.

    Sometimes a misunderstanding of the original form of a word results in an incorrect contraction. .A common example: 'til for until, though till is in fact the original form, and until is derived from it.^ The Georgian script originates from an inscriptional form called Asomtavruli , from which was derived a manuscript form called Nuskhuri .
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • The spelling fo'c's'le, contracted from the nautical term forecastle, is notable for having three apostrophes.^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

      ^ The Three Uses of Apostrophes Apostrophe Usage Crib Sheet Use Apostrophes with Contractions Possessive Nouns Nested Quotes Amusing Assaults on the English Language more...
      • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      .The spelling bo's'n's (from boatswain's), as in Bo's'n's Mate, also has three apostrophes, two showing omission and one possession.^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

      ^ There are two places where apostrophes do not belong, but a lot of people don't realize it: Plural Nouns Possessive Pronouns .
      • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Spell Checker Common Grammar Mistakes Part Two: The Apostrophe Not sure when to use an apostrophe?

      .Fo'c's'le may also take a possessive s – as in the fo'c's'le's timbers – giving four apostrophes in one word.^ Oh and, by the way, you may have noticed that Latin didn't do its possessives with apostrophes.
      • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

      ^ The words "mens" and "womens" are correct and require no apostrophes because they are incapable of any interpretation other than the possessive.
      • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

      ^ The play is kind of dry, but it’s an interesting examination of how words can get twisted around, and how they can be used to give one person power over another.
      • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

      [38]
    • .
  • It is sometimes used when the normal form of an inflection seems awkward or unnatural; for example, KO'd rather than KOed (where KO is used as a verb meaning "to knock out"); "a spare pince-nez'd man" (cited in OED, entry for "pince-nez"; pince-nezed is also in citations).
  • In certain colloquial contexts an apostrophe's function as possessive or contractive can depend on other punctuation.^ Apostrophe + s means possession, NOT plural.
    • The Care and Feeding of Apostrophes 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You insert an area by calling pk context cms include area($name) rather than pk context cms include slot($name): .

    ^ Commas Grammar 101 - Quotation Marks This covers the use of quotation marks for direct quotes and includes the correct use of other punctuation used with quotation marks.

    • We rehearsed for Friday's opening night. (We rehearsed for the opening night on Friday.)
    • We rehearsed, for Friday's opening night. (We rehearsed because Friday is opening night.)
  • Eye dialects use apostrophes in creating the effect of a non-standard pronunciation.

Use in forming certain plurals

.An apostrophe is used by some writers to form a plural for abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols where adding just s rather than 's may leave things ambiguous or inelegant.^ An apostrophe is the punctuation symbol which looks just so ' .

^ Form the plural of an acronym or initialism by adding an s.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, it is correct to use an apostrophe to pluralize acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some specific cases:
.
  • It is generally acceptable to use apostrophes to show plurals of single lower-case letters, such as be sure to dot your i's and cross your t's.^ For the plurals of all small letters, of capital letters with periods, and of capital letters that would be confusing if s alone were added, by adding an apostrophe and s .
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also, your first example of the apostrophe's use is incorrect -if the surname is Brook, then Brook's is correct.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Some style guides would prefer to use a change of font: dot your is and cross your ts.[citation needed] Upper case letters need no apostrophe (I got three As in my exams[39]) except when there is a risk of misreading, such as at the start of a sentence: A's are the highest marks achievable in these exams.
  • For groups of years, the apostrophe at the end cannot be regarded as necessary, since there is no possibility of misreading.^ November 11, 2008 at 03:28 PM Report this comment In answer to Samuel Johnson (I imagine it can't be THE Samuel Johnson) - No apostrophe is used in the following word constructions:- yours, hers, ours, its and theirs, The reason is that the precise meanings of these words are inescapable, which renders apostrophes superfluous.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ By Stephanie Raney   |  Published 2/27/2008 Tips for Organizing Your Kitchen Cabinets Here are some useful tips on how to organize you kitchen cabinets.

    ^ Might as well just stick the sharp end of an apostrophe in my eye.
    • Apostrophes don’t swing both ways | i love typography, the typography and fonts blog 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC ilovetypography.com [Source type: General]

    .For this reason, most authorities prefer 1960s to 1960's[39] (although the latter is noted by at least one source as acceptable in American usage),[40] and 90s or '90s to 90's or '90's.
  • The apostrophe is sometimes used in forming the plural of numbers (for example, 1000's of years); however, as with groups of years, it is unnecessary: there is no possibility of misreading.^ In German, there's no genitive apostrophe and it's not used for plurals, either (only omission).
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is no elision, and thus the apostrophe is unnecessary.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is no U-source for ideographs in the CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B block.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Most sources are against this usage.
  • The apostrophe is often used in plurals of symbols.^ But because of the influence of the English culture, most people use those apostrophes, even in German texts.
    • Apostrophes don’t swing both ways | i love typography, the typography and fonts blog 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC ilovetypography.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Proofread How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

    ^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Again, since there can be no misreading, this is often regarded as incorrect.[39] .That page has too many &s and #s on it.
  • Finally, a few sources accept its use in an alternative spelling of the plurals of a very few short words, such as do, ex, yes, no, which become do's, ex's, etc.^ On S/390, relatively few memory-update instructions are guaranteed to be atomic (though many are, in practice), so using CS is safest.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since many cakes featured on the blog are also "spelling challenged," a lot of cake wrecks fans use the word verification on their post to compose a bit of a "Devils Dictionary," to define the word, or use it in a sentence, usually involving a pun of some sort.

    [41] .In each case, dos, exes, yeses (or yesses) and noes would be preferred by most authorities.^ In most cases you should use this in preference to actually deleting the page because the content is still available if you choose to bring it back later.

    Nevertheless, many writers are still inclined to use such an apostrophe when the word is thought to look awkward or unusual without one.

Use in non-English names

.Names that are not strictly native to English sometimes have an apostrophe substituted to represent other characters (see also As a mark of elision, below).^ On the other hand, if one sees the movie first, your image and opinions, especially when it comes to your visualization of the characters, will be forever skewed by the actors in the movie.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Apostrophes Grammar 101 - Quotation Marks This covers the use of quotation marks for direct quotes and includes the correct use of other punctuation used with quotation marks.

^ As with other CJK unified ideographs, the names for these characters are algorithmic.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.
  • Anglicised versions of Irish surnames often contain an apostrophe after an O, for example O'Doole.^ Also, your first example of the apostrophe's use is incorrect -if the surname is Brook, then Brook's is correct.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    This arose from a rendering of the Irish Ó..August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Some Scottish and Irish surnames use an apostrophe after an M, for example M'Gregor.^ When used with markup languages, for example with MathML Mathematical Markup Language (MathML™) the characters are expected to be used directly, instead of indirectly via entity references or by composing them from base letters and style markup.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Perhaps it's a rumor, but I've heard some variations in style were influenced by printers, who tended to try to minimize punctuation to save space and ink.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The apostrophe here may be seen as marking a contraction where the prefix Mc or Mac would normally appear.^ Apostrophes Change Your Life and Make a Fortune with 10 Rules of English You May Not Know Here is a guide to help you avoid common mistakes in English.

    ^ Letters of the alphabet and two letter words may be pluralized with an apostrophe if the lack of an apostrophe would indicate a different word.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(In earlier and meticulous current usage, the symbol is actually – a kind of reversed apostrophe that is sometimes called a turned comma, which eventually came to be written as the letter c, whose shape is similar.^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are other characters which sometimes have similar shapes and require special attention to avoid ambiguity.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    )
  • In science fiction, the apostrophe is often used in alien names, sometimes to indicate a glottal stop (for example T'Pau in Star Trek), but also sometimes simply for decoration.

Use in transliterations

.In transliterated foreign words, an apostrophe may be used to separate letters or syllables that otherwise would likely be interpreted incorrectly.^ We like to use the word y`all a lot.
  • Apostrophe - BlackBerryForums.com : Your Number One BlackBerry Community 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.blackberryforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

^ The tenth letter U+10339 GOTHIC LETTER EIS is used with U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS when word-initial, when syllable-initial after a vowel, and in compounds with a verb as second member as shown below: .
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

For example:
  • in the Arabic word mus'haf, a transliteration of مصحف, the syllables are as in mus·haf, not mu·shaf);
  • in the Japanese name Shin'ichi (which can be written in many ways using kanji but corresponds in all cases to hiragana しんいち shi·n·i·chi), the letters n and i are separate moras and the name should be parsed as shin + ichi; although shi and nichi by themselves are existing and common Japanese words, their combination would correspond to hiragana しにち.
Furthermore, an apostrophe may be used to indicate a glottal stop in transliterations. For example:
  • in the Arabic word Qur'an, a common transliteration of (part of) القرآن al-qur’ān, the apostrophe corresponds to the letter hamza, one of the letters in the Arabic alphabet.

Incorrect English use

.Incorrect use of the apostrophe is widespread, and the abuse of the punctuation mark generates heated debate.^ This block encodes punctuation marks and symbols used primarily by writing systems that employ Han ideographs.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Especially when we consider that the apostrophe is used to indicate POSSESSION. We ought to be very, VERY careful about being fast and loose with that particular punctuation mark, considering it might make the difference between indicating whether something belongs to someone or not.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British founder of The Apostrophe Protection Society earned a 2001 Ig Nobel prize for "efforts to protect, promote and defend the differences between plural and possessive".[42] A 2004 report by OCR, a British examination board, stated that "the inaccurate use of the apostrophe is so widespread as to be almost universal".[43] A 2008 survey found that nearly half of the UK adults polled were unable to use the apostrophe correctly.^ Nearly half of UK adults tested were unable to use it properly.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

^ William Ball on November 11, 2008 at 10:14 AM Report this comment Today's Telegraph headline for this article mentions "possessive tense".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

[44]
Misused apostrophes are often referred to as "greengrocers' apostrophes", "rogue apostrophes" or "idiot's apostrophes" (a literal translation of the German word Deppenapostroph which criticises the misapplication of apostrophes in Denglisch).

Greengrocers' apostrophes

Sign to Green Craigs housing development
.Apostrophes used incorrectly to form plurals are known as greengrocers' apostrophes (or grocers' apostrophes, or sometimes humorously greengrocers apostrophe's).^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

^ Apostrophe The Importance of Using Proper Grammar A humorous look at common grammatical errors and how to fix them.

^ In second place was using an apostrophe to denote a plural – as in the use of the incorrect "boy's" instead of correct "boys".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The practice comes from the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most English nouns.^ The most common mistake was not knowing how to punctuate a possessive plural.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

^ Form the plurals of most and multiple capital lettters used as nouns by adding s alone.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often considered a form of hypercorrection coming from a widespread ignorance of the proper use of the apostrophe or of punctuation in general.^ Apostrophe How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

^ Apostrophe The Importance of Using Proper Grammar A humorous look at common grammatical errors and how to fix them.

^ Especially when we consider that the apostrophe is used to indicate POSSESSION. We ought to be very, VERY careful about being fast and loose with that particular punctuation mark, considering it might make the difference between indicating whether something belongs to someone or not.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lynne Truss, author of Eats, Shoots & Leaves, points out that before the 19th century, it was standard orthography to use the apostrophe to form a plural of a foreign-sounding word that ended in a vowel (e.g., banana's, folio's, logo's, quarto's, pasta's, ouzo's) to clarify pronunciation.^ Even Lynne Truss can't use it properly.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Check out a nice little book from 4-5 years ago "Eats, Shoots & Leaves" by Lynne Truss.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Lynn Truss, in her book "Eats Shoots and Leaves" explains that in the 1960s the use of the apostrophe was taught incorrectly.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Truss says this usage is no longer considered proper in formal writing.^ Well, the problem with English is that unlike France, there is no actual authority governing proper usage.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apostrophe Guide to Writing Well: Proper Apostrophe Usage for Everyone Everyone writes, whether for a living, or just in casual correspondence.

[45]
.The term is believed to have been coined in the middle of the 20th century by a teacher of languages working in Liverpool, at a time when such mistakes were common in the handwritten signs and advertisements of greengrocers (e.g., Apple's 1/- a pound, Orange's 1/6d a pound).^ If you want to read Herbert, start at the beginning with “Dune,” which I believe is one of the greatest works of science fiction, if not literature, of the 20th Century.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, some historical records, diaries, and other materials were handwritten using this script, and it had limited use on coins and signs.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some have argued that its use in mass communication by employees of well-known companies has led to the less grammatically able assuming it to be correct and adopting the habit themselves.^ It should be: "There are some ducks" Most people think it sounds posh, so they don't use the correct grammar, which is silly.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ I am, however, a stickler for the correct use of "less" and "fewer".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

[46]
.The same error is sometimes made by non-native speakers of English.^ Native speakers can make mistakes which seem implausible for non-native speakers and vice versa.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Do they not say or write things the way that native speakers of English would never say/write?
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.For example, in Dutch, the apostrophe is correctly inserted before the s when pluralising words ending in a, e, i, o, u, or y, for example baby's (English babies) and jury's (English juries).^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

This often produces so-called "Dunglish" errors when carried over into English.[47] Hyperforeignism has been formalised in some pseudo-anglicisms. .For example, the French word pin's (from English pin) is used (with the apostrophe in both singular and plural) for collectable lapel pins.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

^ Actually, it is correct to use an apostrophe to pluralize acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apostrophe Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

Similarly, there is an Andorran football club called FC Rànger's (after such British clubs as Rangers F.C.), a Japanese dance group called Super Monkey's, and a Japanese pop punk band called the Titan Go King's.[48]
.The widespread use of apostrophes before the s of plural nouns has led some to believe that an apostrophe is also needed before the s of the third-person present tense of a verb.^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

^ It is a mistake to believe that there must always be an apostrophe before an 's' to denote possession.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In second place was using an apostrophe to denote a plural – as in the use of the incorrect "boy's" instead of correct "boys".
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

Thus, he take's, it begin's, etc.
.While the greengrocers' apostrophe is more likely to be found in small retail businesses, the UK's largest supermarket chain, Tesco, omits the mark where correct English requires one.^ This is an apostrophe: ' This is NOT an apostrophe: ` On a standard US keyboard, the apostrophe is found on the same key as the quote mark.
  • Apostrophe - BlackBerryForums.com : Your Number One BlackBerry Community 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.blackberryforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apostrophes Grammar 101 - Quotation Marks This covers the use of quotation marks for direct quotes and includes the correct use of other punctuation used with quotation marks.

^ If one reads the book first, one is more likely to pick apart the movie and be disappointed by even the slightest unfaithfulness to the original.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Its in-store signage advertises (among other items) mens magazines, girls toys, kids books and womens shoes.^ Because I could give a crap about the new X-Men or Spider-man books, I don’t read Wizard or any of those other industry mags.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ The words "mens" and "womens" are correct and require no apostrophes because they are incapable of any interpretation other than the possessive.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

In his book Troublesome Words, author Bill Bryson lambasts Tesco for this, stating that "the mistake is inexcusable, and those who make it are linguistic Neanderthals."[49]

Advocates of greater or lesser use

A sign diverting passengers to a temporary taxi rank at Leeds railway station, West Yorkshire, with the extraneous apostrophe crossed out by an unknown vandal.
George Bernard Shaw, a proponent of English spelling reform on phonetic principles, argued that the apostrophe was mostly redundant. .He did not use it for spelling cant or hes when writing Pygmalion.^ By Thaddeus Tea   |  Published 2/27/2008 A Visit from the Grammar Police Using proper spelling and grammar is vital when writing for others to read.

^ Commas A Visit from the Grammar Police Using proper spelling and grammar is vital when writing for others to read.

^ English Grammar A Visit from the Grammar Police Using proper spelling and grammar is vital when writing for others to read.

He did however allow I'm and it's.[50] Hubert Selby, Jr. used a slash instead of an apostrophe mark for contractions and did not use an apostrophe at all for possessives. .Lewis Carroll made greater use of apostrophes, and frequently used sha'n't.^ Apostrophe Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

[51] Neither author's use has become widespread.

Other misuses

.The British pop group Hear'Say famously made unconventional use of an apostrophe in its name.^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, this one fits with what Hassan was discussing about contractions (or whatever silly British word he used for them), since P's means pints, the apostrophe-s is indicative of the missing letters, I would say.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Truss comments that "the naming of Hear'Say in 2001 was [...] a significant milestone on the road to punctuation anarchy".[52] Dexys Midnight Runners, on the other hand, omit the apostrophe (though "dexys" can be understood as a plural form of "dexy", rather than a possessive form).^ You insert an area by calling pk context cms include area($name) rather than pk context cms include slot($name): .

^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
  • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Apostrophes Grammar 101 - Quotation Marks This covers the use of quotation marks for direct quotes and includes the correct use of other punctuation used with quotation marks.

.An apostrophe wrongly thought to be misused in popular culture occurs in the name of Liverpudlian rock band The La's.^ Apostrophe The B-52s: Airplanes, Hairstyles and the South's Favorite Party Band The B-52s were named in honor of a towering hairstyle that their singers no longer wear.

.This apostrophe is often thought to be a mistake; but in fact it marks omission of the letter d.^ The rule is incredibly simple: apostrophes indicate either the omission of letter or word (e.g.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The name comes from the Scouse slang for "The Lads".
.In 2009, a resident in Tunbridge Wells was accused of vandalism after he painted apostrophes on road signs which had incorrectly spelt St John's Close as St Johns Close.^ Street Signs Guide to Writing Well: Proper Apostrophe Usage for Everyone Everyone writes, whether for a living, or just in casual correspondence.

^ By Muthusamy R   |  Published 2/4/2009 More topics: Road Signs .

[53]

Non-English use

As a mark of elision

.In many languages, especially European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate the elision of one or more sounds, as in English.^ They want a programming language that is easy to use and similar to English.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proofread How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • In Afrikaans the apostrophe is used to show that letters have been omitted from words.^ It explains using them for showing possession and to indicated omitted letters in a word.

    ^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Well, this one fits with what Hassan was discussing about contractions (or whatever silly British word he used for them), since P's means pints, the apostrophe-s is indicative of the missing letters, I would say.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The most common use is in the indefinite article 'n which is a contraction of een meaning "one" (the number).^ Proofread How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

    ^ The most comprehensive coded language in regular use for representing sound is the common musical notation (CMN) of the Western world.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Apostrophe How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

    As the initial e is omitted and cannot be capitalised, if a sentence begins with 'n the second word in the sentence is capitalised. .For example: 'n Boek is groen., "A book is green". In addition, the apostrophe is used for plurals and diminutives where the root end with certain vowels, e.g.^ Also, your first example of the apostrophe's use is incorrect -if the surname is Brook, then Brook's is correct.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ In second place was using an apostrophe to denote a plural – as in the use of the incorrect "boy's" instead of correct "boys".
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Actually, it is correct to use an apostrophe to pluralize acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    foto's, taxi's, Lulu's, Lulu'tjie, garage's etc.[54]
  • In Danish, apostrophes are sometimes seen on commercial materials. .One might commonly see Ta' mig med ("Take me with [you]") next to a stand with advertisement leaflets; that would be written Tag mig med in standard orthography.^ Take one listen, and you will be hooked!

    ^ You might have more than one Symfony 1.2+ form in the slot (although you should look at embedForm() and mergeForm() first before you say that).

    ^ To get it right, you need to look up the rules every time you think an apostrophe might be needed – and do this for the next six months in order to 'internalise' the rules."
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .As in German, the apostrophe must not be used to indicate the possessive, except when there is already an s present in the base form, as in Lukas' bog.
  • In the Dutch language, the apostrophe is again used to indicate omitted characters.^ It explains using them for showing possession and to indicated omitted letters in a word.

    ^ The format characters U+1D173 MUSICAL SYMBOL BEGIN BEAM and U+1D174 MUSICAL SYMBOL END BEAM can be used to indicate the extents of beam groupings.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    For example, the indefinite article een can be shortened to 'n, and the definite article het shortened to 't. .When this happens with the first word of a sentence, only the second word of the sentence is capitalised.^ Every sentence is laced with spiritual double entendres that takes some thought and energy to first decipher, and then to apply his words to your life.

    .In general, this way of using the apostrophe is considered non-standard, except in 's morgens, 's middags, 's avonds, 's nachts (for des morgens, des middags, des avonds, des nachts: "at morning, at afternoon, at evening, at night").^ The current conformance clause C12 in The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 forbids the generation of "non-shortest form" UTF-8, and forbids the interpretation of illegal sequences, but not the interpretation of "non-shortest form".
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .In addition, the apostrophe is used for plurals where the singulars end with certain vowels, e.g.^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ In second place was using an apostrophe to denote a plural – as in the use of the incorrect "boy's" instead of correct "boys".
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Actually, it is correct to use an apostrophe to pluralize acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    foto's, taxi's; and for the genitive of proper names ending with these vowels, e.g. Anna's, Otto's. .These are in fact elided vowels; use of the apostrophe prevents spellings like fotoos and Annaas.
  • In French phrases such as coup d'état and maître d'hôtel (the latter often shortened to maître d', when used by English speakers), the vowel in the preposition de ("of") is elided because the word which follows it also starts with a vowel (or a mute h).^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

    ^ Apostrophe Avoiding Common Word Mistakes in Your Writing Spell checkers are good, but they don't always catch word confusion.

    Similarly, French has l'église instead of la église ("the church"), qu'il instead of que il ("that he"), and so on. .Feminine singular possessive adjectives do not undergo elision, but change to the masculine form instead: ma preceding église becomes mon église ("my church").^ It's usually when there is an 's' sound preceding the final syllable that the apostrophe is moved to the end in the singular possessive, as in Jesus' -though many people still say Jesus's.
    • Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe - Telegraph 10 September 2009 23:59 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    [55] Analogous constructions are also common in Italian and Catalan. French and Italian surnames sometimes contain apostrophes of elision, e.g. .d'Alembert, D'Angelo.
  • German usage is very similar: an apostrophe is used almost exclusively to indicate omitted letters.^ To indicate contractions or omitted letters, U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE is used.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It explains using them for showing possession and to indicated omitted letters in a word.

    ^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    .It must not be used for plurals or most of the possessive forms (Max' Vater being one of very few exceptions); although both usages are widespread, they are deemed incorrect.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

    The German equivalent of greengrocers' apostrophes would be the derogatory Deppenapostroph ("idiots' apostrophe"). .(See the article Apostrophitis in German Wikipedia.^ OK, now that you’re confused, head on over to the Wikipedia article on the hypercube and see if you can make any sense out of it.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    )
  • The Fundamento de Esperanto limits the elision mark to the definite article l' (from la) and singular nominative nouns (kor' from koro, "heart"). This is mostly confined to poetry. Non-standard dank' al (from danke al, "thanks to") and del' (from de la, "of the") are nonetheless frequent. .In-word elision is usually marked with a hyphen, as in D-ro (from doktoro, "Dr").^ Grammar The Basics of Grammar: When to Capitalize, How to Use Numbers, Commas, Semi-Colons, Hyphens, Colons, and Quotation Marks Stop relying on your word processor to check your grammar.

    .Some early guides used and advocated the use of apostrophes between word parts, to aid recognition of such compound words as gitar'ist'o, "guitarist".
  • Initialisms in Hebrew are denoted with a geresh, often typed as an apostrophe.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Here's a guide to some of those tricky words that sound alike but mean different things.

    ^ The tenth letter U+10339 GOTHIC LETTER EIS is used with U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS when word-initial, when syllable-initial after a vowel, and in compounds with a verb as second member as shown below: .
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .A double geresh (״), known by the plural form gershayim, is used to denote acronyms; it is inserted before (i.e., to the right of) the last letter of the acronym.
  • In Irish, the past tense of verbs beginning with an F or vowel begins with d' (elision of do), for example do oscail becomes d’oscail ("opened") and do fhill becomes d’fhill ("returned").^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apostrophe On Apostrophes and Aunt Ruth Do not use apostrophes to form plural nouns!

    ^ Only unaccented forms of the letters are used for mathematical notation, because general accents such as the acute accent would interfere with common mathematical diacritics.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    The copula is is often elided to ’s, and do ("to"), mo ("my") etc. are elided before .F's and vowels.
  • In Luganda, when a word ending with a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the final vowel of the first word is elided and the initial vowel of the second word lengthened in compensation.^ The tenth letter U+10339 GOTHIC LETTER EIS is used with U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS when word-initial, when syllable-initial after a vowel, and in compounds with a verb as second member as shown below: .
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Not on a word ending in a vowel, not on proper nouns, not on abbreviations, not on acronyms, not on numerals, and most of all, not just because you feel like it.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED, TRY TRY AGAIN - AND HAVE THE FOLLOWING READY BEFORE CALLING I. B. M. This was the start, and by some accounts the end, of I. B. M. documentation.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    When the first word is a monosyllable this elision is represented in the orthography with an apostrophe: in taata w'abaana "the father of the children", wa ("of") becomes w'; in y'ani? ("who is it?"), ye ("who") becomes y'. .But the final vowel of a polysyllable is always spelt out in writing, even if it is elided in speech: omusajja oyo ("this man"), not *omusajj'oyo, because omusajja ("man") is a polysyllable.
  • In Norwegian, the apostrophe marks that a word has been contracted, such as "ha'kke" from "har ikke" (have not).^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ The old man won’t hand over the key to get out until people start writing.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .Unlike English and French, such elisions are not accepted as part of standardised orthography, but is used to create a more "oral style" in writing.^ Grammar Mistakes Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

    ^ However, there are so many implementations which (in compliance with the transport requirements of [RFC2821]) do not accept messages containing more than 1000 character including the CR and LF per line, it is important for implementations not to create such messages.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By Carolyn Osborne   |  Published 2/25/2009 More topics: Apostrophes Grammar 102: Punctuation Understanding punctuation rules can make writing in the English language easier.

    The apostrophe is also used to mark the genitive for words which end in an -s sound, i.e. words ending in -s, -x, and -z, some speakers also include words ending in the phoneme /ʃ/. (As Norwegian doesn't form the plural by adding an -s to the end of the word, Norwegian doesn't have the same need as English to distinguish between the -s forming the genitive and the -s forming the plural.) Usually the genitive is created by adding an -s to a word, so that "mann" (man) manns (man's). If the word already ends in an s, instead of adding in s, an apostrophe is added: los (naval pilot) los' (naval pilot's). Former US Presidents George Bush could be seen having the dual genitives Bushs and Bush'.

To separate morphemes

.Some languages use the apostrophe to separate the root of a word and its affixes, especially if the root is foreign and unassimilated.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grammar Mistakes Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

(For another kind of morphemic separation see pinyin, below.)
.
  • In Danish an apostrophe is sometimes used to join the enclitic definite article to words of foreign origin, or to other words which would otherwise look awkward.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apostrophe The Importance of Using Proper Grammar A humorous look at common grammatical errors and how to fix them.

    .For example, one would write IP'en to mean "the IP address". There is some variation in what is considered "awkward enough" to warrant an apostrophe; for instance, long-established words such as firma ("company") or niveau ("level") might be written firma'et and niveau'et, but will generally be seen without an apostrophe.^ But I would recommend “Pan’s Labyrinth” higher if you asked, because it was one of the most visually stunning and downright engaging films I’ve seen in a long time.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ An example of a file system with a disk layout optimized for writing is a log-structured file system, where writes are bundled and written sequentially.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are a few features that are missing due to some plugin compatibility issues, but I don’t think it will take long for those things to work themselves out.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .Due to Danish influence, this usage of the apostrophe can also be seen in Norwegian, but is incorrect - a dash should be used instead: e.g.^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I always thought that those should go without the apostrophe, but I swear I've seen that type of acronym with the apostrophe with the plural 's'.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Regardless, such usage of the apostrophe to indicate plurality is incorrect grammar.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    CD-en (the CD).
  • In Finnish, apostrophes are used in the declension of foreign names or loan words that end in a consonant when written but are pronounced with a vowel ending, e.g. show'ssa ("in a show"), Bordeaux'hun ("to Bordeaux"). Author and controversialist Pentti Saarikoski strenuously railed against this practice. .For Finnish as well as Swedish, there is a closely related use of the colon.
  • In Estonian, apostrophes can be used in the declension of some foreign names to separate the stem from any declension endings; e.g., Monet' (genitive case) or Monet'sse (illative case) of Monet (name of the famous painter).
  • In Polish, the apostrophe is used exclusively for marking inflections of words and word-like elements (such as acronyms) whose spelling conflicts with the normal rules of inflection.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Apostrophe How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

    ^ Street Signs A Rant on Apostrophe Abuse and Misuse Is it my imagination that there are rules for using apostrophes?

    This mainly affects foreign words and names. .For instance, one would write Kampania Ala Gore'a for "Al Gore's campaign". In this example, Ala is spelt without an apostrophe, since its spelling and pronunciation fit into normal Polish rules; but Gore'a needs the apostrophe, because e disappears from the pronunciation, changing the inflection pattern.^ Because the runs almost exclusively ascii, 1200baud terminals, The 3270 block write changes (that were shipped as part of VM/SP1) had no affect on their operation.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

    ^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This rule is often misunderstood as calling for an apostrophe after all foreign words, regardless of their pronunciation, yielding Kampania Al'a Gore'a, for example. .The effect is akin to the greengrocers' apostrophe (see above).
  • In Turkish, proper nouns are capitalized and an apostrophe is inserted between the noun and any following suffix, e.g.^ Most literature about the script treats the term Deseret Alphabet as a proper noun and capitalizes it as such.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The following provide samples of desired renderings when the joiner or non-joiner are inserted between two characters.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    İstanbul'da ("in Istanbul"), contrasting with okulda ("in school").

As a mark of palatalization or non-palatalization

.Some languages and transliteration systems use the apostrophe to mark the presence, or the lack of, palatalization.^ Grammar Mistakes Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apostrophe How to Use Apostrophes Correctly The apostrophe is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks.

  • In the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages, the apostrophe is used between a consonant and a following "soft" (iotified) vowel (е, ё, ю, я; Uk. є, ї, ю, я) to indicate that .no palatalization of the preceding consonant takes place, and the vowel is pronounced in the same way as at the beginning of the word.
  • In Russian and some derived alphabets the same function is served by the hard sign (ъ, formerly called yer).^ By the time the plot of the book takes place, some Optimen have been alive for 40,000 years or more, and they preside like a pantheon of Greek gods over the rest of humanity, called the Folk.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I mean, there are people who might use those words to describe me, and perhaps those same people could describe little pieces of themselves in the same way.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Every sentence is laced with spiritual double entendres that takes some thought and energy to first decipher, and then to apply his words to your life.

    .But the apostrophe saw some use as a substitute after 1918, when Soviet authorities enforced an orthographic reform by confiscating type bearing that "letter parasite" from stubborn printing houses in Petrograd.^ House and Home Apostrophes: The Bane of Editors, Writers, and Readers Never, never, never use apostrophes for plurals.

    [56]
  • .
  • In some Latin transliterations of certain variants of the Cyrillic alphabet (for Belarusian, Russian, and Ukrainian language), the apostrophe is used to replace the soft sign (ь, indicating palatalization of the preceding consonant), e.g., Русь is transliterated Rus’ according to the BGN/PCGN system.^ Street Signs A Rant on Apostrophe Abuse and Misuse Is it my imagination that there are rules for using apostrophes?

    ^ Grammar Mistakes Grammar Made Easy: When to Use Apostrophes Apostrophes are important to the English language By Jendayi   |  Published 8/17/2007 More topics: Apostrophes .

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Confusingly, some of these transliteration schemes use a double apostrophe ( " ) to represent the apostrophe in Ukrainian and Belarusian text, e.g.^ Usage How to Use the Apostrophe Correctly If you are unsure about using words like its / it's, they're / their / there, you / you're, and so on, these hints will help you out.

    ^ Apostrophes Common Grammar Mistakes Part Six: Homophones In the sixth part of my grammar series, I explain how to know when to use each of these confusing words.

    Ukrainian слов’янське ("Slavic") is transliterated as slov"yans’ke.
  • Some Karelian orthographies use an apostrophe to indicate palatalization, e.g. n'evvuo ("to give advice"), d'uuri ("just (like)"), el'vüttiä ("to revive").

As a glottal stop

Other languages and transliteration systems use the apostrophe or some similar mark to indicate a glottal stop, sometimes considering it a letter of the alphabet:
.
  • Guarani, where it is called puso /ˈpuso/, as in the words ñe'ẽ, ka'a, a' ỹ.
  • Hawaiian, the ʻokina (ʻ), an inverted apostrophe, is often rendered as (').^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is considered a letter of the alphabet.
  • In the Tongan language, the apostrophe is called a fakauʻa and is the last letter of the alphabet.^ Letters of the alphabet and two letter words may be pluralized with an apostrophe if the lack of an apostrophe would indicate a different word.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is used to represent the glottal stop. Like the ʻokina, it is inverted.
  • Various other Austronesian languages, such as Samoan, Tahitian, and Chamorro.
  • Tetum, one of the official languages of East Timor.
  • The Brazilian native Tupi language.
  • Mayan.
  • The constructed Klingon language.
The apostrophe represents sounds resembling the glottal stop in the Turkic languages and in romanizations of Arabic. Sometimes this function is performed by the opening single quotation mark.

Miscellaneous uses in other languages

  • In the Czech and Slovak languages, the caron over lowercase t, d, l, and uppercase L consonants resembles an apostrophe: ď, ť, ľ, Ľ. This is especially so in certain common typographic renderings. But it is incorrect to use an apostrophe instead of the caron. In Slovak, there is also l with an acute accent: ĺ, Ĺ. .In both languages the apostrophe is only ever properly used to indicate elision in certain words (tys', as an abbreviated form of ty si in Slovak, or pad' for padl in Czech); however, these elisions are restricted to poetry.^ Much poetry uses the device of apostrophe.

    ^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, we've only been using the "K" in a recognizable way for a couple hundred years.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And the apostrophe is also used before a two-digit year number (to indicate the omission of the first two digits): '87.
  • In Finnish, one of the consonant gradation patterns is the change of a k into a hiatus, e.g.^ Instead, we have to risk not getting one from the first shipment, and that could mean a week or two delay, totally unacceptable.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I’d have to see one before I was sold, but the Sony Reader looks like something I might actually use.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ By Quixotic_Kiss   |  Published 2/27/2008 Dreams Died First Harshly night pricked her with a thousand pins each piercing sharper than the one before, her flesh paying the cost of two men's sins.

    keko → keon ("a pile → a pile's"). This hiatus has to be indicated in spelling with an apostrophe if a long vowel or a diphthong would be immediately followed by the final vowel, e.g. ruoko → ruo'on, vaaka → vaa'an. (This is in contrast to compound words, where the equivalent problem is solved with a hyphen, e.g. .maa-ala, "land area".) Similarly, the apostrophe is used to mark the hiatus (contraction) that occurs in poetry, e.g.^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By Bridget Ilene Delaney   |  Published 2/27/2008 Innovative Uses for the Neverland Ranch The Neverland Ranch is a massive area of beautiful land located in California.

    ^ Much poetry uses the device of apostrophe.

    .miss' on for missä on ("where is").
  • In the Breton language, the combination c'h is used for the consonant /x/ (like ch in English Loch Ness), while ch is used for the consonant /ʃ/ (as in French chat or English she).
  • In Italian, an apostrophe is sometimes used as a substitute for a grave accent after a final vowel: in capitals, or when the proper form of the letter is unavailable.^ For the plurals of all small letters, of capital letters with periods, and of capital letters that would be confusing if s alone were added, by adding an apostrophe and s .
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They want a programming language that is easy to use and similar to English.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    So Niccolò might be rendered as Niccolo', or NICCOLO'. .This only applies to machine or computer writing, in the absence of a suitable keyboard.
  • In Swahili, an apostrophe after ng shows that there is no sound of /ɡ/ after the /ŋ/ sound; that is, that the ng is pronounced as in English singer, not as in English finger.
  • In Luganda, ng' (pronounced /ŋ/) is used in place of ŋ on keyboards where this character is not available.^ In German, there's no genitive apostrophe and it's not used for plurals, either (only omission).
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "I need programmers to use my computers, to operate my operating system and to apply my applica- tions."
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Computers may be a gift from heaven, but there's no divine help in getting them to work.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The apostrophe distinguishes it from the letter combination ng (pronounced [ŋɡ]), which has separate use in the language.^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Compare this with the Swahili usage above.
  • In Jèrriais, one of the uses of the apostrophe is to mark gemination, or consonant length.^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Later it does say to italicize a word if an apostrophe is used to call attention to the usage.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, t't represents /tː/, s's /sː/, n'n /nː/, th'th /ðː/, and ch'ch /ʃː/ (contrasted with /t/, /s/, /n/, /ð/, and /ʃ/).
  • In the pinyin (hànyǔ pīnyīn) system of romanization for Standard Mandarin (the main Chinese language, or Putonghua), an apostrophe is often loosely said to separate syllables in a word where ambiguity could arise.^ In addition, I reworked some additional CMS system functions so that they could reside in additional CMS system "virtual memory" (initially a second 64kbyte shared segment, in addition to the standard, single CMS system 64kbyte shared segment).
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From the sixth century BCE words were often separated by one, two, or three dots spaced vertically above each other.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    Example: the standard romanization for the name of the city Xī'ān includes an apostrophe to distinguish it from a single-syllable word xian. .More strictly, however, it is only correct to place an apostrophe before every a, e, or o that starts a new syllable after the first, and is not preceded by a hyphen or a dash.^ So the next logical place for me was to start over with the first book Fleming wrote.
    • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED, TRY TRY AGAIN - AND HAVE THE FOLLOWING READY BEFORE CALLING I. B. M. This was the start, and by some accounts the end, of I. B. M. documentation.
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Examples: Tiān'ānmén, Yǎ'ān; but simply Jǐnán, in which the syllables are ji and nan, since the absence of an apostrophe shows that the syllables are not jin and an (contrast Jīn'ān).^ In the fourth line of encoding examples, the values "61" should all be replaced by "41", since the examples show an uppercase "A", not a lowercase "a".
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    [57] This is a kind of morpheme-separation marking (see above).
  • In the largely superseded Wade–Giles romanization for Standard Mandarin, an apostrophe marks aspiration of the preceding consonant sound. .Example: in tsê (pinyin ze) the consonant represented by ts is unaspirated, but in ts'ê (pinyin ce) the consonant represented by ts' is aspirated.
  • In some systems of romanization for the Japanese language, the apostrophe is used between moras in ambiguous situations, to differentiate between, for example, na and n + a.^ In cases of ambiguity, CE is used.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For example, consider embedding a language tag for Japanese.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The most comprehensive coded language in regular use for representing sound is the common musical notation (CMN) of the Western world.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    (This is similar to the practice in Pinyin mentioned above.)
  • .
  • In Hebrew, the apostrophe is adjacent to letters to show sounds that are not represented in the Hebrew alphabet.^ An approximate IPA transcription of the sounds represented by the Deseret Alphabet is shown below.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The apostrophe (') is used to show possession, to mark the omission of letters, and sometimes to indicate the plural of Arabic numbers, letters, and acronyms.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Letters of the alphabet and two letter words may be pluralized with an apostrophe if the lack of an apostrophe would indicate a different word.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Sounds such as j, th, and ch are indicated using ג, ת, and צ with an apostrophe (also called a geresh, or informally "chupchik"). .For example, the name George is spelled ג׳ורג׳ in Hebrew (with 'ג representing the first and last syllables).
  • In the new Uzbek Latin alphabet adopted in 2000, the apostrophe serves as a diacritical mark to distinguish different phonemes written with the same letter: it differentiates o' (corresponding to Cyrillic ў) from o, and g' (Cyrillic ғ) from g.^ Delete the last sentence of the bulleted item: " Similarly, if a new combining mark is added to this standard, it may allow decompositions for precomposed characters that did not have decompositions before.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ C) reads line-for-line the same as one of the core components from RSCS (written in 360 assembler) except for the differences in the language ...
    • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Just so you know -- The apostrophe was REQUESTED and I confirmed three times the spelling of the name because I didn't believe it.

    .This avoids the use of special characters, allowing Uzbek to be typed with ease in ordinary ASCII on any Latin keyboard.^ The characters in this block are reserved for use with special protocols.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There are other characters which sometimes have similar shapes and require special attention to avoid ambiguity.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This block encodes a set of 95 special-use tag characters to enable the spelling out of ASCII-based string tags using characters which can be strictly separated from ordinary text content characters in Unicode.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    In addition, a postvocalic apostrophe in Uzbek represents the glottal stop phoneme derived from Arabic hamzah or ‘ayn, replacing Cyrillic ъ.
  • In English Yorkshire dialect, the apostrophe is used to represent the word the, which is contracted to a more glottal (or "unreleased") /t/ sound. .Most users will write in t'barn ("in the barn"), on t'step ("on the step"); and those unfamiliar with Yorkshire speech will often make these sound like intuh barn and ontuh step.^ Webmasters who make use of internationalization will want to add a "culture switcher" to their sites so that a user interface is available to make these features visible.

    ^ The problem is that this is a hack of the language in order to avoid revising what is most likely sloppy writing.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A more accurate rendition might be in't barn and on't step, though even this does not truly convey correct Yorkshire pronunciation as the t is more like a glottal stop.
  • Galician restaurants in Madrid in Páginas Amarillas sometimes use O' in their names instead of the standard article O ("The").^ Before he does, though, I'd like to give him something to consider.

    ^ Musical Symbols are used worldwide in a more-or-less standard manner by a very large group of users.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Corrections and extensions to the standard in the future may require minor changes to normative values, even though the Unicode Technical Committee strives to minimize such changes.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    [58]

Typographic form

The form of the apostrophe originates in manuscript writing, as a point with a downwards tail curving clockwise. This form was inherited by the typographic (or typeset) apostrophe (  ), also called the curly apostrophe. Later sans-serif typefaces had stylized apostrophes with a more geometric or simplified form, but usually retaining the same directional bias as a closing quotation mark.
With the invention of the typewriter, a "neutral" quotation mark form ( ' ) was created to economize on the keyboard, by using a single key to represent the apostrophe, both opening and closing single quotation marks, and single primes. This is known as the typewriter apostrophe or vertical apostrophe.

Computing

Although ubiquitous in typeset material, the typographic apostrophe (  ) is rather difficult to enter on a computer since it does not have its own key on a standard keyboard. .Outside the world of professional typesetting and graphic design, many people do not know how to enter this character and instead use the typewriter apostrophe ( ' ).^ I have so far been pleasantly surprised by how many games have used it, though.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ How many containers of chewing tobacco or snuff have you used in the past 5 days?

^ I can’t tell you how many times I could have used this feature in the last year.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

However, because typewriter apostrophes are now often automatically converted to typographic apostrophes by wordprocessing and desktop-publishing software (see below), the typographic apostrophe does often appear in documents produced by non-professionals.
.The typewriter apostrophe has always been considered tolerable on Web pages because of the egalitarian nature of Web publishing and the low resolution of computer monitors in comparison to print.^ I've always wondered about that, because you often see, even in newspapers and magazines, acronyms with a plural 's' and an apostrophe.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, the correct use of the typographic apostrophe is becoming more common on the Web due to the wide adoption of the Unicode text encoding standard, near-universal Web-browser support, higher-resolution displays, and advanced anti-aliasing of text in modern operating systems.^ "I need programmers to use my computers, to operate my operating system and to apply my applica- tions."
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was used initially for the major, large clustered HONE operations around the world (at least initially Uithoorne and Palo Alto) supporting "single system image".
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also mention that SCI was recently presented to the SCSI standards committee and a SCSI protocol using 200mbit (maybe 100mbit) SCI cable looks very promising.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the spread of Unicode support in computer operating systems and Internet software, the typographic apostrophe can be used nearly anywhere.^ By 'holistic' I mean software which simulates all aspects of a computer system - all major hardware components; all major software components (including Operating System and Instruction Set functionality), as well as a simulated working environment (i.e.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Let there be systems that make the computer work and let them be called Operating Systems.
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was used initially for the major, large clustered HONE operations around the world (at least initially Uithoorne and Palo Alto) supporting "single system image".
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless, the tradition of using the typewriter apostrophe continues in most situations.
How to enter typographic quotation marks and apostrophes on a computer
  Macintosh keyboard Windows keyboard Linux keyboard
Single opening    Option + ] Hold Alt while typing 0145 on the number pad AltGr+shift+V
Single closing (apostrophe)    Option + Shift + ] Hold Alt while typing 0146 on the number pad AltGr + shift + B
Double opening    Option + [ Hold Alt while typing 0147 on the number pad AltGr + V
Double closing    Option + Shift + [ Hold Alt while typing 0148 on the number pad AltGr + B

Smart quotes

.To make typographic apostrophes easier to enter, wordprocessing and publishing software often converts typewriter apostrophes to typographic apostrophes during text entry (at the same time converting opening and closing single and double quotes to their correct left-handed or right-handed forms).^ From the third century BCE, left-to-right texts appear, showing the influence of Latin.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most early Etruscan texts have right-to-left directionality.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite this, for reasons of implementation simplicity, many scholars prefer left-to-right presentation of texts, as this is also their practice when transcribing the texts into Latin script.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

A similar facility may be offered on web servers after submitting text in a form field, e.g. on weblogs or free encyclopedias. This is known as the smart quotes feature; apostrophes and quotation marks that are not automatically altered by computer programs are known as dumb quotes.
Such conversion is not always done in accordance with the standards for character sets and encodings. Additionally, many such software programs incorrectly convert a leading apostrophe to an opening quotation mark (e.g., in abbreviations of years: 29 rather than the correct 29 for the year 2029; or twas instead of twas as the archaic abbreviation of it was. .A quick way to get the correct result in Microsoft Word is to type two apostrophes (sometimes using a space as well, as required), and then delete the first.^ It also says to use an apostrophe only if confusion would result without one.
  • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two uses of CANCEL TAG. To cancel a tag value of a particular type, prefix the CANCEL TAG character with the tag identification character of the appropriate type.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Sum of the ages of first cigarette use of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who ever smoked, including those who ever smoked one or two puffs in their lifetime.

.A quicker way is to hold down the Control key while typing the two apostrophes: only a single typographic apostrophe will appear even if it is positioned as a leading apostrophe.^ Heck, it doesn’t even include my girlfriend, and she’s only two years older than I am.
  • Bend Blogs » Apostrophe S 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC www.bendblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Smart quote features also often fail to recognise situations when a prime rather than an apostrophe is needed; for example, incorrectly rendering the latitude 49° 53′ 08″ as 49° 53 08.^ When multiline is true, the plaintext slot is rendered with textarea_tag rather than input_tag .

In Microsoft Word it is possible to turn smart quotes off (in some versions, by navigating through Tools, AutoCorrect, AutoFormat as you type, and then checking the appropriate option). Alternatively, typing CONTROL-Z (for Undo) immediately after entering the apostrophe will convert it back to a straight apostrophe.

Typewriter apostrophe and ASCII encoding

The typewriter apostrophe ( ' ) was inherited by computer keyboards, and is the only apostrophe character available in the (7-bit) ASCII character encoding, which is the original basis for the computer representation of the Latin alphabet.
As such, it is a highly overloaded character. .In ASCII, it represents a right single quotation mark, left single quotation mark, apostrophe, vertical line or prime (punctuation marks), or an apostrophe modifier or acute accent (modifier letters).^ The quotation marks you put around the word "adult," right from the start ("ATTN PARENTS: This post contains material somewhat "adult" in nature."

^ Only unaccented forms of the letters are used for mathematical notation, because general accents such as the acute accent would interfere with common mathematical diacritics.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

(The separate ASCII grave accent ( ` ), intended as a modifier and assigned its own key on many keyboards, has sometimes found a non-standard role as a single opening quote.)

Typographic apostrophe and 8-bit encodings

.Support for the typographic apostrophe (  ) was introduced in a variety of 8-bit character encodings, such as the Apple Macintosh operating system's Mac Roman character set (in 1984), and later in the CP1252 encoding of Microsoft Windows.^ This was used initially for the major, large clustered HONE operations around the world (at least initially Uithoorne and Palo Alto) supporting "single system image".
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Older 8-bit character encodings, like Windows CP1252, Mac Roman or ISO-8859-1, universally support the typewriter quote in the same position, 39, inherited from ASCII (as does Unicode; see below).^ See Article I, Description , for more information about these two characters and the reason for their inclusion into Unicode 3.1.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following C/C++ source code snippets show efficient implementations of range checks for characters E0000 to E007F expressed in each of the three significant Unicode encoding forms.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The canonical equivalents for these characters are given in the Unicode Character Database, and illustrated in the table below.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

However, most of them place the typographic apostrophe in different positions. .In ISO-8859-1, a common encoding for web pages, ’ is the correct character.^ These new characters, encoded at code positions of U+10000 or higher, are synchronized with the forthcoming standard ISO/IEC 10646-2.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.Microsoft Windows CP1252 (sometimes incorrectly called ANSI or ISO-Latin) is a duplicate of ISO-8859-1, with 27 additional characters in the place of control characters (in the range from 128 to 159).^ ANSI/ISO C leaves the semantics of the wide character set to the specific implementation but requires that the characters from the portable C execution set correspond to their wide character equivalents by zero extension.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A limitation of the ISO/ANSI C model is its assumption that characters can always be processed in isolation.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With the wchar_t wide character type, ANSI/ISO C provides for the inclusion of fixed-width, wide characters.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

.Microsoft software usually treats ISO-8859-1 as if it were CP1252. The wide adoption of Microsoft's web browser and web server has forced many other software makers to adopt this as a de facto convention – in some cases contravening established standards unnecessarily (e.g., some applications use CP1252 character values in HTML numeric references, where Unicode values are required, and would be sufficient for interoperation with MS software).^ Occasional uses of other alphabetic and numeric characters are known.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the early '70s we did some detailed storage reference traces across a wide range of applications and systems and then ran simulated true LRU against various forms of clock, other page harvesting algorithms as well as compared to OPT (optimally page harvesting).
  • 2001 Newsgroup postings (05/24 - 06/27) Lynn Wheeler 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.garlic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When converting a Unicode scalar value to UTF-8, the shortest form that can represent those values shall be used.
  • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

Consequently, the typographic apostrophe and several other characters are handled inconsistently by web browsers and other software, and can cause interoperation problems.

Unicode

There are several types of apostrophe character in Unicode:
.
  • ' ) Vertical typewriter apostrophe (Unicode name apostrophe or apostrophe-quote), U+0027, inherited from ASCII.
  •  ) Punctuation apostrophe (or right single quotation mark; single comma quotation mark), U+2019. Serves as both an apostrophe and closing single quotation mark.^ The quotation marks you put around the word "adult," right from the start ("ATTN PARENTS: This post contains material somewhat "adult" in nature."

    ^ A macro is employed to denote terminal symbols that are character literals which can't be directly represented in ASCII. The argument to the macro is the UNICODE character name.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .This is the preferred character to use for apostrophe according to the Unicode standard.^ The glyphs used in the Unicode Standard are derived from the second typeface commissioned by the LDS Church and represent the shapes most commonly found.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The order of the letters in the Unicode Standard is the one used in all but one of the nineteenth-century descriptions of the alphabet.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When another standard or product upgrades to a new version of the Unicode Standard, it may have to handle characters that were formerly part of ID_Start or ID_Continue, but are no longer.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    [59]
  • ʼ ) Letter apostrophe (or modifier letter apostrophe), U+02BC. This is preferred when the apostrophe is not considered punctuation which separates letters, but a letter in its own right. Examples occur in Breton cʼh, the Cyrillic Azerbaijani alphabet, or in some transliterations such as the transliterated Arabic glottal stop, hamza, or transliterated Cyrillic soft sign. .(The Hawaiian glottal stop, the ʻokina, has its own Unicode character at U+02BB.) As the letter apostrophe is seldom used in practice, the Unicode standard cautions that one should never assume text is coded thus.^ The glyphs used in the Unicode Standard are derived from the second typeface commissioned by the LDS Church and represent the shapes most commonly found.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ UTF-8 is the Unicode Transformation Format that serializes a Unicode code point as a sequence of one to four bytes, as specified in Table 3.1, UTF-8 Bit Distribution.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When another standard or product upgrades to a new version of the Unicode Standard, it may have to handle characters that were formerly part of ID_Start or ID_Continue, but are no longer.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    .The letter apostrophe is rendered identically to the punctuation apostrophe in the Unicode code charts.^ The default glyphs in the code charts are based on the most common shapes found for each letter.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The following code charts contain the characters added in Unicode 3.1.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In the Unicode Standard, this representation is considered to be a rendering variation; the variant is not assigned a separate character code.
    • UAX #27: Unicode 3.1 18 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.unicode.org [Source type: Reference]

    [60]
Nenets has single and double letter apostrophes:
  • ˮ ) Double letter apostrophe (Unicode name modifier letter double apostrophe), U+02EE.
  •  ՚  ) Armenian apostrophe (Unicode name Armenian apostrophe), U+055A.

See also

References

  1. ^ “The English form apostrophe is due to its adoption via French and its current pronunciation as four syllables is due to a confusion with the rhetorical device apostrophé” (W. S. Allen, Vox Graeca. The pronunciation of classical Greek, 3rd edition, 1988. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 100, note 13).
  2. ^ See OED, “Apostrophe2.
  3. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 5.27; New Hart's Rules, §4.2, p. 64; Gregg Reference Manual, §642.
  4. ^ Pease as an old plural of pea is indeterminate: Lentils' and pease'[s] use in such dishes was optional. Nouns borrowed from French ending in -eau, -eu, -au, or -ou sometimes have alternative plurals that retain the French -x: beaux or beaus; bureaux or bureaus; adieux or adieus; fabliaux or fabliaus; choux or chous. The x in these plurals is often pronounced. If it is, then in the absence of specific rulings from style guides the plural possessives are formed with an apostrophe alone: the beaux' [or beaus'] appearance at the ball; the bureaux' [or bureaus'] responses differed. If the x is not pronounced, then in the absence of special rulings the plurals are formed with an apostrophe followed by an s: the beaux's appearance; the bureaux's responses; their adieux's effect was that everyone wept. See also Nouns ending with silent “s”, “x”, or “z”, below, and attached notes.
  5. ^ Style Guide, US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; The United States Government Printing Office Style Manual 2000; Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 5.25: “The possessive of a multiword compound noun is formed by adding the appropriate ending to the last word {parents-in-law’s message}.”
  6. ^ CMOS, 7.25: “If plural compounds pose problems, opt for of. ... the professions of both my daughters-in-law.”
  7. ^ Is the English Possessive 's Truly a Right-Hand Phenomenon?
  8. ^ This example is quoted from www.abc.net.au; see Chicago Manual of Style, 7.18.
  9. ^ This example is quoted from The Gregg Reference Manual, 10th edition, 2005, paragraph 641.
  10. ^ This is normal despite the fact that the single word hers is spelled without an apostrophe, see below in this section; His 'n' Hers's first track is theoretically possible, but unlikely unless an extra sibilant is actually pronounced after Hers.
  11. ^ Most sources are against continuing the italics used in such titles to the apostrophe and the s.
  12. ^ See for example New Hart's Rules. Not one of the other sources listed on this page supports the use of it's as a possessive form of it.
  13. ^ Courier Mail, Little things that matter
  14. ^ MLA Style Manual, 2nd edition, 1998, 3.4.7e: “To form the possessive of any singular proper noun, add an apostrophe and an s”; The Economist's Style Guide; The Elements of Style makes the same rule, with only sketchily presented exceptions.
  15. ^ Chicago Manual of Style's text: 7.23 An alternative practice. Those uncomfortable with the rules, exceptions, and options outlined above may prefer the system, formerly more common, of simply omitting the possessive s on all words ending in s – hence “Dylan Thomas' poetry,” “Maria Callas' singing,” and “that business' main concern.” Though easy to apply, that usage disregards pronunciation and thus seems unnatural to many.
  16. ^ Possessives and Attributives, The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  17. ^ The Guardian's Style Guide.
  18. ^ Emory University's Writing Center's “Use of the Apostrophe”.
  19. ^ The American Heritage Book of English Usage. 8. Word Formation b. Forming Possessives.
  20. ^ The Times Online Style Guide.
  21. ^ Vanderbilt University's Style Guide.
  22. ^ "DummiesWorld Wide Words". http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-app2.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-13. . Chicago Manual of Style, 7.22: “For...sake expressions traditionally omit the s when the noun ends in an s or an s sound.” Oxford Style Manual, 5.2.1: “Use an apostrophe alone after singular nouns ending in an s or z sound and combined with sake: for goodness' sake”.
  23. ^ “Practice varies widely in for conscience' sake and for goodness' sake, and the use of an apostrophe in them must be regarded as optional” The New Fowler's Modern English Usage, ed. Burchfield, RW, 3rd edition, 1996, entry for “sake”, p. 686.
  24. ^ In February 2007 Arkansas historian Parker Westbrook successfully petitioned State Representative Steve Harrelson to settle once and for all that the correct possessive should not be Arkansas' but Arkansas's (Arkansas House to argue over apostrophes). Arkansas's Apostrophe Act came into law in March 2007 (ABC News [USA], 6 March 2007).
  25. ^ An apparent exception is The Complete Stylist, Sheridan Baker, 2nd edition 1972, p. 165: “...citizens' rights, the Joneses' possessions, and similarly The Beaux' Stratagem.” But in fact the x in beaux, as in other such plurals in English, is often already pronounced (see a note to Basic rule (plural nouns), above); The Beaux Stratagem, the title of a play by George Farquhar (1707), originally lacked the apostrophe (see the title page of a 1752 edition); and it is complicated by the following s in stratagem. Some modern editions add the apostrophe (some with an s also), some omit it; and some make a compound with a hyphen: The Beaux-Stratagem. Farquhar himself used the apostrophe elsewhere in the standard ways, for both omission and possession.
  26. ^ Jacqueline Letzter, Intellectual Tacking: Questions of Education in the Works of Isabelle de Charrière, Rodopi, 1998, p. 123.
  27. ^ Elizabeth A. McAlister, Rara!: Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and Its Diaspora, University of California Press, 2002, p. 196.
  28. ^ U.S. Board on Geographic Names: FAQs; “How the Past Affects the Future: the Story of the Apostrophe”, Cavella, C, and Kernodle, RA
  29. ^ St James's Church Piccadilly website
  30. ^ “The apostrophe has been dropped from most Australian place-names and street names: Connells Point; Wilsons Promontory; Browns Lane.” The Penguin Working Words: an Australian Guide to Modern English Usage, Penguin, 1993, p. 41.
  31. ^ The Cambridge Guide to English Usage, Ed. Peters, P, 2004, p. 43.
  32. ^ International Aviation Women's Association
  33. ^ Spelled both with and without the apostrophe at the court's own home page; but spelled with the apostrophe in Victorian legislation, such as Magistrates' Court Act, 1989.
  34. ^ Gregg Reference Manual, 10th edition, 2003, distinguishes between what it calls possessive and descriptive forms, and uses this distinction in analysing the problem. From paragraph 628: “a. Do not mistake a descriptive form ending in s for a possessive form[:] sales effort (sales describes the kind of effort)... b. Some cases can be difficult to distinguish. Is it the girls basketball team or the girls' basketball team? Try substituting an irregular plural like women. You wouldn't say the women basketball team; you would say the women's basketball team. By analogy, the girls' basketball team is correct” [italics given exactly as in original, including following punctuation]. And then this principle is applied to organizations at paragraph 640, where examples are given, including the non-conforming Childrens Hospital, (in Los Angeles): “The names of many organizations, products, and publications contain words that could be considered either possessive or descriptive terms... c. In all cases follow the organization's preference when known.”
  35. ^ Apostrophe Protection Society's website.
  36. ^ Times Online: Harrods told to put its apostrophe back.
  37. ^ In reports of very informal speech 's may sometimes represent does: "Where's that come from?"
  38. ^ SOED gives fo'c's'le as the only shortened form of forecastle, though others are shown in OED. SOED gives bo's'n as one spelling of bosun, itself a variant of boatswain.
  39. ^ a b c "Purdue University Online Writing Lab: The Apostrophe". http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_apost.html. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  40. ^ Guide to Punctuation, Larry Trask, University of Sussex: "American usage, however, does put an apostrophe here: (A) This research was carried out in the 1970's."
  41. ^ AskOxford.com
  42. ^ "In praise of apostrophes", BBC News, 5 October 2001
  43. ^ 'Fatal floors' in exam scripts, BBC News, 3 November 2004
  44. ^ Half of Britons struggle with the apostrophe, The Daily Telegraph, 11 November 2008
  45. ^ Truss, Lynn. Eats, Shoots & Leaves. pp. 63–65.
  46. ^ Christina Cavella and Robin A. Kernodle (PDF). How the Past Affects the Future: The Story of the Apostrophe. American University. http://www.american.edu/tesol/wpkernodlecavella.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-26. 
  47. ^ Burrough-Boenisch, Joy (2004), "Dutch Greengrocers", Righting English That's Gone Dutch (2nd ed.), Kemper Conseil Publishing, ISBN 9789076542089 
  48. ^ Titan Go King's, at nippop.com.
  49. ^ Bill Bryson, "Troublesome Words," Penguin, second edition 1987, p. 177
  50. ^ W. W. Norton & Company
  51. ^ The apostrophe
  52. ^ Eats, Shoots & Leaves.
  53. ^ Fernandez, Colin, 'Punctuation hero' branded a vandal for painting apostrophes on street signs, The Daily Mail, accessed 19/08/2009
  54. ^ Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (9th ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Pharos Woordeboeke. 2002. ISBN 1 86890 034 7. http://www.nb.co.za/product/afrikaanse-woordelys-en-spelre-ls----de-uitgawe/7390/. 
  55. ^ In early French such elisions did occur: m'espée (ma +espée, modern French mon épée: "my sword"), s'enfance (sa +enfance, son enfance: "his or her childhood"). But the only modern survivals of this elision with apostrophe are m'amie and m'amour, as archaic and idiomatic alternatives to mon amie and mon amour ("my [female] friend", "my love"); forms without the apostrophe also used: mamie or ma mie, mamour.
  56. ^ ГТРК - Владимир :: Главная (Russian)
  57. ^ Pinyin
  58. ^ restaurants with an 'o' in their names in Madrid.
  59. ^ The Unicode Consortium
  60. ^ Unicode code charts

Further reading

.
  • Gibaldi, Joseph (2003), MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, New York: Modern Language Association .
  • Truss, Lynne (2003), Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation (North American ed.^ Rules of English usage in the humanities are overwhelmingly determined by the Modern Language Association (MLA) style manual.
    • Apostrophe Catastrophe - AppleInsider 10 February 2010 11:31 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By Dittmer   |  Published 2/27/2008 Managed Care Health Insurance Research paper on managed care By J L   |  Published 2/27/2008 Ethan Allen Furniture Store Located in Bayport, New York Great shopping experience.

    ^ A rant on America's policy toward nudity and Lindsay Lohan's nude New York Magazine photo shoot.

    ), Toronto: Gotham Books, ISBN 1592400876 .

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

An apostrophe is a form of punctuation used in writing. The following words have an apostrophe in them: can't, it's, Mike's.

This is a wrong use of an apostrophe: Those dog's are big.

Apostrophes are used to show that some letters have been taken out in an abbreviation.

Apostropes are also used to show something belongs to someone (or something).

  • Mike's car = the car that belongs to Mike.
  • The dog's ball = the ball that belongs to the dog.

But the word 'its', meaning 'something belonging to it', does not have an apostrophe. This is also the same with "your," "their," and "our." for example: Its color was blue.

You can use an apostrophe with its, but only when it means "it is". for example: That's not mine, it's yours. That's not ours, it's theirs.


You should not put an apostrophe in the middle of a word ending in 's', such as a plural. Put an apostrophe, or 's, at the end of the word instead.

  • Mrs. Jones' hat or Mrs. Jones's hat.
  • Both of my parents' birthdays.

Apostrophes are also used to show part of a word is shortened, like:

"Go get 'em tiger!" or "Li'l Bow Bow"

Another common error made is in the pluralization of acronyms, such as DVD or CD:
Wrong: A pile of DVD's.
Proper: A pile of DVDs.
Wrong: Some of my CD's are scratched.
Proper: Some of my CDs are scratched.
Proper: Some of my CDs' labels are scratched. (possessive; the CDs possess the label)



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Apostrophe, which are similar to those in the above article.








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