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Appendix:Finnish declension types/risti: Wikis


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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Two-syllable nominals ending with -i; consonant gradation possible.

Partitive ending -a/ and genitive plural ending -en. -i of stem changes to -e- before plural marker -i-, except in genitive plural, where it is dropped.

Foreign words and loan words ending in a consonant are often declined following this type: the nominative singular has no -i ending, but the rest of the declension is as for an -i nominal, including the illative singular -iin.

Basic declension without consonant gradation

ends with -i
back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
ends with -i
front vowels
(no a, o or u)
loan word
back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
loan word
front vowels
(no a, o or u)
singular plural
nominative tuoli tuolit
genitive tuolin tuolien
partitive tuolia tuoleja
accusative tuoli
inessive tuolissa tuoleissa
elative tuolista tuoleista
illative tuoliin tuoleihin
adessive tuolilla tuoleilla
ablative tuolilta tuoleilta
allative tuolille tuoleille
essive tuolina tuoleina
translative tuoliksi tuoleiksi
instructive tuolein
abessive tuolitta tuoleitta
comitative tuoleineen
2) Obsolete.   
singular plural
nominative risti ristit
genitive ristin ristien
partitive ristiä ristejä
accusative risti
inessive ristissä risteissä
elative rististä risteistä
illative ristiin risteihin
adessive ristillä risteillä
ablative ristiltä risteiltä
allative ristille risteille
essive ristinä risteinä
translative ristiksi risteiksi
instructive ristein
abessive ristittä risteittä
comitative risteineen
2) Obsolete.   
singular plural
nominative kalsium kalsiumit
genitive kalsiumin kalsiumien
partitive kalsiumia kalsiumeja
accusative kalsium
inessive kalsiumissa kalsiumeissa
elative kalsiumista kalsiumeista
illative kalsiumiin kalsiumeihin
adessive kalsiumilla kalsiumeilla
ablative kalsiumilta kalsiumeilta
allative kalsiumille kalsiumeille
essive kalsiumina kalsiumeina
translative kalsiumiksi kalsiumeiksi
instructive kalsiumein
abessive kalsiumitta kalsiumeitta
comitative kalsiumeineen
2) Obsolete.   
singular plural
nominative preesens preesensit
genitive preesensin preesensien
partitive preesensiä preesensejä
accusative preesens
inessive preesensissä preesenseissä
elative preesensistä preesenseistä
illative preesensiin preesenseihin
adessive preesensillä preesenseillä
ablative preesensiltä preesenseiltä
allative preesensille preesenseille
essive preesensinä preesenseinä
translative preesensiksi preesenseiksi
instructive preesensein
abessive preesensittä preesenseittä
comitative preesenseineen
2) Obsolete.   

Consonant gradation

Loan words generally do not undergo consonant gradation.



grade kk → k pp → p tt → t k → ∅ p → v t → d nk → ng lt → ll nt → nn
nominative strong leikki nuppi katti laki hupi koti vanki pelti tunti
genitive weak leikin nupin katin lain huvin kodin vangin pellin tunnin
partitive strong leikk nuppia kattia lakia hupia kotia vankia pelt tuntia
elative weak leikistä nupista katista laista huvista kodista vangista pellistä tunnista
illative strong leikkiin nuppiin kattiin lakiin hupiin kotiin vankiin peltiin tuntiin

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (t → d)

singular plural
nominative koti kodit
genitive kodin kotien
partitive kotia koteja
accusative koti
inessive kodissa kodeissa
elative kodista kodeista
illative kotiin koteihin
adessive kodilla kodeilla
ablative kodilta kodeilta
allative kodille kodeille
essive kotina koteina
translative kodiksi kodeiksi
instructive kodein
abessive koditta kodeitta
comitative koteineen
2) Obsolete.   


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